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Sample records for healthy overweight males

  1. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during exercise following three months of endurance training in healthy overweight males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P

    2009-01-01

    Endurance training improves muscular and cardiovascular fitness, but the effect on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism remains unknown. We hypothesized that 3 mo of endurance training would reduce cerebral carbohydrate uptake with maintained cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Healthy...... overweight males were included in a randomized, controlled study (training: n = 10; control: n = 7). Arterial and internal jugular venous catheterization was used to determine concentration differences for oxygen, glucose, and lactate across the brain and the oxygen-carbohydrate index [molar uptake of oxygen...... with a lower plasma epinephrine concentration (P exercising at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (approximately 211 W). Before training, both OCI (3.9 +/- 0.9) and DeltaP(Mito)O(2) (-22 mmHg) decreased (P

  2. Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread reduces subsequent energy intake with no effect on post-prandial glucose and cholesterol in healthy, overweight males. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A C; Fairclough, A C; Mahadevan, K; Paxman, J R

    2012-02-01

    It is well recognised that the consumption of seaweed isolates (such as alginate) successfully reduce energy intake and modulate glycaemic and cholesterolaemic responses. However, to date, the effect of adding whole seaweed to bread has not been widely investigated. Hence, this study aims to investigate the acceptability of Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread as part of a meal, and measure its effect on energy intake and nutrient absorption in overweight, healthy males to see if it has a similar impact. Results from the acceptability study, (79 untrained sensory panellists) indicated that it is acceptable to incorporate seaweed (A. nodosum) into a staple food such as bread at concentrations of up to 4% per 400 g wholemeal loaf. A single blind cross over trial (n=12 males, aged 40.1±12.5 years; BMI 30.8±4.4 kg/m(2)) was used to compare energy intake and nutrient uptake after a breakfast meal using the enriched bread (4% A. nodosum) against the control bread (0% A. nodosum). Consumption of the enriched bread at breakfast led to a significant reduction (16.4%) in energy intake at a test meal 4 h later. Differences between treatment arms for area under the curve, peak values, and time of peak for blood glucose and cholesterol were not significant. Further investigation of potential mechanisms of action is warranted.

  3. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se.

  4. What is a healthy body weight? Perspectives of overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and postprandial fat oxidation in overweight / obese male volunteers - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Boschmann, Michael; Thielecke, Frank; Rahn, Gabriele; Boehnke, Jana; Adams, Frauke; Birkenfeld, Andreas,; Jordan, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Drinking green tea is associated with many health benefits, including increased fat oxidation. We tested the hypothesis that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main green tea catechin, increases fat oxidation in obese men. Methods: Ten healthy overweight/obese males (BMI 31.3 ? 0.8 kg/m2) were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Study supplements were low EGCG (300 mg), high EGCG (600 mg), caffeine (200 mg), EGCG/caf...

  6. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  7. Mediators of weight loss in the 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' pilot study for overweight fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubans David R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A poor understanding of the specific lifestyle behaviors that result in weight loss has hindered the development of effective interventions. The aim of this paper was to identify potential behavioral mediators of weight loss in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK intervention for overweight fathers. Findings The three-month intervention was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial and conducted in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. Baseline, three month (immediate post-intervention and six month assessments were conducted. Recruitment and follow-up occurred between October 2008 and May 2009. The study sample included 53 overweight/obese men [mean ( SD age=40.6( 97.1 years; body mass index (BMI=33.2 (3.9 kgm-2] and their primary school-aged children [n=71, 54% boys; age=8.2 (2.0 years] who were randomized to HDHK program or a wait-list control group. Physical activity (PA was assessed using pedometers and dietary behaviors were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss (5.131.27kg, PPP Conclusions PA was an important mediator of weight loss in the HDHK intervention. Encouraging overweight fathers to be more active with their children appears to be a promising strategy for obesity treatment in men.

  8. Mediators of weight loss in the 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' pilot study for overweight fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Okely, Anthony D; Burrows, Tracy; Callister, Robin

    2012-04-18

    A poor understanding of the specific lifestyle behaviors that result in weight loss has hindered the development of effective interventions. The aim of this paper was to identify potential behavioral mediators of weight loss in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK) intervention for overweight fathers. The three-month intervention was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial and conducted in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. Baseline, three month (immediate post-intervention) and six month assessments were conducted. Recruitment and follow-up occurred between October 2008 and May 2009. The study sample included 53 overweight/obese men [mean ( SD) age=40.6( 97.1) years; body mass index (BMI)=33.2 (3.9) kgm-2] and their primary school-aged children [n=71, 54% boys; age=8.2 (2.0) years] who were randomized to HDHK program or a wait-list control group. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using pedometers and dietary behaviors were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss (5.131.27 kg, Pchildren (1486521 steps/day, Poverweight fathers to be more active with their children appears to be a promising strategy for obesity treatment in men.

  9. [Relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H M; Che, C L; Lu, Y; Cong, L X; Gao, X J; Liu, Y J; Yuan, J X; Li, X M; Hu, B; Chen, Y P

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the male steel workers selected during health examination in Tangshan Steel Company from March 2015 to March 2016. The relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers were analyzed by using logistic regression model and restricted cubic splinemodel. Results: A total of 7 262 male steel workers were surveyed, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesitywas 64.5% (4 686/7 262), the overweight rate was 34.3% and the obesity rate was 30.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age, educational level and average family income level per month by multivariable logistic regression analysis, shift work was associated with overweight/obesity and obesity in the male steel workers. The OR was 1.19(95% CI: 1.05-1.35) and 1.15(95% CI: 1.00-1.32). Restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that the relationship between shift work years and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ(2)=7.43, Pobesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ(2)=10.48, Poverweight and obesity in the male steel workers, and shift work years and overweight/obesity had a nonlinear relationship.

  10. Comparing Years of Healthy Life, Measured in 16 Ways, for Normal Weight and Overweight Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The traditional definitions of overweight and obesity are not age specific, even though the relationship of weight to mortality is different for older adults. Effects of adiposity on aspects of health beside mortality have not been well investigated. Methods. We calculated the number of years of healthy life (YHL in the 10 years after baseline, for 5,747 older adults. YHL was defined in 16 different ways. We compared Normal and Overweight persons, classified either by body mass index (BMI or by waist circumference (WC. Findings. YHL for Normal and Overweight persons differed significantly in 25% of the comparisons, of which half favored the Overweight. Measures of physical health favored Normal weight, while measures of mental health and quality of life favored Overweight. Overweight was less favorable when defined by WC than by BMI. Obese persons usually had worse outcomes. Discussion. Overweight older adults averaged as many years of life and years of healthy life as those of Normal weight. There may be no outcome based reason to distinguish Normal from Overweight for older adults. Conclusion. The “Overweight paradox” appears to hold for nonmortality outcomes. New adiposity standards are needed for older adults, possibly different by race and sex.

  11. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S A; Sabet, M; Reynolds, B

    2013-11-01

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that has been linked with obesity. To explore profiles of impulsive behavior potentially associated with adolescent weight status, we measured multiple dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition) using laboratory behavioral tasks in a sample of adolescents (N=61). For comparison purposes, we also assessed self-reported impulsive behavior with the BIS-11-A. Participants differed in body mass index: obese (n=21), overweight (n=20), and healthy-weight (n=20). Obese and overweight adolescents were more impulsive on the measure of delay discounting than healthy-weight adolescents, but no difference was found between obese and overweight adolescents on this measure. Obese adolescents also were more impulsive on the measure of inattention compared to overweight and healthy-weight adolescents, who did not differ on this measure. Behavioral disinhibition had no association with weight status, nor did the self-report measure of impulsivity. The additive pattern of these findings for certain laboratory behavioral measures indicates that obese adolescents are more impulsive than their healthy-weight counterparts on two dimensions of behavior, whereas overweight adolescents are more impulsive on only one dimension. Consequently, adolescents who are impulsive on two dimensions of behavior (i.e., delay discounting and sustained attention) may be at greater risk of becoming obese rather than overweight compared to adolescents who are impulsive on only one dimension of behavior (i.e., delay discounting).

  12. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...

  13. Maternal Overweight and Obesity and Genital Anomalies in Male Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obese pregnant women face higher risk of several critical birth outcomes, including an overall increased risk of congenital abnormalities. Only few studies have focused on associations between maternal overweight and the genital anomalies in boys, cryptorchidism.......58). A substantial proportion of the associations between BMI and the genital anomalies were mediated through preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: This large register-based study adds to the current literature and indicates that the occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism increase with maternal overweight and obesity...... were mediated through obesity-related diseases. RESULTS: Of the 1 055 705 live-born singleton boys born from 1992 to 2012, 6807 (6.4 per 1000) were diagnosed with hypospadias and 16 469 (15.6 per 1000) were diagnosed with cryptorchidism, of which 9768 (9.3 per 1000) underwent corrective surgery...

  14. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied how an acute bout of exercise influences expression and concentration of adiponectin and regulators of adiponectin in adipose tissue and plasma. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight overweight and eight lean males were examined by large-pore microdialysis in s.c. abdominal adipose tissue...... increased the SCAAT interstitial adiponectin concentration in both overweight and lean subjects and concentrations did not differ between groups. Plasma adiponectin did not increase during exercise and was similar in overweight and lean subjects. Adiponectin mRNA in SCAAT decreased during exercise...... and was similar in overweight and lean subjects. Surprisingly, the interstitial adiponectin concentration in SCAAT was only 20% of the plasma concentration. SCAAT interleukin-6 (IL-6) microdialyzate and plasma concentrations and SCAAT IL-6 mRNA increased during exercise in both groups. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF...

  15. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pujia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04. The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006. In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index.

  16. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujia, Arturo; Gazzaruso, Carmine; Ferro, Yvelise; Mazza, Elisa; Maurotti, Samantha; Russo, Cristina; Lazzaro, Veronica; Romeo, Stefano; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2016-01-04

    The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization) was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04). The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B) = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001-0.006). In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher) in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index.

  17. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez; José Salvador Vicente

    2017-01-01

    ... parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed...

  18. Reasons for eating 'unhealthy' snacks in overweight and obese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleobury, L; Tapper, K

    2014-08-01

    Snack foods are often high in fat and sugar. Thus, reducing snack consumption may be a useful weight management strategy. However, individuals may snack for a variety of reasons with different implications for intervention. The present study examined the perceived reasons for eating main meals, 'unhealthy' snacks (i.e. snacks high in fat or sugar) and 'healthy' snacks in overweight and obese participants. Over a period of 5 days, 28 males and 27 females completed a food diary every time they ate. As well as providing details about the type of eating episode and food eaten, they also rated their agreement with 13 different reasons for eating (identified from relevant literature and a pilot study). Across a total of 1084 eating episodes, 358 were coded as snacks, 79% of which were high in either fat or sugar. The results showed that hunger and temptation (external eating) were reported as a reason for eating unhealthy snacks in 49% and 55% of all episodes, respectively. Eating because the individual was feeling fed up, bored or stressed (emotional eating) was given as a reason in 26% of episodes. These findings point to the potential utility of intervention strategies that target cravings, enhance self-control or promote stimulus control. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status of young healthy overweight and obese women in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Lun Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence suggests obesity-related inflammation alters iron metabolism potentially increasing the risk of iron deficiency. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status in young, healthy overweight and obese women. METHODS: 114 young (18-25 years, healthy comorbidity-free women with a body mass index (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m(2 were recruited. Biochemical data were analysed using mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range and multivariate modelling. Biochemical markers were also stratified according to varying degrees of overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Anaemia (haemoglobin 35.0 kg/m(2. This indicates that obesity alone may not be sufficient to induce clinically significant disturbances to iron metabolism as previously described. This may be attributed to the lack of comorbidity in this cohort.

  20. Iron, Hepcidin and Inflammatory Status of Young Healthy Overweight and Obese Women in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Bryant, Christian E.; Rooney, Kieron B.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.; Griffin, Hayley J.; Petocz, Peter; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Evidence suggests obesity-related inflammation alters iron metabolism potentially increasing the risk of iron deficiency. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate iron, hepcidin and inflammatory status in young, healthy overweight and obese women. Methods 114 young (18–25 years), healthy comorbidity-free women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27.5 kg/m2 were recruited. Biochemical data were analysed using mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) and multivariate modelling. Biochemical markers were also stratified according to varying degrees of overweight and obesity. Results Anaemia (haemoglobin 35.0 kg/m2. This indicates that obesity alone may not be sufficient to induce clinically significant disturbances to iron metabolism as previously described. This may be attributed to the lack of comorbidity in this cohort. PMID:23861932

  1. Exercise and Healthy Eating Intentions and Behaviors among Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Psouni, Stavroula; Chasandra, Mary; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that exercise and eating behaviours are strongly linked. Theory of Planned Behaviour is a theoretical framework that has been successfully used to explain and predict both behaviours. The aim of the present study is to explore the constructs of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that better predicts exercise and healthy eating: a) intentions and b) selfreported behaviors among normal weight and overweight/obese adults. Participants were 361 adults in Gree...

  2. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luz María Sánchez-Romero; Holub, Christina K.; Simón Barquera; Arredondo, Elva M.; Eisenberg, Christina M.; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Elder, John P

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Materi- als and methods. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articl...

  3. Lifestyle and weight predictors of a healthy overweight profile over a 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Michael D T; Canning, Karissa L; Mirdamadi, Paul; Ardern, Chris I; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    To examine whether changes in modifiable risk factors [physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body weight, and diet composition] are associated with the transition to metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHOW) versus metabolically abnormal overweight/obese. Analysis included 1,358 adults [aged 25.0 (3.5) years] from the CARDIA study who were healthy at baseline and had overweight/obesity at follow-up. Participants with zero or one of the following six risk factors were classified as MHOW: elevated triglycerides, LDL, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and HOMA-insulin resistance and low HDL. Over the 20-year follow-up, the sample gained weight (BMI 24.5 to 31.1 kg/m(2) ), and the prevalence of MHOW was 47% at follow-up. After adjusting for changes in CRF, diet, and weight change, physical activity and macronutrient intake were not independently associated with MHOW (P > 0.05), while changes in CRF [fit-unfit: RR (95%) = 0.58, 0.52-0.66; unfit-unfit: RR = 0.67, 0.58-0.76, versus fit-fit] and weight [gain: RR (95%) = 0.54, 0.43-0.67; cycle: RR = 0.74, 0.57-0.94, versus stable] were independently associated with MHOW. Focusing on high CRF and strategies to limit weight gain may be important for individuals with overweight and obesity in early to mid-adulthood to maintain a metabolically healthy profile. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and postprandial fat oxidation in overweight/obese male volunteers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielecke, F; Rahn, G; Böhnke, J; Adams, F; Birkenfeld, A L; Jordan, J; Boschmann, M

    2010-07-01

    Drinking green tea is associated with many health benefits, including increased fat oxidation. We tested the hypothesis that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main green tea catechin, increases fat oxidation in obese men. Ten healthy overweight/obese males (body mass index 31.3+/-0.8 kg/m(2)) were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Study supplements were low EGCG (300 mg), high EGCG (600 mg), caffeine (200 mg), EGCG/caffeine (300 mg/200 mg) or placebo and were taken orally for 3 days. At the third day of supplementation, O(2) consumption and CO(2) production was measured by indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and fat oxidation over 4 h each after overnight fasting and after a standardized test meal. Energy expenditure was not affected by any supplementation, neither after overnight fasting nor after the test meal. During the first 2 h after overnight fasting, fat oxidation increased by 7.7 (not significant, NS), 15.2 (NS), 26.3 (PEGCG), for low EGCG, high EGCG, caffeine and EGCG/caffeine, respectively. During the first 2 h after the meal, the mean increase in fat oxidation was 33.3 (PEGCG, high EGCG, caffeine and EGCG/caffeine, respectively. Low EGCG increases postprandial fat oxidation in obese men and this to the same extent as 200 mg caffeine, whereas high EGCG does not exert this effect. Fasting fat oxidation is increased only by caffeine (with or without EGCG). There is no synergism of low EGCG and 200 mg caffeine. Energy expenditure is not affected by EGCG.

  5. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p healthy home food environment (p = 0.021) and demonstrated less modelling of healthy eating in front of their children (p eat or restriction, based on their own weight status. Mothers with overweight/obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lise hTomsen; Peter Humaidan; Leif Bungum; Mona Bungum

    2014-01-01

    It is well‑documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conlficting regarding the inlfuence of male body mass index(BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology(ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non‑obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility center. Self‑reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI30kgm−2. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guideline and sperm DNA integrity was analyzed by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay(SCSA). No statistically signiifcant effect of male BMI was seen on conventional semen parameters(sperm concentration, total sperm count, seminal volume and motility) or on SCSA‑results. Furthermore, the outcome of ART regarding fertilization rate, number of good quality embryos(GQE), implantation and pregnancy outcome was not inlfuenced by the increasing male BMI.

  7. Prevalence of Metabolically Healthy but Overweight/Obese Phenotype and Its Association With Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Huybrechts, Inge; Manios, Yannis; González-Gross, Marcela; Breidenassel, Christina; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Bueno, Gloria; Censi, Laura; Plada, María; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-07-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the major concerns in the last years due to the association with future health problems and all-cause mortality. However, there is a subset of adolescents with overweight/obesity who present a metabolic healthy profile. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolically healthy but overweight/obese adolescents and whether sedentary time, physical activity, and fitness differ between metabolically healthy and nonmetabolically healthy phenotypes. A subsample of 237 European adolescents from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study (n = 3,528, participation rate: 61.3%) with overweight/obesity were included. The study sample was not fully representative for the European adolescent population. Based on sex- and age-specific metabolic syndrome cutoff points for triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure, and high-density cholesterol participants were classified as metabolically healthy or nonmetabolically healthy. Sedentary time, physical activity, and fitness were assessed by accelerometry and the Alpha battery, respectively. The prevalence of metabolically healthy status in adolescents with overweight and obesity was higher in girls (87%) than in boys (74%, p = .019), being similar when only obesity was considered. Sedentary time was lower in metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in nonmetabolically healthy participants (mean difference = 48.0 minutes, p = .012). Moderate and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were higher (p's healthy than in nonmetabolically healthy adolescents with overweight/obesity (mean difference = 7.9 min/day and 10.9 min/day, respectively). No significant differences were found in fitness. Overall, these results persisted when only adolescents with obesity were included in the analyses. Metabolically healthy adolescents with overweight/obesity are less sedentary and more active than their nonmetabolically healthy peers with overweight/obesity, yet

  8. [Sex differences in the relationship between vigorous vs. moderate intensity exercise and risk markers of overweight and obesity in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; González-Ruíz, Katherine; García, Sophya; Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have extensively documented the benefits of moderate intensity physical training for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in the management of overweight and obesity. However, the benefits of vigorous intensity training are small. To examine sex differences in the relationship between vigorous vs. moderate intensity exercise and risk markers for overweight and obesity in healthy adults. A cross-sectional, descriptive study in 304 healthy subjects (n=218 men, n=86 women). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to stratify exercise intensity into two categories, moderate and vigorous. Body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) were calculated, and waist circumference (WC) was measured as risk markers of overweight and obesity. No significant differences were found in risk markers of overweight and obesity in the male group depending on exercise intensityh. As compared to women training at moderate intensity, those making vigorous exercise had lower BMI (25.7±3.0 kg/m(2) vs.22.5±1.7 kg/m(2)), WC (79.2±6.8 cm vs. 76.0±3.1 cm), and BF (33.5±2.6% vs. 28.1±5.3%) levels (Pobesity in women, but not in men. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Heart rate variability analysis during immediate recovery from exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M; Kirmani, Azra; Labban, Ezaz

    2017-05-01

    Data on heart rate variability (HRV) changes during immediate recovery period after exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate recovery (HRR), and arterial blood pressure immediately after cessation of exercise in overweight/obese healthy young adult females. This study was carried out in the laboratory of the Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. Fifty-five female students were classified into normal weight group and overweight/obese group. HRV, HRR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were estimated at resting condition and immediately after cessation of exercise. During recovery, heart rate was significantly increased in overweight/obese group along with significant decrease in rMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals) and HF (high-frequency power) compared with normal group. The recovery of heart rate, normalized HF, and normalized sympathovagal balance to their baseline values were significantly lowered in overweight/obese group. Both SBP and DBP were significantly lowered from their baseline values during recovery in normal group but unchanged in overweight/obese group. This study provides evidence that overweight/obesity are associated with decreased HRR and delayed vagal reactivation, in addition to impaired postexercise hypotension early in the recovery period after exercise in healthy young adult females. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  11. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6-10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6-10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11) number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  12. Twelve-Month Effects of the COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN Program on Overweight and Depressive Symptoms in High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled…

  13. Dog attachment and perceived social support in overweight/obese and healthy weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E. Linder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective and sustainable interventions to treat childhood obesity remains both a priority and a challenge. Previous studies support that dogs provide social support in overweight adults in obesity interventions, but the child-dog relationship is not as well understood. The goal of the study was to examine the child-dog relationship among children to inform novel childhood obesity interventions including dogs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston in 2015. Children aged 8–13, with a dog in the household, answered surveys on pet attachment (Pet Relationship Scale, perceived social support from parents and close friends (Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale, and had a height and weight measurement taken for calculation of body mass index percentile. Overweight and obese children (≥85th body mass index percentile had greater mean attachment score to their dog and less mean perceived social support from their parents and friends combined compared to healthy weight children (73.1 ± 5.6 vs. 68.5 ± 7.2, p = 0.037; 110.5 ± 13.5 vs. 122.9 ± 14.8, p = 0.015, respectively; n = 43. In conclusions, children who are overweight/obese report greater mean dog attachment and lower mean perceived social support, supporting the concept that pet dogs are considered part of overweight/obese children's social support networks. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of including pet dogs as additional health support in child obesity interventions.

  14. Overweight and obesity and their association with dietary habits, and sociodemographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tarek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary school children, and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight and dietary habits and sociodemographic differentials among them. Study design and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, including 1139 Saudi male children enrolled in the 5 th and 6 th grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, was conducted. The test included a multistage random sampling technique, based on interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with the calculation of body mass index (BMI, the interpretation of which was based on Cole′s tables for the standard definition of overweight and obesity. Sociodemographic data were collected through a parental questionnaire from. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 12 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA; both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The age of the school children ranged from 10-14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the subjects was 14.2%, while that of obesity was 9.7%; the prevalence was more in the urban, older age students. The mothers of obese and overweight children were less educated and more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings per day of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the schoolchildren studied. Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures that have been reported till now from the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor selection of food may be responsible for this high prevalence.

  15. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Barquera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articles. There were six intervention studies included in the present review. Five studies showed reductions in obesity-related outcomes, while one study reported gains in body mass index (BMI). Physical activity and healthy eating remain constant components in obesity treatment interventions, which highlights the importance of understanding evidence-based strategies to guide future research to reduce childhood obesity in Mexico.

  16. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, M; Freund, J; Boutcher, S H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P 0.05) occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  17. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  18. Exsanguination of lower limbs in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lars; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2002-01-01

    Gamma camera technique was used to assess the effectiveness of various exsanguination methods in 12 healthy male volunteers given an autologous injection of 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes. The methods used included elevation alone, Esmarch bandage, gauze bandage, and the Pomidor roll-cuff. The median...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yanan; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects. After a single oral dose of 2-mg terazosin, the plasma concentrations of terazosin enantiomers were measured over the course of 48 h in 12 healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of (+)-(R)-terazosin at all time points were higher than those of (-)-(S)-terazosin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞) ) and maximum plasma concentration of (+)-(R)-terazosin were significantly greater than those of the (-)-(S)-terazosin (P < 0.01, respectively). The R/S ratio of AUC(0-∞) of terazosin was 1.68. For the first time, it was proven that the pharmacokinetics of terazosin was stereoselective in healthy Chinese male subjects.

  20. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa; Jennifer Campbell; Ediriweera Desapriya

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8...

  1. An oat bran-based beverage reduce postprandial glycaemia equivalent to yoghurt in healthy overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Cecilia; Voinot, Anne; Forslund, Anna; Holst, Olle; Rascón, Ana; Öste, Rickard; Östman, Elin

    2015-01-01

    An acute meal study was performed to determine postprandial glucose and insulin responses after consumption of two fermented oat bran-based beverages (with and without exopolysaccharides) and yoghurt. This randomized, single-blind, within-subject study included 18 healthy, overweight participants. Four breakfast meals, including a reference meal, were tested; all meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrates, but differed in energy and macronutrient composition. All experimental meals reduced the postprandial glucose response compared with the reference meal. The oat drinks as well as the yoghurt elicited higher early (0-15 min) insulin responses, but the overall insulinaemia were similar to the reference meal. A new food product containing fermented liquid oat bran and milk reduced the postprandial blood glucose response as efficiently as yoghurt after a high-glycaemic index white wheat bread meal, but the presence of microbial exopolysaccharides did not affect the outcome.

  2. Healthy-lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are disproportionately higher rates of overweight and obesity in poor rural communities but studies exploring children’s health-related behaviors that may assist in designing effective interventions are limited. We examined the association between overweight and obesity prevalence of 401 ethnically/racially diverse, rural school-aged children and healthy-lifestyle behaviors: improving diet quality, obtaining adequate sleep, limiting screen-time viewing, and consulting a physician about a child’s weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of school-aged children (6–11 years in rural regions of California, Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina participating in CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active, and Nurturing Growing-up Environments Program, created by Save the Children, an independent organization that works with communities to improve overall child health, with the objective to reduce unhealthy weight gain in these school-aged children (grades 1–6 in rural America. After measuring children’s height and weight, we17 assessed overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile associations with these behaviors: improving diet quality18 (≥ 2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day, reducing whole milk, sweetened beverage consumption/day; obtaining19 adequate night-time sleep on weekdays (≥ 10 hours/night; limiting screen-time (i.e., television, video, computer,20 videogame viewing on weekdays (≤ 2 hours/day; and consulting a physician about weight. Analyses were adjusted 21 for state of residence, children's race/ethnicity, gender, age, and government assistance. Results Overweight or obesity prevalence was 37 percent in Mississippi and nearly 60 percent in Kentucky. Adjusting for covariates, obese children were twice as likely to eat ≥ 2 servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.0,95% CI 1.1-3.4, less likely to consume whole milk (OR=0.4,95% CI 0.2-0.70, Their parents are more likely to

  3. Exsanguination of lower limbs in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lars; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2002-01-01

    Gamma camera technique was used to assess the effectiveness of various exsanguination methods in 12 healthy male volunteers given an autologous injection of 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes. The methods used included elevation alone, Esmarch bandage, gauze bandage, and the Pomidor roll-cuff. The median......%, 10 minutes 44%, Esmarch bandage 64%, gauze bandage 62%, and Pomidor roll-cuff 61%. No statistically significant differences were found between the elevation procedures. The external methods were more effective than elevation alone (p

  4. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  5. Bioequivalence Study of Donepezil Hydrochloride Tablets in Healthy Male Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean; Sukit Roongapinun; Nutthiya Hanprasertpong; Siriluk Aunmuang; Noppamas Rojanasthien

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bioequivalence of two formulations of 5 mg donepezil HCL tablets: Tonizep as the test and Aricept as the reference. The two products were administered as a single oral dose according to a randomized two-phase crossover with a 3-week washout period in 20 healthy Thai Male volunteers. After drug administration, serial blood samples were collected over a period of 216 hours. Plasma donepezil concentrations were measured by high performance liqui...

  6. Predictors of parental concerns about child weight in parents of healthy-weight and overweight 2-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana Isabel; Barros, Luisa; Pereira, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Parental awareness and concerns about a child's weight can promote healthy food parenting behaviors. Understanding the factors that influence parent's concerns about childhood (over)weight may help professionals define more effective strategies when working with families. This study aimed to assess parental concerns about their young child's weight and to identify contributors of parental concerns about weight in parents of healthy-weight and overweight children, considered separately. Data collection was performed using a cross-sectional design. Parents of 339 children aged from 2 to 6 years completed a Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire and rated their perceptions of and concerns about their child's weight and diet quality. Children's body mass index was assessed and two samples were defined according to the child's nutritional status: healthy-weight (N = 230) and overweight (N = 109) children. Binomial logistic regression was used to predict parental concerns about the child's weight in each sample. Parental concerns about the child's weight were moderate in both groups. For healthy-weight children, parental concerns about the child's weight were significantly predicted by the parents' perception of the child's weight, concerns about the child's diet and the child's healthy food intake. In the overweight children group, parents' perception of the child's weight, concerns about the child's diet and perception of the child's diet quality predicted parental concerns, with the child's gender and recall of physician's warnings about the child's overweight condition as marginal predictors. Our results show that concerns about the child's weight in these two groups of parents share some common determinants but also differ regarding other factors, thus suggesting the need to consider these differences when working with parents of young children with different weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.

  8. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Camhi

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO. Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women.Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2. Time (mins/day in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time. Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data or logistic regression (categorical data after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate.Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9, MHO (n = 37; 80% spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02, more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02, and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03. MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day compared to MUO.Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed

  9. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Nanna

    2012-08-01

    activity, sleep habits, and overall stress level was obtained by 4–7 day questionnaire diaries and objective measurements. Discussion If the Healthy Start project is effective in preventing excessive weight gain, it will provide valuable information on new determinants of obesity which should be considered in future interventions, and on new strategies to prevent development of overweight and obesity at an early age. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, ID NCT01583335.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  11. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  13. Body Image Dissatisfaction Is Increased in Male and Overweight/Obese Adolescents in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine linkages between obesity, physical activity, and body image dissatisfaction, with consideration of socioeconomic status (SES and urbanization in adolescents in Botswana. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey in 707 secondary school students included measured height and weight to determine overweight (OW or obesity (OB using World Health Organization standards; physical activity (PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and body image satisfaction using the Body Ideals Questionnaire. SES was described by private school versus public school attendance. Results and Discussion. OW/OB students felt farther from ideal and greater dissatisfaction with their weight and body proportions than optimal weight students. Boys felt greater difference from ideal and more dissatisfaction with muscle tone, chest size, and strength than girls. Lower SES students and those from rural villages had more minutes of PA than higher SES or urban students. In this rapidly developing African country, these trends reflect the nutrition transition and offer opportunity to motivate OW/OB students and boys for PA as a health promotion obesity prevention behavior. Conclusions. As urbanization and improved SES are desirable and likely to continue, the public health system will be challenged to prevent obesity while preserving a healthy body image.

  14. Post-metabolic response to passive normobaric hypoxic exposure in sedendary overweight males: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman Chad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present pilot study was designed to test the impact of passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure (PAH and passive short-term normobaric hypoxic exposure (PSH conditions on energy expenditure (EE and substrates utilisation (glucose and lipid oxidation. Methods Eleven participants have completed the PAH session while the control group (CG underwent a simulated experimental condition in normobaric normoxic condition. A subset of 6 participants underwent an additional six 3-hour sessions on consecutive days. Metabolic rates were obtained pre- and post-treatments on the morning following an overnight (12 hours fast in PAH, PSH, and CG groups. Results The statistical outcomes showed a significant increase in EE for PAH, control, and PSH while a shift in substrate utilization towards lipid sources was only detected for PAH and PSH, respectively. Conclusion This pilot study showed that passive acute normobaric hypoxic exposure did affect EE and fuel utilization in sedentary overweight males and that further passive normobaric hypoxic exposures (PSH magnified these metabolic adjustments. These outcomes provide valuable information for further research in the area of hypoxia as a new therapeutic strategy to improve the management of weight loss.

  15. Diet quality and six-year risk of overweight and obesity among mid-age Australian women who were initially in the healthy weight range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Methods Women (n=1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between ≤18.5 and overweight or obese. Results The 6-year incidence of overweight and obesity was 18.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The mean (± s.d.) ARFS (maximum possible 74) among those who remained within the healthy weight range and those who became overweight or obese at follow-up was 35.3±8.1 and 34.3±8.8, respectively. There was no relationship between baseline ARFS and risk of becoming overweight or obese over 6 years. Women who were smokers were more likely to become overweight or obese (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.09; P=0.008). Conclusions Poor diet quality was common among mid-age women of a healthy weight in the ALSWH. Higher diet quality was not associated with the risk of overweight or obesity after 6 years, yet smoking status was. So what? Better diet quality alone will not achieve maintenance of a healthy weight, but should be encouraged to improve other health outcomes.

  16. Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial: e0116876

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gisela Nyberg; Elinor Sundblom; Åsa Norman; Benjamin Bohman; Jan Hagberg; Liselotte Schäfer Elinder

    2015-01-01

      Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children...

  17. Oleoyl-estrone increases adrenal corticosteroid synthesis gene expression in overweight male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Vilà, Ruth; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Esteve, Montserrat; Alemany, Marià

    2010-01-01

    Oleoyl-estrone (OE) induces a marked loss of body fat in rats by maintaining energy expenditure, body protein and blood glucose despite decreasing food intake. OE increases glucocorticoids, but they arrest OE lipid-mobilization. We studied here whether OE induces a direct effect on adrenal glands function as part of this feedback regulation. Dietary overweight male rats were given oral 10nmol/g OE gavages for ten days. A group (PF) of pair-fed to OE rats, and controls received vehicle-only gavages. OE rats lost slightly more body than PF, but had larger adrenal glands. Tissue corticosterone levels, and gene expressions for glucocorticoid-synthesizing enzymes were increased in OE versus controls and PF; thus, we assumed that adrenal growth affected essentially its cortex since OE also lowered the expression of the medullar catecholamine synthesis enzyme genes. Serum corticosterone was higher in PF than in OE and controls, but liver expression of corticosteroid-disposing steroid 5alpha-reductase was 3x larger in OE than PF and controls. Circulating glucocorticoids changed little under OE, in spite of higher adrenal gland and liver content, hinting at modulation of glucocorticoid turnover as instrumental in their purported increased activity. In conclusion, we have observed that OE considerable enhanced the expression of the genes controlling the synthesis of glucocorticoids from cholesterol in the rat and increasing the adrenal glands' corticosterone, size and cellularity, but also the liver disposal of corticosteroids, suggesting that OE increases corticosterone synthesis and degradation (i.e. serum turnover), a process not driven by limited energy availability but directly related to the administration of OE.

  18. Safety of a New Compact Male Intermittent Catheter: Randomized, Cross-Over, Single-Blind Study in Healthy Male Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Hannibalsen, Jane; Permild, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A new compact male intermittent catheter was compared with a regular intermittent male catheter in terms of safety and acceptability. Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, cross-over study, healthy male volunteers were catheterized twice with a compact catheter and twice with a...

  19. Overweight and obesity and their association with dietary habits, and sociodemographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Tarek; Al-Sultan Ali; Ali Ayub

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary school children, and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight and dietary habits and sociodemographic differentials among them. Study design and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, including 1139 Saudi male children enrolled in the 5 th and 6 th grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), was conducted. The test included a multistage random sampli...

  20. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  1. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D. Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  2. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D; Eng, Katisha D; Bialowas, Todd A; Devita, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  3. Polysomnographic correlates of inflammatory complement components in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Ejaz; Golam Sarwar, Abu Hasnath M; Alam, Mohd Shoeb; Noohu, Majumi M; Zannat, Wassilatul; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Manzar, Md Dilshad

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has delineated the predominant role of humoral mediators of inflammation in linking sleep with immunity. Nonetheless, characterization of the relationship between complement components with inflammatory functions and objective sleep measures has not been performed. In this study we investigated the relationships between objective measures of sleep and complement components with inflammatory functions. Thirty-six healthy male university students (age, 23.94±4.23 years; BMI, 23.44±2.67 kg/m(2)) completed the study. An RMS Quest 32 polysomnograph (PSG) was used for sleep recording. Non-fasting blood was collected before subjects went to bed on the second night in the sleep laboratory to estimate complement component 3 (C-3), complement component 4 (C-4), complement factor-H (Factor-H), C1-inhibitor (C1INH), complement factor I (CFI) and other inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and sICAM-1. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between PSG sleep measures and inflammatory mediators. Higher values of C-3 and lower values of sICAM-1, C1INH, and CFI (adjusted model, R2=0.211, ppro-inflammatory complement components and decreased anti-inflammatory complement components.

  4. Analysis of Attentional Bias towards Attractive and Unattractive Body Regions among Overweight Males and Females: An Eye-Movement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Warschburger

    Full Text Available Body image distortion is highly prevalent among overweight individuals. Whilst there is evidence that body-dissatisfied women and those suffering from disordered eating show a negative attentional bias towards their own unattractive body parts and others' attractive body parts, little is known about visual attention patterns in the area of obesity and with respect to males. Since eating disorders and obesity share common features in terms of distorted body image and body dissatisfaction, the aim of this study was to examine whether overweight men and women show a similar attentional bias.We analyzed eye movements in 30 overweight individuals (18 females and 28 normal-weight individuals (16 females with respect to the participants' own pictures as well as gender- and BMI-matched control pictures (front and back view. Additionally, we assessed body image and disordered eating using validated questionnaires.The overweight sample rated their own body as less attractive and showed a more disturbed body image. Contrary to our assumptions, they focused significantly longer on attractive compared to unattractive regions of both their own and the control body. For one's own body, this was more pronounced for women. A higher weight status and more frequent body checking predicted attentional bias towards attractive body parts. We found that overweight adults exhibit an unexpected and stable pattern of selective attention, with a distinctive focus on their own attractive body regions despite higher levels of body dissatisfaction. This positive attentional bias may either be an indicator of a more pronounced pattern of attentional avoidance or a self-enhancing strategy. Further research is warranted to clarify these results.

  5. Analysis of Attentional Bias towards Attractive and Unattractive Body Regions among Overweight Males and Females: An Eye-Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Calvano, Claudia; Richter, Eike M.; Engbert, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image distortion is highly prevalent among overweight individuals. Whilst there is evidence that body-dissatisfied women and those suffering from disordered eating show a negative attentional bias towards their own unattractive body parts and others’ attractive body parts, little is known about visual attention patterns in the area of obesity and with respect to males. Since eating disorders and obesity share common features in terms of distorted body image and body dissatisfaction, the aim of this study was to examine whether overweight men and women show a similar attentional bias. Methods/Design We analyzed eye movements in 30 overweight individuals (18 females) and 28 normal-weight individuals (16 females) with respect to the participants’ own pictures as well as gender- and BMI-matched control pictures (front and back view). Additionally, we assessed body image and disordered eating using validated questionnaires. Discussion The overweight sample rated their own body as less attractive and showed a more disturbed body image. Contrary to our assumptions, they focused significantly longer on attractive compared to unattractive regions of both their own and the control body. For one’s own body, this was more pronounced for women. A higher weight status and more frequent body checking predicted attentional bias towards attractive body parts. We found that overweight adults exhibit an unexpected and stable pattern of selective attention, with a distinctive focus on their own attractive body regions despite higher levels of body dissatisfaction. This positive attentional bias may either be an indicator of a more pronounced pattern of attentional avoidance or a self-enhancing strategy. Further research is warranted to clarify these results. PMID:26479500

  6. Effect of Red Wine Consumption on Serum Oxidation and Adiponectin Levels in Overweight and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadeniz Muammer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a well-known independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome. It has been shown that moderate red wine consumption might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether red wine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect in overweight subjects.

  7. [Social inequality, migration, and healthy environments as determinants of overweight of children and adolescents. Results of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, D; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Landsberg, B; Müller, M J

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed at studying the relationships between different social determinants, overweight, migration background, lifestyle factors, and neighborhood characteristics in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Data were collected within the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). The lower the social status, the higher the prevalence of overweight (e.g., parental education low/middle/high,%: 18.4/13.6/7.9). Non-German children are twice as often overweight as German children (20.2% versus 11.7%) with a social gradient in overweight (%: 26.0/28.2/17.2). There are social differences in health-related behavior between the social groups and also between German and non-German children of the same social group. The social gradient in overweight is, in part, independent of lifestyle factors. Neighborhood characteristics like high food supply and traffic density add to the development of overweight. To summarize, overweight is a social issue; direct prevention has to address the social determinants of health as well as families with migration background. In addition, the development of "healthy" neighborhoods may support the prevention of overweight.

  8. Subcutaneous Bioavailability of Taspoglutide at 3 Different Injection Sites in Healthy Overweight/Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm-Pellanda, Carolina; Abt, Markus; Sanwald-Ducray, Patricia; Schmitt, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Taspoglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that has >90% homology with the endogenous GLP-1 while retaining equivalent potency. Once-weekly subcutaneous injections with taspoglutide demonstrated meaningful antihyperglycemic and weight loss effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study was performed to compare the relative bioavailability of taspoglutide injected subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh. Healthy overweight/obese subjects were randomized in an open-label, 3-way crossover study. A single 20-mg dose of taspoglutide was injected subcutaneously on 3 occasions in the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh. Each injection was separated by a 12-week washout period. Blood was sampled up to 12 weeks for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of taspoglutide. Sixty subjects were randomized into the study (mean age, 45.5 years; body weight, 97.6 kg; and body mass index, 31.4 kg/m(2)). AUClast values (geometric mean) for subcutaneous injections in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh were 44.2, 61.2, and 50.0 ng·h/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratio (relative bioavailability) for the upper arm versus the abdomen was 1.41 (90% CI: 1.22-1.62) and for the thigh versus the abdomen was 1.13 (90% CI: 0.98-1.31). Corresponding Cmax values for subcutaneous injections in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh were 0.268, 0.382, and 0.341 ng/mL, respectively, and the geometric mean ratio for the upper arm versus the abdomen was 1.43 (90% CI: 1.24-1.64) and for the thigh versus the abdomen was 1.27 (90% CI: 1.10-1.46). Decreases in taspoglutide exposure were observed with each subsequent period. AUClast values (geometric mean across injections sites) for periods 1, 2, and 3 were 97.2, 42.6, and 31.5 ng·h/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratio for period 2 versus 1 was 0.44 (90% CI: 0.38-0.50) and for period 3 versus 1 was 0.32 (90% CI: 0.27-0.37). Analysis of pharmacokinetic data after first injection only (period 1) showed

  9. BIOAVAILABILITY AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF ANASTROZOLE IN HEALTHY MALE VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安富荣; 崔岚; 刘晓琰; 王平全; 祝德秋; 曹惠明

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of domestic and imported anastrozole tablets. Methods Twenty Chinese healthy male volunteers were enrolled in a randomized crossover study with a single oral dose of 2mg of the two formulations respectively. The anastrozole in plasma was measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. The linear range was 1. 325 ~ 106ng /ml plasma. The extraction recovery rates for plasma concentration of 5.3, 21.2 and 53. Ong/ml were 76.8% ,87.0% and 78.7%, respectively. Inter-day and intra-day precisions of the method were < 9%. Area under concentration-time curve ( AUCo t) , maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and reach peak time (Tmax) were evaluated by variance analysis and two one-side t-test . Results A two-compartment model was adopted in anastrozole plasma concentration-time data analysis. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of domestic and imported anastrozloe tablets such as Cmax , Tmax, AUCo - t and T1/2β were (36.5 ± 6.9)ng/ml and (35.6 ± 9.4)ng/ml, (1.56-±0.41)hand(1.53 ±0.49)h, (1403.6 ± 321.2)ng'h/mland (1371.6±329.4)ng'h/mi, (42.57 ± 10.15)h and (43.41 ± 8.59)h, respectively, and there were no significant differences between the two formulations. Conclusion Domestic and imported anastrozole tablets were of bioequivalence.The relative bioavailability of the domestic tablet was (102.7 ± 5.6)%.

  10. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior.

  11. Higher platelet P-selectin in male patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Patrik F(a)gerstam; Per A Whiss

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe if the total amount of platelet P-selectin (tP-selectin) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was related to disease entity or activity, 5-ami-nosalicylic acid (5-ASA) medication or gender.METHODS: tP-selectin was measured by immunoassay in seventeen IBD patients and twelve healthy controls.RESULTS: Compared to controls, there was no difference of tP-selectin in patients related to disease entity or activity and 5-ASA medication. When the groups were split according to gender the male patient group showed higher levels of tP-selectin compared to male controls (153 ng/mL vs 94 ng/mL, P< 0.05).CONCLUSION: Increased tP-selectin levels may alter the inflammatory response and susceptibility to throm-boembolic disease. As previously shown with soluble P-selectin, tP-selectin shows gender dependent differences important to consider in future studies.

  12. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  13. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  14. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  15. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle among 5-year-old overweight children: Health behavior outcomes of the 'Be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); L. Veldhuis (Lydian); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study evaluates the effects of an intervention performed by youth health care professionals on child health behaviors. The intervention consisted of offering healthy lifestyle counseling to parents of overweight (not obese) 5-year-old children. Effects of the interventio

  16. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen Nanna; Buch-Andersen Tine; Händel Mina; Østergaard Louise; Pedersen Jeanett; Seeger Charlotte; Stougaard Maria; Trærup Maria; Livemore Kate; Mortensen Erik; Holst Claus; Heitmann Berit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Research shows that obesity prevention has to start early. Targeting interventions towards subgroups of individuals who are predisposed, but yet normal weight, may prove more effective in preventing overweight than interventions towards unselected normal weight subsets. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2–6 ...

  17. Energy Requirement and Food Intake Behaviour in Young Adult Intact Male Cats with and without Predisposition to Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Wichert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common problem in cats. In the experimental cat family of the institute of animal nutrition besides a “normal” lean phenotype, cats with predisposition to an overweight phenotype are present. To investigate energy requirements and food intake behaviour of intact male cats of different phenotypes, six “normal” lean cats (GL and six cats disposed to overweight (GO were used. At the beginning of the experiment, all cats had an ideal body condition score of 5. To reach this the GO cats had to pass a weight-loss program. Energy requirements of the cats were determined using respiration chambers, whereas the amount and frequency of food intake was measured with a feeding station recording the data automatically. Energy requirement at weight constancy of the GO cats was even on fat-free mass (FFM significantly (P=0.02 lower (162.6 kJ/kg FFM/d than that of the “normal” lean cats (246 kJ/kg FFM/d. The GO cats also showed a higher food intake 34.5±1.5 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67 compared to the GL cats (24.0±2.1 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67(P=0.001. In conclusion quantifiable differences in food intake and behaviour in cats predisposed to overweight compared to “normal” lean cats were found.

  18. [Primary psoas abscess in a young healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, D.; Galbo, H.; Skovsgaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    A young male saw his general practitioner because of lower back pain, limpness, nightly sweating, subfebrilia, and weight loss. Further diagnostics showed that he had a primary psoas abscess. Psoas abscesses are categorized as primary and secondary. Primary psoas abscess is a rare disease in Europe...

  19. Hypocalcaemia, Hypoglycaemia, Macrosomia and Congenital Cryptorchidism in a Male Offspring of a Mother with Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of a male infant born to a 32-year-old multiparous mother with overweight (BMI 28.5kg/m2 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The mother had fasting hyperglycaemia (range 5.7- 6.0mmol/L noted at 24 weeks of pregnancy and was managed with diet alone. There is no family history of diabetes mellitus and the mother did not have pre-eclampsia. Physical examination of the infant revealed macrosomia (birthweight, 4600g and bilateral congenital cryptorchidism. The baby suffered severe hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 1.7mmol/L and hypocalcaemia (total serum calcium 1.03mmol/L, manifesting with seizures. He was successfully managed with 10% dextrose water and calcium gluconate infusion, using standard protocol. His karyotype is 46 XY. The patient was discharged from admission at the age of 10 days and was referred to the paediatric endocrinologist at the tertiary hospital. By 8 weeks of age, the right testis was noticed to have descended into the right scrotum. At the age of 3 months, the left testis was still not palpable either in the inguinal canal or the scrotal sac. The patient was lost to follow up. Conclusion: Diet-treated maternal overweight in association with GDM could potentially increase the risk for hypocalcaemia, hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and congenital cryptorchidism in the offspring, highlighting the need for physicians to assess for the presence of these morbidities in such infants.

  20. Effects of chicken essence on recovery from mental fatigue in healthy males

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamano, Emi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Abe, Keiichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    .... In this placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive daily oral administration of essence of chicken or placebo drink provided by Cerebos Pacific Ltd...

  1. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes......BACKGROUND: To examine whether time of the day has an effect on the circulating levels of metabolism parameters. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained under standardized conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours. The metabolic markers and melatonin were examined...

  2. Association of overweight and obesity with interest in healthy eating, subjective health and perceived risk of chronic diseases in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Pérez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyses cultural differences in consumers' interest in healthy eating, subjective health and perceived risk of (chronic) diseases, and identifies the association between nutritional status (obesity and overweight) and the above mentioned variables as well as people's socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions that may influence food choice. Cross-sectional data were collected through a consumer survey (n=2400) in 2008 with samples representative for age and region in France, Poland and Spain. Body-mass-index (BMI) was inversely associated with education and positively associated with age. Women were less likely to be overweight than men. Subjective health was negatively associated with the likelihood of being obese. The likelihood of being obese decreased with higher perceived risk of suffering from stress and from cancer, whilst the likelihood of being overweight decreased with higher perceived risk of suffering from stress. Despite a tendency of lower interest in healthy eating among obese consumers, interest in healthy eating was not significantly associated with the likelihood of being obese or overweight after Holm-Bonferroni correction. The findings of this study suggest that health consequences and disease risks of excessive weight should be better communicated to European populations. Furthermore, factors associated with obesity such as subjective health and perceived risk of chronic diseases should be considered both at individual counselling and at public health policy levels.

  3. Markedly blunted metabolic effects of fructose in healthy young female subjects compared with male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchepin, Caroline; Lê, Kim-Anne; Bortolotti, Murielle; da Encarnaçao, Joana Amarante; Oboni, Jean-Baptiste; Tran, Christel; Schneiter, Philippe; Tappy, Luc

    2008-06-01

    To compare the metabolic effects of fructose in healthy male and female subjects. Fasting metabolic profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by means of a hyperglycemic clamp in 16 healthy young male and female subjects after a 6-day fructose overfeeding. Fructose overfeeding increased fasting triglyceride concentrations by 71 vs. 16% in male vs. female subjects, respectively (P glucose production was increased by 12%, alanine aminotransferase concentration was increased by 38%, and fasting insulin concentrations were increased by 14% after fructose overfeeding in male subjects (all P fructose in male but not in female subjects. Short-term fructose overfeeding produces hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic insulin resistance in men, but these effects are markedly blunted in healthy young women.

  4. The Effect of Green Tea Ingestion and Interval Sprinting Exercise on the Body Composition of Overweight Males: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m2 and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone. PMID:27548216

  5. Relationships between serum omentin-1, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X P; Zeng, S; Wang, M; Wu, X P; Liao, E Y

    2014-10-01

    The present study is firstly designed to identify the relationship between serum omentin-1 concentration, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha city. A total of 219 (20-80 years old) healthy subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum omentin-1, adiponectin, leptin, resistin and bone turn over biochemical markers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat body composition were determined using dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. Serum omentin-1 levels in the overweight subjects were significantly lower than those of the subjects with normal weight (p fat body mass (FBM, r = -0.430), fat % (r = -0.408), trunk fat (-0.431). However, after controlling for age, BMI and FBM, no significant correlation was noticed between omentin-1 and BMD at different skeletal sites. Pearson's correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients after adjustment showed no significant correlations between omentin-1 and bone turn over biochemical markers, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and bone cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. Multiple line stepwise regression analysis revealed that FBM, WHR, adiponectin were important variables affecting omentin-1. Moreover, lean tissue mass was the most important factor affecting BMD and explained 10.5-14.7 % of the variance. Omentin-1, leptin and resistin were not the predictors of BMD. Serum omentin-1 was negatively correlated with FBM and BMI in healthy Chinese male adults, It was not significantly correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. Omentin-1 may exert ambiguous effects on BMD, which maybe caused by the complex interactions among adipokines, hormonal activity, and body composition and bone metabolism.

  6. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brida López-Plaza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. Objetive: The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3 g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. Methods: A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥ 27 -<30 kg/m² who consumed 200 ml/day of skimmed milk with 3g of CLAs or 3g olive oil (placebo. Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Results: Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029 and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012 between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m², p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035. No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. Conclusions: The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047.

  7. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls.

  8. The Effect of a Pro-Breastfeeding and Healthy Complementary Feeding Intervention Targeting Adolescent Mothers and Grandmothers on Growth and Prevalence of Overweight of Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schwartz

    Full Text Available The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood.To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding.This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants' maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery. When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis.BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318. There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits.Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377.

  9. Enhancing healthy habits among overweight and obese children through Serious Games: Review and Technical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Arambarri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity that begins in childhood results in excess adult mortality estimated at between 50 and 80%. The medical community developed an understanding of obesity as a chronic condition that must be managed on an ongoing basis. An integrated system based on ICT, including games adapted to the age and profile of the children and youth can be the key to support them and their families in the prevention of obesity and the acquisition of healthy habits. Important societal and economic impact is foreseen from the adoption of these technologies. In this paper, Serious Games will be research to remark its potential for fostering desirable health-related behaviors through motivational reinforcement, personalized teaching approaches, and social networking as well as more effective utilization of obesity-related nutrition and lifestyle information.

  10. Motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among middle school children who are healthy, overweight, and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Gaunaurd, Annabel; Moore, James G; Roach, Kathryn E; Miller, Tracie L; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J

    2013-01-01

    To compare motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among children from minority backgrounds who were healthy weight (HW), overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Eighty-six children, aged 10 to 15 years, of mostly Hispanic ethnicity, participated. Children were categorized according to body mass index-for-age percentile. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2) Short Form, Sit-to-Stand (STS), Timed Up and Down Stairs, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) were administered. Physical activity was measured by using activity monitors. Forty-five percent of children were classified as OW/OB. Children who were OB had lower mean BOT2, STS, and 6MWT performance than children of HW. Among children who were OW/OB, daily mean steps were lower and sedentary minutes higher than children of HW. In children who were OW/OB, body mass index was negatively correlated with BOT2, STS, and abdominal curls. Children who are OB demonstrate greater impairments in motor proficiency, strength, and endurance and participate in less physical activity than peers of HW.

  11. Oestradiol and genistein reduce food intake in male and female overweight cats after gonadectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, N J; Backus, R C; Marks, S L; Klasing, K C

    2007-06-01

    To determine if exogenous oestradiol or the phyto-oestrogen genistein could reduce food intake in male and female cats fed ad libitum that had been allowed to accrue excessive bodyfat following neutering. Sixteen adult (eight female, eight male) cats were neutered and allowed to increase their bodyweight (BW) through feeding ad libitum of a complete and balanced dry diet. Oestradiol was injected subcutaneously for 5-day periods in incremental doses (0.25-4 microg per cat), then food intake was recorded, and vaginal cytological changes were observed in females. Similarly, genistein was administered orally for 5-day periods in incremental doses (5-100 mg/kg). In males and females, both oestradiol (pfood intake during treatment, and the minimum daily doses that produced a significant effect were 0.5 mug and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The minimum daily dose of oestradiol that produced a significant effect on food intake was not associated with changes in vaginal cytology over the 5-day treatment period. Gonadal oestradiol appeared to be a key modulator of food intake in both male and female cats, and replacement of oestrogen to neutered cats via oestradiol or an oestrogen surrogate such as genistein has potential for reducing the prevalence of obesity in neutered cats.

  12. Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crane Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few measures exist to measure the overall home environment for its ability to support physical activity (PA and healthy eating in overweight children. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of such a measure. Methods The Home Environment Survey (HES was developed to reflect availability, accessibility, parental role modelling, and parental policies related to PA resources, fruits and vegetables (F&V, and sugar sweetened drinks and snacks (SS. Parents of overweight children (n = 219 completed the HES and concurrent behavioural assessments. Children completed the Block Kids survey and wore an accelerometer for one week. A subset of parents (n = 156 completed the HES a second time to determine test-retest reliability. Finally, 41 parent dyads living in the same home (n = 41 completed the survey to determine inter-rater reliability. Initial psychometric analyses were completed to trim items from the measure based on lack of variability in responses, moderate or higher item to scale correlation, or contribution to strong internal consistency. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were completed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between the HES scores and child and parent nutrition and PA. Results Eight items were removed and acceptable internal consistency was documented for all scales (α = .66–84 with the exception of the F&V accessibility. The F&V accessibility was reduced to a single item because the other two items did not meet reliability standards. Test-retest reliability was high (r > .75 for all scales. Inter-rater reliability varied across scales (r = .22–.89. PA accessibility, parent role modelling, and parental policies were all related significantly to child (r = .14–.21 and parent (r = .15–.31 PA. Similarly, availability of F&V and SS, parental role modelling, and parental policies were related to child (r

  13. Can resistance training change the strength, body composition and self-concept of overweight and obese adolescent males? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Parletta, Natalie; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is an exercise modality at which overweight and obese adolescents can excel and which can therefore positively affect their psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 6-month resistance training intervention on the self-concept strength and body composition of overweight and obese adolescent males. 56 overweight and obese males aged 13-17 years were randomly allocated to an Intervention (n=30) or Control (n=26) group. Primary (psychological) and secondary (strength and body composition) outcomes were assessed at baseline as well as at 3 (halfway through the intervention), 6 (immediately postintervention) and 12 months follow-up. Random effects mixed modelling was used to determine the effects of the intervention. Statistically significant differences between the Intervention and Control groups were observed at 3-month and 6-month assessments for exercise self-efficacy, resistance training confidence and self-esteem. Large increases in strength for the Intervention group, relative to Controls, were also observed with no substantial changes in body composition shown for either group. Values for all variables returned to baseline following completion of the programme. A 6-month resistance training intervention can positively affect the self-concept and strength of overweight and obese adolescent boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The relation between serum leptin levels and max VO2 in male patients with type I diabetes and healthy sedentary males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Unal, Durisehvar Ozer; Salman, Fatih; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2004-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating leptin levels in male diabetes type I patients who were on insulin treatment and also healthy sedentary males. The study included 10 male type I diabetes patients and 17 healthy sedentary males. Leptin levels of type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males with body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2 were evaluated separately. The relation between serum leptin, max VO2, blood lactic acid levels before and after exercise, and effort durations of participants were investigated. At the end of the tests, no difference was found between leptin levels, max VO2 values, lactic acid values before exercise, and test durations of male type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males (p > .05), whereas lactic acid levels after exercise were found to be lower in healthy sedentary males (p max VO2 values and test durations were higher in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .05). In conclusion, leptin levels of male type I diabetes patients are close to those of healthy sedentary males. The increase in leptin levels in both groups is in proportion to the BMI of individuals.

  15. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  16. Hyperglycemia abolishes meal-induced satiety by a dysregulation of ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 in healthy overweight/obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Satiety and satiety-regulating gut hormone levels are abnormal in hyperglycemic individuals. We aimed to determine whether these abnormalities are secondary to hyperglycemia. Ten healthy overweight/obese subjects (age: 56 ± 3 yr; BMI: 30.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) received three equicaloric meals at t = 0, 4......, and 8 h in the absence (control trial) and presence of experimental hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia trial; 5.4 mM above basal). Circulating levels of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)3-36 and visual analog scale ratings of satiety were measured throughout each trial. In the control trial...

  17. Effect of Preexercise Creatine Ingestion on Muscle Performance in Healthy Aging Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Taylor P; Candow, Darren G; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Preexercise creatine supplementation may have a beneficial effect on aging muscle performance. Using a double-blind, repeated measures, crossover design, healthy males (N = 9, 54.8 ± 4.3 years; 92.9 ± 11.5 kg; 179.2 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to consume creatine (20 g) and placebo (20 g corn starch maltodextrin), on 2 separate occasions (7 days apart), 3 hours before performing leg press and chest press repetitions to muscle fatigue (3 sets at 70% 1-repetition maximum; 1 minute rest between sets). There was a set main effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the leg press and chest press with the number of repetitions performed decreasing similarly for creatine and placebo. These results suggest that a bolus ingestion of creatine consumed 3 hours before resistance exercise has no effect on upper or lower-body muscle performance in healthy aging males.

  18. The effect of a fibre supplement compared to a healthy diet on body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin and other metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Ellis, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Optimum levels and types of dietary fibre that provide the greatest beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals have yet to be determined in clinical trials. The present parallel design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. a fibre supplement (psyllium) or a healthy diet plus fibre supplement on fasting lipids, glucose, insulin and body composition. Overweight/obese adults were randomised to either control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB), healthy eating plus placebo (HLT) or healthy eating plus fibre supplement (HLT-FIB). There was a significant increase in fibre intake in HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups up to 59, 31 and 55 g, respectively, at 12 weeks when compared to control (20 g). Weight, BMI and % total body fat were significantly reduced in FIB and HLT-FIB groups, with weight and BMI significantly reduced in the HLT group compared with control at 12 weeks. HLT-FIB and HLT groups had significant reductions in TAG and insulin compared with control at 6 and 12 weeks, and in insulin compared with the FIB group at 12 weeks. The HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups all had significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared with control after 6 and 12 weeks. The present study demonstrated that simply adding psyllium fibre supplementation to a normal diet was sufficient to obtain beneficial effects in risk factors. However, a high-fibre diet consisting of a psyllium supplement plus fibre from a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in metabolic syndrome risk factors.

  19. Lognormal Distribution of Some Physiological Responses in Young Healthy Indian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Verma

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of statistical distribution of physiological responses is of fundamental importance for better statistical interpretation of physiological phenomenon. In this paper, statistical distribution of three important physiological responses viz., maximal aerobic power (VO2 max, maximal heart rate (HR max and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV in young healthy Indian males of age ranging from 19 to 22 years have been worked out. It is concluded that these three important physiological responses follow the lognormal distribution.

  20. Effect of tamsulosin on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride in Chinese male healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafang; Yang, Jiansong; Zhao, Hongxin; Fossler, Michael J; Wang, Chunrong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin (0.2 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride (0.5 mg) in a group of healthy Chinese male volunteers. This was an open-label, single-sequence, 3-period, drug-drug interaction phase 1 study. Twenty-four healthy Chinese male volunteers were enrolled and administered a single dose of 0.5 mg dutasteride and, following a 28- to 30-day washout period, 0.2 mg tamsulosin once daily for 7 days. On day 5, subjects received 0.2 mg tamsulosin coadministered with 0.5 mg dutasteride. Serum dutasteride and tamsulosin concentrations were monitored. In the presence or absence of tamsulosin, there were no apparent changes in dutasteride AUC and Cmax . Adverse events reported were mild to moderate in intensity and resolved by the end of the study. In healthy Chinese male volunteers, tamsulosin 0.2 mg at steady state had no apparent effect on dutasteride pharmacokinetics. Dutasteride and tamsulosin when administered alone or in combination were well tolerated.

  1. Developing an award program for children's settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honisett, Suzy; Woolcock, Suzi; Porter, Creina; Hughes, Ian

    2009-09-18

    This paper aimed to identify the best way to engage, motivate and support early childhood services (ECS) and primary schools (PS) to create policy and practise changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This information would be used to develop a suitable program to implement within these children's settings to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. The Medical Research Council's (UK) framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide the development of the healthy eating and physical activity program suitable for ECS and PS. Within this framework a range of evaluation methods, including stakeholder planning, in-depth interviews with ECS and PS staff and acceptability and feasibility trials in one local government area, were used to ascertain the best way to engage and support positive changes in these children's settings. Both ECS and PS identified that they had a role to play to improve children's healthy eating and physical activity. ECS identified their role in promoting healthy eating and physical activity as important for children's health, and instilling healthy habits for life. PS felt that these were health issues, rather than educational issues; however, schools saw the link between healthy eating and physical activity and student learning outcomes. These settings identified that a program that provides a simple guide that recognises good practise in these settings, such as an award scheme using a health promoting schools approach, as a feasible and acceptable way for them to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. Through the process of design and evaluation a program - Kids - 'Go for your life', was developed to promote and support children's healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Kids - 'Go for your life' used an award program, based on a health promoting schools approach, which was demonstrated to be a suitable model to

  2. Developing an award program for children's settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Creina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper aimed to identify the best way to engage, motivate and support early childhood services (ECS and primary schools (PS to create policy and practise changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This information would be used to develop a suitable program to implement within these children's settings to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods The Medical Research Council's (UK framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide the development of the healthy eating and physical activity program suitable for ECS and PS. Within this framework a range of evaluation methods, including stakeholder planning, in-depth interviews with ECS and PS staff and acceptability and feasibility trials in one local government area, were used to ascertain the best way to engage and support positive changes in these children's settings. Results Both ECS and PS identified that they had a role to play to improve children's healthy eating and physical activity. ECS identified their role in promoting healthy eating and physical activity as important for children's health, and instilling healthy habits for life. PS felt that these were health issues, rather than educational issues; however, schools saw the link between healthy eating and physical activity and student learning outcomes. These settings identified that a program that provides a simple guide that recognises good practise in these settings, such as an award scheme using a health promoting schools approach, as a feasible and acceptable way for them to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Through the process of design and evaluation a program - Kids - 'Go for your life', was developed to promote and support children's healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Kids - 'Go for your life' used an award program, based on a health promoting

  3. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise - a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm

    2012-01-01

    is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P...

  4. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  5. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehpour Amin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D concentrations are linked to body composition indices, particularly body fat mass. Relationships between hypovitaminosis D and obesity, described by both BMI and waist circumference, have been mentioned. We have investigated the effect of a 12-week vitamin D3 supplementation on anthropometric indices in healthy overweight and obese women. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, seventy-seven participants (age 38±8.1 years, BMI 29.8±4.1 kg/m2 were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 μg per day as cholecalciferol and placebo (25 μg per day as lactose for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, waist, hip, fat mass, 25(OH D, iPTH, and dietary intakes were measured before and after the intervention. Results Serum 25(OHD significantly increased in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (38.2±32.7 nmol/L vs. 4.6±14.8 nmol/L; P Conclusion Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01344161.

  6. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  7. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  8. The effects of morphine and methylnaltrexone on gastrointestinal pain in healthy male participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokjaer, A; Olesen, A E; Christrup, Lona Louring;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioid antagonists are increasingly used to abolish the gastrointestinal side effects of opioids. However, they can potentially interfere with local analgesia exerted via opioid receptors in the gut. Thus, in the current study we aimed to explore the effect of rectal morphine before...... and after blocking opioid receptors outside the central nervous system with methylnaltrexone (MNTX). METHODS: In this randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study 15 healthy male participants received the following drugs at three separate sessions: (i) placebo, (ii) 30 mg morphine administered per...

  9. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    was to assess and compare gut hormone response and satiety changes after a liquid meal intake in young, healthy T and UT males. Postprandial gut hormone release and subjective feelings of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed before and frequently for the following 3 h after...... concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial...

  10. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulatio...

  11. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Joane; Nasreddine, Lara; Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Czernichow, Sebastien; Itani, Leila; Naja, Farah

    2016-07-20

    This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008-2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09-3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults.

  12. The effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoosawi, Suzana; Fyfe, Lorna; Ho, Clement; Al-Dujaili, Emad

    2010-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that polyphenol-rich chocolate reduces fasting blood glucose, blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol in healthy individuals and hypertensives with or without glucose intolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of two doses of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol and BP and to examine whether improvements in these parameters are associated with changes in adrenocorticoid excretion in overweight and obese individuals. The study used a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design where fourteen overweight and obese subjects were randomised to either take 20 g DC with 500 mg polyphenols then 20 g DC with 1000 mg polyphenols or vice-versa. Participants followed each diet for 2 weeks separated by a 1-week washout period. It was observed that the 500 mg polyphenol dose was equally effective in reducing fasting blood glucose levels, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) as the 1000 mg polyphenol dose suggesting that a saturation effect might occur with increasing dose of polyphenols. There was also a trend towards a reduction in urinary free cortisone levels with both groups although it did not reach statistical significance. No changes in anthropometrical measurements were seen. We suggest that more research is required to investigate the mechanism(s) by which polyphenol-rich foods influence health.

  13. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joane Matta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008–2009. Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.91. No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults.

  14. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  15. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  16. Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzadi, Andleeb; Javed, Ijaz; Aslam, Bilal; Muhammad, Faqir; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme inducer) medicine which is used by epileptic patients for a long time. During the course of therapy, patients are generally caught by other diseases like urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection etc. To cure them, physicians commonly prescribe fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (CYP1A2 inhibitor) along with Carbamazepine (CBZ). Interactions may result without recognition which may lead to unforeseen toxicity, untoward effects or even therapeutic failure. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. The main objective of this study was to generate new knowledge regarding CBZ and ciprofloxacin interaction for physicians and research workers dealing with these medicines. Eight healthy adult male volunteers were selected to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. After overnight fast the selected male volunteers were given CBZ orally. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals after medication. Then the same volunteers were given CBZ along with ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were again drawn at the same time intervals as done previously. Plasma was separated from the blood samples. Concentration of CBZ in the plasma samples was determined by using HPLC technique. Results of the present study indicated that ciprofloxacin significantly increased the plasma concentration of CBZ when given concurrently to the healthy adult male volunteers. Ciprofloxacin increased Cmax, AUC and t½ while it decreased the CL and Vd of CBZ when administered concurrently to the adult volunteers. Change in pharmacokinetic parameters was due to slow metabolism or elimination of CBZ when given concurrently with ciprofloxacin to the adult volunteers. This is probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by ciprofloxacin which is responsible for

  17. Cortisol secretion after adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in healthy female and male dogs

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    Castillo Victor

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the conclusive diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome, a stimulating ACTH test or a low suppressive Dexamethasone test is used. Reports in other species than the dog indicate that plasma cortisol concentration after ACTH administration is affected by gender. We investigated the effect of gender on the cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in dogs. Methods Seven healthy adult Cocker Spaniels (4 females and 3 males were assigned to a two by two factorial design: 4 dogs (2 females and 2 males received IV Dexamethasone 0.01 mg/kg, while the other 3 dogs received an IV saline solution (control group. Two weeks later the treatments were reversed. After one month, ACTH was given IV (250 μg/animal to 4 dogs (2 female and 2 males while the rest was treated with saline solution (control group. Cortisol concentrations were determined by a direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and cholesterol and triglycerides by commercial kits. Results and Discussion No effect of treatment was observed in metabolite concentrations, but females presented higher cholesterol concentrations. ACTH-treated dogs showed an increase in cortisol levels in the first hour after sampling until 3 hours post injection. Cortisol concentrations in Dexamethasone-treated dogs decreased one hour post injection and remained low for 3 hours, thereafter cortisol concentrations increased. The increase in cortisol levels from one to two hours post ACTH injection was significantly higher in females than males. In Dexamethasone-treated males cortisol levels decreased one hour post injection up to 3 hours; in females the decrease was more pronounced and prolonged, up to 5 hours post injection. Conclusion We have demonstrated that cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone treatment in dogs differs according to sex.

  18. Feedback inhibition of insulin in healthy and overweight subjects studied by use of an artificial endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beischer, W; Schmid, M; Kerner, W; Keller, L; Pfeiffer, E F

    1979-01-01

    Insulin self-inhibition is still a controversial subject. The majority of data is in favour of an inhibition; however, whether this mechanism is of physiologic relevance in the regulation of insulin secretion is open to discussion. We examined the effect of exogenous insulin on beta cell secretion in 16 volunteers, including 3 who were overweight. Blood glucose (BG) was clamped by means of the dextrose infusion unit of the artificial beta cell, and the secretion of the pancreatic beta cell was monitored by immunomeasureable C-peptide (IMCP) before, during, and after infusion of insulin. The subjects were divided into 3 experimental groups. The inhibition of the basal insulin secretion was examined in group I by clamping BG at the fasting level. The inhibition of the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was examined in group II by clamping BG at a raised level. The stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose during insulin infusion was examined in group III by stepwise BG rises from the fasting level. An inhibition of the basal insulin secretion was observed in all volunteers examined according to the protocol for group I (n = 9, including 3 overweight volunteers). The lowest insulin infusion rate applied was 1.75 U/h. An inhibition occurred at this low infusion rate corresponding to 44 mu U immunomeasurable insulin (IMI) per ml of serum. However the inhibition was impaired in the overweight participants, who, in addition, were the only ones showing a rebound rise of IMCP after stopping the insulin infusion. An inhibiting effect of exogenous insulin appeared as likely in only 1 of 5 participants examined according to the protocol for group II. Sudden rises of BG abolished the inhibition, while a total or partial inhibition was found at a constantly raised BG level in both participants examined according to protocol III. We conclude that exogenous insulin inhibits beta cell secretion, depending on the BG level, the mode of glucose stimulation, and the time relation

  19. Differential impact of acute high-intensity exercise on circulating endothelial microparticles and insulin resistance between overweight/obese males and females.

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    Cody Durrer

    Full Text Available An acute bout of exercise can improve endothelial function and insulin sensitivity when measured on the day following exercise. Our aim was to compare acute high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men and women.Inactive males (BMI = 30 ± 3, 25 ± 6 yr, n = 6 and females (BMI = 28 ± 2, 21 ± 3 yr, n = 7 participated in three experimental trials in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design: 1 No exercise control (Control; 2 HICE (20 min cycling @ just above ventilatory threshold; 3 HIIE (10 X 1-min @ ∼ 90% peak aerobic power. Exercise conditions were matched for external work and diet was controlled post-exercise. Fasting blood samples were obtained ∼ 18 hr after each condition. CD62E(+ and CD31(+/CD42b- EMPs were assessed by flow cytometry and insulin resistance (IR was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR.There was a significant sex X exercise interaction for CD62E(+ EMPs, CD31(+/CD42b- EMPs, and HOMA-IR (all P < 0.05. In males, both HICE and HIIE reduced EMPs compared to Control (P ≤ 0.05. In females, HICE increased CD62E(+ EMPs (P < 0.05 vs. Control whereas CD31(+/CD42b- EMPs were unaltered by either exercise type. There was a significant increase in HOMA-IR in males but a decrease in females following HIIE compared to Control (P<0.05.Overweight/obese males and females appear to respond differently to acute bouts of high-intensity exercise. A single session of HICE and HIIE reduced circulating EMPs measured on the morning following exercise in males but in females CD62E(+ EMPs were increased following HICE. Next day HOMA-IR paradoxically increased in males but was reduced in females following HIIE. Future research is needed to investigate mechanisms responsible for potential differential responses between males and females.

  20. Mechanical compression during repeated sustained isometric muscle contractions and hyperemic recovery in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osada, Takuya; Mortensen, Stefan P; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated intramuscular pressure during a single forearm isometric muscle contraction may restrict muscle hyperemia. However, during repeated isometric exercise, it is unclear to what extent mechanical compression and muscle vasodilatation contribute to the magnitude and time course...... of beat-to-beat limb hemodynamics, due to alterations in leg vascular conductance (LVC). METHODS: In eight healthy male subjects, the time course of both beat-to-beat leg blood flow (LBF) and LVC in the femoral artery was determined between repeated 10-s isometric thigh muscle contractions and 10-s muscle...... (%). RESULTS: The exercise protocol was performed completely by all subjects (≤50 % MVC), seven subjects (≤70 % MVC), and two subjects (≤90 % MVC). During a 10-s isometric muscle contraction, the time course in both beat-to-beat LBF and LVC displayed a fitting curve with an exponential increase (P 

  1. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  2. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these

  3. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on insulin sensitivity indices in response to glucose feeding in lean and overweight/obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stuart D R; Craig, Thomas P; Cleland, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Infusion of carnitine has been observed to increase non-oxidative glucose disposal in several studies, but the effect of oral carnitine on glucose disposal in non-diabetic lean versus overweight/obese humans has not been examined. This study examined the effects of 14 days of L-carnitine L-tartrate oral supplementation (LC) on blood glucose, insulin, NEFA and GLP-1 responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Sixteen male participants were recruited [lean (n = 8) and overweight/obese (n = 8)]. After completing a submaximal predictive exercise test, participants were asked to attend three experimental sessions. These three visits were conducted in the morning to obtain fasting blood samples and to conduct 2 h OGTTs. The first visit was a familiarisation trial and the final two visits were conducted 2 weeks apart following 14 days of ingestion of placebo (PL, 3 g glucose/day) and then LC (3 g LC/day) ingested as two capsules 3×/day with meals. On each visit, blood was drawn at rest, at intervals during the OGTT for analysis of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Data obtained were used for determination of usual insulin sensitivity indices (HOMA-IR, AUC glucose, AUC insulin, 1st phase and 2nd phase β-cell function, estimated insulin sensitivity index and estimated metabolic clearance rate). Data were analysed using RMANOVA and post hoc comparisons where appropriate. There was a significant difference between groups for body mass, % fat and BMI with no significant difference in age and height. Mean (SEM) plasma glucose concentration at 30 min was significantly lower (p supplementation induces changes in blood glucose handling/disposal during an OGTT, which is not influenced by GLP-1. The glucose handling/disposal response to oral LC is different between lean and overweight/obese suggesting that further investigation is required. LC effects on gastric emptying and/or direct 'insulin-like' actions on

  4. Sonographic evaluation of spleen size and prevalence of accessory spleen in a healthy male Turkish population

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    Selim Serter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that the measurement of splenic length in routine clinical practice is a very good indicator of actual splenic size. Knowledge of the normal range of spleen size in the population being examined is a prerequisite. Racial differences in splenic length could result in incorrect interpretation of splenic measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the range of spleen length in a young male Turkish population.Material and Methods: A total of 2179 volunteers, healthy men aged 17-42 years, from the annual Army Reserve Officer Training Corps training camp at Manisa were included in the study. Sonographic measurements of spleen length were performed on 2179 military personnel. Presence of accessory spleen was also determined. In addition, the height, weight, and age of each volunteer were recorded. Using linear regression analysis, the relation of spleen length and body height, weight and body mass index (BMI was evaluated. Additionally, the prevalence of accessory spleen detected on ultrasound was calculated.Results: The mean±SD height was 173,1±6,5 cm, mean weight 69,1±9,7 kg, and mean BMI 22,62±2,87. Mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. The length of the spleen was below 12,80 cm in 95% of the subjects. No statistically significant correlation (p<0.01 between spleen length and body height, weight and BMI was found. The prevalence of accessory spleen was determined as 2.5% on ultrasound screening.Conclusion: It was found that in healthy Turkish men, mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. This data should be taken into consideration when the diagnosis of splenomegaly is established in Turkish males.

  5. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

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    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  6. Differential Impact of Acute High-Intensity Exercise on Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Insulin Resistance between Overweight/Obese Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Cody; Robinson, Emily; Wan, Zhongxiao; Martinez, Nic; Hummel, Michelle L.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background An acute bout of exercise can improve endothelial function and insulin sensitivity when measured on the day following exercise. Our aim was to compare acute high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE) to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men and women. Methods Inactive males (BMI = 30 ± 3, 25 ± 6 yr, n = 6) and females (BMI = 28 ± 2, 21 ± 3 yr, n = 7) participated in three experimental trials in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design: 1) No exercise control (Control); 2) HICE (20 min cycling @ just above ventilatory threshold); 3) HIIE (10 X 1-min @ ∼90% peak aerobic power). Exercise conditions were matched for external work and diet was controlled post-exercise. Fasting blood samples were obtained ∼18 hr after each condition. CD62E+ and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were assessed by flow cytometry and insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results There was a significant sex X exercise interaction for CD62E+ EMPs, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs, and HOMA-IR (all Pexercise type. There was a significant increase in HOMA-IR in males but a decrease in females following HIIE compared to Control (Pobese males and females appear to respond differently to acute bouts of high-intensity exercise. A single session of HICE and HIIE reduced circulating EMPs measured on the morning following exercise in males but in females CD62E+ EMPs were increased following HICE. Next day HOMA-IR paradoxically increased in males but was reduced in females following HIIE. Future research is needed to investigate mechanisms responsible for potential differential responses between males and females. PMID:25710559

  7. Diurnal and seasonal variation of the brain serotonin system in healthy male subjects.

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    Matheson, Granville J; Schain, Martin; Almeida, Rita; Lundberg, Johan; Cselényi, Zsolt; Borg, Jacqueline; Varrone, Andrea; Farde, Lars; Cervenka, Simon

    2015-05-15

    The mammalian circadian clock underlies both diurnal and seasonal changes in physiology, and its function is thought to be disturbed in both seasonal and non-seasonal depression. In humans, molecular imaging studies have reported seasonal changes in the serotonin system. Despite the role of the circadian clock in generating seasonal physiological changes, however, diurnal variation of serotonin receptors and transporters has never been directly studied in humans. We used positron emission tomography to examine diurnal and seasonal changes in the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter in two large cohorts of healthy male subjects, employing a cross-sectional design. In 56 subjects measured with [(11)C]WAY-100635, we observed diurnal increases in the availability of 5-HT1A receptors in the cortex. In 40 subjects measured with [(11)C]MADAM, a decrease in 5-HTT was observed in the midbrain across the day. We also found seasonal changes in the 5-HT1A receptor in serotonin projection regions, with higher availability on days with a longer duration of daylight. Our observation that serotonin receptor and transporter levels may change across the day in humans is corroborated by experimental research in rodents. These findings have important implications for understanding the relationship between the circadian and serotonin systems in both the healthy brain and in affective disorders, as well as for the design of future molecular imaging studies.

  8. Effect of sitting postures and shoulder position on the cervicocephalic kinesthesia in healthy young males.

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    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Information about head orientation, position, and movement with respect to the trunk relies on the visual, vestibular, extensive muscular, and articular proprioceptive system of the neck. Various factors can affect proprioception since it is the function of afferent integration, and tuning of muscular and articular receptors. Pain, muscle fatigue, and joint position have been shown to affect proprioceptive capacity. Thus, it can be speculated that changes in body posture can alter the neck proprioception. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of body posture on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in healthy subjects. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was measured by the kinesthetic sensibility test in healthy young adults while in (a) habitual slouched sitting position with arms hanging by the side (SS), (b) habitual slouched sitting position with arms unloaded (supported) (SS-AS), and (c) upright sitting position with arms hanging by the side (US) during maximum and 30 degree right, left rotations, flexion, and extension. Thirty healthy male adults (mean age 27.83; SD 3.41) volunteered for this study. The least mean error was found for the SS-AS position (0.48; SD 0.24), followed by SS (0.60; SD 0.43) and US (0.96; SD 0.71), respectively. For all test conditions, there was significant difference in mean absolute error while head repositioning from maximum and 30 degree rotation during SS and SS-AS positions (p affect the proprioception function of the neck. Supporting the upper extremities in such a way that their weight is unloaded, which leads to reduction in the tension between the neck and shoulder girdle, can improve cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The findings of this study can be implemented in people who have to do repeated arm and neck movements, by using ergonomically effective chairs with proper arm supports. This might help in prevention and treatment of neck pain.

  9. Gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle and eating habits program.

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    Petrella, E; Malavolti, M; Bertarini, V; Pignatti, L; Neri, I; Battistini, N C; Facchinetti, F

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether changes in lifestyle in women with BMI > 25 could decrease gestational weight gain and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Women with BMI > 25 were randomized at 1st trimester to no intervention or a Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Program including diet (overweight: 1700 kcal/day, obese: 1800 kcal/day) and mild physical activity (30 min/day, 3 times/week). At baseline and at the 36th week women filled-in a Food Frequency Questionnaire. gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery. Data stratified by BMI categories. Socio-demographic features were similar between groups (TLC: 33 cases, 28 cases). At term, gestational weight gain in obese women randomized to TLC group was lower (6.7 ± 4.3 kg) versus controls (10.1 ± 5.6 kg, p = 0.047). Gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension and preterm delivery were also significantly lower. TLC was an independent factor in preventing gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension. Significant changes in eating habits occurred in the TLC group, which increased the number of snacks, the intake of fruits-vegetables and decreased the consumption of sugar. A caloric restriction associated to changes in eating behavior and constant physical activity, is able to reduce gestational weight gain and related pregnancy complications in obese women.

  10. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

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    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  11. The Effects of Acute Arginine Vasopressin Administration on Social Cognition in Healthy Males

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    Amanda R. Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally similar neuropeptides and hormones oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP play significant and complex roles in modulating a range of social behaviours, including social recognition and bond formation. Although OT has well-known roles in facilitating prosocial behaviors and enhancing emotion recognition, AVP has received increasing interest for diverging effects on social cognition behaviour most notably in males. The current study aimed to determine whether AVP also modulates the ability to understand emotion. Using a randomised double blind procedure, 45 healthy young males received either an AVP or placebo nasal spray and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. In contrast to previous findings, there were no significant differences observed in performance on the RMET between AVP and placebo groups, even after examining items separated by task difficulty, emotional valence, and gender. This study provides diverging evidence from previous findings and adds to the growing body of research exploring the influence of neuropeptide hormones in social behaviour. It demonstrates that in this sample of participants, AVP does not enhance the ability to understand higher order emotion from others. Implications and suggestions for future AVP administration studies are discussed.

  12. Anthropometric study of male external genitalia of 320 healthy Nigerian adults.

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    Ajmani, M L; Jain, S P; Saxena, S K

    1985-06-01

    Five basic measurements of the male external genitalia were studied in 320 healthy male medical students belonging to the various parts of Nigeria (West Africa). Their ages range from 17 to 23 years. The measurements were as follows: average length of the penis (81.6 +/- 0.94 mm); circumference of the penis (88.3 +/- 0.02 mm); circumference of the scrotum (212.6 +/- 2.48 mm); length of right testis (46.8 +/- 0.54 mm); width of right testis (32.4 +/- 0.37 mm); length of left testis (46.0 +/- 0.53 mm); and width of left testis (31.4 +/- 0.36 mm). The size of the genitalia increases with the increase in age in younger year groups. The adult stages of genitalia development are reached at the age of 21 years in 89.0% of the individuals. The growth of the genitalia is continued with the increasing height and weight, but this growth slows down after attaining a definite height and weight.

  13. CLSI-Derived Hematology Reference Intervals for Healthy Males in Eastern India

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    Abhijit Banerjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Haematological reference ranges are often influenced by individual variables, such as race, age, gender and dietary habits. In addition, ecological factors such as climate and altitudemight affect the parameters, while variations in instrumentation techniques and laboratory personnel involved also contribute to the measurements. Therefore, the currently used reference ranges, which were originally adopted from other countries and mainly refer to European subjects, might be misleading in some cases. This study is an attempt to establish haematological reference ranges for male subjectsfrom Eastern India. Haematological tests, using an automated haematology analyzer, were carried out on 528blood samples from healthy male donors. The population was found to exhibit lowerhaemoglobin (HGB and platelet (PLT contents as compared to the standard reference values, although the difference was statistically significant only for the platelet count. Nevertheless, the digression from the international range of data was clinically significant, except for the white blood cells (WBC and red blood cells (RBC counts. Finally, the respective reference values for HGB, RBC and hematocrit (HCT were found to vary significantly with the age group of the subjects. It is expected that the study will facilitate the interpretation and reporting of haematological parameters in Eastern India.

  14. High-Density Lipoprotein-Associated miR-223 Is Altered after Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Males.

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    Fatiha Tabet

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males.HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy. HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically.miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015, which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032. Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size.HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss.

  15. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

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    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

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    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  17. The effects of daily consumption of grapefruit on body weight, lipids, and blood pressure in healthy, overweight adults.

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    Dow, Caitlin A; Going, Scott B; Chow, Hsiao-Hui S; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2012-07-01

    Folklore has suggested that consuming grapefruit may promote weight control. Sparse data exist to support this hypothesis, although there is some evidence of health promotion effects with regard to blood pressure control and modulation of circulating lipids. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to prospectively evaluate the role of grapefruit in reducing body weight and blood pressure and in promoting improvements in the lipid profile in overweight adults (N = 74). Following a 3-week washout diet low in bioactive-rich fruits and vegetables, participants were randomized to either the control diet (n = 32) or daily grapefruit (n = 42) in the amount of one half of a fresh Rio-Red grapefruit with each meal (3× daily) for 6 weeks. No differences between group in weight, blood pressure, or lipids were demonstrated. Grapefruit consumption was associated with modest weight loss (-0.61 ± 2.23 kg, P = .097), a significant reduction in waist circumference (-2.45 ± 0.60 cm, P = .0002), and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-3.21 ± 10.13 mm Hg, P = .03) compared with baseline values. Improvements were observed in circulating lipids of those consuming grapefruit, with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein significantly decreasing by -11.7 mg/dL (P = .002) and -18.7 mg/dL (P lipids, or blood pressure as compared with the control condition. However, the improvements in blood pressure and lipids demonstrated in the intervention group suggest that grapefruit should be further evaluated in the context of obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention.

  18. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

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    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  19. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

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    Xingze Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN, proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters.

  20. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

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    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans.

  1. One-year follow-up of penis and testis sizes of healthy Turkish male newborns.

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    Semiz, Serap; Küçüktaşçi, Kazim; Zencir, Mehmet; Sevinç, Ozgür

    2011-01-01

    Penile length, penile diameter and testicular volume at birth reflect the activity and normality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis. In this prospective longitudinal study, we aimed to measure penis and testicular size in healthy newborns at birth and 6 and 12 months of age. Seven hundred forty-six term healthy male newborns were enrolled in the study. According to measurements taken within 48 hours after birth, mean penile length (MPL) was 2.81 +/- 0.32 cm, mean penile diameter (MPD) 1.04 +/- 0.09 cm, right testicular volume (TV) 1.73 +/- 0.45 ml, and left TV 1.64 +/- 0.48 ml. At 6 months of age, MPL was 3.67 +/- 0.35 cm, MPD 1.23 +/- 0.08 cm, right TV 2.07 +/- 0.31 ml, and left TV 2.00 +/- 0.27 ml. At 12 months of age, MPL was 4.47 +/- 0.43 cm, MPD 1.25 +/- 0.09 cm, right TV 2.01 +/- 0.12 ml, and left TV 2.01 +/- 0.13 ml. There was a weak albeit statistically significant correlation between weight, length and PL at birth. In conclusion, the MPL of newborns was shorter than that reported in the published data from other populations. This situation may be related to ethnicity in addition to the lower birth weight and length of our subjects when compared to the newborns in other populations. We observed a significant increase, more marked during the first six months, in MPL, MPD and TV, which can be explained by the hormonal mechanism during minipuberty.

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of branded and generic formulations of meloxicam in healthy male volunteers

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    Del Tacca M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mario Del Tacca,1,2 Giuseppe Pasqualetti,3 Giovanni Gori,1 Pasquale Pepe,1 Antonello Di Paolo,2 Marianna Lastella,2 Ferdinando De Negri,1 Corrado Blandizzi2 1Clinical Pharmacology Centre for Drug Experimentation, Pisa University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 3Geriatrics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic bioequivalence between a generic formulation of meloxicam 15 mg tablets (Meloxicam Hexal and its respective brand product (Mobic, in order to verify whether the generic product conforms to the regulatory standards of bioequivalence in the postmarketing setting. As a secondary exploratory aim, the pharmacodynamic effects of the two formulations were also evaluated by means of rating scales following hyperalgesia induced by cutaneous freeze injury. Subjects and methods: A single 15 mg dose of generic or branded meloxicam tablets was administered to 24 healthy male volunteers in a crossover fashion. Plasma samples, collected for 24 hours after dosing, were assayed for meloxicam concentration by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results: The analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any significant difference between the two meloxicam formulations: the 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptance range of 80%–125% (0.84–1.16 for area under the curve [0–24], and 0.89–1.23 for peak concentration. No difference in the pharmacodynamic end point was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the two meloxicam formulations confirm the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence; pharmacodynamic data indicate a similar antihyperalgesic effect. The two formulations can be used interchangeably in the clinical setting. Keywords: meloxicam, pharmacokinetics, healthy volunteers, generic drug, bioequivalence, postmarketing

  3. Vitamin D Status and Quality of Life in Healthy Male High-Tech Employees

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    Sigal Tepper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25–65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and Body Mass Index (BMI were measured; further information was collected about physical activity, education, sun exposure, sick-days, and musculoskeletal pain severity (visual analog scale. Three hundred and fifty-eight men were enrolled in the study; mean serum 25(OHD level was 22.1 ± 7.9 ng/mL (range 4.6–54.5 ng/mL. In a multivariate logistic regression model, 25(OHD was a significant independent determinant of self-rated health; Odds Ratio (OR for self-rated health was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.85–0.97, p = 0.004, adjusted for age, BMI, pain severity, physical activity, and sun exposure. Every 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OHD was associated with 9% reduction in the odds of reporting self-rated health as fair or poor. Poisson regression model demonstrated an association between physically unhealthy days and 25(OHD levels (rate ratio 0.95, p < 0.001. In conclusion, serum levels of 25(OHD were associated with self-rated health and with physically unhealthy days of HRQOL in healthy high-tech male workers. Future intervention studies are required to test the impact of vitamin D supplementation on QoL.

  4. Effect of St. John's wort supplementation on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion in healthy male Chinese volunteers.

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    Lei, H-P; Yu, X-Y; Xie, H-T; Li, H-H; Fan, L; Dai, L-L; Chen, Y; Zhou, H-H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous St. John's wort administration on single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion, a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6, in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eighteen unrelated healthy male subjects participated in this study. The single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were determined before (control) and after a long-term period of St. John's wort intake (325 mg, three times a day for 14 days). Plasma concentrations of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were determined before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after dosing. St. John's wort treatment decreased the area under the concentration versus time curve extrapolated to infinity of bupropion in healthy volunteers from 1.4 microg.h ml(-1) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.6 microg.h ml(-1)) after bupropion alone to 1.2 microg.h ml(-1) (95% CI = 1.1-1.3 microg.h ml(-1)) during St. John's wort treatment. St. John's wort treatment increased the oral clearance of bupropion from 108.3 l h(-1) (95% CI = 95.4-123.0 l h(-1)) to 130.0 l h(-1) (95% CI = 118.4-142.7 l h(-1)). No change in the time to peak concentration (t(max)) and the blood elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of bupropion was observed between the control and St. John's wort-treated phases. However, the half-life of hydroxybupropion between two phases had a significant difference by a Student's t test after logarithmic transformation. St. John's wort treatment decreased the half-life of hydroxybupropion from 26.7 h (95% CI = 23.8-29.9 h) to 24.4 h (95% CI = 21.9-27.3 h). St. John's wort decreased, to a statistically significant extent, the plasma concentrations of bupropion, probably mainly by increasing the clearance of bupropion.

  5. Neckties and Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Males: A Pilot Randomised Crossover Trial

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    Mark Rafferty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A necktie may elevate intracranial pressure through compression of venous return. We hypothesised that a tight necktie would deleteriously alter cerebrovascular reactivity. Materials and Methods. A necktie was simulated using bespoke apparatus comprising pneumatic inner-tube with aneroid pressure-gauge. Using a randomised crossover design, cerebrovascular reactivity was measured with the “pseudo-tie” worn inflated or deflated for 5 minutes (simulating tight/loose necktie resp.. Reactivity was calculated using breath hold index (BHI and paired “t” testing used for comparative analysis. Results. We enrolled 40 healthy male volunteers. There was a reduction in cerebrovascular reactivity of 0.23 units with “tight” pseudotie (BHI loose 1.44 (SD 0.48; BHI tight 1.21 (SD 0.38 P<.001. Conclusion. Impairment in cerebrovascular reactivity was found with inflated pseudo-tie. However, mean BHI is still within a range of considered normal. The situation may differ in patients with vascular risk factors, and confirmatory work is recommended.

  6. Effects of chicken essence on recovery from mental fatigue in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Emi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Abe, Keiichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-07-08

    Fatigue is a common symptom in modern society. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in traditional remedies for fatigue. Chicken essence, which is rich in anserine and carnosine, has been widely taken in Asian countries as a traditional remedy with various aims, including attenuation of physical and mental fatigue. However, the evidence for its efficacy specifically for mental fatigue remains unclear. We examined the effect of essence of chicken on mental fatigue in humans, using our established fatigue-inducing task and evaluation methods. In this placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive daily oral administration of essence of chicken or placebo drink provided by Cerebos Pacific Ltd. via Suntory holdings Ltd. for 4 weeks. The participants performed 2-back test trials as a fatigue-inducing mental task and then had a rest session. Just before and after each session, they completed cognitive task trials focusing on selective attention to evaluate the level of mental fatigue. After essence of chicken intake for 1 and 4 weeks, the reaction times on the cognitive task trials after the rest session were significantly shorter than those at baseline, and significant changes were not observed with placebo intake. The reaction times before and after the fatigue-inducing session were not altered by either essence of chicken or placebo intake. We showed that daily intake of essence of chicken could be effective for the recovery from mental fatigue and is a promising candidate for use as an anti-fatigue food.

  7. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleza, M.; Vargas, M.; Kashina, S.; Huerta, M. R.; Delgadillo, I.; Moreno, G.

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration.

  8. Effects of grapefruit juice on cortisol metabolism in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-Jie; Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 activity and it has been suggested that GFJ may also inhibit renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2), which converts cortisol to cortisone. This study examined the effect of GFJ on the urinary excretion of cortisol, cortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHC) and their ratios to asses these effects. Healthy male Chinese subjects took single doses of GFJ (200, 400, and 600 mL, respectively) at weekly intervals. Urine was collected over 24 h the day before and following GFJ intake. Subsequently, volunteers drank 400 mL GFJ for 7 days and urine was collected from 0 to 4 h daily. GFJ had dose-dependent effects on increasing cortisol excretion (P cortisol to cortisone (P cortisol (P cortisol. It increased the ratio of cortisol to cortisone and this appeared largely due to increased cortisol excretion related to impaired CYP3A4-mediated cortisol metabolism although a true inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD2 in the kidney cannot be excluded.

  9. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

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    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  10. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

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    Balraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal.

  11. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Treece, Jennifer M.; Bhatheja, Samit; Lavine, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT) scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal. PMID:27738530

  12. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: effects on memory activation in healthy males.

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    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Nicolson, Nancy A; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cortisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were scanned (functional magnetic resonance imaging) during memory encoding and recognition tasks in fatigue and control conditions. A group of 15 'responders' showed significantly higher cortisol levels in the fatigue condition than 12 'non-responders'. Responders showed higher subjective fatigue and reduced encoding and recognition activation than non-responders in the fatigue condition. An interaction in activation changes in the right hippocampus during encoding reflected decreased activation in responders, but somewhat increased activation in non-responders in the fatigue compared to control condition. Moreover, decreased hippocampal activation in responders was associated with increased subjective fatigue. Findings are consistent with a central role for the hippocampus in differences between responders and non-responders and also implicate the right hippocampus in individual differences in induced cognitive fatigue effects.

  13. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

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    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulations. Blood samples for plasma phenytoin levels were collected at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 hours. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two brands of phenytoin sodium calculated were area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC 0–24, Area under the Curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞, peak plasma concentration (Cmax and time of peak concentration (tmax. Formulation B failed to comply in terms of Area under the Curve (AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter to test bioequivalency, which was tested at significance level 0.05. This showed that the test formulation is not bioequivalent with the innovator. Taken together, our preliminary findings suggest that further studies in a large population is needed before switching phenytoin brands once a patient is carefully titrated to a given phenytoin brand.

  14. Effect of static neck flexion in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Khatir, Roghayeh; Talebian, Saeed; Maroufi, Nader; Olyaei, Gholam Reza

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, especially among skilled workers who must keep their necks in a flexed position frequently during the day. The present study investigated changes in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon parameters after sustained neck flexion. The participants were 40 healthy subjects grouped by gender (20 females, 20 males). They were exposed to static neck flexion at the full angle of cervical flexion for 10 min. Each subject underwent three trials of cervical flexion and re-extension before and after this period. Differences in onset and cessation angle of flexion-relaxation phenomenon, maximum neck flexion angle, amplitude of neck muscle activation and flexion-relaxation ratio were evaluated. The maximum neck flexion angle significantly increased after sustained flexion. The onset of flexion-relaxation was significantly delayed during flexion, but cessation angle remained unchanged. Myoelectric activity of the cervical erector spinae muscles increased significantly after maintaining flexion, especially in female subjects. The flexion-relaxation ratio also decreased significantly. It was concluded that 10 min of static flexion results in a delay in flexion-relaxation phenomenon and a shortened silence period. Also the cervical erector spinae muscles are required to be active longer and generate more activity. These neuromuscular changes may be a risk factor for neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings are an

  16. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Nyberg

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children.A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243 and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7 and control groups (n = 7. The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1 Health information for parents, 2 Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3 Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values.There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA, with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04, as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03. There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003. At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity.It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings

  17. Bioequivalence study of two imatinib formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J A; Kim, N; Yang, J-S; Kim, T-e; Kim, J-R; Song, G-S; Kim, H; Ko, J W; Huh, W

    2014-12-01

    Imatinib mesylate is effective for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. We aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 200-mg imatinib tablet compared to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in order to meet the regulatory requirements for marketing in Korea.An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 28 healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects were administered a 200-mg imatinib tablet and 2×100-mg imatinib tablets under a fasting state according to a randomly assigned order with a 2-week wash-out period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods.A total of 28 subjects were enrolled and 23 subjects completed the study. There were no serious adverse events during the study. 23 mild to moderate adverse events were reported (11 events with 200-mg imatinib vs. 12 events with 2×100-mg imatinib) and subjects recovered without sequelae. The Cmax value was 922.8±318.8 μg/L at 3.15 h for 200-mg imatinib tablet, and 986.3±266.0 μg/L at 2.91 h for the 2×100-mg imatinib tablet. The AUClast of 200-mg and 2×100-mg tablets were 13 084.3±39.1 and 14 131.7±3 826.2 h · μg/L, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) for Cmax and AUClast were 0.9121 (0.8188, 1.0161) and 0.9558 (0.8685, 1.0519), respectively.A newly developed 200-mg imatinib tablet was bioequivalent to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in healthy Korean subjects. A single-dose of either of the 2 formulations was generally well tolerated.

  18. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  19. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Geert M; Meis, Jessie J M; Hendriks, Marike R C; Hamers, Femke J M; Veenhof, Cindy; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-07-16

    Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined the shift in types of motivation to increase PA and healthy dieting among participants of a primary care CLI, and the contribution of lifestyle coaching to potential changes in motivational quality. This prospective cohort study included participants of 29 general practices in the Netherlands that implemented a CLI named 'BeweegKuur'. Questionnaires including items on demographics, lifestyle coaching and motivation were sent at baseline and after 4 months. Aspects of motivation were assessed with the Behavioural Regulation and Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and the Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (REBS). We performed a drop out analysis to identify selective drop-out. Changes in motivation were analysed with t-tests and effect size interpretations (Cohen's d), and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of motivational change. For physical activity, changes in motivational regulation were fully in line with the tenets of Self Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing: participants made a shift towards a more autonomous type of motivation (i.e. controlled types of motivation decreased and autonomous types increased). Moreover, an autonomy supportive coaching style was generally found to predict a larger shift in autonomous types of motivation. For healthy dietary behaviour, however, except for a small decrease in external motivation, no favourable changes in different types of motivation were observed. The relation between coaching and

  20. The HAT TRICK programme for improving physical activity, healthy eating and connectedness among overweight, inactive men: study protocol of a pragmatic feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Hunt, Kate; Sharp, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Kayla M; Price, Ryley; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2017-09-06

    Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men's health practices. HAT TRICK was designed as a 12-week face-to-face, gender-sensitised intervention for overweight and inactive men focusing on physical activity, healthy eating and social connectedness and was delivered in collaboration with a major junior Canadian ice hockey team (age range 16-20 years). The programme was implemented and evaluated to assess its feasibility. This article describes the intervention design and study protocol of HAT TRICK. HAT TRICK participants (n=60) were men age 35 years, residing in the Okanagan Region of British Columbia, who accumulate 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week, with a body mass index of >25 kg/m(2) and a pant waist size of >38'. Each 90 min weekly session included targeted health education and theory-guided behavioural change techniques, as well as a progressive (ie, an increase in duration and intensity) group physical activity component. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months and included the following: objectively measured anthropometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, as well as self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, risk of depression, health-related quality of life and social connectedness. Programme feasibility data (eg, recruitment, satisfaction, adherence, content delivery) were assessed at 12 weeks via interviews and self-report. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia Okanagan Behavioural Research Ethics Board (reference no H

  1. Efficacy of a 3-month lifestyle intervention program using a Japanese-style healthy plate on body weight in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Katayama, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sakane, Naoki

    2014-11-24

    The portion size of food is a determinant of energy intake, linking with obese traits. A healthy plate for portion control has recently been made in a Japanese style. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate on weight reduction in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects. We randomized overweight and obese diabetic subjects (n = 19, 10 women) into an intervention group including educational classes on lifestyle modification incorporating the healthy plate (n = 10) or a waiting-list control group (n = 9). The intervention period was three months, and the educational classes using the healthy plate were conducted monthly in a group session for the intervention group. The body weight, blood glycemic and metabolic measures, and psychosocial variables were measured at the baseline and after the 3-month intervention in both groups. The impression of the intervention was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There was one drop-out in the control group. No adverse events were reported in the groups. Subjects in the intervention group had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period (-3.7 +/- 2.5 [SD] kg in the intervention group vs. -0.1 +/- 1.4 kg in the control group, P = 0.002). Most subjects recorded that the use of a healthy plate could be recommended to other people. The lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate, which was developed for portion control, may effectively reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects in Japan. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of this methodology on weight management.

  2. Evaluation of Acute Exogenous Hypoxia Impact on the Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Healthy Males

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    Dimov Peter K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exogenous hypoxia increases ventilation and contracts the pulmonary vessels. Whether those factors change the values of nitric oxide in exhaled air has not yet been evaluated. Objective: To examine the effect of exogenous normobaric hypoxia on the values of the fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO. Subjects аnd Methods: Twenty healthy non-smoker males at mean age of 25.4 (SD = 3.7 were tested. The basal FeNO values were compared with those at 7 min. and 15 min. after introducing into the hypoxic environment (hypoxic tent, imitating atmospheric air with oxygen concentration corresponding to 3200 m above sea level. Exhaled breath temperature was measured at baseline and at 10-12 min. of the hypoxic exposition. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were registered by pulse-oximetry. Results: All the subjects had FeNO values in the reference range. The mean baseline value was 14.0 ± 3.2 ppb, and in hypoxic conditions - 15.5 ± 3.8 ppb (7 min. and 15.3 ± 3.6 ppb (15 min., respectively, as the elevation is statistically significant (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008. The values of exhaled breath temperature were 33.79 ± 1.55°С and 33.87 ± 1.83°С (p = 0.70 at baseline and in hypoxic conditions, respectively. Baseline oxygen saturation in all subjects was higher than that, measured in hypoxia (96.93 ± 1.29% vs. 94.27 ± 2.53%; p < 0.001. Conclusions: Exogenous hypoxia leads to an increase of FeNO values, but does not affect the exhaled breath temperature.

  3. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema: an alarming complication of general anaesthesia in a young healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Afonso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary oedema is a rare but potentially harmful event[1,3]. The mechanisms of this pulmonary injury are not totally understood. It is believed that airway obstruction, as caused by laryngospasm after extubation, combined with the attempt of a forced inspiring effort, produce a negative intrathoracic pressure, increasing the venous return with a consequent rise of the hydrostatic pressure, ultimately leading to a leakage of fluid to the extracellular compartment. Nevertheless, it is possible that other factors may contribute to this condition, including hypoxia, cardiogenic and neurogenic mechanisms[2]. We present the case of a healthy 20-years-old male, who underwent a deferred left clavicle osteosynthesis. Immediately after surgery, the patient developed irritative cough and marked dyspnoea. There were no auscultatory anomalies and the plain chest radiograph was normal. He did not show clinical improvement after increasing oxygen supply and bronchodilators, and was then transferred to our hospital for further evaluation. A thoracic Computed Tomography (CT scan was performed (figure 1, revealing multiple areas of ground glass aspect and alveolar filling with centrilobular distribution, suggesting alveolar haemorrhage. The patient remained under observation for 48 hours, with clear signs of clinical improvement and no further complications, with no need for positive pressure ventilation. He was discharged being asymptomatic and with no signs of respiratory distress, after a control CT scan showing radiologic improvement. This case highlights the need to be aware of this diagnosis, that is usually self-limited but can be life-threatening and require specific treatment.

  4. Acute Normobaric Hypoxia Increases Post-exercise Lipid Oxidation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Liam P; Basset, Fabien A

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to determine the effect of moderate normobaric hypoxia exposure during constant load cycling on post-exercise energy metabolism recorded in normoxia. Indirect calorimetry was used to examine whole body substrate oxidation before, during, 40-60 min post, and 22 h after performing 60 min of cycling exercise at two different fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2): (i) FIO2 = 0.2091 (normoxia) and (ii) FIO2 = 0.15 (hypoxia). Seven active healthy male participants (26 ± 4 years of age) completed both experimental trials in randomized order with a 7-day washout period to avoid carryover effects between conditions. Resting energy expenditure was initially elevated following cycling exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (Δ 0.14 ± 0.05, kcal min(-1), p = 0.037; Δ 0.19 ± 0.03 kcal min(-1), p oxidation occurred after exercise performed in hypoxia while post-exercise measurements were similar to baseline after cycling exercise in normoxia. The additional metabolic stress of hypoxia exposure was sufficient to increase the rate of lipid oxidation (Δ 42 ± 11 mg min(-1), p = 0.019) and tended to suppress carbohydrate oxidation (Δ -55 ± 26 mg min(-1), p = 0.076) 40-60 min post-exercise. This shift in substrate oxidation persisted the next morning, where lipid oxidation remained elevated (Δ 9 ± 3 mg min(-1), p = 0.0357) and carbohydrate oxidation was suppressed (Δ -22 ± 6 mg min(-1), p = 0.019). In conclusion, prior exercise performed under moderate normobaric hypoxia alters post-exercise energy metabolism. This is an important consideration when evaluating the metabolic consequences of hypoxia exposure during prolonged exercise, and future studies should evaluate its role in the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training observed in persons with obesity and insulin resistance.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence studies of galantamine hydrobromide dispersible tablet in healthy male Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-jun; Fang, Xiao-ling; Li, Xue-ning; Wang, Qing-song; Han, Li-mei; Zhang, Zhi-wen; Sha, Xian-yi

    2007-03-01

    A randomized, two-way, crossover study was conducted in 18 healthy male Chinese volunteers to compare pharmacokinetics profiles of galantamine hydrobromide dispersible tablet with that of conventional tablet. A single oral dose of 10 mg galantamine was administrated to each volunteer. Plasma concentrations of galantamine were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection, which allowed 1 ng/mL to be assayed as the lowest quantifiable concentration. From plasma concentrations, AUC(0-->t) (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time, 32 hr), AUC(0-->infinity) (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity), t((1/2)) (elimination of half-life of the terminal log linear phase), C(max) (maximum plasma drug concentration) and T(max) (time to reach C(max)) were evaluated through noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. AUC(0-->t) and AUC(0-->infinity) were calculated by the linear-log trapezoidal rule method. C(max) and T(max) were obtained directly from the plasma concentration-time curve. Analysis of variance was carried out using logarithmically transformed AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max). As far as AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) were concerned, there was no statistically significant difference between the test and reference formulations. Ninety percent confidence intervals (90% CI) for the ratio of AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) values for the test and reference formulations were 100.4-107.8%, 99.0-107.2% and 87.5-111.3%, respectively. As the 90% CIs of AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) were entirely within 80-125%, two formulations were considered bioequivalent.

  6. Electrophysiological responses of feedback processing are modulated by MAOA genotype in healthy male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ren; Jia, Huiqiao; Yi, Fei; Ming, Qingsen; Wang, Xiang; Gao, Yidian; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene is closely related to aggression. Although previous studies suggested that impaired ability of feedback processing might be associated with aggressive behaviour, studies concerning the MAOA gene-related aggression rarely focused on the link between MAOA gene and feedback processing. We therefore sought to investigate the effect of MAOA genotype on electrophysiological responses of feedback processing in 72 healthy male adolescents during a simple monetary gambling task. Feedback processing was investigated by measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 as electrophysiological markers. We observed a decreased electrophysiological response of the loss-gain difference waves from 250 to 350 ms (dFRN) in individuals with the lower activity alleles (MAOA-L) during the task, an effect that was driven primarily by the considerably altered response to monetary gains. The reduced dFRN in MAOA-L group might indicate poor ability to learn from feedback, which is followed by adjusting future behaviour. And MAOA-L carriers exhibited lower P300 compared with subjects with higher activity alleles (MAOA-H), which suggested fewer attentional resources were allocated to feedback processing. In addition, MAOA-L carriers demonstrated higher aggression and the aggression were inversely correlated with dFRN across two groups; further analyses suggested that dFRN mediated the MAOA genotype-aggression relationship. Consequently, we concluded that it might be the altered feedback processing that makes MAOA-L carriers more vulnerable to aggressive behaviour.

  7. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  8. The impact of dopamine on aggression: an [18F]-FDOPA PET Study in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Thorben; Winz, Oliver; Henkel, Karsten; Prinz, Susanne; Rademacher, Lena; Schmaljohann, Jörn; Dautzenberg, Kai; Cumming, Paul; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Rex, Steffen; Mottaghy, Felix M; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2013-10-23

    Cerebral dopamine (DA) transmission is thought to be an important modulator for the development and occurrence of aggressive behavior. However, the link between aggression and DA transmission in humans has not been investigated using molecular imaging and standardized behavioral tasks. We investigated aggression as a function of DA transmission in a group of (N = 21) healthy male volunteers undergoing 6-[18F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA)-positron emission tomography (PET) and a modified version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). This task measures aggressive behavior during a monetary reward-related paradigm, where a putative adversary habitually tries to cheat. The participant can react in three ways (i.e., money substraction of the putative opponent [aggressive punishment], pressing a defense button, or continuing his money-making behavior). FDOPA-PET was analyzed using a steady-state model yielding estimates of the DA-synthesis capacity (K), the turnover of tracer DA formed in living brain (kloss), and the tracer distribution volume (Vd), which is an index of DA storage capacity. Significant negative correlations between PSAP aggressive responses and the DA-synthesis capacity were present in several regions, most prominently in the midbrain (r = -0.640; p = 0.002). Lower degrees of aggressive responses were associated with higher DA storage capacity in the striatum and midbrain. Additionally, there was a significant positive correlation between the investment into monetary incentive responses on the PSAP and DA-synthesis capacity, notably in the midbrain (r = +0.618, p = 0.003). The results suggest that individuals with low DA transmission capacity are more vulnerable to reactive/impulsive aggression in response to provocation.

  9. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

  10. Effects of submaximal exercise with water ingestion on intraocular pressure in healthy human males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise and water replacement on intraocular pressure (IOP have not been well established. Furthermore, it is not known whether the temperature of the fluid ingested influences the IOP response. In the present study we determined the effect of water ingestion at three temperatures (10, 24 and 38ºC; 600 ml 15 min before and 240 ml 15, 30 and 45 min after the beginning of each experimental session on the IOP of six healthy male volunteers (age = 24.0 ± 3.5 years, weight = 67.0 ± 4.8 kg, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak = 47.8 ± 9.1 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects exercised until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a 60% VO2peak in a thermoneutral environment. IOP was measured before and after exercise and during recovery (15, 30 and 45 min using the applanation tonometry method. Skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously. IOP was similar for the right eye and the left eye and increased post-water ingestion under both exercising and resting conditions (P<0.05 but did not differ between resting and exercising situations, or between the three water temperatures. Time to exhaustion was not affected by the different water temperatures. Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide extraction and lactate concentration were increased by exercise but were not affected by water temperature. We conclude that IOP was not affected by exercise and that water ingestion increased IOP as expected, regardless of water temperature.

  11. Effects of meal frequency on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjet J M Munsters

    Full Text Available The daily number of meals has an effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which may affect substrate partitioning and thus weight control. This study investigated the effects of meal frequency on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning.Twelve (BMI:21.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 healthy male subjects stayed after 3 days of food intake and physical activity standardization 2 × 36 hours in a respiration chamber to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received two isoenergetic diets with a Low meal Frequency (3 ×; LFr or a High meal Frequency (14 ×; HFr consisting of 15 En% protein, 30 En% fat, and 55 En% carbohydrates. Blood was sampled at fixed time points during the day to measure metabolic markers and satiety hormones.Glucose and insulin profiles showed greater fluctuations, but a lower AUC of glucose in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. No differences between the frequency diets were observed on fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Though, protein oxidation and RMR (in this case SMR + DIT were significantly increased in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. The LFr diet increased satiety and reduced hunger ratings compared with the HFr diet during the day.The higher rise and subsequently fall of insulin in the LFr diet did not lead to a higher fat oxidation as hypothesized. The LFr diet decreased glucose levels throughout the day (AUC indicating glycemic improvements. RMR and appetite control increased in the LFr diet, which can be relevant for body weight control on the long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034293.

  12. Para I Famagu'on-Ta: Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Food Store Environment, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity in the Children's Healthy Living Program on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanane, Lenora; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Silva, Joshua; Li, Fenfang; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the: (1) association between food store environment (FSE), fruit and vegetable (FV) availability and access, and prevalence of early childhood overweight/obesity (COWOB); and (2) influence of young child actual FV intake on the relationship between the FSE and early COWOB prevalence. Anthropometric and socio-demographic data of children (2 to 8 years; N=466) in baseline communities on Guam participating in the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program community trial were included. CDC year 2000 growth charts were used to calculate BMI z-scores and categories. FSE factors (fresh FV scores, store type) were assessed using the CX3 Food Availability and Marketing Survey amended for CHL. ArcGIS maps were constructed with geographic coordinates of participant residences and food stores to calculate food store scores within 1 mile of participant's residences. A sub-sample of participants (n = 355) had Food and Activity Log data to calculate FV and energy intakes. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression evaluated associations. Of 111 stores surveyed, 73% were small markets, 16% were convenience stores, and 11% were large grocery/supermarkets. Supermarkets/large grocery stores averaged the highest FV scores. Most participants did not meet FV intake recommendations while nearly half exceeded energy intake recommendations. Living near a small market was negatively correlated with BMI z-score (r = - 0.129, P store was positively correlated with BMI z-score (r = 0.092, P < .05). Logistic regression analysis yielded non-significant associations. The high density of small markets may be an opportunity for FSE intervention but further investigation of Guam's FSE influence on health is needed.

  13. Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study of mildly overweight, healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Bernard; Bourges, Cédric; Paineau-Dubreuil, Séverine

    2010-05-01

    Snacking is an uncontrolled eating behavior, predisposing weight gain and obesity. It primarily affects the female population and is frequently associated with stress. We hypothesized that oral supplementation with Satiereal (Inoreal Ltd, Plerin, France), a novel extract of saffron stigma, may reduce snacking and enhance satiety through its suggested mood-improving effect, and thus contribute to weight loss. Healthy, mildly overweight women (N = 60) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study that evaluated the efficacy of Satiereal supplementation on body weight changes over an 8-week period. Snacking frequency, the main secondary variable, was assessed by daily self-recording of episodes by the subjects in a nutrition diary. Twice a day, enrolled subjects consumed 1 capsule of Satiereal (176.5 mg extract per day (n = 31) or a matching placebo (n = 29). Caloric intake was left unrestricted during the study. At baseline, both groups were homogeneous for age, body weight, and snacking frequency. Satiereal caused a significantly greater body weight reduction than placebo after 8 weeks (P < .01). The mean snacking frequency was significantly decreased in the Satiereal group as compared with the placebo group (P < .05). Other anthropometric dimensions and vital signs remained almost unchanged in both groups. No subject withdrawal attributable to a product effect was reported throughout the trial, suggesting a good tolerability to Satiereal. Our results indicate that Satiereal consumption produces a reduction of snacking and creates a satiating effect that could contribute to body weight loss. The combination of an adequate diet with Satiereal supplementation might help subjects engaged in a weight loss program in achieving their objective.

  14. Should different marketing communication strategies be used to promote healthy eating among male and female adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.

  15. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used...... functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine...

  16. Bioequivalence study of two losartan formulations administered orally in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Agnieszka; Brzezińiski, Rafał; Szałek, Edyta; Dubai, Vitali; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Dyderski, Stanisław; Drobnik, Leon; Wolc, Anna; Olejniczak-Rabinek, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    The bioavailability of a new losartan preparation (2-butyl-4-chloro-1-[p-(o-1H-tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]imidazole-5-methanol monopotassium salt, CAS 114798-26-4) was compared with the reference preparation of the drug in 24 healthy male volunteers, aged between 19 and 32. The open, randomized, single-blind two-sequence, two-period crossover study design was performed. Under fasting conditions, each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg losartan as a test or reference formulation. The plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite were analyzed by a rapid and sensitive HPLC method with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters included AUC0-36h, AUC0-infinity, Cmax, t1/2, and Ke. Values of AUC0-infinity demonstrate nearly identical bioavailability of losartan from the examined formulations. The AUC0-infinity of losartan was 2019.92+/-1002.90 and 2028.58+/-837.45 ng x h/ml for the test and reference formulation, respectively. The AUC0-infinity of the metabolite was 10851.52+/-4438.66 and 11041.18 +/-5015.81 ng x h/ml for test and reference formulation, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of losartan was 745.94+/-419.75 ng/ml for the test and 745.74+/-329.99 ng/ml for the reference product and the Cmax of the metabolite was 1805.77+/-765.39 and 1606.22 +/-977.22 ng/ml for the test and reference product, respectively. No statistical differences were observed for Cmax and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve for both losartan and its active metabolite. 90 % confidence limits calculated for Cmax and AUC from zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of losartan and its metabolite were included in the bioequivalence range (0.8-1.25 for AUC). This study shows that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference formulation for losartan and its main active metabolite.

  17. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-06-01

    • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation. • This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation. To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was

  18. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  19. Effect of Misoprostol on the Pharmacokinetics of Sustained Release Diclofenac in Myanmar Healthy Male Volunteers

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    Htet Htet Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained release diclofenac (diclofenac SR is the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol, prostaglandin analogue, is the agent that enhances gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Concomitant administration of misoprostol with diclofenac SR can prevent the gastrointestinal side effects of diclofenac SR. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of misoprostol on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac SR in healthy volunteers. Methods: Crossover study was evaluated in 14 male volunteers. Single oral dose of 100 mg diclofenac SR was concomitantly administered with 200 μg misoprostol with one-week wash out period. Plasma concentrations at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6 and 10 hrs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-α, peak plasma concentration (Cmax, time to achieve peak plasma concentration (Tmax, absorption half-life (T½(ab, elimination half-life (T1/2(el, absorption rate constant (Kab, and elimination rate constant (Kel were determined. Results: With misoprostol, the mean AUC0-α of diclofenac SR was significantly reduced from 12.11±5.25μg/ mL×hr to 4.17±2.72μg/mL×hr (p0.05. The mean T½(ab was decreased from 0.56±0.23hr to 0.54±0.19hr (p>0.05. The mean Kab were almost the same 1.43±0.54hr-1 and 1.43±0.48hr-1. The mean T1/2(el was decreased from 3.68±1.64hr to 3.03±1.08hr (p>0.05. The mean Kel was increased from 0.21±0.09hr-1 to 0.25±0.09hr-1 (p>0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the extent of absorption of diclofenac SR when concomitantly administered with misoprostol. Therefore, the dose of diclofenac SR may need to be increased to avoid therapeutic failure of diclofenac SR or concurrent use with misoprostol may need to be changed to other gastroprotective agents.

  20. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-09-01

    Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade

  1. Inter- and Intra-individual Variability in the Pharmacokinetics of Agomelatine Tablets in Chinese Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-l; Du, A-h; Zhang, D; Meng, L-j; Liu, M; Zhang, L-n; Zhao, H-n; Liu, H-c

    2015-10-01

    Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a unique action mechanism differing from conventional antidepressants. The high inter- and intra-individual variability of agomelatine was previously reported, but no exact data values about the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax were mentioned. The current study aimed to determine and evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax of agomelatine tablets in Chinese healthy male subjects, providing useful information for designing bioequivalence studies of agomelatine. Each of 12 Chinese healthy male subjects received a 25-mg agomelatine tablet on 2 separate periods, and plasma samples were collected up to 24 h after dose and analyzed for agomelatine. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of agomelatine was assessed. High variations in the plasma concentrations of agomelatine could be observed at each sampling time between the different subjects and in one subject on different periods. The inter-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 102.20%, 131.74% and 130.59%, respectively. The intra-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 84.34%, 49.61% and 50.83%, respectively. The results showed high inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects, and the intra-individual variability at CV>80% should be considered in the design of bioequivalence studies.

  2. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

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    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  3. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Kanda

    Full Text Available Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD. The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people.A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by >25% in 3 years.Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week; non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718; obese male (body mass index ≥25, 1.634 (1.160, 2.302; and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more (ref. no exercise; non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754; obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577. Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events.These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.

  4. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Suwa, Kaname; Nakajima, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by >25% in 3 years. Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week) (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week); non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718); obese male (body mass index ≥25), 1.634 (1.160, 2.302); and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more) (ref. no exercise); non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754); obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577). Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events. These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.

  5. What Works Best to Help Overweight Folks Eat Healthier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163807.html What Works Best to Help Overweight Folks Eat Healthier? Researchers still don't know ... 2017 MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Getting overweight adults to adopt new heart-healthy eating habits ...

  6. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem KidsHealth > For Teens > When ... impact a person's entire quality of life. Defining Overweight When people eat more calories than they burn ...

  7. Cardiac repolarization during hypoglycaemia and hypoxaemia in healthy males: impact of renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Andersen, Rikke; Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Activity in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may influence the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. To study the effect of basal RAS activity on cardiac repolarization during myocardial stress induced by hypoglycaemia or hypoxaemia in healthy humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten subjects...

  8. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen;

    2016-01-01

    -individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min) in healthy volunteers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days......, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min.), and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied. RESULTS: For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra...... and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary...

  9. Effects of smoking on cerebral and ventricular volumes in healthy males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Jun Kim; Jae-Hoon Jun; Gye-Rae Tack; Soon-Cheol Chung; Mi-Hyun Choi; Beob-Yi Lee; Su-Jeong Lee; Jae-Woong Yang; Ji-Hye Kim; Jin-Seung Choi; Dong-Won Kang; Jang-Yeon Park

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported decreased cerebral volume as a result of smoking.However,little is known about accompanying changes in ventricular volume for healthy subjects who smoke,although ventricular volume is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis who smoke.The present study analyzed whether cerebral volume decreased with smoking through the use of magnetic resonance imaging.In addition,accompanying changes in ventricular volume that resulted from decreased cerebral volume and smoking were analyzed in healthy subjects.When multivariate lysis of covariance was performed by integrating the 2 age groups,aged 20-28 years and 40-49 years,with statistical significance,results showed that cerebral volume of smokers was smaller and ventricular volume was greater compared with the non-smokers.These findings suggest that ventricular volume changes could be utilized to characterize the effects of smoking.

  10. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.M.; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to chan

  11. Predictors of increase in physical activity during a 6-month follow-up period among overweight and physically inactive healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mutikainen

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: A strong sense of meaningfulness and better recovery from stress predict an increase in PA among physically inactive and overweight young adults. Therefore, participants with a low sense of meaningfulness and low recovery from stress may require support from other interventions to be able to increase their PA.

  12. Overweight and obesity in India: policy issues from an exploratory multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    This article analyses a nationally representative household dataset-the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in 2005 to 2006-to examine factors influencing the prevalence of overweight/obesity in India. The dataset was disaggregated into four sub-population groups-urban and rural females and males-and multi-level logit regression models were used to estimate the impact of particular covariates on the likelihood of overweight/obesity. The multi-level modelling approach aimed to identify individual and macro-level contextual factors influencing this health outcome. In contrast to most studies on low-income developing countries, the findings reveal that education for females beyond a particular level of educational attainment exhibits a negative relationship with the likelihood of overweight/obesity. This relationship was not observed for males. Muslim females and all Sikh sub-populations have a higher likelihood of overweight/obesity suggesting the importance of socio-cultural influences. The results also show that the relationship between wealth and the probability of overweight/obesity is stronger for males than females highlighting the differential impact of increasing socio-economic status on gender. Multi-level analysis reveals that states exerted an independent influence on the likelihood of overweight/obesity beyond individual-level covariates, reflecting the importance of spatially related contextual factors on overweight/obesity. While this study does not disentangle macro-level 'obesogenic' environmental factors from socio-cultural network influences, the results highlight the need to refrain from adopting a 'one size fits all' policy approach in addressing the overweight/obesity epidemic facing India. Instead, policy implementation requires a more nuanced and targeted approach to incorporate the growing recognition of socio-cultural and spatial contextual factors impacting on healthy behaviours.

  13. Idiopathic Thrombosis of the Inferior Vena Cava and Bilateral Femoral Veins in an Otherwise Healthy Male Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava is less common than deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, particularly in the absence of an obvious congenital caval abnormality or hypercoagulable state. We present a case of IVC thrombosis in an otherwise healthy and active 28-year-old male soldier secondary to dehydration and venous webbing. IVC thrombosis is an uncommon and underrecognized condition; in this case, the patient’s caval thrombosis was initially mistaken for acute back strain. Prompt recognition is necessary to minimize long-term sequelae.

  14. Gait in male trans-tibial amputees: a comparative study with healthy subjects in relation to walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermodsson, Y; Ekdahl, C; Persson, B M; Roxendal, G

    1994-08-01

    Walking speed, stance duration and ground reaction forces were studied with the use of a stable force platform (Kistler) in 24 male transtibial amputees and 12 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. The aim of the study was to compare the gait performance of two groups with unilateral trans-tibial amputations for either vascular disease or trauma and also to compare the results of the two groups with the results of a group of healthy subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to compare the stance duration and the ground reaction forces in relation to walking speed. The vascular and traumatic amputees had significantly reduced walking speeds compared with the healthy subjects, 0.85 +/- 0.2 m/s and 0.99 +/- 0.2 m/s. respectively, as compared to 1.42 +/- 0.2 m/s. By comparing the vascular and traumatic amputees with the healthy subjects in relation to walking speed, it was shown that the gait performance of the vascular amputee differed from that of the traumatic amputee, a difference that was not caused by the reduced walking speed. The active forces during push off on both the healthy (p = 0.02) and the prosthetic leg (p = 0.003) in the trauma group were not found in the vascular group. This disparity could be an effect of the systemic disease. It may be argued that the results of this study contribute to the understanding of the reduced walking ability of the vascular amputee and should be borne in mind when planning rehabilitation.

  15. SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS OF HEALTHY CAUCASIAN, CHINESE AND HAIDA INDIAN MALES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORD, D K; DEMOS, A M

    1964-06-06

    Because previous studies have shown that serum uric acid levels are higher in members of the Filipino and Maori races than in Caucasians, and because gout seemed unexpectedly common in the Chinese population of Vancouver, a study of serum uric acid levels in Caucasian, Chinese and Haida Indian males was undertaken. The serum uric acid levels of 200 Caucasian, 100 Chinese and 237 Haida Indian males were determined by the ultraviolet spectrophotometric method of Dubbs, which gives a result 0.5 mg. % below that of the more commonly employed method of Grayzel. The mean level of the Caucasians was 4.55 mg. % and that of the Haida Indians 4.41 mg. %; in contrast, the Chinese mean was 5.44 mg. %, a significantly higher figure than the means of the other two groups. No explanation for this finding can be given at present.

  16. An unusual cause for recurrent jaundice in an otherwise healthy male

    OpenAIRE

    Sowjanya Dasari; Kushal Naha; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    AbstractA 41-year-old Asian-Indian male presented with recurrent episodes of jaundice over the past six months. Physical examination was normal, barring mild icterus. Laboratory parameters revealed indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Further evaluation yielded a diagnosis of severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia was ascribed to ineffective erythropoiesis. Underlying Gilbert’s syndrome was ruled out by provocative testing with lipid-restricted diet. Presentation of se...

  17. Stretching training affects erythrocyte rheological properties and anaerobic performance in healthy young males

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Emine Kılıç; Koçak, Fatma Ünver; Erken, Gülten; Küçükatay, Melek Bor

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stretching exercise training is used to improve flexibility and performance. This study aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of stretching exercise on flexibility, performance, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation. METHODS: 7 young male subjects (mean age 20.71±0.52 years) participated to the study. Stretching protocol consisted of 3 repetitions for 60 seconds, 3 days/week, 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after the stretc...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  20. HPV prevalence among healthy Italian male sexual partners of women with cervical HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Marandino, Ferdinando; Carosi, Mariantonia; Diodoro, Maria Grazia; Sentinelli, Steno; Visca, Paolo; Rollo, Francesca; Mariani, Luciano; Vocaturo, Giuseppe; Sindico, Roberto; Terrenato, Irene; Donnorso, Raffaele Perrone; Vocaturo, Amina

    2008-07-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer and is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Only limited and controversial data are available regarding HPV transmission in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the genotype distribution of HPV in penile scrapings of a series of Italian men, who had no visible penile lesions and were partners of women who were affected, or had been affected previously by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or who were infected with HPV. The concordance of the viral group in the infected partners was determined. A total of 77 penile scrapings were screened for HPV infection by the polymerase chain reaction, while 59 cervicovaginal brushings of their female partners were tested. 35% of evaluable male samples and 64% of female sexual partners were found to be HPV positive. In the 55 simultaneously evaluable couples, a concordance of 45% was found, 11 couples (20%) with both partners being HPV negative and 14 couples (25%) with both partners HPV positive (P=0.001). Six out of the 14 couples (43%), where both partners were HPV positive, harbored the same HPV genotype group. These data, although preliminary, could support further the hypothesis that male HPV infection is more frequent in sexual partners of HPV positive or women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia indicating that men could represent an important source of HPV transmission between sex partners.

  1. The effects of methylphenidate on cognitive performance of healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Rostron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH in healthy rats on two distinct radial maze tasks which rely on brain structures and neurotransmitters known to be affected by MPH: the Random Foraging Non-Delay Task (RFNDT and the Delay Spatial Win Shift Task (DSWT. Hooded Lister rats were trained to complete either the RFNDT or the DSWT having received oral treatment of either a vehicle or MPH (3.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg for RFNDT, 3.0 mg/kg for DSWT. We found no effect of MPH on the RFNDT relative to the control group. However, those treated with 5.0 mg/kg MPH did take significantly longer to reach criterion performance than those treated with the 3.0 mg/kg MPH, suggesting some doses of MPH can have detrimental effects. For the DSWT, if MPH was present in both phases, performance did not differ from when it was absent in both phases. However, when present in only one phase there was an increase in errors made, although this only reached significance for when MPH was present only in the test-phase. These data suggest that MPH may have detrimental effects on task performance and can result in state dependent effects in healthy individuals.

  2. Coffee bean polyphenols ameliorate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the effect of coffee bean polyphenols (CBPs) on blood vessels, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CBPs on acute postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen healthy non-diabetic men (mean age, 44.9 ± 1.4 years) consumed a test beverage (active: containing CBPs, placebo: no CBPs) before a 554-kcal test meal containing 14 g of protein, 30 g of fat and 58 g of carbohydrates. Then, a crossover analysis was performed to investigate the time-dependent changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery. In the active group, the postprandial impairment of FMD was significantly improved, the two-hour postprandial nitric oxide metabolite levels were significantly increased and the six-hour postprandial urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group. The test meal increased the levels of blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides in both groups with no significant intergroup differences. These findings indicate that CBPs intake ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men.

  3. Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Shioya, Yasushi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2014-02-01

    Brewed coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and many studies have examined its effects on human health. We investigated the vascular effects of coffee polyphenols (CPPs), hypothesizing that a single ingestion of CPP during glucose loading would improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized acute clinical intervention study with crossover design and measured reactive hyperemia index (RHI) to assess the acute effects of a 75-g glucose load with CPP in healthy, nondiabetic adult men. Blood glucose and insulin levels were elevated after glucose loading with and without CPP, with no significant differences between treatments. The RHI did not significantly decrease after glucose loading without CPP. With CPP, however, RHI significantly (P < .05) increased over baseline after glucose loading. The difference between treatments was statistically significant (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in an oxidative stress marker after glucose loading with or without CPP. These findings suggest that a single ingestion of CPP improves peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy subjects.

  4. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: an unusual manifestation of brucellosis in a previous healthy male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaritsis, Konstantinos P; Liaskos, Christos; Papadamou, Georgia; Dalekos, George N

    2015-04-22

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution and protean clinical manifestations. Therefore, its prompt and timely diagnosis is still challenging. Among several complications of brucellosis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in previously healthy participants is rarely recognised, although this condition can be fatal if misdiagnosed and untreated. We present a case of a 69-year-old previously healthy stockbreeder who suffered from back pain along with abdominal pain and distension because of ascites of 6-8 weeks duration. Cultures of ascitic fluid and peripheral blood specimens revealed Brucella spp as the causative agent of ascites and spondylodiscitis, which was then confirmed by MRI findings. After appropriate treatment for 4.5 months (streptomycin 1 g/day for 3 weeks intramuscularly, doxycycline 100 mg twice a day orally and rifampicin 900 mg/day orally), the patient fully recovered. Conclusively, in the appropriate epidemiological and clinical setting, the consideration of brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of SBP could be rational as well as life-saving.

  5. Overweight and constipation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais Mauro B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between overweight and gastrointestinal symptoms has been recently studied in the literature; however, few studies have evaluated the association between overweight and constipation in adolescents in a community-based sample. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of constipation and its association with being overweight in a community-based survey with adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,077 adolescents who were enrolled in five schools in the city of Sao José dos Campos, Brazil. Constipation was defined according to modified and combined Rome III criteria for adolescents and adults. Being overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI that was equal to or greater than that of the 85th percentile for age and gender. Results Constipation was diagnosed in 18.2% (196/1077 of the included adolescents. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of constipation in males and females who were both younger and older than 14 years. Fecal incontinence was observed in 25 adolescents, 22 (88.0% of whom were diagnosed as being constipated. The prevalence of being overweight was found in 13.5% (145/1077 of the study population. The prevalence of constipation was observed to be similar in adolescents who were (19.4%; 28/144 and were not (18.0%; 168/933 overweight (p = 0.764; OR = 1.10. Fecal incontinence that was associated with constipation was more frequent in adolescents who were overweight (37.0%; 8/28 than in adolescents who were not overweight (8.5%; 14/168; p = 0.005; OR = 4.40. Conclusions The prevalence of constipation was high among the investigated adolescents. There was no association between being overweight and constipation; however, an association between being overweight and fecal incontinence in constipated adolescents was confirmed.

  6. An unusual cause for recurrent jaundice in an otherwise healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Sowjanya; Naha, Kushal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old Asian-Indian male presented with recurrent episodes of jaundice over the past six months. Physical examination was normal, barring mild icterus. Laboratory parameters revealed indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Further evaluation yielded a diagnosis of severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia was ascribed to ineffective erythropoiesis. Underlying Gilbert's syndrome was ruled out by provocative testing with lipid-restricted diet. Presentation of severe vitamin B12 deficiency with isolated hyperbilirubinemia without concomitant major haematologic or neurologic dysfunction is unusual and potentially underdiagnosed. Awareness of this possibility can permit early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and forestall development of severe haematologic and neurologic sequelae.

  7. Tribulus terrestris-induced severe nephrotoxicity in a young healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza; Abkhiz, Saeed; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2010-11-01

    Herbal medications are being progressively utilized all over the world. Nevertheless, herbal remedies are not without hazards and several cases of adverse reactions have been described. Tribulus terrestris is traditionally used because of its aphrodisiac and antiurolithiatic activities with almost complete inhibition of stone formation. We report a case of T. terrestris-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in an Iranian male patient who used the plant's extract to prevent kidney stone formation. He presented with seizure and very high serum aminotransferases and creatinine after consuming herbal water for 2 days. Discontinuation of the herbal remedy resulted in improvement in symptoms and normalization of his liver enzymes.

  8. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side......The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...

  9. A novel HLA-B*57 (B*5714) allele in a healthy male Caucasian individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermann, W W; Grondkowski, V; Reichert, S; Seliger, B; Schlaf, G

    2008-03-01

    A novel human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B57 (HLA-B*5714) allele has been identified in a male Caucasian individual from Middle Europe using single allele-specific sequencing strategy. This allele is identical to the HLA-B*570101 allele except for two point mutations in exon 3 at codon 138 (ACG-->ACC) with no amino acid change [persisting threonine (T)] and at codon 171 (TAC-->CAC), resulting in an amino acid change from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H).

  10. A gamma scintigraphy study to investigate lung deposition and clearance of inhaled amikacin-loaded liposomes in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weers, Jeffry; Metzheiser, Beth; Taylor, Glyn; Warren, Simon; Meers, Paul; Perkins, Walter R

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhalation of a liposomal formulation of amikacin in healthy male volunteers in terms of pulmonary deposition, clearance, and safety following nebulization with a commercial jet nebulizer. Amikacin was encapsulated in liposomes comprised of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol via a proprietary manufacturing process (20 mg/mL final amikacin concentration). The liposomes were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc using the tin chloride labeling method. A nominal dose of 120 mg of drug product was loaded into a PARI LC STAR nebulizer, aerosolized using a PARI Boy compressor where subjects inhaled for 20 min. Lung deposition was determined by gamma scintigraphy in three healthy male volunteers at the following time points (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-administration). Total lung deposition, expressed as a percentage of the emitted dose, was 32.3 +/- 3.4%. The time-dependent retention of radiolabeled liposomes was biphasic with an initial rapid reduction in counts, followed by a slower phase to 48 h. The overall mean retention at 24 and 48 h was 60.4 and 38.3% of the initial dose deposited, respectively. The observed clearance of radiolabel is consistent with clearance of amikacin following aerosol delivery to rats. There were no clinically significant changes in laboratory parameters, vital signs, or ECG. No adverse events including cough or bronchospasm were reported. Inhalation of a single nominal dose of 120 mg liposomal amikacin results in prolonged retention of drug-loaded liposomes in the lungs of healthy volunteers. The treatment was well tolerated.

  11. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, G M; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examine...

  12. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  13. Effect of absorption site on the pharmacokinetics of sublingual asenapine in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Mireille; de Greef, Rik; Peeters, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Asenapine is a psychopharmacologic agent approved in the United States for the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults and the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder with or without psychotic features in adults. It is pending approval for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in Europe. Asenapine is administered as a sublingual formulation. To determine whether the pharmacokinetics of asenapine are impacted by placing the tablet buccally ('cheeking') or allowing the tablet to dissolve on the top of the tongue, pharmacokinetics were compared following buccal and supralingual administration versus sublingual administration. In this open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover trial, healthy men (n=36) received single 5 mg doses of asenapine via sublingual, supralingual and buccal routes, at least 1 week apart. With buccal administration, the area under the concentration-over-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) and peak concentration (C(max)) were, respectively, 24%, and 19% higher than with sublingual administration; these routes were not bioequivalent. With supralingual administration, AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were 6% and 13% lower than with sublingual administration; bioequivalence was established based on AUC(0-infinity) only; bioequivalence based on C(max) could not be assessed due to 40% within-subject variability. The most common adverse events were oral paresthesia (sublingual, 75.8%; supralingual, 55.9%; buccal, 45.7%) and somnolence (81.8%; 76.5%; 68.6%). Compared with the recommended sublingual route of asenapine administration, exposure was 24% higher with buccal administration and comparable to supralingual administration. However, differences in exposure associated with variable placement in the oral cavity did not compromise safety in healthy subjects.

  14. An unusual cause for recurrent jaundice in an otherwise healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowjanya Dasari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA 41-year-old Asian-Indian male presented with recurrent episodes of jaundice over the past six months. Physical examination was normal, barring mild icterus. Laboratory parameters revealed indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Further evaluation yielded a diagnosis of severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia was ascribed to ineffective erythropoiesis. Underlying Gilbert’s syndrome was ruled out by provocative testing with lipid-restricted diet. Presentation of severe vitamin B12 deficiency with isolated hyperbilirubinemia without concomitant major haematologic or neurologic dysfunction is unusual and potentially underdiagnosed. Awareness of this possibility can permit early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and forestall development of severe haematologic and neurologic sequelae.

  15. Balanoposthitis as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus in an apparently healthy male

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    Virendra Saoji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanoposthitis inflammation of the glans penis, which often involves prepuce is a common condition and are usually managed symptomatically without considering a possible association diabetes. Acquired balanoposthitis may be the first clinical presentation of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods: We enrolled 100 subjects with balanoposthitis with no history of diabetes mellitus in the past. Random blood sugar was done in all subjects, those with random blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl underwent fasting and 2 hour post prandial blood sugar estimation. Result: Out of 100 patients having balanitis,7 patients were detected to have diabetes mellitus for the first time, while another 4 patients were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for the first time. Conclusion: In conclusion, we must bear in mind that balanoposthitis may be the first clinical sign of diabetes mellitus in males and hence appropriate blood glucose testing should be carried out when assessing men with balanoposthitis.

  16. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The mod ified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods.

  17. Attentionally modulated effects of cortisol and mood on memory for emotional faces in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Honk, J; Kessels, R P C; Putman, P; Jager, G; Koppeschaar, H P F; Postma, A

    2003-10-01

    Heightened cortisol levels due to stress or acute administration seem to enhance memory for emotional material, independently of emotional valence. An arousal-driven neurobiological mechanism involving the amygdala has been proposed. The relation between pre-task salivary measures of cortisol (by convention named 'basal levels') and emotionally modulated memory has not been investigated yet. Given the association between higher basal levels of cortisol and indices of low mood, valence-specific effects on emotionally modulated memory could be expected (e.g. mood-congruent or stimulus-specific forms of processing). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between basal levels of salivary cortisol, self-reported mood and spatial memory for neutral, happy and angry facial expressions in healthy young volunteers (N=31). Memory performance was indexed using a modified version of a computerized object-relocation task, using emotional facial expressions as stimuli. Results showed a significant relation between cortisol and depressive mood. More importantly, both the levels of cortisol and depressive mood were inversely related to the memory performance for the happy facial expressions, while a similar relationship between cortisol and memory performance on angry faces neared significance. An explanation in terms of the down-regulation of social behavior by elevated basal cortisol levels is postulated.

  18. Post-vaccination myositis and myocarditis in a previously healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Matthew P; Kozoriz, Michael G; Ahmadi, Amir A; Kelsall, John; Paquette, Katryn; Onrot, Jake M

    2016-01-01

    The immunological literature has been redefining clinical phenomena as hypotheses emerge regarding causal links between triggers, immunologic manifestations, and their specific inflammatory cascades. Of late, autoimmune manifestations that appear to be caused by an external adjuvant have been grouped into a complex syndrome referred to as autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). This syndrome may present with diverse clinical problems, which may include neurocognitive impairment, inflammatory musculoskeletal changes, and constitutional symptoms. There is evidence in the literature linking vaccines to different auto-immune manifestations. Vaccines have not traditionally been reported to trigger ASIA, although reports are emerging linking the human papilloma virus and hepatitis B vaccines to it. We report the first suspected case of ASIA in a previously healthy patient who received the Fluad seasonal influenza vaccine, which contains the MF59 adjuvant. He presented to hospital with profound weakness and was diagnosed with severe rhabdomyolysis. He also had elevated troponin-I and extensive cardiac investigations enabled the diagnosis of myocarditis. His infectious and rheumatologic work-ups were negative. He responded well to conservative management and did not require immune suppressive therapy. Given the benefits of the influenza vaccine, and the low incidence of clinically significant complications, we encourage ongoing seasonal influenza immunization. However, ongoing surveillance is required to evaluate the occurrence of rare adverse events, including ASIA.

  19. Impact of oral iron challenges on circulating non-transferrin-bound iron in healthy Guatemalan males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, Klaus; Kroll, Sylvia; Romero-Abal, Maria-Eugenia; Georgiou, Niki A; Marx, Jo J M; Weiss, Günter; Solomons, Noel W

    2012-01-01

    Oral iron as a supplement has been associated with adverse health consequences, especially in the context of young children with active malaria. A potential aggravating role of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) has been proposed. NTBI responses in both a fasting and post-oral iron dosing situation were related to serum iron concentration and ferritin status. Fasting and 1, 2, and 3 h postdose serum samples were obtained in conjunction with oral ferrous sulfate supplementation in aqueous solution of 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg Fe in a cohort of 8 healthy Guatemalan men over a 9-week metabolic protocol. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent transferrin saturation, serum iron and NTBI were all measured. Circulating levels of serum iron and NTBI increased in a graded fashion in response to oral iron, with the relative increment for NTBI slightly greater than that of iron. Detectable NTBI was occasionally measured in fasting specimens, more frequently in subjects with high ferritin status. Post-iron NTBI responses, by contrast, were higher in normal-ferritin subjects in absolute terms, and rose with increasing postabsorptive serum iron responses. The appearance and response of circulating NTBI were consistent with recognized principles of iron regulation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zancong; Gillen, Michael; Miner, Jeffrey N; Bucci, Gail; Wilson, David M; Hall, Jesse W

    2017-01-01

    Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males. This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10-12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE) reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs). A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5-0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose) and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose). The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported. Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated, absorption was rapid, and exposure was dose proportional. Verinurad increased urinary uric acid elimination and resulted in sustained reductions in serum urate. These data support further clinical evaluation of once-daily verinurad as a treatment for

  1. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  2. Impulsive personality traits in male pedophiles versus healthy controls: is pedophilia an impulsive-aggressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; McGeoch, Pamela G; Poznansky, Olga; Itskovich, Yelena; Murphy, Sean; Klein, Erik; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Despite the extensive literature documenting the pervasive and pernicious effects of childhood sexual abuse, there is surprisingly little psychiatric literature on pedophilia and its etiology remains enigmatic. In recent years, the psychiatric literature on the phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment of impulsive-aggressive disorders has grown significantly. As some investigators have conceptualized pedophilia as an impulsive-aggressive disorder, it is of interest whether recent advances in the study of impulsive-aggressive disorders might shed light on pathological mechanisms underlying pedophilia. In the following study, 20 male subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of pedophilia, heterosexual type were recruited from an outpatient facility for sexual offenders and compared to 24 demographically similar control subjects. Groups were compared on three personality instruments--the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment-Questionnaire (DAPI-Q)--to assess for select impairment in impulsive-aggressive personality traits. Pedophiles showed severe and pervasive personality impairment relative to controls. Although there was evidence of impulsivity, the findings do not suggest a predominance of impulsive-aggressive traits, and in fact provide evidence of inhibition, passive-aggression, and harm avoidance. The notion of "compulsive-aggression" in pedophilia is proposed.

  3. The effect of foot overpronation on Achilles tendon blood supply in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, K; Kalogeris, M; Mandalidis, D; Geladas, N; Karteroliotis, K; Athanasopoulos, S

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon blood flow in individuals with overpronated feet during non-weight- and weight-bearing positions. Achilles tendon blood flow was measured by means of the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistance index (RI) in 15 male individuals with overpronated feet and 15 counterparts with normal feet, using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDI). Achilles tendon ultrasonographic (US) assessment was performed at its musculo-tendinous junction (MTJ), mid-tendon (MT), and osseotendinous junction (OTJ) at a non-weight-bearing relaxed position (RP) and during two-leg stance (TLS) and one-leg upright stance (OLS). PI and RI indices were significantly greater in individuals with overpronated feet compared to individuals with normal feet at the OTJ in OLS position (P MTJ in all positions (P MTJ (P < 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that foot overpronation may affect Achilles tendon blood flow, particularly at mid-tendon, thus enhancing the possibility for injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  5. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of canagliflozin and teneligliptin in Japanese healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shuji; Kondo, Kazuoki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interactions of the antidiabetic agents canagliflozin (a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor) and teneligliptin (a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) in Japanese healthy adult men. Open-label, one-way crossover study used canagliflozin (200 mg/day p.o.) and teneligliptin (40mg/day p.o). A single dose of object drug (either canagliflozin or teneligliptin) was administered on day 1 followed by washout and continuous administration of precipitant drug (days 1 - 9). Both drugs were concomitantly administered on day 7. No changes in AUC0 - 72h and Cmax were observed for canagliflozin+teneligliptin versus monotherapy; geometric mean ratios for AUC0 - 72h and Cmax were 0.982 and 0.982 for the plasma concentration of canagliflozin and 0.983 and 0.976 for the plasma concentration of teneligliptin, respectively. Plasma concentrations of active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increased with canagliflozin+teneligliptin versus teneligliptin alone. Mean AUC0.5 - 4h increased post-meal, on combination therapy, from 9.6 to 12.5 pmol·h/l (active GLP-1) and from 21.5 to 32.3 pmol·h/l (total GLP-1). Adverse events developed in four subjects; all were mild and resolved but one subject withdrew due to generalized erythema. GLP-1 levels increased with the canagliflozin+teneligliptin combination, and no PK interaction was observed. This combination may show favorable antidiabetic effects without increasing systemic exposure.

  6. Single-dose oral pharmacokinetics of three formulations of thalidomide in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, S K; Colburn, W A; Thomas, S D

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a complication of leprosy. The present study determined the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetics of Celgene's commercial and clinical trial thalidomide formulations and the Brazilian Tortuga formulation in an open-label, single-dose, three-way crossover design. Seventeen healthy subjects were given 200 mg of thalidomide on three occasions, and blood samples were collected over 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental methods for the two Celgene formulations and using noncompartmental methods for all three formulations. All subjects reported adverse events, none of which was serious or unexpected. Celgene formulations were bioequivalent when comparing Cmax, tmax, and AUC. There was significant variability in plasma levels from the Tortuga formulation, giving a mean profile that was distinctly different from the two Celgene formulations with a lower Cmax value and a longer terminal phase. The lower Cmax was probably due to slower absorption. The terminal rate constant for the Tortuga formulation was significantly less, giving rise to a terminal half-life of 15 hours compared to about 5 to 6 hours for the Celgene formulations. Confidence intervals for Cmax between the Tortuga and the Celgene formulations were outside the 80% to 125% range, indicating a lack of bioequivalence. Extent of absorption, as measured by AUC0-infinity, was approximately equal for all three formulations. Terminal half-life for Tortuga was two to three times longer compared to the Celgene formulations and is clear evidence for absorption rate limitations. The two Celgene formulations showed similar pharmacokinetic parameters with profiles that were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The authors conclude that Celgene's clinical trial and commercial thalidomide formulations are similar to each other and distinctly

  7. Additive Effects of Heating and Exercise on Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Claudia Lucia de Moraes; Low, David Andrew

    2017-08-31

    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25±1 yrs, 23.8±0.5 kg/m(2)) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole-body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a: pre-intervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; post-intervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HRreserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HRreserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRSSEQ) and transfer function (cBRSTF) methods. HRV was assessed using the indices SDNN (standard deviation of RR intervals) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR intervals). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e. matched heart rate conditions: EX1=116±3 vs. 114±3, EX2=143±4 vs. 142±3 bpm; but different workloads: EX1=50±9 vs. 114±8, EX2=106±10 vs. 165±8 Watts; for HS and NT, respectively; Pheart rates), cBRS and HRV were significantly reduced in HS (cBRSSEQ = 1.6±0.3 vs. 0.6±0.1 ms/mmHg, Pexercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared to exercise in normothermia. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  8. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  9. Changes in hematological indices and lymphocyte subsets in response to whole blood donation in healthy male donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borai, Anwar; Livingstone, Callum; Alsobhi, Enaam; Al Sofyani, Abeer; Balgoon, Dalal; Farzal, Anwar; Almohammadi, Mohammed; Al-Amri, Abdulafattah; Bahijri, Suhad; Alrowaili, Daad; Bassiuni, Wafaa; Saleh, Ayman; Alrowaili, Norah; Abdelaal, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Whole blood donation has immunomodulatory effects, and most of these have been observed at short intervals following blood donation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of whole blood donation on lymphocyte subsets over a typical inter-donation interval. Healthy male subjects were recruited to study changes in complete blood count (CBC) (n = 42) and lymphocyte subsets (n = 16) before and at four intervals up to 106 days following blood donation. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables between different visits. Following blood donation, changes in CBC and erythropoietin were as expected. The neutrophil count increased by 11.3% at 8 days (p donation, there are transient changes in lymphocyte subsets. The effect of BMI on lymphocyte subsets and the effect of this immunomodulation on the immune response merit further investigation.

  10. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    positions in accordance with the distributions in test fats. Calculations of postprandial TAG concentrations from fatty acid data revealed increasing amounts up to 4 h but lower response curves (IAUC) for the two saturated fats in accordance with previous published data. The T fat gave results comparable......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five...... interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat...

  11. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular...... function in humans, twelve young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined...... %) and to 12 watts of active exercise (by 9 ± 1 %), indicating impaired vascular function. Reduced flow response to passive and active exercise was paralleled by a significant upregulation of Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and the Rho...

  12. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of açai fruit pulp on risk factors for metabolic disorders in overweight subjects. The açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart., which is native to South America, produces a small, black-purple fruit which is edible. The fruit has recently become popular as a functional food due to its antioxidant potential. Although several studies have been conducted in vitro and with animals, little is known about the potential health benefits in humans aside from an increase in plasma anti-oxidant capacity. Metabolic syndrome is a condition which is defined by a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or type-2 diabetes. Preliminary studies indicate that a reduction in reactive oxygen species can assist in the normalization of the metabolic pathways involved in this syndrome. Methods This was an open label pilot study conducted with 10 overweight adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 30 kg/m2 who took 100 g açai pulp twice daily for 1 month. The study endpoints included levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, exhaled (breath nitric oxide metabolites (eNO and plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP. The response of blood glucose, blood pressure and eNO to a standardized meal was determined at baseline and following the 30 day treatment. Results Compared to baseline, there were reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels following the 30 day treatment (both p Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, consumption of açai fruit pulp reduced levels of selected markers of metabolic disease risk in overweight adults, indicating that further studies are warranted.

  13. Bone metabolism biomarkers, body weight, and bone age in healthy Brazilian male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Nga, Hong Si; Moretto, Maria Regina; Dalmas, José Carlos; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven male volunteers were grouped according to bone age (BA): 10-12 years (n=25), 13-15 years (n=36), and 16-18 years (n=26), and the following were recorded for each: weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), calcium intake from three 24-h food recalls (mg/day), puberty evaluation by Tanner stages, bone biomarker (BB) evaluation, serum osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxyterminal telopeptide (S-CTx), and bone mineral density (BMD) evaluations by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (g x cm(2)) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and the whole body. BBs showed similar behaviors, and very high median values were observed for individuals aged 13-15 years (BAP = 155.50 IU/L, OC = 41.63 ng/mL, S-CT x =2.09 ng/mL). Lower median BB values were observed with advancing BA between 16 and 18 years (BA P =79.80 IU/L, O C =27.80 ng/mL, S-CT x =1.65 ng/mL). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed body weight associated with BA as independent variables with greater determination power for S-CTx (r(2) = 0.40) and OC (r(2)=0.21). For BAP, stepwise analysis showed body weight and whole-body BMD (r(2) = 0.34). All predictive models showed significance ( p Weight and BA were significant in determining predictive equations of OC and of S-CTx, whereas for BAP, weight and BMD of full body were selected.

  14. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  15. Alimentação saudável, escolaridade e excesso de peso entre mulheres de baixa renda Healthy eating, schooling and being overweight among low-income women

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    Ana Paula Machado Lins

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados à prevalência do excesso de peso e obesidade em uma população de mulheres adultas de baixa renda, moradoras de uma região metropolitana; e sua associação com variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, reprodutivas e comportamentais, destacando a alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional com uma amostra probabilística de 758 mulheres de 20 anos ou mais moradoras de Campos Elíseos - Duque de Caxias. Utilizou-se análise bivariada e regressão multivariada hierarquizada para identificar fatores associados ao excesso de peso e obesidade. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma prevalência de obesidade de 23% e prevalências de 56,0%, quando somados o excesso de peso e a obesidade. Encontrou-se associação inversa entre anos de estudo, excesso de peso e obesidade. A maioria das mulheres referiu alimentação saudável (73,6%, que aumentou positivamente com a renda, escolaridade e idade. Não consumir semanalmente verduras esteve associado ao excesso de peso e não realizar alimentação saudável esteve associado à obesidade. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstraram que mesmo em uma população com renda baixa, um maior nível de escolaridade tem impacto na prevenção deste agravo e nas escolhas alimentares.The scope of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the prevalence of being overweight and obesity in a population of low-income adult women living in a metropolitan region and its association with socioeconomic, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, highlighting the importance of healthy eating. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 758 women aged 20 or older living in Campos Elíseos - Duque de Caxias - State of Rio de Janeiro. Bivariate and multivariate hierarchical regression was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity. A prevalence of 23% of obesity was found

  16. Single whole-body cryostimulation procedure versus single dry sauna bath: comparison of oxidative impact on healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Rajewski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS) and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC) environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n = 10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years) and a single WBC procedure (n = 15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years). In the subjects' blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer) and blood plasma (TBARSpl) were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  17. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

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    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  18. Time-Course Analysis of the Neuroanatomical Correlates of Sexual Arousal Evoked by Erotic Video Stimuli in Healthy Males

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    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Gwang Won; Baek, Han Su; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  19. Time-course analysis of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal evoked by erotic video stimuli in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Gwang-Won; Baek, Han-Su; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2010-01-01

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  20. Human Pharmacokinetics of High Dose Oral Curcumin and Its Effect on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Healthy Male Subjects

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    Uros Klickovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has been proposed to exert pharmacological benefits by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. HO-1 expression may be affected by the GT length polymorphism in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We investigated the inducibility of HO-1 by orally administered curcumin in healthy male subjects and its correlation with the GT length polymorphism. Methods. In an open label uncontrolled phase-1 pilot study, ten male subjects received 12 g of oral curcumin. To investigate the effects of the GT length polymorphism on the inducibility of HO-1, five subjects with homozygous short and five with homozygous long GT genotypes were studied. Plasma concentrations of curcumin, bilirubin, HO-1 mRNA, and protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were analyzed over 48 hours. Results. At a detection limit of 1 µg/mL curcumin could not be detected in plasma of any subject. Compared to baseline, HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were not induced in PBMCs at any time point up to 48 hours. There was no correlation between any of the parameters and GT length polymorphism. Conclusions. Oral curcumin administration has low bioavailability and does not induce HO-1 on mRNA or protein level in PBMCs.

  1. Pharmacokinetic interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine: a randomized, open-labeled crossover study in healthy male volunteers

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    Kim YH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hae Sun Jeon,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Mi Young Bahng,2 Kyun-Seop Bae1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 2Clinical Development Department, Dong-A ST Co, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: “Udenafil” is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor indicated for erectile dysfunction. “Dapoxetine” is a serotonin transport inhibitor indicated for premature ejaculation. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine in healthy male subjects. Methods: An open-label, three-treatment, six-sequence, three-period crossover study was performed in healthy male subjects. In varying sequences, each subjects received single oral doses of udenafil 200 mg, dapoxetine 60 mg, and both treatments. The periods were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing. The plasma concentrations of udenafil and dapoxetine were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: Twenty-three healthy subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for udenafil were 0.923 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.863–0.987 and 0.864 (90% CI: 0.789–0.947, respectively. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for dapoxetine were 1.125 (90% CI: 1.044–1.213 and 0.837 (90% CI: 0.758–0.925, respectively. There were no serious adverse events reported, and none of the subjects dropped out due to adverse events

  2. A multi-ingredient, pre-workout supplement is apparently safe in healthy males and females

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    Jordan M. Joy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-workout supplements (PWS have become increasingly popular with recreational and competitive athletes. While many ingredients used in PWS have had their safety assessed, the interactions when combined are less understood. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of 1 and 2 servings of a PWS. Design: Forty-four males and females (24.4±4.6 years; 174.7±9.3 cm; 78.9±18.6 kg from two laboratories participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either one serving (G1; n=14 or two servings (G2; n=18 of PWS or serve as an unsupplemented control (CRL; n=12. Blood draws for safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist before and after the supplementation period. Results: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group×time interactions (p<0.05 for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; CRL: 30.9±0.8–31.0±0.9 pg; G1: 30.7±1.1–30.2±0.7 pg; G2: 30.9±1.2–30.9±1.1 pg, MCH concentration (CRL: 34.0±0.9–34.4±0.7 g/dL; G1: 34.1±0.9–33.8±0.6 g/dL; G2: 34.0±1.0–33.8±0.8 g/dL, platelets (CRL: 261.9±45.7–255.2±41.2×103/µL; G1: 223.8±47.7–238.7±49.6×103/µL; G2: 239.1±28.3–230.8±34.5×103/µL, serum glucose (CRL: 84.1±5.2–83.3±5.8 mg/dL; G1: 86.5±7.9–89.7±5.6 mg/dL; G2: 87.4±7.2–89.9±6.6 mg/dL, sodium (CRL: 137.0±2.7–136.4±2.4 mmol/L; 139.6±1.4–140.0±2.2 mmol/L; G2: 139.0±2.2–138.7±1.7 mmol/L, albumin (CRL: 4.4±0.15–4.4±0.22 g/dL; G1: 4.5±0.19–4.5±0.13 g/dL; G2: 4.6±0.28–4.3±0.13 g/dL, and albumin:globulin (CRL: 1.8±0.30–1.8±0.28; G1: 1.9±0.30–2.0±0.31; G2: 1.8±0.34–1.8±0.34. Each of these variables remained within the clinical reference ranges. Conclusions: The PWS appears to be safe for heart, liver, and kidney function in both one-serving and two-serving doses when consumed daily for 28 days. Despite the changes observed for select variables, no variable reached clinical significance.

  3. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

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    Shah Smita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact is provided via telephone coaching and either mobile phone Short Message Service or electronic mail, or both. Methods and design The study design is a two-arm randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 168 overweight and obese 13–16 year olds (Body Mass Index z-score 1.0 to 2.5 in Sydney, Australia. Adolescents with secondary causes of obesity or significant medical illness are excluded. Participants are recruited via schools, media coverage, health professionals and several community organisations. Study arm one receives the Loozit® group weight management program (G. Study arm two receives the same Loozit® group weight management program plus additional therapeutic contact (G+ATC. The 'G' intervention consists of two phases. Phase 1 involves seven weekly group sessions held separately for adolescents and their parents. This is followed by phase 2 that involves a further seven group sessions held regularly, for adolescents only, until two years follow-up. Additional therapeutic contact is provided to adolescents in the 'G+ATC' study arm approximately once per fortnight during phase 2 only. Outcome measurements are assessed at 2, 12 and 24 months post-baseline and include: BMI z-score, waist z-score, metabolic profile indicators, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, eating patterns, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion The Loozit® study is the first randomised controlled trial of a community-based adolescent weight management

  4. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

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    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  5. Acute effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose metabolism and interleukin-6 concentration in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, M; Krüsmann, P J; Mersa, L; Eder, E M; Gatterer, H; Melmer, A; Ebenbichler, C; Burtscher, M

    2016-06-01

    Acute muscle-damaging eccentric exercise (EE) negatively affects glucose metabolism. On the other hand, long-term eccentric endurance exercise seems to result in equal or superior positive effects on glucose metabolism compared to concentric endurance exercise. However, it is not known if acute non-muscle-damaging EE will have the same positive effects on glucose metabolism as acute concentric exercise (CE). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) released from the exercising muscles may be involved in the acute adaptations of glucose metabolism after CE and non-muscle-damaging EE. The aim of this study was to assess acute effects of uphill walking (CE) and non-muscle-damaging downhill walking (EE) on glucose metabolism and IL-6 secretion. Seven sedentary non-smoking, healthy males participated in a crossover trial consisting of a 1 h uphill (CE) and a 1 h downhill (EE) walking block on a treadmill. Venous blood samples were drawn before (pre), directly after (acute) and 24 h after (post) exercise. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and 24 h after exercise. Glucose tolerance after 1 and 2 hours significantly improved 24 hours after CE (-10.12±3.22%: P=0.039; -13.40±8.24%: P=0.028). After EE only the 1-hour value was improved (-5.03±5.48%: P=0.043). Acute IL-6 concentration rose significantly after CE but not after EE. We conclude that both a single bout of CE and a single bout of non-muscle-damaging EE elicit positive changes in glucose tolerance even in young, healthy subjects. Our experiment indicates that the overall metabolic cost is a major trigger for acute adaptations of glucose tolerance after exercise, but only the IL-6 production during EE was closely related to changes in glycaemic control.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of pregabalin on simulated driving ability using a driving simulator in healthy male volunteers

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    Tujii T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomoaki Tujii, Win Thiri Kyaw, Hirotaka Iwaki, Noriko Nishikawa, Masahiro Nagai, Madoka Kubo, Masahiro Nomoto Department of Neurology and Clinical Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Tohon Ehime, Japan Abstract: Pregabalin, a novel agent for treating partial epilepsy and peripheral neuropathic and central pain, was studied for its effect on driving performance in healthy volunteers. Sixteen healthy male volunteers who drove regularly were enrolled in a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study assessing the effect of pregabalin on driving performance. Subjects received an oral dose of pregabalin 75 mg or placebo, and a second dose 12 hours later. A driving simulator was used to test simple and complicated braking reaction time, and simple and complicated steering-wheel techniques before the first dose, and 1 hour and 3 hours after the second dose of pregabalin or placebo. The effect of training during the driving test on the driving performance of each group was also evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in driving performance between the pregabalin and the placebo groups. However, the pregabalin group showed no significant improvement in steering-wheel skills with training, whereas the placebo group showed a significant (P<0.05 improvement with training. In this study using a driving simulator, pregabalin did not impair driving performance but mildly reduced the training effects of driving experiments. Although pregabalin caused sleepiness, it had no severe effect on driving ability after a second dose of 75 mg after the initial introduction of pregabalin. Keywords: pregabalin, driving, volunteers

  7. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

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    Zahid Sadek Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  8. Use of pharmacist blood pressure telemonitoring systems in diagnosis of nocturnal hypertension in a young healthy male

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    Mizuno T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,* Chizuru Matsumoto,1,* Nobuko Nabetani,2 Yoshinari Yasuda,3 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Norimasa Umemura2 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Haruka Community Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Blood pressure (BP telemonitoring systems and pharmacist management programs were introduced into Haruka Community Pharmacy. A 22-year-old healthy male came to the community pharmacy, although he was not in a diseased state, he had been informed previously that he had a moderately high BP during a routine examination. He continued home BP telemonitoring for 28 days. A pharmacist intervention was conducted at 2 week intervals. His average nighttime systolic BP was higher than the daytime systolic BP. The pharmacist consulted a doctor based on the BP telemonitoring results, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was initiated. The doctor detected nocturnal hypertension based on the results of ABPM monitoring. BP telemonitoring systems have been introduced into a small percentage of pharmacies in Japan, and this is the first case report for the usefulness of these systems in a community pharmacy. Keywords: community pharmacy, management, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  9. Orally given gastroprotective capsaicin does not modify aspirin-induced platelet aggregation in healthy male volunteers (human phase I examination).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, B; Papp, J; Mozsik, Gy; Szolcsanyi, J; Keszthelyi, Zs; Juricskay, I; Toth, K; Habon, Tamas

    2014-12-01

    Capsaicin is a well-known component of red pepper. Recent studies have shown that capsaicin could prevent gastric ulcer provoked by various NSAID-s like acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Primary objective of this human clinical phase I trial was to investigate whether two different doses of capsaicin co-administered with ASA could alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation. 15 healthy male subjects were involved in the study and treated orally with 400 μg capsaicin, 800 μg capsaicin, 500 mg ASA, 400 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA and 800 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA. Blood was drawn before and 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after the drug administration. After that epinephrine induced platelet aggregation was measured by optical aggregometry. Between treatments, volunteers had a 6-day wash-out period. Our results showed that capsaicin had no effect on platelet aggregation, while as expected, ASA monotherapy resulted in a significant and clinically effective platelet aggregation inhibition (p ≤ 0.001). The combined ASA-capsaicin therapies reached equivalent effectiveness in platelet aggregation inhibition as ASA monotherapy. Our investigation proved that capsaicin did not influence the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation, thus the capsaicin-ASA treatment would combine the antiplatelet effect of ASA with the possible gastroprotection of capsaicin.

  10. The effects of a special Agnus castus extract (BP1095E1) on prolactin secretion in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, P G; Gorkow, C; Schrödter, A; Rietbrock, S; Sieder, C; Loew, D; Dericks-Tan, J S; Taubert, H D

    1996-01-01

    The effects of three doses of a special Agnus castus extract (BP1095E1)--extracts from 120 mg, 240 mg and 480 mg of drug per day--were examined within the framework of a placebo-controlled clinical study of tolerance and prolactin secretion in 20 healthy male subjects during a period of 14 days. There was good tolerance during the study as regards the following: adverse effects, the effects on blood pressure and heart rate, blood count, Quick's test, clinical chemistry as well as testosterone, FSH and LH values. During each study phase the 24-hour prolactin secretion profile was measured from the penultimate to the final day, and the amount of prolactin release was monitored an hour after TRH stimulation on the last day. A significant increase in the 24-hour profile was registered with the lowest dose in comparison to placebo, the opposite being the case with the higher doses, i.e. a slight reduction. In contrast to the administration of placebo, the 1-hour AUC after TRH stimulation resulted in a significant increase with the lowest dose and a significant reduction with the highest dose. The results suggest effects of the special Agnus castus extract which are dependent on the dose administered and the initial level of prolactin concentration.

  11. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest.

  12. Anodal Stimulation of the Left DLPFC Increases IGT Scores and Decreases Delay Discounting Rate in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS, the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC task. Three experiments were conducted: Exp. 1 (N = 41 to study the left DLPFC, Exp. 2 (N = 49 to study the right DLPFC, and Exp. 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Exp. 1 to switch the experimental and control conditions. All participants were healthy male college students. For Exps. 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to either the HD- tDCS or the sham stimulation condition. For Exp. 3, participants were assigned to the condition they were not in during Exp. 1. Results showed that HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC increased IGT score, decreased the recency parameter in IGT, and lowered delay discounting rate (k in the ITC task. We discussed the potential roles of impulse control and time perception in mediating the effect of tDCS stimulation of left DLPFC on decision making. Our results have clinical implications for the treatment of disorders involving poor decision-making, such as addictions.

  13. Influence of food on the oral bioavailability of deramciclane from film-coated tablet in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabant, Sándor; Nemes, Katalin Balogh; Horváth, Viola; Tolokán, Antal; Grézal, Gyula; Anttila, Markku; Gachályi, Béla; Kanerva, Harri; Al-Behaisi, Samar; Horvai, George; Klebovich, Imre

    2004-11-01

    The effect of a high-fat meal on the oral bioavailability of deramciclane 30 mg tablet was evaluated in 18 healthy male volunteers in a randomised, single dose, two-way crossover study. The drug was administered following an overnight fast or a standardised high-fat breakfast. The plasma concentrations of deramciclane and N-desmethylderamciclane were determined by using a validated HPLC-MS -MS/MS method. An effect of food on the bioavailability was indicated if the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of geometric means of fed and fasted treatments was not contained in the equivalence limit of 0.8-1.25 for AUC and C(max). The ratios of the mean C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) values of deramciclane were 1.24 (90% CI 1.12-1.38) and 1.31 (90% CI 1.21-1.41) in fed versus fasted subjects, which overlapped but exceeded the equivalence limit. In contrast to the parent compound, the 90% CI of the mean ratios for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) of N-desmethylderamciclane were within the predefined range. The 24 and 31% increase in C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) of deramciclane, respectively, under fed condition is modest and probably has no clinical significance since it is relatively small compared to the inter-individual variability of these parameters.

  14. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O2 uptake (VO2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO2; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV1, FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overweight in Young Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Acculturation status is associated with overweight and obesity among Latino adults, but the relationship between maternal acculturation and overweight in Latino children is inconsistent and has not been adequately studied. Methods We analyzed 3-year follow-up data from 185 Latina mothers and children who were recruited at San Francisco General Hospital. Outcome measure was the child’s body mass index at age 3 years, adjusted for age and sex and categorized as healthy (<85%) or overweight (≥85%). Independent variables were maternal acculturation status, child health status, and child nutritional factors. Results At age 3 years, 43% of children were overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, childhood overweight was associated with maternal acculturation status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.07–3.69) and maternal obesity (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.40–9.84). Childhood overweight was also more likely among children who were reported to eat well or very well (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.46–7.58) and children whose weight was perceived as too high (OR 11.88, 95% CI 2.37–59.60), as compared to children who were reported to eat poorly/not well and children whose weight was perceived as normal, respectively. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the high rates of overweight among young Latino children should address the importance of maternal acculturation and obesity as well as maternal perceptions of children’s weight and eating habits. PMID:18514096

  16. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism Q192R affects the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimbach Gerald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is an HDL-associated enzyme with anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory properties that has been suggested to play an important protective role against coronary heart diseases and underlying atherogenesis. The common PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662, A>G, a glutamine to arginine substitution at amino acid residue 192, has been analyzed in numerous association studies as a genetic marker for coronary heart diseases, however, with controversial results. Findings To get a better understanding about the pathophysiological function of PON1, we analyzed the relationships between the Q192R polymorphism, serum paraoxonase activity and serum biomarkers important for atherogenesis. Genotyping a cohort of 49 healthy German males for the Q192R polymorphism revealed an allele distribution of 0.74 and 0.26 for the Q and R allele, respectively, typical for Caucasian populations. Presence of the R192 allele was found to be associated with a significantly increased paraoxonase enzyme activity of 187.8 ± 11.4 U/l in comparison to the QQ192 genotype with 60.5 ± 4.9 U/l. No significant differences among the genotypes were found for blood pressure, asymmetric dimethylarginine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol. As expected, MIP-2 alpha a cytokine rather not related to atherosclerosis is not affected by the PON1 polymorphism. In contrast to that, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is enhanced in R192 carriers (163.8 ± 24.7 pg/ml vs 94.7 ± 3.2 pg/ml in QQ192 carriers. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the common PON1 R192 allele may be a genetic risk factor for atherogenesis by inducing chronic low-grade inflammation.

  17. The effect of repeated intramuscular alfentanil injections on experimental pain and abuse liability indices in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, David Andrew; Smith, Michael T; Bigelow, George E; Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vatem; Strain, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli after repeated opioid exposures, has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. However, there is no accepted, prospective model of OIH after repeated opioid exposures currently available in humans. This study assessed a potential prospective OIH model. Double-blind intramuscular injections of a short-acting opioid (alfentanil 15 mcg/kg; N=8) were compared to active placebo (diphenhydramine 25 mg; N=3) on cold and pressure pain testing and standard abuse liability measures in eight 10-hour sessions (1 injection/session) over 4 to 5 weeks in healthy, pain-free males. Decreases from session baseline pain threshold (PThr) and tolerance (PTol) were calculated to represent hyperalgesia, and were assessed both within and across sessions. Mean decreases in cold PTol were seen in the alfentanil group at 180 minutes (-3.8 s, ±26.5) and 480 minutes (-1.63 s, ±31.5) after drug administration. There was a trend for differences between conditions on cold PThr hyperalgesia but not for pressure PThr. Alfentanil participants had greater mean ratings on Liking and High visual analog scales at peak effects (30 min), but these scores did not change across sessions. Repeated alfentanil exposures over 4 to 5 weeks resulted in within session decreases in cold pain tolerance from baseline but these differences were not substantially different from diphenhydramine controls. The results did not support the phenomenon of OIH in this model, although definitive conclusions regarding the existence of OIH in humans likely requires a larger sample size or an alternative model.

  18. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side effects as well as adjunctive treatments to inhibit these has been of major interest. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthy male volunteers (age: 36 ± 11 years; BW: 84 ± 12 kg; BMI=25.5 ± 2.5) whether adjunctive topiramate (TPM) administration opposes OLZ-induced weight gain over the course of 14 days treatment. In addition, we investigated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic characteristics as underlying and potentially predictive factors for weight regulation and/or metabolic derangements associated with OLZ and TPM treatment. While adjunctive TPM indeed reduced OLZ-induced weight gain (PTPM. Using multiple regression analysis, BW gain was the key factor explaining metabolic disturbances (e.g., plasma insulin- LDL interaction: PTPM treatment, nor its circulating levels, contributed to variation observed in ΔBW. In a second multiple regression analysis, we observed that a low baseline thyrotropin profile (TSHAUC) before the start of drug treatment was associated with an increase in ΔBW over the course of drug treatment (PTPM treatment did attenuate OLZ induced BW gain (PTPM treatment blocking OLZ-induced ΔBW gain. Others have shown that OLZ-induced BW gain is associated with improvement in brief psychiatric rating scores (BPRS); adjunctive TPM treatment may be a solution specifically for those subjects susceptible to OLZ-induced rapid weight gain who-on a therapeutic level-benefit most of OLZ treatment.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongseong; Lee, SeungHwan; Yi, Sojeong; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Bahng, Mi Young; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5) in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects. Methods A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated. Results After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2–3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9–28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7–5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20–80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0–t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20–80 mg. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 had an effect on the systemic exposure of DA-8031. DA-8031 was well tolerated after single doses of 80 mg or less. PMID:28331291

  20. [Obesity and overweight. An assessment of the effectiveness of a public health intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Txakartegi Etxebarria, X; López Mateo, M; Aurrekoetxea, J J

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of excess weight (obesity and overweight) is increasing in developed countries, with preventive measures not shown to be sufficiently effective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the sustained prevention and treatment by Primary Care Paediatrics of overweight from early childhood. The BMI of 1669 patients from two Paediatric Teams, were compared using four different age intervals between 4 and 14 years during 2007-2009. One of the teams had spent 15 years carrying out a systematic strategy aimed at the prevention and monitoring of overweight. The BMI means in this study were higher than those shown in the 1988 Orbegozo tables, particularly in older ages and in males. The prevalence of overweight was lower in the population with the systematic intervention team, and this was significant at the end of the paediatric age, 14 years (P=.043). The overweight problem is so great that the measures aimed at their prevention are clearly beyond the scope of health professionals. However, interventions by health professionals can be effective in maintaining a healthy weight, if they are carried out on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between pubertal development and overweight and obesity among male children and adolescents in Suzhou%苏州市中小学男生青春期发育与超重肥胖相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩宗林; 徐勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of pubertal development with body fatness in male children and adolescents of Suzhou. Methods Boys from 15 middle schools and primary schools in Suzhou area were surveyed. According to the BMI screening criteria of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents, all the participants were classified into overweight, obesity, and normal-weight groups. Height and weight, secondary sexual characteristics were assessed and spermarche was self-reported. Results The prevaience rate of overweight and obesity was 10. 6% (538/5 059) and 5. 1% (257/5 059) respectively, and the boys who had first spermarche accounted for 19.4% (963/ 5059). Spermarche age of overweight and obese boys was later than the normal-weight boys. A significant positive correlation existed between BMI and spermarche age(r = 0.229,P<0.01). A significant negative correlation was found between BMI and genital and pubic hair Tanner stage. Conclusion Pubertal development is associated with obesity in male children and adolescents in Suzhou area.%目的 探讨苏州市男性儿童青少年发育与超重肥胖的关系,为制定儿童青少年青春期预防保健措施提供参考.方法 随机分层整群抽取苏州地区15所中小学的男生5 059名,根据中国学生超重、肥胖BMI筛查标准,将调查学生分为超重、肥胖、正常3组,调查青春期男生的首次遗精年龄,测量身高、体重,调查第二性征发育等级.结果 苏州市中小学男生超重检出率为10.6% (538/5 059),肥胖检出率为5.1% (257/5 059),已发生首次遗精的占19.4%(963/5 059).超重组、肥胖组男生首次遗精年龄晚于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).BMI值与首次遗精年龄呈正相关(r=0.229,P<0.01);11 ~15岁组男生BMI值与外生殖器发育程度、阴毛发育程度呈负相关(P值均<0.01).结论 苏州市男性儿童青少年青春期发育与肥胖密切相关.

  2. Serum concentrations and gene expression of sirtuin 1 in healthy and slightly overweight subjects after caloric restriction or resveratrol supplementation: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Antonio P; Roggerio, Alessandra; Goes, Marisa F S; Avakian, Solange D; Leal, Dalila P; Maranhão, Raul C; Strunz, Célia M C

    2017-01-15

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in vascular biology, and influences aspects of age-dependent atherosclerosis. In animals, the sirtuin system is strongly influenced by resveratrol and caloric restriction, but its expression in humans is controversial. This study investigated the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on Sirt1 serum concentrations and vascular biomarkers in a healthy human population. Forty-eight healthy participants (24 women) aged 55-65years were randomized to either 30days of resveratrol administration (500mg/day) or caloric restriction (1000cal/day). Blood was collected at baseline and day 30. Laboratory data analyzed were triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, and Sirt1. Expression of the Sirt1 gene was analyzed using real-time PCR. Caloric restriction diminished the abdominal circumference and improved the lipid profile, but not resveratrol intervention. Resveratrol and caloric restriction increased serum concentrations of Sirt1, from 1.06±0.71 to 5.75±2.98ng/mL; presveratrol treatment. Caloric restriction and resveratrol significantly increased plasma concentrations of Sirt1. The long-term impact of these interventions on atherosclerosis should be assessed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of food habits and socioeconomic status on overweight. Differences between the native Dutch and immigrants in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith R.; Maassen van den Brink, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    Overweight is a worldwide growing epidemic. The Netherlands is among the countries with the highest prevalence for overweight, together with the USA, UK, and Germany. This paper investigates differences in overweight between native Dutch and three immigrant groups in the Netherlands, and the effects of food habits and socioeconomic status on overweight. The results show that all immigrant groups have a higher prevalence for overweight than the Dutch, apart from Moroccans. Males are overweight...

  4. The Effect of Calcium or Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Leslie N; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K

    2015-10-01

    Research examining the preventative effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation has focused on children and females, leaving the effects on male bone mineral density (BMD) largely unexplored. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D for improving BMD in healthy males. Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Complete, CINHAHL Plus and PubMed databases were searched for studies including healthy males which provided participants calcium supplementation with or without vitamin D and used changes to BMD as the primary outcome measure. Between trial standardized mean differences of percentage change from baseline in BMD of femoral neck, lumbar spine, total body and total hip sites were calculated. Nine studies were included in the systematic review with six references totaling 867 participants contributing to the meta-analysis. Significant pooled effects size (ES) for comparison between supplementation and control groups were found at all sites included in the meta-analysis. The largest effect was found in total body (ES = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.406-0.883; p calcium and vitamin D supplementation for improving BMD in older males. There is a need for high quality randomized controlled trials, especially in younger and middle-aged male cohorts and athletic populations to determine whether supplementation provides a preventative benefit.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dongseong Shin,1 SeungHwan Lee,2 Sojeong Yi,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,2 Joo-Youn Cho,2 Mi Young Bahng,3 In-Jin Jang,2 Kyung-Sang Yu2 1Clinical Trials Center, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 3Department of Product Development, Dong-A ST, Seoul, Korea Objective: DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5 in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects.Methods: A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated.Results: After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2–3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9–28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7–5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20–80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0–t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20

  6. Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Allen, Andrew P; Temko, Andriy; Hutch, William; Kennedy, Paul J; Farid, Niloufar; Murphy, Eileen; Boylan, Geraldine; Bienenstock, John; Cryan, John F; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers. To determine the impact of L. rhamnosus on stress-related behaviours, physiology, inflammatory response, cognitive performance and brain activity patterns in healthy male participants. An 8week, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers participated. Participants completed self-report stress measures, cognitive assessments and resting electroencephalography (EEG). Plasma IL10, IL1β, IL6, IL8 and TNFα levels and whole blood Toll-like 4 (TLR-4) agonist-induced cytokine release were determined by multiplex ELISA. Salivary cortisol was determined by ELISA and subjective stress measures were assessed before, during and after a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT). There was no overall effect of probiotic treatment on measures of mood, anxiety, stress or sleep quality and no significant effect of probiotic over placebo on subjective stress measures, or the HPA response to the SECPT. Visuospatial memory performance, attention switching, rapid visual information processing, emotion recognition and associated EEG measures did not show improvement over placebo. No significant anti-inflammatory effects were seen as assessed by basal and stimulated cytokine levels. L. rhamnosus was not superior to placebo in modifying stress-related measures, HPA response, inflammation or cognitive performance in healthy male participants. These findings highlight the challenges associated with

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single-dose oral tolvaptan in fasted and non-fasted states in healthy Caucasian and Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaf, Susan E; Kim, Seong Ryul; Bricmont, Patricia; Mallikaarjun, Suresh

    2012-12-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tolvaptan in Caucasian and Japanese healthy male subjects under fasting and non-fasting conditions. This was a single-center, parallel-group, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover trial of single oral doses of tolvaptan 30 mg under fasting and non-fasting [a high-fat, high-calorie meal (HFM) or Japanese standard meal] conditions in 25 healthy male Caucasian subjects and 24 healthy male Japanese subjects. Pharmacodynamic endpoints were urine volume and fluid balance for 0 to 24 h postdose. In the fasted state, the plasma tolvaptan C(max) and AUC(∞) geometric mean ratios (90 % confidence interval) were 1.105 (0.845-1.444) and 1.145 (0.843-1.554) for Japanese compared to Caucasian subjects. A HFM increased the C(max) and AUC(∞) values by about 1.15-fold in both Japanese and Caucasian subjects.. Twenty-four-hour urine volumes paralleled pharmacokinetic changes, but the increases were not clinically significant. Fluid balance in the Japanese men was 1.4- to 2.0-fold more negative than that in the Caucasian men. Tolvaptan pharmacokinetics is not clinically significantly affected by race. Body weight is a factor that affects exposure. Tolvaptan can be administered with or without food.

  8. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and watching an erotic video for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively. We performed frequency-domain analysis using the EEGs with a distributed model of current-source analysis. The statistical nonparametric maps were obtained from the sessions of watching erotic and music videos (perotic stimuli decreased the current-source density of the high beta frequency band in the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in the baseline EEGs taken before sertraline intake (perotic stimuli did not induce any changes in current-source distribution of the brain 4 hours after sertraline intake. It is speculated that erotic stimuli may decrease the function of the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in healthy adult males. This change may debase the inhibitory control of the brain against erotic stimuli. Sertraline may reduce the decrement in inhibitory control.

  9. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full list of resources ​​. Overweight and Obesity Statistics Page Content About Overweight and Obesity Prevalence of ... adults age 20 and older [ Top ] Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ...

  10. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  11. Nutritional Considerations for the Overweight Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers.

  12. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  13. The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

  14. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  15. [The enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of desvenlafaxine sustained release tablet in Chinese healthy male volunteers after oral administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang

    2015-04-01

    A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.

  16. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  17. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first...

  18. The effect of acute exogenous melatonin on P50 suppression in healthy male volunteers stratified for low and high gating levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Ebru; Lehtinen, Emilia K; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2012-01-01

    Sensory gating is frequently found to be disturbed in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, a disruption of the circadian rhythm together with a low nocturnal melatonin output is regularly found in these patients. Since there is some evidence that a brief period of sleep normalizes sensory...... gating in schizophrenia patients, it is conceivable that their disrupted melatonin level may contribute to the deficits in P50 suppression. In this initial study, the effects of acutely administered melatonin on sensory gating in healthy subjects were investigated. In a double-blind placebo......-controlled crossover design, 21 healthy male volunteers were administered melatonin (4 mg) or placebo, after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm. In the group as a whole, melatonin did not affect P50 suppression. However, melatonin increased the P50 ratio in the individuals with high baseline...

  19. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in biological samples of male human immunodeficiency virus patients with tuberculosis and diarrhea compared to healthy control subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Naveed; Naeemullah, Faheem Shah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-01-01

    Electrolyte deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression and mortality. This study examined the association between low electrolyte concentrations in blood and scalp hair and the presence of opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Sixty-two male HIV positive patients (HIV-1) from various cities in Pakistan were recruited to the study. These Patients were divided into two groups according to secondary infections (tuberculosis and high fever with diarrhea), and biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood and urine) were collected from them. As a comparative control group, 120 healthy subjects (males) of the same age group (31 - 45 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits were also included in the study. The elements in the biological samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials (CRMs) and against values obtained by a conventional wet acid digestion method on the same CRMs. The results indicated significantly lower levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium and natrium in all analyzed biological samples (blood, serum and scalp hair) of male patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.01), while the levels of these elements were found to be higher in urine samples of the AIDS patients than in those of the control group. These data offer guidance to clinicians and other professionals investigating the deficiency of electrolytes in biological samples (scalp hair, serum and blood) of AIDS patients in relation to healthy subjects.

  20. How Can Overweight and Obesity Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percentile to less than the 95th percentile, and obese if their BMI is the 95th percentile or above. Adults are underweight if their BMI is below 18.5, healthy weight if their BMI is 18.5 to 24.9, overweight if their BMI is 25 to 29.9, and obese if their BMI is 30 or above. *A ...

  1. Epidemiological Features of Obesity and Overweight in Grampian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mobasheri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is an increasing medical and social problem, which affects all ages, both genders and all socio-economic groups in both developing and developed countries. It leads to adverse metabolic changes, raises the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus and many forms of cancer. Aim: Aim of study was demonstrating a descriptive epidemiological feature of obesity in Grampian, Scotland. Method: A two percent stratified random sample was chosen from populations aged 16- 74 years, living in Grampian. The self-completion postal questionnaires were sent to 8,088 people and 3,758 of them were returned. In total 3,754 cases have been used for analysis. A statistical analysis has been conducted on the data sets using Chi squared and regression analysis. Results: The highest percentage of obesity was found in the age group 35-44 and the lowest percentage to the over 75- year-old category for both men and women. The percentage of overweight is higher in males (41.6% than females (29.5%. However, the percentage of obese people is higher in females (13.1% than in males (12.0%. In total 53.6% of men and 42.6% of women in this survey are overweight and/or obese. The chi-square test shows significant differences in BMI categories by gender (P< 0.001. The chi-square test shows that there is a significant relationship between age and BMI. (P< 0.001. The linear chi-square test shows that older people tend to be in higher BMI categories (P< 0.001. The percentage of overweight and obese men and women decreases as education level increases. The percentage of overweight and obese is higher in retired people (52.5% and 13.1% in men and 40.2% and 15.8% in women and in people who are in paid work or self-employed fulltime groups than other groups. Permanently sick or disabled people percentages are more likely to be overweight or obese. The percentage of overweight people is higher in people who own their homes or rented from a private

  2. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers: Inter- and Intra-Individual Variance and Reproducibility.

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    Morten Sejer Hansen

    Full Text Available Clinical pain models can be applied when investigating basic physiologic pain responses in healthy volunteers. Several pain models exist; however, only few have been adequately validated. Our primary aim with this prospective study was to investigate the intra- and inter-individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min in healthy volunteers.Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min., and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied.For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra-observer intra-person correlation of 0.85, 95% CI [0.78, 0.90], an intra-observer inter-person correlation of 0.03, 95% CI [0.00, 0.16], and a coefficient of variation of 0.17, 95% CI [0.14, 0.21] was demonstrated. Four percent of the study population had areas of secondary hyperalgesia both below the 1st and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006.We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary hyperalgesia. We conclude that brief thermal sensitization produce secondary hyperalgesia with a high level of reproducibility, which can be applied to investigate different phenotypes related to secondary hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02166164.

  3. A Case Study of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a Healthy 21-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of a healthy 21-year-old male, with no significant past medical history, who was found to have an incidental nonocclusive deep vein thrombosis in the right internal jugular vein detected on a head MRI previously ordered for work-up of headaches. A follow-up upper extremity venous Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a partially occlusive deep vein thrombosis in the right jugular vein. The case presented is unique for the reason that the patient is young and has no prior risk factor, personal or familial, for venous thrombosis except for associated polycythemia on clinical presentation.

  4. The effects on plasma L-arginine levels of combined oral L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Morita, Masahiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Kamimura, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of combining 1 g of l-citrulline and 1 g of l-arginine as oral supplementation on plasma l-arginine levels in healthy males. Oral l-citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation more efficiently increased plasma l-arginine levels than 2 g of l-citrulline or l-arginine, suggesting that oral l-citrulline and l-arginine increase plasma l-arginine levels more effectively in humans when combined.

  5. The importance of gender of patients and general practitioners in relation to treatment practices for overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that men and women are treated differently for similar disease including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Differences in attitudes and treatment practices towards men and women with obesity are not well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the attitudes and treatment practices among Danish general practitioners (GPs, in relation to treatment of overweight, while taking gender of both the patients and practitioners into account. DESIGN: Questionnaire inventory covertly examining attitudes and practices among Danish general practitioners towards treatment of overweight. All 3.637 general practitioners from the Danish Medical Association register were invited to participate in the survey. In total 1.136 participated. RESULTS: The GPs found weight loss to be more important for overweight male than overweight female patients. They also treated complications to overweight more rigorously among male than female patients, and recommended lipid lowering medicine more often to male than female overweight patients. In addition, the younger female GPs and older male GPs more often said that they would treat an overweight patient with lipid lowering medicine. CONCLUSION: Among general practitioners in Denmark, treatment for weight loss is more often practiced for overweight male than overweight female patients presenting with same symptoms. In addition, hyperlipidemia among overweight males is also more often treated with lipid lowering medicine than hyperlipidemia among overweight females.

  6. Understanding overweight adolescents' beliefs using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Debra R; Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi; Penprase, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative inquiry examined adolescents' experiences surrounding their beliefs towards being overweight. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand behavioural, normative and control beliefs of overweight adolescents regarding losing weight, exercising and eating healthy. Purposive sampling was used to obtain 10 overweight adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19. The theory of planned behaviour was used as a theoretical framework for this study. An interview guide based on the Theory of Planned was used to conduct individual semistructured interviews. Content analysis showed that overweight adolescents exhibited positive attitudes in dealing with their weight status and valued their family's support and guidance in helping control their weight. Although friends were important to facilitate regular exercise, families, particularly mothers, were crucial in addressing healthy eating habits. Understanding the subtleties and complexities of living with childhood overweight might assist health professionals in creating more effective and developmentally sensitive interventions.

  7. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militão AG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Angeliete Garcez Militão,1,2 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Fernanda Rodrigues da Silva,4 Elba Sancho Garcez Militão,3 Raiane Maiara dos Santos Pereira,5 Carmen Silvia Grubert Campbell,2,5 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil; 2Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Physical Evaluation and Training, 5Laboratory of Physical Education and Health Studies, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil Introduction: Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. Methods: The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40% participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF: the intervention group (IG, n = 17 and the control group (CG, n = 17. The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used

  8. "It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine": a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-05-29

    Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002-7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as 'gender appropriate', 'gender anomalous' or 'gender neutral'. A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as 'a young woman's illness', serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently 'female' and so 'anomalous' for men. Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying help-seeking, gaining late access to treatments and reducing chances of

  9. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype determines effect of reboxetine on emotional memory in healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ayana A.; Bautista, Carla E.; Mowlem, Florence D.; Naudts, Kris H.; Duka, Dora T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamines in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). A common polymorphism in the COMT gene (COMT val158met) has pleiotropic effects on cognitive and emotional processing. The met allele has been associated with enhanced cognitive processing but impaired emotional processing relative to the val allele. Methods We genotyped healthy, white men in relation to the COMT val158met polymorphism. They were given a single 4 mg dose of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine or placebo in a randomized, double-blind between-subjects model and then completed an emotional memory task 2 hours later. Results We included 75 men in the study; 41 received reboxetine and 34 received placebo. In the placebo group, met/met carriers did not demonstrate the usual memory advantage for emotional stimuli that was observed in val carriers. Reboxetine restored this emotional enhancement of memory in met/met carriers, but had no significant effect in val carriers. Limitations We studied only men, thus limiting the generalizability of our findings. We also relied on self-reported responses to screening questions to establish healthy volunteer status, and in spite of the double-blind design, participants were significantly better than chance at identifying their intervention allocation. Conclusion Emotional memory is impaired in healthy met homozygotes and selectively improved in this group by reboxetine. This has potential translational implications for the use of reboxetine, which is currently licensed as an antidepressant in several countries, and edivoxetine, a new selective NRI currently in development. PMID:24467942

  10. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  11. Systemic, cerebral and skeletal muscle ketone body and energy metabolism during acute hyper-D-β-hydroxybutyratemia in post-absorptive healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ketone bodies are substrates during fasting and when on a ketogenic diet not the least for the brain and implicated in the management of epileptic seizures and dementia. Moreover, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (HOB) is suggested to reduce blood glucose and fatty acid levels. OBJECTIVES: The object......CONTEXT: Ketone bodies are substrates during fasting and when on a ketogenic diet not the least for the brain and implicated in the management of epileptic seizures and dementia. Moreover, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (HOB) is suggested to reduce blood glucose and fatty acid levels. OBJECTIVES......: The objectives of this study were to quantitate systemic, cerebral, and skeletal muscle HOB utilization and its effect on energy metabolism. DESIGN: Single trial. SETTING: Hospital. PARTICIPANT: Healthy post-absorptive males (n = 6). INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were studied under basal condition and three...... concentration decreases glucose production and lipolysis in post-absorptive healthy males. Moreover, cerebral HOB uptake and oxidation rates are linearly related to the arterial HOB concentration of importance for modifying brain energy utilization, potentially of relevance for patients with epileptic seizures...

  12. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour use of Kinesiotaping (KT on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old were randomly allocated into two groups: 1 Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation; 2 Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension. Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1 familiarization; 2 baseline measurement without tape (BL; 3 immediately post-tape application (T0; 4 24h (T24; and 5 48h (T48 post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT and triple hop tests (THT, vertical jump height (VJH, vertical jump power (VJP, and rate of force development (RFD. A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. Results No significant (p >0.05 differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05. Conclusion The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance.

  13. Quantitative measurement of vocal fold vibration in male radio performers and healthy controls using high-speed videoendoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Warhurst

    Full Text Available Acoustic and perceptual studies show a number of differences between the voices of radio performers and controls. Despite this, the vocal fold kinematics underlying these differences are largely unknown. Using high-speed videoendoscopy, this study sought to determine whether the vocal vibration features of radio performers differed from those of non-performing controls.Using high-speed videoendoscopy, recordings of a mid-phonatory/i/ in 16 male radio performers (aged 25-52 years and 16 age-matched controls (aged 25-52 years were collected. Videos were extracted and analysed semi-automatically using High-Speed Video Program, obtaining measures of fundamental frequency (f0, open quotient and speed quotient. Post-hoc analyses of sound pressure level (SPL were also performed (n = 19. Pearson's correlations were calculated between SPL and both speed and open quotients.Male radio performers had a significantly higher speed quotient than their matched controls (t = 3.308, p = 0.005. No significant differences were found for f0 or open quotient. No significant correlation was found between either open or speed quotient with SPL.A higher speed quotient in male radio performers suggests that their vocal fold vibration was characterised by a higher ratio of glottal opening to closing times than controls. This result may explain findings of better voice quality, higher equivalent sound level and greater spectral tilt seen in previous research. Open quotient was not significantly different between groups, indicating that the durations of complete vocal fold closure were not different between the radio performers and controls. Further validation of these results is required to determine the aetiology of the higher speed quotient result and its implications for voice training and clinical management in performers.

  14. Male sexual function can be maintained without aromatization: randomized placebo-controlled trial of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in healthy, older men for 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Gideon A; Ly, Lam P; Handelsman, David J

    2014-10-01

    Male sexual function is highly androgen dependent but whether aromatization of testosterone (T) to estradiol is required remains contentious. This study aims to investigate the effects of selective estrogen deficiency induced by a nonaromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), on sexual function of healthy middle-aged and older men. Randomized clinical trial of daily transdermal DHT (70 mg) or placebo gel treatment in 114 healthy middle-aged and older (>50 years, mean 60.5 years) men without known prostate disease maintaining selective estrogen deficiency for 24 months. The end points were responses to a psychosexual and mood questionnaire completed before, at 3 months, then at 6 monthly intervals during and 3 months after study. Data were analyzed by mixed model analysis of variance for repeated measures using age and body mass index (BMI) as covariates and including interactions of treatment with age and time-on-study. DHT treatment increased serum DHT with complete suppression of serum T, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and estradiol throughout the 24-month study resulting in reduced spinal bone density. There were no spontaneous complaints, or discontinuations for, adverse effects on sexual function during the study. DHT administration had no effects on any of 33 measures of sexual function and mood, apart from a mild, but significant decrease in overall sexual desire, which was reversible after cessation of treatment. Increasing age and less often increasing BMI were associated with significant decreases in most aspects of sexual function. We conclude that aromatization plays only a minimal role in maintenance of sexual function in healthy eugonadal middle-aged or older men, but age and obesity are significantly associated with decreases in most aspects of self-reported sexual function and satisfaction. The dependence of male sexual function on aromatization may be conditional on age and obesity and can be overcome by a

  15. Age-related changes in cardiovascular system, autonomic functions, and levels of BDNF of healthy active males: role of yogic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rameswar; Singh, Som Nath; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Saha, Mantu

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in cardiovascular, autonomic function, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Reports are scanty regarding whether yoga can improve age-related degenerative changes in healthy active men. This study is designed to appraise the role of yoga in improving age-related degenerative changes in cardiometabolic risk profile, autonomic function, stress, and BDNF. Healthy active males of three age groups (20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years) were randomly assigned to practice yoga daily 1 h for 3 months. Significantly higher values of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), load in heart (DoP), myocardial oxygen consumption (RPP), and total cholesterol (TC) were noted in senior age group. HR, BP, DoP, RPP, and TC decreased significantly following yogic practice. High frequency (HF), total power (TP), all time domain variables of heart rate variability (HRV), and skin conductance (SC) were significantly decreased with advancement of age. HF, TP, and time domain parameters of HRV and SC increased significantly following yogic practice. Higher levels of catecholamines and low frequency (LF) power of HRV was noted with advancement of age. Levels of catecholamines and LF significantly decreased following yogic practice. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level raised in senior age group. BDNF, serotonin, and dopamine were low in higher age group. Significant decrement of cortisol; ACTH; and increment in serotonin, dopamine, and BDNF was noted following yogic practice. This study revealed that yogic practices might help in the prevention of age-related degeneration by changing cardiometabolic risk factors, autonomic function, and BDNF in healthy male.

  16. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet ePublications Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet Print this fact sheet Overweight, obesity, and weight loss fact sheet (full version) ( ...

  17. Maintenance of wakefulness with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, compared with placebo and armodafinil in healthy adult males undergoing acute sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maria; Freeman, Jon; Zammit, Gary; Donnelly, Patricia; Gao, Joseph; Ferreira-Cornwell, Maria Celeste; Roth, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated daytime alertness and performance with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate during acute sleep loss. In a randomized, double-blind study in healthy adult men (n = 135) undergoing 24-hour sleep loss, the alerting effects of single oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate doses (20, 50, or 70 mg) were compared with a placebo and an active control (armodafinil 250 mg). Primary end point was mean unequivocal sleep latency on the 30-minute maintenance of wakefulness test taken every 2 hours from midnight to 8:00 A.M. Secondary end points included the Karolinska sleepiness scale and psychomotor vigilance task. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Least squares mean (SE) maintenance of wakefulness test unequivocal sleep latency (in minutes) was longer with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 20, 50, and 70 mg, or armodafinil 250 mg (23.3 [1.10], 27.9 [0.64], 29.3 [0.44], or 27.6 [0.63], respectively) versus placebo (15.3 [1.00]; P armodafinil (P = 0.0351) and armodafinil versus lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 20 mg (P = 0.0014). On Karolinska sleepiness scale, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 50 and 70 mg improved estimated sleepiness versus placebo (P ≤ 0.0002) and armodafinil (P ≤ 0.03). Active treatments improved psychomotor vigilance task performance versus placebo (P armodafinil (7.4% each) versus placebo (3.7%). Small mean increases in vital signs were observed with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and armodafinil. In sleep-deprived healthy men, alertness was greater with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and armodafinil versus placebo on the primary end point. Studies are needed in clinical populations and using longer durations of administration.

  18. Changes in Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, Malene

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anti-Mu¨ llerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by immature Sertoli cells, triggers the involution of the fetalMu¨ llerian ducts.AMHis a testis-specific marker used for diagnosis in infants with ambiguous genitalia or bilateral cryptorchidism. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe...... the ontogeny of AMH secretion through life in healthy males. Setting:This was a population-based study of healthy volunteers. Participants: Participants included 1027 healthy males from birth (cord blood) to 69 yr. A subgroup was followed up longitudinally through the infantile minipuberty [(in cord blood...

  19. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tables below show BMI ranges for overweight and obesity. Adults BMI of Adults Ages 20 and Older BMI Classification 18.5 to 24.9 Normal weight 25 to 29.9 Overweight 30+ Obesity (including extreme obesity) 40+ Extreme obesity An online ...

  20. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...

  1. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...

  2. Impacts of classifying New York City students as overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Lee, Ajin; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-03-29

    US schools increasingly report body mass index (BMI) to students and their parents in annual fitness "report cards." We obtained 3,592,026 BMI reports for New York City public school students for 2007-2012. We focus on female students whose BMI puts them close to their age-specific cutoff for categorization as overweight. Overweight students are notified that their BMI "falls outside a healthy weight" and they should review their BMI with a health care provider. Using a regression discontinuity design, we compare those classified as overweight but near to the overweight cutoff to those whose BMI narrowly earned them a "healthy" BMI grouping. We find that overweight categorization generates small impacts on girls' subsequent BMI and weight. Whereas presumably an intent of BMI report cards was to slow BMI growth among heavier students, BMIs and weights did not decline relative to healthy peers when assessed the following academic year. Our results speak to the discrete categorization as overweight for girls with BMIs near the overweight cutoff, not to the overall effect of BMI reporting in New York City.

  3. Schistosomiasis vaccine candidate Sm14/GLA-SE: Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity clinical trial in healthy, male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Coler, Rhea N; Parra, Juçara; Veloso, Valdilea; Jayashankar, Lakshmi; Pinto, Patricia M; Ciol, Marcia A; Bergquist, Robert; Reed, Steven G; Tendler, Miriam

    2016-01-20

    Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant 14kDa, fatty acid-binding protein(FABP) from Schistosoma mansoni (rSm14) were evaluated through an open, non-placebo-controlled, dose-standardized trial, performed at a single research site. The vaccine was formulated with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) adjuvant in an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) and investigated in 20 male volunteers from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifty microgram rSm14 with 10 μg GLA-SE (rSm14/GLA-SE)/dose were given intramuscularly three times with 30-day intervals. Participants were assessed clinically, biochemically and immunologically for up to 120 days. Participants were screened for inclusion by physical examination, haematology and blood chemistry; then followed to assess adverse events and immunogenicity. Sera were tested for IgG (total and isotypes) and IgE. T cell induction of cytokines IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IFNγ and TNFα was assessed by Milliplex kit and flow cytometry. The investigational product showed high tolerability; some self-limited, mild adverse events were observed during and after vaccine administration. Significant increases in Sm14-specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were observed 30 days after the first vaccination with specific IgG2 and IgG4 after 60 days. An increase in IgE antibodies was not observed at any time point. The IgG response was augmented after the second dose and 88% of all vaccinated subjects had developed high anti-Sm14 IgG titres 90 days after the first injection. From day 60 and onwards, there was an increase in CD4(+) T cells producing single cytokines, particularly TNFα and IL-2, with no significant increase of multi-functional TH1 cells. Clinical trial data on tolerability and specific immune responses after vaccination of adult, male volunteers in a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis with rSm14/GLA-SE, support this product as a safe, strongly immunogenic vaccine against schistosomiasis paving the way for

  4. Differential effects of acute cortisol administration on deep and shallow episodic memory traces: a study on healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, David; Galli, Giulia; Mazzocchio, Riccardo; Feurra, Matteo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-10-01

    We aimed at investigating rapid effects of plasma cortisol elevations on the episodic memory phase of encoding or retrieval, and on the strength of the memory trace. Participants were asked either to select a word containing the letter "e" (shallow encoding task) or to judge if a word referred to a living entity (deep encoding task). We intravenously administered a bolus of 20mg of cortisol either 5 min before encoding or 5 min before retrieval, in a between-subjects design. The study included only male participants tested in the late afternoon, and neutral words as stimuli. When cortisol administration occurred prior to retrieval, a main effect of group emerged. Recognition accuracy was higher for individuals who received cortisol compared to placebo. The higher discrimination accuracy for the cortisol group was significant for words encoded during deep but not shallow task. Cortisol administration before encoding did not affect subsequent retrieval performance (either for deep or shallow stimuli) despite a facilitatory trend. Because genomic mechanisms take some time to develop, such a mechanism cannot apply to our findings where the memory task was performed shortly after the enhancement of glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, glucocorticoids, through non-genomic fast effects, determine an enhancement in episodic memory if administered immediately prior to retrieval. This effect is more evident if the memory trace is laid down through deep encoding operations involving the recruitment of specific neural networks.

  5. Quantitative SPET 99Tcm-DMSA uptake by the kidneys: age-related decline in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshar, D; Gorenberg, M; Osamah, H

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate if 99Tcm-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99Tcm-DMSA) uptake by the kidneys is related to age and creatinine clearance in males with normal renal function, quantitative single photon emission tomography (SPET) of DMSA uptake by the kidneys was performed in 18 volunteers aged 20-79 years. The quantitative uptake of DMSA in the right kidney was 13.9 +/- 2.9% and in the left kidney 14.2 +/- 3.0%. There was no statistically significant difference between left and right kidney uptake (t = 1.2, N.S.). Global kidney uptake (right + left) was 28.1 +/- 5.9%. There was a statistically significant age-related decline in global DMSA uptake. The estimated DMSA uptake (%) was given by -0.27 x age + 42 (r = -0.87, P DMSA uptake (r = 0.87, y = 2.8x + 28.3, P DMSA uptake by the kidneys are age-dependent.

  6. Intrinsic heart rate recovery after dynamic exercise is improved with an increased omega-3 index in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macartney, Michael J; Hingley, Lachlan; Brown, Marc A; Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L

    2014-12-28

    Dietary fish consumption contributes to a reduced risk of cardiac mortality. In the present study, the effect of low-dose fish oil (FO) supplementation on heart rate (HR) response to intense exercise and recovery was investigated in physically fit males. The subjects (n 26) were supplemented (double-blind, parallel design) with (2 × 1 g/d) soya bean oil (control) or tuna FO providing the long-chain n-3 PUFA DHA (560 mg) and EPA (140 mg). Erythrocyte omega-3 index (%EPA+DHA), HR, HR variability and HR recovery were analysed during rest, intense exercise and recovery at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. The mean erythrocyte omega-3 index, which did not differ between the groups at baseline (control 4.2 (sem 0.2), n 13; FO 4.7 (sem 0.2), n 13), remained unchanged in the control group (3.9 (sem 0.2)), but increased in the FO group (6.3 (sem 0.3); Pexercise over 5 min, fewer total heart beats were recorded in the FO group (-22 (sem 6) ( = -4.5 beats/min)), but not in the control group (+1 (sem 4)) (Pexercise HR and improved HR recovery without compromising the peak HR. A direct influence of DHA via reductions in the cardiac intrinsic beat rate was balanced by a reciprocal decrease in vagal tone.

  7. The role of overweight and obesity in urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Gholmohammadi, Parisa; Moshiri, Seyed Alireza; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI in children. A comparison was made, in terms of overweight and obesity, between 135 children with UTI (case group) and 135 healthy children (control group). UTI was diagnosed through urine culture. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (DMSA) was also used to distinguish between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Overweight and obesity were determined based on standard body mass index (BMI) curves. There were 12 (8.8%) overweight and 26 (19.2%) obese children in the case group. Four (3.0%) overweight and five (3.7%) obese children were found in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding overweight and obesity frequencies. However, no such difference existed between children with cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. This study showed a significant relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI. Therefore, overweight and obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of UTI in children.

  8. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release formulations of cilostazol after multiple oral doses in fed healthy male Korean volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Jong-Lyul Ghim,2 Jin Ah Jung,2 Sang-Heon Cho,3 Sangmin Choe,4 Hee Youn Choi,1 Kyun-Seop Bae,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, 4Clinical Trials Center, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea Background: A new extended-release form of cilostazol has recently been developed. This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of sustained-release (SR and immediate-release (IR formulations of cilostazol after multiple oral doses in healthy male Korean volunteers.Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, crossover study conducted in 30 healthy Korean subjects. In each treatment period, subjects received oral doses of 200 mg SR formulation every 24 hours or 100 mg IR formulation every 12 hours for 5 consecutive days in a fed state, with a washout period of 9 days. The plasma concentrations of cilostazol and its metabolites were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve within a dosing interval (AUCT, the measured peak plasma concentration at steady state (Cmax,ss, and the time to reach Cmax,ss (tmax,ss were analyzed using a noncompartmental method. Results: A total of 24 healthy male subjects completed the study. The mean (standard deviation [SD] AUCT (96–120 hours values for SR and IR were 27,378.0 (10,301.6 ng·h/mL and 27,860.3 (7,152.3 ng·h/mL, respectively. The mean (SD Cmax,ss values were 2,741.4 (836.0 ng/mL and 2,051.0 (433.2 ng/mL, respectively. The median tmax,ss values were 8.0 hours and 4.0 hours, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals of

  9. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J; Eskesen, D C; Andersen, P W

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers...... of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8...... weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood...

  10. Asymmetry of Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Dorsal Putamen and Body Mass Index in Non-obese Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-03-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of food intake, which is crucial for the maintenance of body weight. We examined the relationship between striatal dopamine (DA) D2/3 receptor availability and body mass index (BMI) in 25 non-obese healthy male subjects using [(11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography. None of [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP) values (measures of DA D2/3 receptor availability) in striatal subregions (dorsal caudate, dorsal putamen, and ventral striatum) in the left and right hemispheres was significantly correlated with BMI. However, there was a positive correlation between the right-left asymmetry index of [(11)C]raclopride BP in the dorsal putamen and BMI (r=0.43, pputamen relative to the left in non-obese individuals. The present results, combined with previous findings, may also suggest neurochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of food intake in non-obese individuals.

  11. Longitudinal changes in isovolumetric bladder pressure in response to age-related prostate growth in 1,020 healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Sandra; Hop, Wim; Huang Foen Chung, John; van Mastrigt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    To non-invasively study if compensation and decompensation occurs in the urinary bladder of healthy male volunteers in response to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) using the condom catheter method. Between 2001 and 2010, 1,020 healthy male volunteers were included in a longitudinal study based on three non-invasive urodynamic examinations during a 5-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were an informed consent, the ability to void in a normal standing position and a minimum free flow rate of 5.4 ml/sec. Study parameters were prostate volume (PV), maximum free urinary flow rate (Q(max)) and bladder contractility, quantified by the maximum isovolumetric bladder pressure, measured in the condom (P(cond.max)). Volunteers also completed the International Prostate Symptom Score Form (IPSS). Within limitations, the included volunteers had a flat age distribution between 38 and 72 years. This made it possible to combine longitudinal analysis in a 5-year observation interval, with cross sectional analysis in a 35-year age range. Longitudinal analysis showed that with increasing age, PV increased with 1.9% per year, whereas Qmax decreased with 1.1% per year. IPSS increased with 1.1% per year when volunteers were older than 55 years. P(cond.max) increased during the 5-year longitudinal follow-up, but not in the cross sectional analysis. The difference between cross sectional and longitudinal results of the P(cond.max) may have been caused by compensation of the urinary bladder resulting in a selection effect. This would imply that compensation is a relatively fast process, taking approximately 5 years. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post

  13. Dietary flaxseed modulates the colonic microenvironment in healthy C57Bl/6 male mice which may alter susceptibility to gut-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Lepp, Dion; Zarepoor, Leila; Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Tsao, Rong; Liu, Ronghua

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases.

  14. Self-weighing and weight control behaviors among adolescents with a history of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Mary E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2009-05-01

    To assess the relationships between self-weighing frequency, weight control behaviors, and weight status among male and female adolescents who have a history of being overweight. This study compared weight control behaviors between two groups of adolescents with a history of being overweight (body mass index [BMI] >85th percentile): those who weighed themselves weekly or more (frequent self-weighers) and those who weighed themselves monthly or less (infrequent self-weighers). Participants completed a survey on weight control behaviors, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary activity. Height and weight were also measured. Logistic regression analyses were used for categorical outcomes and linear regressions for continuous outcomes. Of the 130 adolescents, 43% were frequent weighers and 57% were infrequent weighers. In comparison to infrequent self-weighers, frequent self-weighers were more likely to report using behavior change strategies, following a structured diet, and engaging in healthy weight control behaviors, especially decreasing caloric intake, high fat food intake, and "junk food" intake. Also, more frequent self-weighers reported engaging in more strenuous physical activity and spending less time playing videogames than infrequent self-weighers. Although not significant, a trend resulted indicating lower average BMI percentile among frequent self-weighers. No significant differences were found between the two groups in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These results suggest that adolescents with a history of overweight who self-weigh at least weekly are more likely to report using healthy weight control behaviors than adolescents who self-weigh monthly or less frequently. Self-monitoring of weight may be a useful component of a comprehensive weight management plan for some overweight adolescents.

  15. The acute effects of the thermogenic supplement Meltdown on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamic responses in young, healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic supplement, Meltdown, on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamics before and after maximal treadmill exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 12 male participants underwent two testing sessions after consuming either the Meltdown or placebo supplement. While in a fasted state, participants rested for one hour, orally ingested either Meltdown or placebo and rested for another hour, performed a maximal treadmill exercise test, and then rested for another hour. Throughout the testing protocol, resting energy expenditure (REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were assessed. In addition, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed before and after exercise. Meltdown increased REE significantly more than placebo at 45 min (1.44 ± 0.25 vs. 1.28 ± 0.23 kcal/min; p = 0.003, 60 min (1.49 ± 0.28 vs. 1.30 ± 0.22 kcal/min; p = 0.025, and 120 min (1.51 ± 0.26 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 kcals/min; p = 0.014 post-ingestion. Meltdown significantly decreased RER at 30 min (0.84 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04; p = 0.022 and 45 min post-ingestion (0.82 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05; p = 0.042, and immediately post-exercise (0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.90 ± 0.07; p = 0.009. Furthermore, over the course of the evaluation period, area under the curve assessment demonstrated that REE was significantly increased with Meltdown compared to placebo (992.5 ± 133.1 vs. 895.1 ± 296.1 kcals; p = 0.043, while RER was significantly less than placebo (5.55 ± 0.61 vs. 5.89 ± 0.44; p = 0.002 following ingestion. HR and BP were not significantly affected prior to exercise with either supplement (p > 0.05 and the exercise-induced increases for HR and BP decreased into recovery and were not different between supplements (p > 0.05. These data suggest that Meltdown enhances REE and fat oxidation more than placebo for several hours after ingestion in fully rested and

  16. Relationships between lumbar inter-vertebral motion and lordosis in healthy adult males: a cross sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-03-10

    Intervertebral motion impairment is widely thought to be related to chronic back disability, however, the movements of inter-vertebral pairs are not independent of each other and motion may also be related to morphology. Furthermore, maximum intervertebral range of motion (IV-RoMmax) is difficult to measure accurately in living subjects. The purpose of this study was to explore possible relationships between (IV-RoMmax) and lordosis, initial attainment rate and IV-RoMmax at other levels during weight-bearing flexion using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF). Continuous QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active sagittal flexion of 60° in 18 males (mean age 27.6 SD 4.4) with no history of low back pain in the previous year. IV-RoMmax, lordotic angle, and initial attainment rate at all inter-vertebral levels from L2-S1 were extracted. Relationships between IV-RoMmax and the other variables were explored using correlation coefficients, and simple linear regression was used to determine the effects of any significant relationships. Within and between observer repeatability of IV-RoMmax and initial attainment rate measurements were assessed in a sub-set of ten participants, using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). QF measurements were highly repeatable, the lowest ICC for IV-RoMmax, being 0.94 (0.80-0.99) and highest SEM (0.76°). For initial attainment rate the lowest ICC was 0.84 (0.49-0.96) and the highest SEM (0.036). The results also demonstrated significant positive and negative correlations between IV-RoMmax and IV-RoMmax at other lumbar levels (r = -0.64-0.65), lordosis (r = -0.52-0.54), and initial attainment rate (r = -0.64-0.73). Simple linear regression analysis of all significant relationships showed that these predict between 28 and 42 % of the variance in IV-RoMmax. This study found weak to moderate effects of individual kinematic variables and lumbar lordosis on IV-RoMmax at

  17. Dealing With Feelings When You're Overweight (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Nutrition & Fitness Center Weight Management: Strength Training Exercises (Video) Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem 5 Ways to Reach a Healthy Weight Coping With Stressful Situations Stress Body Image and Self-Esteem A Guy's Guide to Body ...

  18. Serum lipase activity and concentration during intravenous infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 and after ad libitum meal ingestion in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Stevner, Lene Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect on serum lipase activity and protein concentration of intravenous infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36) and of an ad libitum meal in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... the infusion and after intake of an ad libitum meal for measurement of serum lipase. Serum lipase levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following mono-infusions of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 were comparable to serum lipase levels following placebo (P = 0.054 and P = 0.873, respectively...

  19. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R

    2008-01-01

    'feeling healthy' as a determinant of maintaining a healthy weight. Despite these beliefs, many teens had unrealistic and unhealthy perceptions of weight. Female participants were more concerned with weight than males, some to the point of obsession. Both males and females expressed a social stigma associated with overweight. Issues of guilt and diminished self-esteem were prevalent. When asked about the extensiveness of the problem of childhood overweight, the students indicated that a degree of familiarity with being overweight has developed and 'you just get used to [seeing] it.' Because of the rising rates of chronic disease in this region, a fear was evident in these youth about the increased risk of developing these conditions in those who are overweight. Experiences with family members with diabetes and cardiovascular disease fueled these concerns, which instilled a fear of becoming overweight in many of the students. Many perceptions of healthy weight and appropriate body size were shaped by the media and entertainment industry. Additionally, some participants admitted to performing unsafe practices to reduce body mass, such as very low calorie diets or fasting. Youth in rural Appalachia present similar perceptions about weight as other children; however, differences in perceived healthy lifestyle habits and a general acceptance of a higher average body weight present additional challenges to addressing the increasing problem of child overweight. Despite the relative isolation of many of these communities, the media has a profound impact on weight valuation that has been intertwined with school-based health education and cultural values of health. These data will provide valuable information for the development of obesity prevention programs in rural Appalachia.

  20. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced Anti-Müllerian Hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, Jan; Faber, J;

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers...... (mean age 35, range 29-46 years) were treated with GH for 3 weeks (1st week 0.01, 2nd week 0.02, 3rd week 0.03 mg/day/kg) or a GH receptor antagonist (Pegvisomant) (1st week 10, last 2 weeks 15 mg/day), separated by 8 weeks of washout. Before and after the two treatment periods, concentrations...... of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) were measured. During GH treatment, IGF-I increased [(median (IQR)] 166 (162-235) vs. 702 (572-875) μg/L, p

  1. Bioequivalence Study of a New Fixed-dose Combination Tablet Containing S-Amlodipine Nicotinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Jin; Hwang, Hyun Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Geun Hyeog; Cho, Yun-Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Soo Yeon; Cho, Kyung Hee; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Yun Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2017-07-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety profile and the bioequivalence of two different FDC formulations [amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg (reference product) and S-amlodipine nicotinate/olmesartan medoxomil 5/40 mg (test product)]. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way, and 2-period crossover study, including a 3-week washout period, was performed in 32 healthy Korean male volunteers. To analyze the concentration of S-amlodipine or olmesartan, plasma samples were collected up to 144 hours after the dose for S-amlodipine and 48 hours after the dose for olmesartan. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the Cmax and the area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) for the time versus concentration plot, were calculated. Analysis of variance for bioequivalence was conducted using Cmax and AUC0-last converted to log scale, and the mean ratios and 90% CIs were determined. Safety data included analysis of adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory test, and 12-lead ECGs. Of the 32 enrolled participants, 29 healthy volunteers completed the study. For both S-amlodipine and olmesartan, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were all within the acceptable range for regulatory bioequivalence. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of Cmax and AUC0-last were 0.8766 to 0.9760 and 0.8288 to 0.9224, respectively, for S-amlodipine and 0.9097 to 1.1229 and 0.8904 to 1

  2. Attempts to lose weight among overweight and non-overweight adolescents: a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynjälä Jorma

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. The prevalence and likelihood of attempts to lose weight were determined. The effect of weight status, self-perception of overweight, age and country of residence upon the likelihood of current attempts to lose weight were evaluated using multilevel multivariate logistic regression in separate analyses for boys and girls. The study also presented the prevalence of weight control practices of overweight and non-overweight adolescents who had controlled their weight in seven countries. Results In general, overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to be engaged in current attempts to lose weight and had tried to control their weight during the past 12 months more often than non-overweight adolescents. Besides weight status, self-perception of overweight and age were significant individual-level factors determining current attempts to lose weight. Country of residence was a significant second-level factor but no clear geographical pattern was found. Several gender-related differences existed. Conclusion The findings indicated that most overweight adolescents were motivated to reduce their weight. The importance of promoting a healthy body image for all adolescents was highlighted by the fact that self-perception of overweight was found to be the most important factor leading to attempts to lose weight.

  3. Relative bioavailability of levodropropizine 60 mg capsule and syrup formulations in healthy male Korean volunteers: a singledose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Jo, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Cho, Young-Wuk; Yim, Sung-Vin; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-02-01

    Levodropropizine is an oral non-opioid anti-tussive drug used in treatment of cough. A new generic 60 mg capsule formulation of levodropropizine has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the test (capsule) formulation and reference (syrup) formulation of levodropropizine (60 mg) in healthy, fasted, male Korean volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study conducted in healthy male Korean volunteers in the fasted state at Kyung Hee University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 1-week washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after study drug administration. Plasma concentration of levodropropizine was determined using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS) method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for C(max), AUC(0-12h) and AUC(0-∞) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (80 - 125%, according to the guidelines of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea FDA)). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital sign measurements, laboratory analysis (blood biochemistry, hematology, hepatic function and urinalysis) and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). A total of 36 male Korean subjects (mean (SD) age, 23.9 (2.4) years (range 19 - 30 years); height, 176.2 (6.1) cm (range 161 - 190 cm); weight, 69.8 (9.1) kg (range 54.0 - 92.2 kg); body mass index, 22.4 (2.1) kg/m2 (range 19.1 - 28.3 kg/m2)) was enrolled and completed the study. The mean values for C(max), t(max), AUC(0-12h), and AUC(0-∞) with the test formulation of levodropropizine were 331.51 ng/ml, 0.60 hours, 784.32 ng×h/ml, and 825.82 ng×h/ml, respectively; for the reference

  4. Overweight and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haua-Navarro, Karime

    2016-01-01

    .... Dairy intake is among the dietary factors that have been studied, and they frequently, but not consistently nor conclusively, have shown to be protective factors for the development of overweight...

  5. Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Nasreddine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents.

  6. Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  7. Teasing and Bullying of Obese and Overweight Children: How Parents Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Tobacco Treatments Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Obesity > Teasing and Bullying of Obese and Overweight Children: ...

  8. Effect of the potent CYP2D6 inhibitor sarpogrelate on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol in healthy male Korean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Joeng Kee; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Yang-Weon; Lee, Sukhyang; Oh, Euichaul; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2015-03-01

    1. Recently, we demonstrated that sarpogrelate is a potent and selective CYP2D6 inhibitor in vitro. Here, we evaluated the effect of sarpogrelate on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol in healthy subjects. 2. Nine healthy male subjects genotyped for CYP2D6*1/*1 or *1/*2 were included in an open-label, randomized, three treatment-period and crossover study. A single oral dose of metoprolol (100 mg) was administered with water (treatment A) and sarpogrelate (100 mg bid.; a total dose of 200 mg and treatment B), or after pretreatment of sarpogrelate for three days (100 mg tid.; treatment C). Plasma levels of metoprolol and α-hydroxymetoprolol were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Changes in heart rate and blood pressure were monitored as pharmacodynamic responses to metoprolol. 3. Metoprolol was well tolerated in the three treatment groups. In treatment B and C groups, the AUCt of metoprolol increased by 53% (GMR, 1.53; 90% CI, 1.17-2.31) and by 51% (1.51; 1.17-2.31), respectively. Similar patterns were observed for the increase in Cmax of metoprolol by sarpogrelate. However, the pharmacodynamics of metoprolol did not differ significantly among the three treatment groups. 4. Greater systemic exposure to metoprolol after co-administration or pretreatment with sarpogrelate did not result in clinically relevant effects. Co-administration of both agents is well tolerated and can be employed without the need for dose adjustments.

  9. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on cardiovascular risk factors among a Dutch overweight working population: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Johanna C; van Wier, Marieke F; Ariëns, Geertje Am; Hendriksen, Ingrid Jm; Pronk, Nico P; Smid, Tjabe; van Mechelen, Willem

    2011-01-24

    Overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m²) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, posing a considerable burden to public health. The main aim of this study was to investigate lifestyle intervention effects on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy overweight employees. Participants were 276 healthy overweight employees (69.2% male; mean age 44.0 years [SD 9.2]; mean BMI 29.7 kg/m² [SD 3.1]). They were randomized to one of two intervention groups receiving a six month lifestyle intervention with behavior counseling by phone (phone group) or e-mail (Internet group), or to a control group receiving usual care. Body weight, height, waist circumference, sum of skinfolds, blood pressure, total cholesterol level and predicted aerobic fitness were measured at baseline, at 6 and at 24 months. Regression analyses included the 141 participants with complete data. At 6 months a significant favorable effect on total cholesterol level (-0.2 mmol/l, 95%CI -0.5 to -0.0) was observed in the phone group and a trend for improved aerobic fitness (1.9 ml/kg/min, 95%CI -0.2 to 3.9) in the Internet group. At two years, favorable trends for body weight (-2.1 kg, 95%CI -4.4 to 0.2) and aerobic fitness (2.3 ml/kg/min, 95%CI -0.2 to 4.8) were observed in the Internet group. The intervention effects were independent of the used communication mode. However short-term results were in favor of the phone group and long-term results in favor of the internet group. Thus, we found limited evidence for our lifestyle intervention to be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk in a group of apparently healthy overweight workers. ISRCTN04265725.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on cardiovascular risk factors among a Dutch overweight working population: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariëns Geertje AM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI≥ 30 kg/m2 are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, posing a considerable burden to public health. The main aim of this study was to investigate lifestyle intervention effects on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy overweight employees. Methods Participants were 276 healthy overweight employees (69.2% male; mean age 44.0 years [SD 9.2]; mean BMI 29.7 kg/m2 [SD 3.1]. They were randomized to one of two intervention groups receiving a six month lifestyle intervention with behavior counseling by phone (phone group or e-mail (Internet group, or to a control group receiving usual care. Body weight, height, waist circumference, sum of skinfolds, blood pressure, total cholesterol level and predicted aerobic fitness were measured at baseline, at 6 and at 24 months. Regression analyses included the 141 participants with complete data. Results At 6 months a significant favorable effect on total cholesterol level (-0.2 mmol/l, 95%CI -0.5 to -0.0 was observed in the phone group and a trend for improved aerobic fitness (1.9 ml/kg/min, 95%CI -0.2 to 3.9 in the Internet group. At two years, favorable trends for body weight (-2.1 kg, 95%CI -4.4 to 0.2 and aerobic fitness (2.3 ml/kg/min, 95%CI -0.2 to 4.8 were observed in the Internet group. Conclusions The intervention effects were independent of the used communication mode. However short-term results were in favor of the phone group and long-term results in favor of the internet group. Thus, we found limited evidence for our lifestyle intervention to be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk in a group of apparently healthy overweight workers. Trial registration ISRCTN04265725

  12. Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Eastin, Matthew; Hofschire, Linda; Lachlan, Ken; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the distribution and individual characteristics of body types on prime-time television. Five episodes of each of the 10 top-rated prime-time fictional programs on 6 broadcast networks during the 1999-2000 season were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1018 major television characters, 14% of females and 24% of males were overweight or obese, less than half their percentages in the general population. Overweight and obese females were less likely to be considered attractive, to interact with romantic partners, or to display physical affection. Overweight and obese males were less likely to interact with romantic partners and friends or to talk about dating and were more likely to be shown eating. Overweight and obese television characters are associated with specific negative characteristics.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women.

  14. Five-year longitudinal predictive factors for disordered eating in a population-based sample of overweight adolescents: implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify predictors of prevalence and incidence of disordered eating (binge eating and extreme weight control behaviors) among overweight adolescents. Five-year longitudinal associations were examined in 412 overweight adolescents who participated in Project EAT-I and II. Among both overweight males and females, risk factors for disordered eating included exposure to weight loss magazine articles, higher weight importance, and unhealthy weight control behaviors, while family connectedness, body satisfaction, and regular meals were protective factors, although there were some differences in predictors of prevalence (total cases) versus incidence (new cases) of disordered eating. Among males, poor eating patterns, including fast food and sweetened beverage intake, increased risk for disordered eating, and the use of healthy weight control behaviors was protective. Attention should be directed toward decreasing disordered eating among overweight adolescents. Findings suggest the importance of promoting positive family relationships, psychological health, and regular meals, and steering adolescents away from overemphasizing weight and using unhealthy weight control behaviors.

  15. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses.

  16. Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All participants completed the Polish adaptation of the 15-item questionnaire assessing orthorexia eating behaviours (the ORTHO-15) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (the MBSRQ). Relationships between scores on the ORTHO-15 and MBSRQ were explored in the 213 students who had high levels of preoccupation with a healthy food intake (68.55% women and 43.18% men, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in the levels of orthorexia behaviours between females and males. In female students with orthorexia nervosa, preoccupation with consuming healthy food was significantly correlated with the MBSRQ subscale scores for overweight preoccupation, appearance orientation, fitness orientation, health orientation, body areas satisfaction and appearance evaluation. Conversely, in male students with orthorexia nervosa there were no correlations between orthorexic behaviours and the MBSRQ subscales. In female students with orthorexia nervosa multivariable linear regression analysis found high body areas (parts) satisfaction, low fitness orientation, low overweight preoccupation and low appearance orientation were independent predictors of greater fixation on eating healthy food. In male students, we found that aspects of body image were not associated with preoccupation with healthy eating. A strong preoccupation with healthy and proper food was not associated with an unhealthy body-self relationship among Polish female student with orthorexia nervosa.

  17. Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and postprandial insulin release without altering glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottin, Jeanne H; Swann, Jonathan R; Cropp, Eleanor; Chambers, Edward S; Ford, Heather E; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Frost, Gary S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary mycoprotein decreases energy intake in lean individuals. The effects in overweight individuals are unclear, and the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mycoprotein on energy intake, appetite regulation, and the metabolic phenotype in overweight and obese volunteers. In two randomised-controlled trials, fifty-five volunteers (age: 31 (95 % CI 27, 35) years), BMI: 28·0 (95 % CI 27·3, 28·7) kg/m2) consumed a test meal containing low (44 g), medium (88 g) or high (132 g) mycoprotein or isoenergetic chicken meals. Visual analogue scales and blood samples were collected to measure appetite, glucose, insulin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Ad libitum energy intake was assessed after 3 h in part A (n 36). Gastric emptying by the paracetamol method, resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were recorded in part B (n 14). Metabonomics was used to compare plasma and urine samples in response to the test meals. Mycoprotein reduced energy intake by 10 % (280 kJ (67 kcal)) compared with chicken at the high content (P=0·009). All mycoprotein meals reduced insulin concentrations compared with chicken (incremental AUClow (IAUClow): -8 %, IAUCmedium: -12 %, IAUChigh: -21 %, P=0·004). There was no significant difference in glucose, PYY, GLP-1, gastric emptying rate and energy expenditure. Following chicken intake, paracetamol-glucuronide was positively associated with fullness. After mycoprotein, creatinine and the deamination product of isoleucine, α-keto-β-methyl-N-valerate, were inversely related to fullness, whereas the ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate, was positively associated. In conclusion, mycoprotein reduces energy intake and insulin release in overweight volunteers. The mechanism does not involve changes in PYY and GLP-1. The metabonomics analysis may bring new understanding to the appetite regulatory properties of food.

  18. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerton, Dean M; Campbell, Matthew D; Gonzalez, Javier T; Rumbold, Penny L S; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-02-25

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m²) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0--180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose buprenorphine following single administration of sublingual tablet formulations in opioid naïve healthy male volunteers under a naltrexone block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Sarah D; Mills, Richard J; Polack, Torsten; Hussain, Tanweer; Rolan, Paul E; Gibbs, Alan D; Mullins, Frank G P; Hussein, Ziad

    2003-10-24

    Sublingual buprenorphine formulations have been developed as treatments for opioid dependence. In three studies, opioid naïve healthy male subjects received Subutex tablets (buprenorphine 2 and 8 mg [N=27] or 12 and 16 mg [N=27]) or Suboxone (two formulations) tablets (buprenorphine 8 mg/naloxone 2 mg [N=36]) sublingually, under a naltrexone block for assessment of buprenorphine pharmacokinetics and tablet disintegration times. Plasma buprenorphine was quantified up to 72 h post-dose using a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay. Mean Cmax values ranged from 1.6 to 6.4 ng/ml and tmax from 0.5 to 3 h. Concentrations declined bi-exponentially and fluctuations after a meal suggested enterohepatic recirculation of buprenorphine. The terminal half-life was approximately 26 h (range 9-69). Cmax and AUC appeared to increase in proportion to Subutex dose over 8-16 mg. The Suboxone formulations were bioequivalent. The least squares mean (90% CI) treatment ratio for Cmax was 1.00 (0.92-1.10) and AUC was 1.00 (0.95-1.06). Median times of disintegration were similar for all doses and formulations (range 6-12 min). Sublingual buprenorphine, up to 40 times the 400 microg analgesic dose, was well tolerated in these opioid naïve subjects, as administration of naltrexone 50-150 mg was sufficient to attenuate anticipated adverse effects in this population of subjects.

  20. Effects of an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of C-reactive protein synthesis on the endotoxin challenge response in healthy human male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveck, Robert; Stroes, Erik S G; Flaim, JoAnn D; Baker, Brenda F; Hughes, Steve; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-07-10

    C-reactive protein (CRP) binds to damaged cells, activates the classical complement pathway, is elevated in multiple inflammatory conditions, and provides prognostic information on risk of future atherosclerotic events. It is controversial, however, as to whether inhibiting CRP synthesis would have any direct anti-inflammatory effects in humans. A placebo-controlled study was used to evaluate the effects of ISIS 329993 (ISIS-CRPR x) on the acute-phase response after endotoxin challenge in 30 evaluable subjects. Healthy adult males were randomly allocated to receive 6 injections over a 22-day period of placebo or active therapy with ISIS 329993 at 400- or 600-mg doses. Eligible subjects were subsequently challenged with a bolus of endotoxin (2 ng/kg). Inflammatory and hematological biomarkers were measured before and serially after the challenge. ISIS-CRPR x was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Median CRP levels increased more than 50-fold from baseline 24 hours after endotoxin challenge in the placebo group. In contrast, the median increase in CRP levels was attenuated by 37% (400 mg) and 69% (600 mg) in subjects pretreated with ISIS-CRPR x (Pantisense oligonucleotides and provide an investigative tool to further define the role of CRP in human pathological conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Beardsley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81–0.88, test–re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88–0.95, and test–re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65 and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85. Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test–re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test–re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  2. Evaluation of drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and metformin in healthy Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liupeng; Wu, Chunyong; Shen, Lu; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Fang; Wang, Youqun; Yang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    1. Henagliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor and presents a complementary therapy to metformin for patients with T2DM due to its insulin-independent mechanism of action. This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin and metformin in healthy Chinese male subjects. 2. In open-label, single-center, single-arm, two-period, three-treatment self-control study, 12 subjects received 25 mg henagliflozin, 1000 mg metformin or the combination. Lack of PK interaction was defined as the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence interval (CI) for combination: monotherapy being within the range of 0.80-1.25. 3. Co-administration of henagliflozin with metformin had no effect on henagliflozin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) (GRM: 1.08; CI: 1.05, 1.10) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (GRM: 0.99; CI: 0.92, 1.07). Reciprocally, co-administration of metformin with henagliflozin had no clinically significant on metformin AUC0-24 (GRM: 1.09, CI: 1.02, 1.16) although there was an 11% increase in metformin Cmax (GRM 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23). All monotherapies and combination therapy were well tolerated. 4. Henagliflozin can be co-administered with metformin without dose adjustment of either drug.

  3. Hand skill and hand-eye preference in relation to verbal ability in healthy adult male and female right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynia, Inge; Müller, Jens

    2006-09-01

    Verbal as well as non-verbal performances were investigated in relation to both hand skill assessed by finger-tapping performances and hand-eye preference in 83 healthy adult right-handers, most of them students. The primary objective of this study was to show better finger-tapping performances in right-handed participants with best verbal IQ values. We found that it was not the non-verbal but the verbal abilities that were related to finger-tapping performances. This was proven, especially as to the left-hand taps. Faster left-hand taps in participants with higher verbal IQ values may be due to a closer cooperation of right-hemispheric regions in information processing and an intimate relationship between language and finger-motor functions. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analyses included gender differences and hand-eye preference. While in the females left-hand taps correlated somewhat more with verbal IQ values, in the males this effect was seen in selected variables of the right-hand taps. Moreover, laterality assessed in finger-tapping performances may not be in accordance with laterality found in the handedness questionnaire. In addition to this, congruent hand-eye dominance was found to be slightly more prevalent in participants with best verbal IQ values. However, these findings will have to be confirmed in further experiments.

  4. Faktor risiko sarapan pagi dan makanan selingan terhadap kejadian overweight pada remaja sekolah menengah atas

    OpenAIRE

    Agusanty, Shelly Festilia; Kandarina, Istiti; Gunawan, I Made Alit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overweight or obesity during childhood and adolescence are important risk factors for the presence of adult overweight or obesity. Eating habits in childhood and adolescence influence their healthy condition. Prospective studies of breakfast habits and nutritional status suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for overweight and obesity and relationships between no breakfast and increasing body weight.Objective: To examine...

  5. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5,868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex......OBJECTIVE: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS: We examined the associations between leptin.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  6. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    . As a follow-up on a healthy eating intervention, 38 adolescents and their respective families participated in depth-interviews and a practical exercise on daily fruit and vegetable intake. Results demonstrated that adolescents were found to adopt two strategies: a direct one placing demands on parents......This PhD thesis contributes with knowledge about adolescent healthy eating by studying consumer socialisation, social influence and behavioural change in relation to adolescent healthy eating. The introduction provides the important reasons for studying adolescents and healthy eating and explains...... that a more holistic approach is needed in order to respond to the rising levels of overweight among adolescents. It is important to understand the development of and influences on adolescent healthy eating behaviour and the possibilities for promoting healthy eating through interventions. By reviewing...

  7. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Step in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity When we eat more calories than we burn, ... prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  8. What Are Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Overweight and Obesity Español Also known as adiposity. Overweight and obesity ... more information. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  9. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity When we eat more calories than we burn, ... delay type 2 diabetes. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  10. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...

  11. STUDY OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN DENTAL STUDENTS IN A TEACHING COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kiran Kohli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is found to be strongest risk factor for persistent hypertension, which is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease and stroke. Urbanisation, unhealthy eating and reduced physical activity are the important reasons. Prevention of obesity is always better than its treatment. The aim of this study is to find out relation of overweight and obesity in dental students with their changed lifestyle and lack of physical activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS A validated predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Overweight/obesity was assessed on the basis of Body Mass Index (BMI for age using gender specific Center for Disease Control (CDC charts. Settings and Design- Cross-sectional study conducted in 1st year dental students, MRDC (Manav Rachna Dental College, Faridabad. Statistical Analysis- ANOVA and unpaired t-tests were used to find out any statistically association of mean BMI for age with various correlate. RESULTS Out of 110 students, 101 were included in study 72 (71.2% females and 29 (28.7 males. Total 25.7% were overweight students and 17.82% were obese with BMI >30 and grade 1 obesity, while 1.9% were of grade 2 obesity. Lack of physical activity, consumption of junk food, habit of not taking breakfast and consuming food in canteen, home and mess are found to have significant association with obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION The problem of obesity is on rise and there is a definite need to inculcate good habits of healthy eating and regular physical exercise.

  12. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  13. Pharmacokinetics of ginkgolides A, B and K after single and multiple intravenous infusions and their interactions with midazolam in healthy Chinese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Zhang, Hongwen; Xie, Lijun; Chen, Juan; Zhou, Sufeng; Zhang, Jinsong; Lv, Jinru; Hao, Weiwen; Ma, Yunsu; Liu, Yun; Ou, Ning; Xiao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Ginkgo terpene lactones meglumine injection (GMI) is a novel preparation of traditional Chinese medicine that contains ginkgolides A, B and K (GA, GB, GK, respectively) as its primary components. In this study we evaluated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of these three ginkgolides after single and multiple intravenous infusions of GMI. We also investigated the effect of GMI on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in healthy Chinese volunteers. In this open-label, placebo-controlled study 15 subjects were randomly assigned to receive GMI or matched placebo (4:1 ratio). All subjects first received midazolam (MDZ) on day 1, followed by a 6-day washout. On Day 8, the subjects were started on once-daily dosing of either GMI or placebo for 14 days. Lastly, on Day 22 the subjects were given second dose of MDZ + GMI or MDZ + placebo. Plasma concentrations of ginkgolides, MDZ and its metabolite 1-hydroxy midazolam were quantified. The steady-state conditions of GA, GB and GK were achieved after 6 days of daily dosing. Following a single dose of GMI (Day 8) the area under the concentration-timecurve from zero to 24 h after administration (AUC0-24h) of GA, GB and GK (arithmetic ± standard deviation) was 4.10 ± 1.06, 4.61 ± 1.31 and 0.127 ± 0.102 h μg/mL, respectively; the corresponding values following multiple doses of GMI (Day 19) were 3.94 ± 1.16, 5.00 ± 1.55 and 0.118 ± 0.096 h μg/mL, respectively. The mean accumulation ratios were 0.95, 1.08 and 0.89 for GA, GB and GK, respectively. Additionally, the geometric mean [peak concentration (Cmax) and AUC0-24h] ratios of MDZ and 1-hydroxy midazolam were all within the specified acceptance ranges in the MDZ + placebo treatment and MDZ + GMI treatment. Our results show that GMI was well tolerated during the entire study. There was no systemic accumulation and no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of MDZ in healthy Chinese male subjects after repeated dosing of GMI.

  14. Alarming high prevalence of overweight/obesity among Sudanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagwa, M A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M; Azza, M; Abdulhadi, N H

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended.

  15. Overweight is more prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Morales-Briceño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Underweight and malnutrition are well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD, while overweight has been less reported. We carried out a cross-sectional study including 177 healthy controls and 177 PD patients attending a tertiary care center. We recorded weight and height for all participants. A statistically significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI between controls and PD patients (29.1±5.4 versus 27.2±4.7, p<0.001. In the PD Group, two patients were underweight, 32.7% were within normal range, 46.9% had overweight, and 19.2% were obese. Overweight and normal weight were more prevalent in the PD Group (p=<0.01 and <0.001, respectively when compared to controls. In conclusion, overweight/obesity are common among patients with PD, while underweight is almost negligible.

  16. Overweight is more prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Calleja-Castillo, Juan; Corona, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Underweight and malnutrition are well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD), while overweight has been less reported. We carried out a cross-sectional study including 177 healthy controls and 177 PD patients attending a tertiary care center. We recorded weight and height for all participants. A statistically significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) between controls and PD patients (29.1±5.4 versus 27.2±4.7, p<0.001). In the PD Group, two patients were underweight, 32.7% were within normal range, 46.9% had overweight, and 19.2% were obese. Overweight and normal weight were more prevalent in the PD Group (p=<0.01 and <0.001, respectively) when compared to controls. In conclusion, overweight/obesity are common among patients with PD, while underweight is almost negligible.

  17. Decreased scholastic achievement in overweight middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Stuart M; Sachs, Michael L; Lidicker, Jeffrey R; Brett, Stephanie N; Wright, Adam R; Libonati, Joseph R

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether overweight students achieved a lower relative degree of scholastic achievement compared to nonoverweight students. Subjects consisted of 6th and 7th grade students enrolled in a large public middle school in a suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We compared grade point averages (GPAs), nationally standardized reading scores, school detentions, school suspensions, school attendance, tardiness to school, physical fitness test scores, and participation on school athletic teams among nonoverweight, at risk for overweight, and overweight students. Overweight students achieved lower grades (Ptardiness to school, and less participation on school athletic teams than their nonoverweight peers. Our study suggests that body mass is an important indicator of scholastic achievement, attendance, behavior, and physical fitness among middle school students, reiterating the need for healthy lifestyle intervention and prevention measures.

  18. Population-Based Childhood Overweight Prevention : Outcomes of the 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grieken, Amy; Veldhuis, Lydian; Renders, Carry M.; Borsboom, Gerard J.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Objective: An overweight prevention protocol was used in the 'Be active, eat right' study; parents of overweight children (5 years) were offered healthy lifestyle counseling by youth health care professionals. Effects of the protocol on child BMI and waist circumference at age 7 years were evaluated

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  20. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  1. Overweight, perceived overweight and involvement in bullying in middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari

    2016-04-01

    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction.

  2. Perception of Overweight and Self-esteem During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Field, Alison E.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine sex- and race/ethnicity-specific relationships between adolescents' self-esteem and weight perception. Method Descriptive analysis and logistic regression of Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,427 males, 6,574 females; ages 11–21) examined associations between low self-esteem and perceived overweight within body mass index (BMI) percentile categories, controlling for socio-demographics and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Results 25.1% and 8% of normal weight females and males, respectively, perceived themselves as overweight, with variation by race/ethnicity. Low self-esteem was most strongly associated with misperceived overweight in moderate BMI percentile categories (males: OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.60–3.41; females: OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.82, 3.16). Odds of correctly perceived overweight were higher for low (versus high) self-esteem in white and black females but not males of any race/ethnicity. Discussion Understanding subgroup differences by race/ethnicity in perceived overweight-self-esteem relationships may inform eating disorders' prevention strategies. PMID:19536882

  3. Short-term quetiapine treatment alters the use of reinforcement signals during risky decision-making and promotes the choice of negative expected values in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Philippa L; Harmer, Catherine J; McTavish, Sarah F B; Goodwin, Guy M; Rogers, Robert D

    2013-09-25

    Effective decision-making can involve using environmental signals about the possible good and bad outcomes, and their probabilities, to select optimal actions. Problematic decision-making in psychiatric disorders, and particularly bipolar illness, may result from disrupted use of these reinforcement cues, leading to actions that reflect or precipitate pathological changes in mood. Previous experiments indicate that the processing of reinforcement cues while selecting between risky actions can be influenced by dopamine and serotonin activity. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent with a complex pharmacology, including antagonist actions at 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, D2 receptors. Here, we investigated the effects of (short-term) treatment with quetiapine on the risky decision-making of healthy human adults. Twenty participants received 150 mg of quetiapine XL for 7 d, whereas 20 age- and IQ-matched participants received a placebo. On the eighth day, all participants completed a risky decision-making task that involved making a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles that differed in the magnitudes of their possible gains and losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Quetiapine treatment was associated with a marked tendency to choose options with negative expected values compared with placebo treatment in male but not female participants. Our results demonstrate that antagonism of serotonin and dopamine receptor activity can alter the way individuals use information about gains and losses when selecting between risky actions, possibly reflecting gender-specific differences in risk attitudes. These effects may be beneficial by correcting decision-making biases that feature in mood disorders.

  4. Neural Correlates of Antidepressant-Related Sexual Dysfunction: A Placebo-Controlled fMRI Study on Healthy Males Under Subchronic Paroxetine and Bupropion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Seeringer, Angela; Hartmann, Antonie; Grön, Georg; Metzger, Coraline; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like paroxetine in the treatment of depression, imposing a considerable risk on medication adherence and hence therapeutic success. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is recommended as an alternative treatment without adverse effects concerning sexual arousal and libido. We investigated the neural bases of paroxetine-related subjective sexual dysfunction when compared with bupropion and placebo. We scanned 18 healthy, heterosexual males in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject design while watching video clips of erotic and nonerotic content under steady-state conditions after taking 20 mg of paroxetine, 150 mg of bupropion, and placebo for 7 days each. Under paroxetine, ratings of subjective sexual dysfunction increased compared with placebo or bupropion. Activation along the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including subgenual, pregenual, and midcingulate cortices, in the ventral striatum and midbrain was decreased when compared with placebo. In contrast, bupropion let subjective ratings and ACC activations unchanged and increased activity of brain regions including posterior midcingulate cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and extended amygdala relative to placebo and paroxetine. Brain regions that have been related to the processing of motivational (ventral striatum), emotional, and autonomic components of erotic stimulation (anterior cingulate) in previous studies showed reduced responsiveness under paroxetine in our study. Drug effects on these regions may be part of the mechanism underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. Increased activation under bupropion may point to an opposite effect that may relate to the lack of impaired sexual functioning. PMID:21544071

  5. Repeated high-intensity interval exercise shortens the positive effect on executive function during post-exercise recovery in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    A single bout of aerobic exercise improves executive function (EF), but only for a short period. Compared with a single bout of aerobic exercise, we recently found that high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could maintain a longer improvement in EF. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of different exercise modes on the modifications of EF remains unclear. The purpose of the current investigation was to test our hypothesis that the amount of exercise-induced lactate production and its accumulation affects human brain function during and after exercise, thereby affecting post-exercise EF. Ten healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% peak VO2 with a 3-min active recovery period at 60% peak VO2. The amount of lactate produced during exercise was manipulated by repeating the HIIE twice with a resting period of 60min between the 1st HIIE and 2nd HIIE. To evaluate EF, a color-word Stroop task was performed, and reverse-Stroop interference scores were obtained. EF immediately after the 1st HIIE was significantly improved compared to that before exercise, and the improved EF was sustained during 40min of the post-exercise recovery. However, for the 2nd HIIE, the improved EF was sustained for only 10min of the post-exercise recovery period, despite the performance of the same exercise. In addition, during and following HIIE, the glucose and lactate accumulation induced by the 2nd HIIE was significantly lower than that induced by the 1st HIIE. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between lactate and EF by plotting the changes in lactate levels against changes in EF from pre-exercise during the late phase of post-exercise recovery. These findings suggested the possibility that repeated bouts of HIIE, which decreases lactate accumulation, may dampen the positive effect of exercise on EF during the post-exercise recovery.

  6. An improvement of mechanical pain sensitivity measurement method: the smaller sized probes may detect heterogeneous sensory threshold in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guangyou; Xiang, Guifang; Zhang, Xianwei; Guo, Shanna; Zhang, Yuhao

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of our experience in the application of the mechanical algometer and a number of pilot experiments, we speculated that 0.1- and 0.01-cm(2) probes might improve the measurement of mechanical pain sensitivity relative to the conventional 1-cm(2) probe. Here, we examined the accuracy, feasibility, and applicability of these probes in detecting the mechanical pain sensitivity. Mechanical pain threshold and tolerance tests were performed on subjects using the three probes of 1, 0.1, and 0.01 cm(2) in random order. We compared the application of these probes. The study was set at the Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Fifty healthy male Han Chinese subjects were recruited. We compared the qualities of stimulus-evoked pain, test stability, the measuring time, the subjects' acceptance level of the procedure, the validity of pain measurement, and the arduousness of the task for the investigator among the three different size probes. Compared with the conventional 1-cm(2) probe, the 0.01- and 0.1-cm(2) probes resulted in the subjects responding to stimulus-evoked pain more quickly, accurately, and consistently, and also made the measurement more comfortable for investigators. Up to 80% of the subjects reported the pain quality as a pricking sensation when the 0.01-cm(2) probe was used. The use of the 0.1-cm(2) probe might be more suitable as an optimized method for the detection of pressure pain sensitivity in clinical studies. In addition, the 0.01-cm(2) probe could potentially serve as an alternative to the weighted needle pinprick, providing continuous quantizing detection for pricking pain sensitivity. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Heat pain detection threshold is associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization: a study of healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization (BTS) of the skin and heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT) may both have predictive abilities in regards to pain sensitivity and clinical pain states. The association between HPDT and secondary hyperalgesia, however, remains unsettled, and the dissimilarities in physiologic properties suggest that they may represent 2 distinctively different pain entities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPDT and BTS-induced secondary hyperalgesia. Methods A sample of 121 healthy male participants was included and tested on 2 separate study days with BTS (45°C, 3 minutes), HPDT, and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C, 1 minute). Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were quantified after monofilament pinprick stimulation. The pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) were also applied. Results A significant association between HPDT and the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia (p<0.0001) was found. The expected change in area of secondary hyperalgesia due to a 1-degree increase in HPDT was estimated to be −27.38 cm2, 95% confidence interval (CI) of −37.77 to −16.98 cm2, with an R2 of 0.19. Likewise, a significant association between HADS-depression subscore and area of secondary hyperalgesia (p=0.046) was found, with an estimated expected change in secondary hyperalgesia to a 1-point increase in HADS-depression subscore of 11 cm2, 95% CI (0.19–21.82), and with R2 of 0.03. We found no significant associations between secondary hyperalgesia area and PCS score or pain during thermal stimulation. Conclusion HPDT and the area of secondary hyperalgesia after BTS are significantly associated; however, with an R2 of only 19%, HPDT only offers a modest explanation of the inter-participant variation in the size of the secondary hyperalgesia area elicited by BTS. PMID:28184167

  8. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  9. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  10. Application of a UPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of alosetron in human plasma to support a bioequivalence study in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Darshan V; Patel, Daxesh P; Shah, Jaivik V; Shah, Priyanka A; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2015-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of alosetron (ALO) in human plasma. The assay method involved solid-phase extraction of ALO and ALO 13C-d3 as internal standard (IS) on a LichroSep DVB-HL (30 mg, 1 cm(3) ) cartridge. The chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) column using acetonitrile and 2.0 mm ammonium formate, pH 3.0 adjusted with 0.1% formic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase in an isocratic mode. For quantitative analysis, the multiple reaction monitoring transitions studied were m/z 295.1/201.0 for ALO and m/z 299.1/205.1 for IS in the positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.01-10.0 ng/mL for ALO. Post-column infusion experiment showed no positive or negative peaks in the elution range of the analyte and IS after injection of extracted blank plasma. The extent of ion-suppression/enhancement, expressed as IS-normalized matrix factor, varied from 0.96 to 1.04. The assay recovery was within 97-103% for ALO and IS. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 1.0 mg alosetron tablets in 28 healthy Indian male and female subjects.

  11. Prevention of overweight in the school arena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2007-01-01

    studies were performed in Germany and in the United Kingdom. The studies, which had a significant effect on overweight were 'Dance for Health', 'Planet Health', 'San Jose Study', 'Kiel Obesity Prevention Study', 'Healthy Schools' programme, 'El Paso Catch', and 'Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project......'. The studies differ greatly in regards to age group, type of and length of intervention and type and amount of actions. Furthermore, the measures used to evaluate the effect differed. It seems to be important to use several measures of obesity in order to accurately detect a possible effect. In conclusion......, half of the studies were successful and had an effect on either overweight or obesity. Much more research is needed in order to effectively prevent paediatric obesity....

  12. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.

  13. Ectopic fat deposition in prediabetic overweight and obese minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Alderete, Tanya L; Hu, Houchun H; Nayak, Krishna; Esplana, Sherryl; Liu, Ting; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J

    2013-03-01

    Optimizing effective prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes in youth is limited by incomplete understanding of its pathophysiology and how this varies across ethnicities with high risk. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF), and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) to prediabetes in overweight/obese African American (AA) and Latino youth. We conducted a cross-sectional study in an academic pediatric care facility. A total of 148 healthy, overweight/obese adolescents (56 AA, 92 Latino; 72 males, 76 females; age, 15.5 ± 1.2 y; BMI z-score, 2.1 ± 0.5) participated in the study. They were normal glucose tolerant (n = 106) and prediabetic (n = 42), based on fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL and/or 2-hour glucose of 140-199 mg/dL, and/or hemoglobin A1C 6.0-6.4%. We measured sc abdominal adipose tissue, VAT, HFF, and PFF by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and measured total body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Adolescents with prediabetes had 30% higher HFF (P = .001) and 31% higher PFF (P = .042), compared to those with normal glucose tolerance after controlling for age, sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, total percentage body fat, and VAT. Logistic regression showed that PFF predicted prediabetes in AAs and HFF predicted prediabetes in Latinos, with the odds of having prediabetes increased by 66% for every 1% increase in PFF in African Americans, and increased by 22% for every 1% increase in HFF in Latinos. These data demonstrate that ectopic fat phenotypes associated with prediabetes are established by adolescence. Ethnic differences in the deposition of ectopic fat in adolescents with prediabetes may differ, with pancreatic fat in AAs, vs hepatic fat in Latino adolescents, being associated with diabetes risk.

  14. Skin findings in overweight and obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Nazik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of the present study is to compare dermatoses detected in overweight and obese individuals with the data obtained from individuals with body mass index (BMI below 25.0 kg/m2 and to emphasize the effects of obesity on skin health. Material and methods: The study was performed with 510 volunteer participants aged above 18 years, who were admitted to a policlinic. One hundred fifty individuals with normal weight who had a BMI below 25.0 kg/m2 constituted the control group, 130 individuals with BMI between 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 constituted the overweight group, and 230 individuals with BMI above 30.0 kg/m2 constituted the obese group. A detailed dermatological examination was performed and the data was recorded. Results: A total of 510 participants, 194 males and 316 females, were included in the study. The mean age was 32.05±10.9, 44.91±13.4, and 39.78±16.4 in the control, overweight, and obese groups, respectively. The most common dermatoses in the overweight and obese groups were striae distensae in 316 individuals (62%, plantar hyperkeratosis in 249 individuals (48.8%, dystrophic cellulitis in 216 individuals (42.4%, acrochordon in 204 individuals (40%, acanthosis nigricans 135 (26.4%, varicose veins in 134 individuals (26.3%, and keratosis pilaris in 108 individuals (21.2%. Conclusion: Several dermatoses are more frequently seen in obese and overweight individuals when compared with normal weight individuals due to insulin resistance and mechanical effects.

  15. Walkable home neighbourhood food environment and children's overweight and obesity: Proximity, density or price?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le, Ha; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-01-01

    .... We examined whether the proximity to or density of grocery and convenience stores or fast food restaurants, or the prices of healthy food options were more strongly associated with overweight/obesity risk in children...

  16. The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Aging Female Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigey, Margaret E; Johnston, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of older female inmates (N = 458). Results indicate that 34% of older female inmates were overweight and 36% were obese; similar percentages were noted for the general population. Race and age were found to be significantly associated with the body mass index categories of healthy weight and obese. White inmates were significantly more likely to be of a healthy weight and significantly less likely to be obese than Black inmates. Age was positively associated with healthy weight and negatively associated with obesity. These two variables remained significant even after they were introduced into logistic regression models predicting healthy weight and obesity. Findings indicate the need for programming to improve the health of this population.

  17. Correlates of Psychosocial Well-Being among Overweight Adolescents: The Role of the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Strauss, Jaine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2007-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of at-risk-for-overweight and overweight youths (body mass index greater than the 85th percentile for age and gender; n = 667 male participants, and n = 684 female participants) completed a school-based survey measuring family variables (connectedness, mealtime environment, and weight commentary), psychosocial…

  18. Healthy ranges of serum alanine aminotransferase levels in Tranian blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Mohamadnejad; Akram Pourshams; Reza Malekzadeh; Ashraf Mohamadkhani; Afsaneh Rajabiani; Ali Ali Asgari; Seyed Meysam Alimohamadi; Hadi Razjooyan; Mamar-Abadi

    2003-01-01

    AIM:The healthy ranges for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are less well studied. The aim of this study was to define the upper limit of normal (ULN) for serum ALT levels, and to assess factors associated with serum ALT activity in apparently healthy blood donors.METHODS: A total of 1 939 blood donors were included.ALT measurements were performed for all cases using the same laboratory method. Healthy ranges for ALT levels were computed from the population at the lowest risk for liver disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate associations between clinical factors and ALT levels.RESULTS: Serum ALT activity was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and male gender, but not associated with age. Association of ALT with BMI was more prominent in males than in females. Upper limit of normal for non-overweight women (BMI of less than 25) was 34 U/L,and for non-overweight men was 40 U/L.CONCLUSION: Serum ALT is strongly associated with sex and BMI. The normal range of ALT should be defined for male and female separately.

  19. Subjects of care: Living with overweight in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, E.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics suggest that in the Netherlands and elsewhere being overweight has become an ‘epidemic’ and major public health concern. In response individuals are often admonished to take control of their weight. They should make so-called healthy choices and engage in good behavior. In her research, E

  20. The association between sleep patterns and overweight/obesity in Chinese children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bin Zhang,1,* Yanli Hao,2,* Jiangyan Zhou,1,3 Fujun Jia,1 Xueli Li,1 Yi Tang,1 Huirong Zheng1 1Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, 2Department of Human Anatomy, Guang Zhou Medical University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: This study evaluated the association between sleep patterns and the risk of being overweight/obese in Chinese children. Methods: A total of 3,086 children (1,608 boys and 1,478 girls between 7 and 14 years of age and studying in primary schools were recruited as eligible study participants in this study. We collected the information about children regarding sleep patterns, body height and weight, insomnia, healthy status, time allocation of daily activities, and demographic characteristics using a parental-reported questionnaire. Results: Overweight/obese children were younger, predominantly male, and more prone to have suffered from illness in the past 12 months compared to normal-weight peers. They were also less prone to compensate for sleep deficits during weekends (47.6% vs 39.1%; χ2=11.637, P<0.001 and holidays (52.0% vs 42.0%; χ2=16.057, P<0.001. Sleep duration on weekdays did not affect the risk of being overweight/obese. The adjusted odds ratios for overweight/obesity (noncompensated group using the compensated group as a reference were 1.197 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.493 during weekends and 1.309 (95% CI: 1.052–1.630 during holidays. Conclusion: Compensation for sleep deficits on non-weekdays may ameliorate the risk of being overweight/obese in Chinese children. Moreover, no significant association between the risk of being overweight/obese and sleep duration on weekdays was demonstrated in the current study, which may be due to pervasive sleep insufficiency on weekdays in Chinese children. Keywords: Chinese

  1. Nursing Diagnosis of overweight and related factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.The objective of the study was to compare the related factors to the nursing diagnosis (ND of overweight in adolescents with and without overweight. Methodology. Transversal study conducted in 2013 with 347 adolescents that attended public schools in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, answered a questionnaire and had anthroprometric evaluation. The subjects were divided into two groups, the group without ND (n=247 and the group with ND (n=100. Results. The prevalence of adolescents with ND overweight was 28.8%. The groups presented an unsatisfactory frequency of physical activity and a low consumption of healthy foods. The group with the ND overweight showed greater chance of consuming sweets and fried foods. The group with ND overweight had higher frequency of history family of illnesses. Conclusion. The prevalence of the ND overweight among adolescents in the public schools of Natal constitute a relevant nutritional deviance and the associated factors diet and family history disease are an alert for nursing in activities of prevention and follow-up for this population.

  2. Durasi menyusu dan kejadian overweight pada remaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaili Ramli

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: Overweight adolescents have shorter duration of breastfeeding than those who were not overweight. Factors that affect the risk of overweight among adolescents in this study were mother’s education, adolescent’s eating behavior, mother’s overweight status and sibling’s overweight status.

  3. Sonographic fatty liver, overweight and ischemic heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Huey-Ming Lo; Jong-Dar Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the prevalence of sonographic fatty liver, overweight and ischemic heart disease (IHD) among the male workers in Taiwan, and to investigate the possible association of these three factors.METHODS: From July to September 2003, a total of 2 088 male aircraft-maintenance workers aged from 22to 65 years (mean 40.5) underwent an annual health examination, including anthropometrical evaluation, blood pressure measurement, personal medical history assessment,biochemical blood analysis, abdominal ultrasonographic examination and digital electrocardiography (ECG). The Student's t-test, x2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized to evaluate the relationship between IHD and salient risk factors.RESULTS: The all-over prevalence of overweight was 41.4%, and that of fatty liver was 29.5% (mild, moderate and severe fatty liver being 14.5%, 11.3%, and 3.7%,respectively); while the prevalence of ischemic changes on ECG was 17.1% in this study. The abnormal rates for conventional IHD risk factors including hypertension,dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and overweight increased in accordance with the severity of fatty liver. Overweight and severity of fatty liver were independently associated with increased risks for developing IHD. Overweight subjects had a 1.32-fold (95%CI: 1.01-1.73) increased IHD risk. Participants with mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver had a 1.88-fold (95%CI: 1.37-2.6), 2.37-fold (95%CI: 1.66-3.37) and 2.76-fold (95%CI: 1.62-4.72)increased risk for developing IHD. The prevalence of ischemic ECG for the fatty liver-affected subjects with or without overweight was 30.1% and 19.1%, while that of overweight subjects free from fatty liver was 14.4%.Compared to the subjects without fatty liver nor overweight,IHD risk for the three subgroups above was as follows:OR: 2.95 (95%CI:2.31-4.09), OR: 1.60 (95%CI: 1.07-2.39)and OR: 1.11 (95%CI: 0.78-1.56), respectively.CONCLUSION: The presence of fatty liver and its severity should

  4. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were......-segment deviation during Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing, indicated with a specificity of 1.0 or 0.95 according to choice of criterion, implies that the person is in a healthy state....

  5. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... in healthy subjects without disease, was 1.0 when using as criterion for significant ST-segment deviation a horizontal or descending ST-segment depression of >0.20 mV or ST-segment elevation >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring, and acceptable, for example, 0.95, when using as criterion a horizontal...

  6. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....

  7. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  8. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in overweight German children and adolescents: relation to gender, age and degree of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas; Andler, Werner; Denzer, Christian; Siegried, Wolfgang; Mayer, H; Wabitsch, Martin

    2005-06-01

    So far in Europe, no large studies have been published on the frequencies of the cardiovascular risk factors hypertension and dyslipidaemia in overweight children. Diagnosis of hypertension, decreased HDL-cholesterol, increased triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol were documented for 1004 overweight children and adolescents (aged 4-8 years, 52% girls, BMI-SDS in median 2.43) referred to four obesity centres. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were defined by cut off points above the 95th percentile of healthy children. Multivariate linear regression was conducted for the dependent variables systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-, LDL-, and total cholesterol, including gender, degree of overweight (SDS-BMI) and age as independent variables. Thirty-seven percent of the children studied suffered from hypertension, 27% displayed increased total cholesterol, 26% increased LDL-cholesterol, 20% increased triglycerides and 18% decreased HDL-cholesterol. Seventy percent of all children had at least one unfavourable cardiovascular risk factor. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were observed in any age group and in any degree of overweight at least twofold above the suspected rate of 5%. SDS-BMI was significantly related to blood pressure (systolic: coefficient 7.26, p European children and adolescents. They occurred mostly independently of age, gender and degree of overweight. Therefore, screening for cardiovascular risk factors seems meaningful at any age and degree of overweight in childhood.

  10. Faktor risiko sarapan pagi dan makanan selingan terhadap kejadian overweight pada remaja sekolah menengah atas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Festilia Agusanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight or obesity during childhood and adolescence are important risk factors for the presence of adult overweight or obesity. Eating habits in childhood and adolescence influence their healthy condition. Prospective studies of breakfast habits and nutritional status suggest an inverse (protective association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for overweight and obesity and relationships between no breakfast and increasing body weight. Objective: To examine risk factor of breakfast and snacking related to overweight status in adolescents. Method: This was the observational study with case control design. The first step of the study was screening to have a prevalence of overweight in adolescents. The second step was case control study participated by 100 overweight adolescents and 100 normal weight adolescents in senior high school matched in sex, age, and school. Data collected were weight and height measurements for nutritional status, respondent identity and characteristic, breakfast dan snacking habits and physical activity. Statistical analysis used Chi-Square statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of overweight in adolescents were 16,8%. There was significant association between breakfast with overweight (p<0,05; OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.4-7.47. There was no association between snacking and overweight, but there was significant association between frequency of snacking (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.05-3.50, the energy of snacking (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.13-4.02, and carbohydrate of snacking (OR=4.5; 95% CI=1.94-11.50 with overweight. In the multivariate model, breakfast habits, carbohydrate of snacking and physical activity had a significant association with overweight. Conclusion: Skipping breakfast was a risk factor for overweight in adolescence. Adolescents who had to snack more than twice a day were having the greater risk factor for overweight.

  11. Metabolic and Lifestyle Predictors of Ischemic Heart Disease and All-Cause Mortality Among Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Men: A 16-Year Follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P.; Hein, H.O.; Eyben, F.E. von

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify metabolic and lifestyle risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality (ACM) among normal weight, overweight, and obese men. Methods: This was a 16-year follow up of 2982 men 53 to 75 years without overt cardiovascular disease....... Main outcome: This was to determine mortality during 16 years of follow-up. Results: A total of 194 men (6.5%) died due to IHD and 1184 (39.8%) from all causes. All lifestyle factors and clinical/metabolic risk factors were associated with BMI, positively or negatively. Risk of IHD and ACM increased...... gradually from the normal weight (BMI 20.0-25.0) to higher BMI groups. With respect to IHD, compared to normal weight men, obese men (BMI = 30.0) had an age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of 1.67(1.04-2.68); adjusted for potential confounders HR was 0.99 (0.59-1.66); corresponding estimates for ACM...

  12. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  13. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  14. What "Being Overweight" Means (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What Being Overweight Means KidsHealth > For Kids > What Being Overweight Means ... talk to your doctor. Why Do People Become Overweight or Obese? Most of the time, people have ...

  15. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and olmesartan: a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Lee, Donghwan; Chang, HeeChul; Yun, Chohee; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin has been widely used in combination with olmesartan for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. With no information currently available on the interaction between the 2 drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the influence of rosuvastatin on olmesartan and vice versa when the 2 drugs were coadministered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet and the associated drug-drug interaction in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study. Eligible subjects were aged 20 to 50 years and within 20% of their ideal body weight. After being randomly assigned to 6 groups of equal number, subjects received each of the following 3 formulations once a day for 7 consecutive days with an 8-day washout period between the formulations: rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet, olmesartan 40-mg tablet, and coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for rosuvastatin, its active metabolite (N-desmethyl rosuvastatin), and olmesartan. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Among the 36 enrolled subjects, 34 completed the study (mean [range] age, 28.6 [23-49] y; mean [range] weight, 66.4 [52.2-78.7] kg). The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for the coadministration of the 2 drugs to the mono-administration of each drug were 85.14% to 96.08% for AUCτ and 81.41% to 97.48% for Css,max for rosuvastatin, and 77.55% to 89.48% for AUCτ and 75.62% to 90.12% for Css,max for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin; those values were 95.61% to 102.57% for AUCτ and 91.73% to 102.98% for Css,max for olmesartan. Dizziness was the most frequently noted adverse drug

  16. An open label, dose response study to determine the effect of a dietary supplement on dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and estradiol levels in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mark L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining endogenous testosterone (T levels as men age may slow the symptoms of sarcopenia, andropause and decline in physical performance. Drugs inhibiting the enzyme 5α-reductase (5AR produce increased blood levels of T and decreased levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. However, symptoms of gynecomastia have been reported due to the aromatase (AER enzyme converting excess T to estradiol (ES. The carotenoid astaxanthin (AX from Haematococcus pluvialis, Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE from Serenoa repens and the precise combination of these dietary supplements, Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™, have been reported to have inhibitory effects on both 5AR and AER in-vitro. Concomitant regulation of both enzymes in-vivo would cause DHT and ES blood levels to decrease and T levels to increase. The purpose of this clinical study was to determine if patented Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™ could produce these effects in a dose dependent manner. Methods To investigate this clinically, 42 healthy males ages 37 to 70 years were divided into two groups of twenty-one and dosed with either 800 mg/day or 2000 mg/day of Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™ for fourteen days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 and assayed for T, DHT and ES. Body weight and blood pressure data were collected prior to blood collection. One-way, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA-RM was performed at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences from baseline within each group. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA-2 was performed after baseline subtraction, at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences between dose groups. Results are expressed as means ± SEM. Results ANOVA-RM showed significant within group increases in serum total T and significant decreases in serum DHT from baseline in both dose groups at a significance level of alpha = 0.05. Significant decreases in serum ES are reported for the 2000

  17. A clinical evaluation to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement in healthy adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman DS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Douglas S Kalman, Samantha Feldman, Adam Samson, Diane R Krieger Miami Research Associates, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PKs and pharmacodynamics (PDs of an oral inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement. Subjects and methods: Ten healthy males, 26.7±5.4 years, took three 500 mg arginine silicate capsules (active product for 14 days. The subjects attended test visits on Days 1 and 14. Fasting blood and saliva collections were performed predose and at 0.5 hours, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, and 6 hours postdose for plasma arginine, serum silicon, and salivary nitric oxide (NO + nitrite. Results: Day 1 PK parameters (adjusted for body weight for arginine were peak serum concentration (CMax 30.06±7.80 µg/mL, time it takes to reach peak serum concentration (tMax 1.13±0.52 hours, and time required to reach half its original concentration (t1/2 15.93±9.55 hours and for silicon were CMax 2.99±0.63 µg/mL, tMax 2.44±2.05 hours, and t1/2 34.56±16.56 hours. After Day 1 dose, arginine levels increased at 0.5 hours, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, and 5 hours (P<0.01 and silicon levels increased at 1 hour and 1.5 hours (P<0.05. After Day 14 dose, arginine levels increased at 0.5 hours, 1 hour, and 1.5 hours (P<0.05 and silicon levels increased at 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, and 3 hours (P<0.01. After 14 days of use, baseline arginine trended toward being higher than baseline Day 1 (P=0.0645, and 4-hour postdose plasma arginine was significantly higher (P=0.0488 at Day 14 than Day 1. Although not a significant difference, NO, as measured as salivary nitrate, increased in four subjects and stayed the same in six subjects at 0.5 hours after the first dose (P=0.125. After 14 days of use, baseline NO levels increased in six subjects and stayed the same in four subjects; this shift was significant (P=0.031. Conclusion: The arginine silicate dietary

  18. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2* Chun-Lei Liu,3,4* Ren-Lai Zhou,3 Hong-Han Gong,1 Bin Wu,5 Lei Gao,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Key Lab of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, and National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Education, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 5National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN impairment after sleep deprivation (SD and its relationships with clinical features. Methods: Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT. The independent component analysis (ICA, rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results: Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001, a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003, a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001, and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0

  19. High prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults with Crohn's disease: associations with disease and lifestyle factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nic Suibhne, Treasa

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and overweight are major public health issues. Although traditionally associated with weight loss, there is now evidence that increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) and overweight are emerging features of Crohn\\'s disease (CD) and may be associated with more severe disease course. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with CD compared with matched healthy controls and to identify disease-specific and generic factors associated with current BMI in this group.

  20. Determining the prevalence of obesity and overweight among children in the second primary school in Pacov using caliperacion

    OpenAIRE

    MARŠÍK, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the issue of overweight and obesity among children of 2nd elementary schools in Pacov. The author initially focused on findings regarding overweight, obesity and possibilities for prevention. Eventually deals with eating disorders and healthy lifestyle. The aim of the research was to determine the incidence of overweight and obesity in children at primary schools in Pacov. To obtain data applies skinfold calliper technique, skinfold measures, as well as body height and ...

  1. The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komduur, Rixt; Te Molder, Hedwig

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as 'build'), indicating that participants treat 'behaviour' as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users' response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general.

  2. [Risk factors of children overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Younes, Kawthar; Gabsi, Zvinemira; Bouslah, Amel; Maalel, Issam; Maatouk El May, Wahiba; Dahmen, Hayet; Bel Abed, Najet; Bchir, Nedra; Gabsi, Abdallah; Tekaya, Mohamed Salah; Jebara, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    The increase of the prevalence of children obesity in some countries as Tunisia, necessitate to welling known risk factors for obesity, to prevent and early management. To determine the prevalence of overweight and of obesity in a group of 4-6 year-old school children in Monastir and to investigate the association with possible risk factors. A descriptive transversal study including 121 children aged 4-6 years old (637 males, 698 females), was conducted in 10 Kindergartens in Monastir, in 2011. Personal data such as age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding history and parental data including parental weights and heights, parental education level and occupation were collected by questionnaires completed by parents. Height and weight were measured with a weighing-scale and body mass index (BMI; kg/m²) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined based according to the curves of the french reference of Rolland Cachera. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.1% and 11.6% respectively. Parental factors associated with overweight were: parental obesity: 44% vs 17% (p=0.005) (OR = 3.65: 1.27-10.57), artificial feeding: 68% vs 33% (p=0.0016) (OR= 4.25: 1.51-12.27), and the early diversification of food before the age of 6 months: 88% vs 65% (p=0.029) (OR= 3.84: 0.98 - 17.66). Exclusive breast feeding duration ≥ 6mois is probably protector factor against obesity: 0% vs 21% (p=0. 01) (OR=0: 0.00 Risk factors for obesity, well known in most industrialized countries, necessitate to be more understood in Tunisia, to place a preventive strategy included supervision of children weight, nutritional education and promote physical activity and reducing the time spent watching television.

  3. Characteristics associated with being overweight among the population of Ukraine, results of 2000 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagarna, Natalia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Being overweight is considered among major risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate main determinants associated with being overweight and obese among the population of Ukraine in transitional period.METHODS. Data from the survey “Health and Well-being in the Transitions” (2000 were used. Body mass index (BMI was used to estimate the level of overweight. Binary dependent variable was computed by setting BMI of 25 as the borderline between normal weight and overweight. Risk of being overweight was compared by educational groups, demographic characteristics, occupation, level of physical activity, and behavioral and eating habits, after adjustment for age and stratification by gender.RESULTS. Among men, those overweight were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio 2,5, while more likely to eat meat more often (AOR=2,3 and to consume more vegetable oil. However, among women being overweight was associated with eating more potatoes (AOR = 0,4 and with frequent vodka intake (AOR = 1,7. Those women who drank beer were less likely to be overweight (AOR = 0,3. Risk of being overweight was related to occupation: those unemployed, housekeepers, and self-employed people were less likely to be overweight than those employed with salaries. Obesity risk was greater in those older than 30. Education and physical activity did not show significant associations with risk of being overweight.CONCLUSION. Eating habits, occupational status, and unhealthy habits were associated with obesity among men and women in different ways. Age was found to be an important factor of being overweight both for males and females. Some of the associated characteristics may be considered causes of being overweight and the others as consequences.

  4. Protein Intake as a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Morandi, Anita; Tommasi, Mara; Tomasselli, Francesca; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and/or body fat (BF) with macronutrient composition of the diet have suggested that dietary composition may play an important role to overweight/obesity in childhood, but its relation remains inconclusive. The aim was to assess the association between energy intake (EI) and macronutrient diet composition with overweight/obesity among children.Nonrandomized cohort study including 396 Italian children and preadolescents (9-13 years old), 200 overweight/obese and 196 normal-weight. The children's weight, height, WC, and food intake were measured.Reported EI was higher in overweight/obese than in nonoverweight children; however, after body weight was considered, the overweight/obese children had less EI than their leaner counterparts. Percentages of EI from proteins, SFA, MUFA and PUFA (in males), and dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) were higher in the overweight/obese children than in the leaner ones. EI from carbohydrates and fats was lower in overweight/obese males and females, respectively. Positive correlations between BMI and waist-to-height ratio with EI from proteins were found in males (r = 0.296, P regression, the highest EI from proteins were associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity, while the lowest EI from carbohydrates was associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity in males.Reported EI of overweight/obese children was higher than nonoverweight peers. Overweight/obese children had higher intakes of proteins compared with nonoverweight ones. Overweight/obese males and females showed lower EI from carbohydrates and fats, respectively, than their leaner counterparts.

  5. Lack of Male-Female Differences in Disposition and Esterase Hydrolysis of Ramipril to Ramiprilat in Healthy Volunteers after a Single Oral Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Vree

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify differences in disposition and esterase hydrolysis of ramipril between male and female volunteers. Plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve until the last measured concentration (AUCt data of ramipril and its active metabolite ramiprilat (-diacid were obtained from a randomised, cross-over bioequivalence study in 36 subjects (18 females and 18 males. Participants received a single 5-mg oral dose of two different formulations of ramipril (Formulation I and II. Plasma ramipril and ramiprilat concentrations were determined according to validated methods involving liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total number of 2 � 34 available plasma concentration-time curves of both the parent drug and the metabolite could be analysed, and variations (50�100% coefficient of variation [CV] in plasma concentrations of both parent drug and metabolite were found. With both the formulations, the mean plasma concentrations-time curves of males and females were identical. The groups of female and male volunteers showed similar yields (AUCt = mg.h/L of the metabolite ramiprilat (p = 0.37; however, females showed a higher AUCt/kg than males (p = 0.046. This difference was solely attributed to the difference in body weight between males and females (p = 0.00049. In both male and female groups, a subject-dependent yield of active metabolite ramiprilat was demonstrated, which was independent of the formulation.There is a large variation in the ramiprilat t1/2β (50�60% CV. There is a group of subjects who showed a t1/2β of approximately 80 h (15% CV, and two apparent groups with a longer t1/2βfor each formulation (124 h, 22.5% CV; 166 h, 21.6% CV, respectively, p = 0.0013. This variation in the terminal half-life of ramiprilat is not sex related. In all three groups of half-lives, the corresponding Cmax values (mean � SD of ramiprilat in males and females were identical. Thus, with

  6. Overweight in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Haugen, A G; Glintborg, D

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women affecting 5-10%. Nearly 50% are overweight or obese, which result in a more severe phenotype of PCOS. Weight loss is therefore considered the first line treatment in overweight women with PCOS...

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese college students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, EunSeok; Burke, Lora E; Kim, Kevin H; Shin, Yun-A; Kim, Hee Young

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of metabolic risk factors among overweight and obese college students aged 18 to 29 years in Korea. Baseline data from a healthy lifestyle intervention study for overweight and obese college students in Korea were used. We recruited the sample (N = 73) (84% male; mean [SD] age, 23.77 [2.45] years) from 2 universities in Seoul, Korea, and measured body mass index, waist-hip circumstance, blood pressure, and fasting blood chemistry. Descriptive statistics, Spearman rank order correlations, and analysis of variance were conducted using SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) for windows. Three-fourths of the participants were identified as being viscerally obese based on the Asia Pacific criteria. Of the total sample, about 12% and 20% were defined as having metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program--the Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation, respectively. Concordance between the National Cholesterol Education Program--the Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation definitions was very good in the current study (Cohen kappa coefficient = 0.74, P <.001). Body mass index was significantly correlated with greater triglyceride and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference but with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Early screening and targeted interventions to prevent obesity and the metabolic syndrome are urgently needed to promote health for adolescents and young adults in South Korea.

  8. Factors associated with parental recognition of a child's overweight status - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikkonen Kaisu M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight status was defined by BMI according to internationally accepted criteria. A questionnaire to be filled in by parents was delivered by the school nurses. The parents were asked to evaluate their offspring's weight status. The child's eating habits and physical activity patterns were also enquired about. Factor groups of food and physical activity habits were formed by factor analysis. Binary logistic regression was performed using all variables associated with recognition of overweight status in univariate analyses. The significant risk factors in the final model are reported using odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Fifty-seven percent (69/120 of the parents of the overweight children considered their child as normal weight. Child's BMI was positively associated with parental recognition of overweight (OR 3.59, CI 1.8 to 7.0. Overweight boys were less likely to be recognised than overweight girls (OR 0.14, CI 0.033 to 0.58. Child's healthy diet (OR 0.22, CI 0.091 to 0.54 and high physical activity (OR 0.29, CI 0.11 to 0.79 were inversely related to parental recognition of overweight status. Conclusions Child's healthy eating habits and physical activity are inversely related to parental recognition of their offspring's overweight. These should be taken into account when planning prevention and treatment strategies for childhood obesity.

  9. Overweight – Cultural and Educational Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana POP

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the natural produced food in which nutrients and calories are well balanced is more expensive than industrial produced food. Besides the financial means, understanding the benefits of healthy nurturing and making the correct choices is a cultural issue. Also the education level is correlated with health; educated individuals report higher sense of control which is associated with better health. Before and in parallel with formal education, children acquire life habits in family. Therefore parents have an important responsibility in promoting a healthy life style in family and thereby giving a good example to their children. A sedentary life has a proven influence over the children’s body weight. The purpose of this study is to promote the idea of education for a healthy life in Romania. In support of this I surveyed a number of studies about overweight in relation with education, self image, regional culture or the influence of media over body perceptions. Landmarks that society promotes are really severe especially for girls and it puts them in a position of inferiority, repercussions on self esteem and confidence. I add my own study results about some subjective parameters of well being. The results underline a dreadful but definite conclusion: people of western culture are digging their own grave with the teeth. Is a fact that poor nutrition is leading to a range of physical health problems and some psychological effects as well. Recommendations. Physical activity doubled with a healthy life style education since the early years could stop the aggressive spread of overweight and obesity. Because our soul and intelligence must express themselves through a physical body we must prepare the new generation to preserve it for at least 75 years of active life.

  10. The psychosocial burden of childhood overweight and obesity: evidence for persisting difficulties in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Allen, Karina L; Davis, Elizabeth; Blair, Eve; Zubrick, Stephen R; Byrne, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that overweight and obese children tend to remain overweight or obese into adolescence and adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed to investigate the course of psychosocial difficulties over a 2-year period for children who were overweight or obese at baseline, and a sample of children who were a healthy weight at baseline. Participants were 212 children aged 8 to 13 years at baseline, who were participating in the Childhood Growth and Development (GAD) Study. Questionnaire and interview measures were used to assess children's self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image, eating disorder symptoms, experiences with bullying, family satisfaction and quality of life. Linear mixed models were used to consider longitudinal changes in psychosocial variables. Overweight and obese children reported greater psychosocial distress than healthy weight children, and these differences were more pronounced for girls than boys. Weight and psychosocial impairment showed stability from baseline to 2-year follow-up. The results of this study suggest that psychosocial difficulties show considerable stability in childhood, for overweight/obese and healthy weight children. What is Known: • Childhood obesity tracks into adolescence and adulthood. • Physical health problems associated with childhood obesity also persist to adulthood. What is New: • Overweight and obese children are at risk of ongoing psychosocial distress from childhood into early adolescence.

  11. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  12. Differentiation of Overweight from Normal Weight Young Adults by Postprandial Heart Rate Variability and Systolic Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffe, Lauren; Stancil, Kimani; Bond, Vernon; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and cardiovascular disease are inextricably linked and the health community’s response to the current epidemic of adolescent obesity may be improved by the ability to target adolescents at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease in the future. Overweight manifests early as autonomic dysregulation and current methods do not permit differentiation of overweight adolescents or young adults at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Aim This study was designed to test the hypothesis that scaling exponents motivated by nonlinear fractal analyses of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) differentiate overweight, otherwise healthy adolescent/young adult subjects at risk for developing prehypertension, the primary forerunner of cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods The subjects were 18-20year old males with Body Mass Index (BMI) 20.1-42.5kg/m2. Electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR) intervals were measured during 3h periods of bed rest after overnight fasting and ingestion of 900Cal high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages on separate days. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), k-means cluster and ANOVA analyses of scaling coefficients α, α1, and α2, showed dependencies on hourly measurements of systolic blood pressure and on premeasured BMI. Results It was observed that α value increased during the caloric challenge, appears to represent metabolically-induced changes in HRV across the participants. An ancillary analysis was performed to determine the dependency on BMI without BMI as a parameter. Cluster analysis of the high-carbohydrate test beverage treatment and the high-fat treatment produced grouping with very little overlap. ANOVA on both clusters demonstrated significance at p<0.001. We were able to demonstrate increased sympathetic modulation of our study group during ingestion and metabolism of isocaloric high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages. Conclusion These findings demonstrate significantly different

  13. Overweight and Obesity (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Kids and Exercise Healthy Eating Keeping Portions Under Control Metabolic Syndrome Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Encouraging a Healthy Body Image Healthy Drinks for Kids Healthy Food Shopping Healthy ...

  14. The effects of sustained cognitive task performance on subsequent resting state functional connectivity in healthy young and middle-aged male schoolteachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, E.A.T.; Klaassen, E.B.; Rombouts, S.A.; Backes, W.H.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that functional connectivity (FC) within resting state (RS) networks is modulated by previous experience. In this study the effects of sustained cognitive performance on subsequent RS FC were investigated in healthy young (25-30 years; n=15) and middle-aged (50-60 years; n=14

  15. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19 years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh). The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400) and females (1506) aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR), screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use), physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire), and dietary habits (intake frequency per week). Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk), but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories) or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories) were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level = 0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR) and frequency of breakfast (aOR for obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority. PMID:22591544

  16. An open label study to determine the effects of an oral proteolytic enzyme system on whey protein concentrate metabolism in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shil C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that protein intake of 1.5 – 2.8 g/kg/day (3.5 times the current recommended daily allowance is effective and safe for individuals trying to increase or maintain lean muscle mass. To achieve these levels of daily protein consumption, supplementing the diet with processed whey protein concentrate (WPC in liquid form has become a popular choice for many people. Some products have a suggested serving size as high as 50 g of protein. However, due to possible inhibition of endogenous digestive enzymes from over-processing and rapid small intestine transit time, the average amount of liquid WPC that is absorbed may be only 15 g. The combined effect of these factors may contribute to incomplete digestion, thereby limiting the absorption rate of protein before it reaches the ceacum and is eliminated as waste. The purpose of this study was to determine if Aminogen®, a patented blend of digestive proteases from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, would significantly increase the in-vivo absorption rate of processed WPC over control values. It also investigated if any increase would be sufficient to significantly alter nitrogen (N2 balance and C-reactive protein (CRP levels over control values as further evidence of increased WPC absorption rate. Methods Two groups of healthy male subjects were assigned a specified balanced diet before and after each of two legs of the study. Subjects served as their own controls. In the first leg each control group (CG was dosed with 50 g of WPC following an overnight fast. Nine days later each test group (TG was dosed following an overnight fast with 50 g of WPC containing either 2.5 g (A2.5 or 5 g (A5 of Aminogen®. Blood samples were collected during each leg at 0 hr, 0.5 hr, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 3.5 hr and 4 hr for amino acid (AA and CRP analyses. The following 18 AAs were quantified: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine

  17. Clinicopathological characteristics and metabolic profiles of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Indian patients with normal body mass index: Do they differ from obese or overweight non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; however, NAFLD does occur in lean subjects. This study was aimed to evaluate the magnitude, clinical, pathological, and metabolic profiles of NAFLD in normal body mass index (BMI subjects (defined as lean NAFLD in comparison to overweight or obese NAFLD and lean healthy control. Materials and Methods: 336 subjects (205 consecutive NAFLD, and 131 healthy controls were studied. Results: Among 205 NAFLD patients, 27 (13.2% were lean, while 141 (68.8% and 37 (18% patients were obese and overweight, respectively. The lean NAFLD compared to obese NAFLD had significantly lesser degree of fasting hyperinsulinemia ( P < 0.001, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P < 0.001, and lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus ( P = 0.01 and metabolic syndrome ( P < 0.001. The profiles of serum lipids were similar between all 3 BMI categories, and 89% of lean NAFLD were dyslipidemic. Compared to obese subjects, patients with lean NAFLD had less hepatic necro-inflammation ( P = 0.05 and fibrosis ( P < 0.001. However, the proportion of steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis were similar between all BMI categories. The profiles of overweight NAFLD were similar to those of lean NAFLD, except for higher HOMA-IR, uric acids and male gender in overweight group. Despite being lean, the mean BMI of lean NAFLD were still higher than unselected lean healthy controls ( P = 0.02. Conclusions: Lean NAFLD patients have less severe disease, minor, or no insulin resistance, but are frequently dyslipidemic and have BMI higher than lean healthy control.

  18. Overweight Adolescents' Self-Perceived Weight and Weight Control Behaviour: HBSC Study in Finland 1994–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiina Ojala; Jorma Tynjälä; Raili Välimaa; Jari Villberg; Lasse Kannas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Overweight and perception of being overweight, may lead adolescent to lose weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, and weight control behaviour during 1994–2010 in Finland. Methods. The country-representative, cross-sectional data of 15-year olds were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, conducted in 1994 ( = 1 1 9 4 ; males: 48%), 1998 ( = 1 5 4 5 ; 49%),...

  19. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  20. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-08-01

    Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60-82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012-2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered "healthy" if they had physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m²) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.80). Higher total physical activity in healthy than in unhealthy obese adults is evident only when measured objectively, which suggests that physical activity has a greater role in promoting health

  1. Differences Between Lovastatin and Simvastatin Hydrolysis in Healthy Male and Female Volunteers: Gut Hydrolysis of Lovastatin is Twice that of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Vree

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pharmacokinetic evaluation was to show the effect of the extra methyl group in simvastatin on esterase hydrolysis between lovastatin and simvastatin in male and female volunteers. This study was based on the plasma concentration-time curves and the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin and simvastatin with its respective active metabolite statin-β-hydroxy acid obtained from two different bioequivalence studies, each with 18 females and 18 males. Results were: 1-The group of female volunteers showed a higher yield of the active metabolite β-hydroxy acid than the group of males (p < 0.002 for both lovastatin and simvastatin. This difference was not related to the body weight of both groups. 2-In the male/female groups, subject-dependent yield of active metabolite β-hydroxy acid was demonstrated, which was independent of the formulation. The variation in plasma/liver hydrolysis resulted in a fan-shaped distribution of data points when the AUCt lovastatin was plotted vs. that of the β-hydroxy acid metabolite. In the fan of data points, subgroups could be distinguished, each showing a different regression line and with a different Y-intercept (AUCtβ-hydroxy acid. 3-Lovastatin hydrolysis was higher than simvastatin hydrolysis. 4-It was possible to discriminate between hydrolysis of both lovastatin and simvastatin by plasma/liver or tissue esterase activity.

  2. Using health primes to reduce unhealthy snack purchases among overweight consumers in a grocery store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, E. K.; Potjes, I.; Keesman, M.; Schwinghammer, S.; Van Koningsbruggen, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Healthy-eating intentions of overweight individuals are often thwarted by the presence of attractive food temptations in grocery stores and the home environment. To support healthy-eating intentions, we tested the effectiveness of a simple health prime to reduce the purchases of energy-den

  3. “It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine”: a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002–7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as ‘gender appropriate’, ‘gender anomalous’ or ‘gender neutral’. Design A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. Methods We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. Findings The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as ‘a young woman's illness’, serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently ‘female’ and so ‘anomalous’ for men. Conclusions Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying

  4. Obesity epidemic requires federal intervention: "Healthy Kids" key to nation's healthy future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James P

    2010-01-01

    The Healthy Kids Act (H.R. 4053) legislation does three things: (1) establishes an office of Childhood Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Treatment within the Department of Health and Human Services to provide information and promote action on healthy eating, (2) institutes a three-tier system for labeling foods, and (3) enables regulatory action to curb food commercials targeting children.

  5. Obesity Epidemic Requires Federal Intervention: “Healthy Kids” Key to Nation's Healthy Future

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, James P.

    2010-01-01

    The Healthy Kids Act (H.R. 4053) legislation does three things: (1) establishes an office of Childhood Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Treatment within the Department of Health and Human Services to provide information and promote action on healthy eating, (2) institutes a three-tier system for labeling foods, and (3) enables regulatory action to curb food commercials targeting children.

  6. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Walking... A Step in the Right Direction Binge Eating Disorder Weight-loss & Nutrition Myths Helping Your Overweight Child ... Deal! Tips for Families (PDF, 1.47 MB) Binge Eating Disorder Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits ...

  7. Nutritional Habits and Weight Status among Jazan University Students: Eating Patterns and Healthy lifestyle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Mahfouz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity and to evaluate the nutritional habits, and related factors among the Students of Jazan University. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out during the academic year 2014/2015 in Jazan University, Gizan, South West Saudi Arabia. A total of 436 students 19–25 y of age were examined. The questionnaires, including items on eating habits, lifestyle, and socio-demographic characteristics, were completed by the students. Data on weight, height were also collected.  The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Differences were considered statistically significant at P. value  < 0.05. Results The mean weight for males and females were 67.84 and 54.79 kg respectively, with significant differences between males and females (P. value <0.05. The mean BMI for all study participants was reported as 23.31 (kg/m², also with significant difference between the males and females groups. About 45% of the students were of normal weight; the rate of obesity and underweight among students was very high (33.6% and 21.1% respectively, and their dietary habits were unhealthy. Regularity of meals was found only among (16.5% and 20.4% males and females respectively. 83.3% of males and 95.1% of females reported eating snacks during the day. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity were very high among the studied students. The study showed the need for health education programs on nutritional education in universities in order to increase awareness of students towards healthy eating and lifestyle.   Keywords Body mass index, Cross-sectional study, underweight, overweight, Jazan

  8. Family dinner and adolescent overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Berkey, Catherine S; Rockett, Helaine R H; Field, Alison E; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of family dinner and overweight status in a large sample of 9- to 14-year-old children. We studied a cohort of 7784 girls and 6647 boys, 9 to 14 years of age at baseline in 1996, participating in the Growing Up Today Study. From annual mailed surveys, we calculated BMI from self-reported height and weight and assessed frequency of family dinner over the previous year. We defined "overweight" as age- and sex-specific BMI >85th percentile. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses; the longitudinal analyses assessed the association of previous year family dinner consumption with 1-year incidence of becoming overweight, using prospective data from 1996 through 1999. At baseline in 1996, 16% of participants had family dinner "never or some days," 40% on "most days," and 44% "every day." Across these categories, overweight prevalence for girls was 19.4%, 16.6%, and 16.7% and for boys was 24.6%, 23.3%, and 22.7%, respectively. In cross-sectional analyses, adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of being overweight was 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 0.96] among children who ate family dinner on "most days" or "every day" compared with those who ate family dinner "never or some days." In longitudinal multivariate models, the odds ratios between previous year frequency of eating family dinner and 1-year incidence of becoming overweight were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.16) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.27) for children who ate family dinner on "most days" and "every day," respectively, compared with those who ate family dinner "never or some days." The frequency of eating family dinner was inversely associated with overweight prevalence at baseline but not with likelihood of becoming overweight in longitudinal analyses.

  9. Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Aramburu, Adolfo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Munares-García, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. obstetra, magíster en Salud Pública.; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano especialista en Epidemiologia de Campo.; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano. especialista en Gestión de Salud.; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo.; Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Red para la Acción y Avance de la Salud Mental y Psiquiatría (Red AVANSE-PSI). Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this a...

  10. Ethnic differences in parental attitudes and beliefs about being overweight in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Trigwell, J; Watson, PM; Murphy, RC; Stratton, G; Cable, NT

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately over-represented the views of parents from minority ethnic groups. Eight-hundred-and-eight parents of school-aged children completed the questionnaire. Parental ...

  11. [Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions.

  12. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. Objective: We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Design: Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60–82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012–2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered “healthy” if they had physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Results: Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.80). Conclusions: Higher total physical activity in healthy than in unhealthy obese adults is evident only when measured objectively, which suggests

  13. [Factors associated with overweight in students from tri-border region: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, Elto; Legnani, Rosimeide Francisco Santos; Filho, Valter Cordeiro Barbosa; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Muhamed; de Campos, Wagner; da Silva, Sergio Gregório; Lopes, Adair da Silva

    2010-12-01

    The Tri-Border Region has several social and health problems among young people, however, there are no data about the overweight between adolescents. This study investigated the prevalence of overweight and associated factors in students from Tri-Border Region: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Study participants were 1.183 students, ages from 15 to 18 years. The overweight was identified according to body mass index cut-off points proposed by the World Health Organization. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire was used to identify sociodemographic (gender and age) and behavioral factors (physical activity outside of school, commuting to school, time watching TV and fruits, vegetables, sweet, and salty snack consumption) associated with overweight in adolescents. It was used the descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, chi-square and binary logistic regression, adopting p < 0.05. Thirteen percent of students were overweight. Boys were approximately two times more likely to have overweight than girls, independently of nationality. Brazilian students that realized passive commuting to school and Argentineans students with low consumption of vegetables (< 1 time/day) were 2.2 and 2.9 times more likely to have overweight than their counterparts who performed active commuting to school and consumed vegetables daily, respectively. These results suggest that public policies to combat overweight should attention on promoting healthy lifestyle among young people from Tri-Border Region.

  14. Overweight is more prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Morales-Briceño; Amin Cervantes-Arriaga; Mayela Rodríguez-Violante; Juan Calleja-Castillo; Teresa Corona

    2012-01-01

    Underweight and malnutrition are well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD), while overweight has been less reported. We carried out a cross-sectional study including 177 healthy controls and 177 PD patients attending a tertiary care center. We recorded weight and height for all participants. A statistically significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) between controls and PD patients (29.1±5.4 versus 27.2±4.7, p

  15. [Natural evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T; Gallinas Victoriano, F

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the chronological evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in order to raise public awareness within the different areas of intervention (family, school, business environment, health services) and to take effective actions. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 604 healthy subjects (307 males and 297 females) have been recorded at birth and at the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. The excess body weight has been calculated according to national references from Ferrández et al. Prevalence of excess body weight at age 14 years was significantly higher (P<.05) in males (29%) than in females (12.8%). BMI (kg/m2) was significantly higher (P<.05) for both sexes in every age period, except for birth and age 1 year, in those patients with excess body weight at age 14, with respect to patients with normal nutritional status of the same age. Those groups with excess body weight at age 14 showed a BMI (Z-score) reaching overweight or obesity levels at age 4, and progressively increasing. Excess body weight probably starts at early stages in life, when dietary habits of the child depends almost exclusively on family habits, and may be aggravated during school attendance. Finally, a disproportionate weight increase occurs in adolescence that is probably related to unhealthy dietary habits and way of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of variation in the lipid profile and risk for coronary artery disease in healthy male individuals with respect to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Abraham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is one of the commonest causes of death affecting both sexes worldwide. It is the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. The measurement of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins has long been recognized as necessary for the diagnosis and clinical management of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. On the basis of this, the present study was performed to compare the serum lipid profile in males of different age groups. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted after the institutional ethical clearance. The male subjects between the ages of 20-59 were included in the study. Blood was collected from the subjects after an overnight fast of 12 hours who were also advised to refrain from non-vegetarian food for 3 days. Estimation of serum total cholesterol was done by using the cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method for estimating serum cholesterol. Serum triglyceride was estimated using the triglyceride kit which is based on GPO-POD method. Estimation of serum HDL cholesterol was done using cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method. Serum LDL cholesterol level was calculated using the Friedewald's formula, LDL cholesterol = Total cholesterol - (HDL-C + TG/5. Estimation of fasting blood sugar was done using GOD-POD method. The lipid levels with risk for CAD were performed based on Framingham heart study. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t-test for group wise comparison and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The lipid levels on comparison in 2 successive age groups of males, that is 20-29 and 30-39 years; and 30-39 and 40-49years; 40-49 and 50-59 years, it was found that the mean values of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and the ratio of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C are increased while HDL-C is decreased in the older age group. Conclusion: From the present study it is understood that as age advances total cholesterol

  17. Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, G; Constantini, N W; Yariv, H; Nice, S; Shapira, N

    2011-10-01

    It was previously demonstrated that drinking water significantly elevates the resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults, and that low water intake is associated with obesity and lesser success in weight reduction. This study addressed the potential of water drinking to increase the REE in children, as an additional tool for weight management. To examine the effect of drinking water on the REE of overweight children. A total of 21 overweight, otherwise-healthy children (age 9.9±1.4 years, 11 males) drank 10 ml kg(-1) cold water (4 °C). REE was measured before and after water ingestion, for 66 min. The main outcome measure was the change in mean REE from baseline values. Immediately after drinking water, there was a transient decrease in REE, from a baseline value of 3.32±1.15 kilojoule (kJ) per min to 2.56±0.66 kJ per min at minute 3 (P=0.005). A subsequent rise in REE was then observed, which was significantly higher than baseline after 24 min (3.89±0.78 kJ/min (P=0.021)), and at most time points thereafter. Maximal mean REE values were seen at 57 min after water drinking (4.16±1.43 kJ per min (P=0.004)), which were 25% higher than baseline. REE was significantly correlated with age, height, weight and fat-free mass; the correlations with maximal REE values after water drinking were stronger than with baseline REE values. This study demonstrated an increase of up to 25% in REE following the drinking of 10 ml kg(-1) of cold water in overweight children, lasting for over 40 min. Consuming the recommended daily amount of water for children could result in an energy expenditure equivalent to an additional weight loss of about 1.2 kg per year. These findings reinforce the concept of water-induced REE elevation shown in adults, suggesting that water drinking could assist overweight children in weight loss or maintenance, and may warrant emphasis in dietary guidelines against the obesity epidemic.

  18. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  19. Comparison of ground-based and space flight energy expenditure and water turnover in middle-aged healthy male US astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Schoeller, D. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Socki, R. A.; Gibson, E. K.

    1997-01-01

    Energy requirements during space flight are poorly defined because they depend on metabolic-balance studies, food disappearance, and dietary records. Water turnover has been estimated by balance methods only. The purpose of this study was to determine energy requirements and water turnover for short-term space flights (8-14 d). Subjects were 13 male astronauts aged 36-51 y with normal body mass indexes (BMIs). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was determined during both a ground-based period and space flight and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) calculations of energy requirements and dietary intake. TEE was not different for the ground-based and the space-flight periods (12.40 +/- 2.83 and 11.70 +/- 1.89 MJ/d, respectively), and the WHO calculation using the moderate activity correction was a good predictor of TEE during space flight. During the ground-based period, energy intake and TEE did not differ, but during space flight energy intake was significantly lower than TEE; body weight was also less at landing than before flight. Water turnover was lower during space flight than during the ground-based period (2.7 +/- 0.6 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.5 L/d), probably because of lower fluid intakes and perspiration loss during flight. This study confirmed that the WHO calculation can be used for male crew members' energy requirements during short space flights.

  20. Maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy period alters hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces overweight and increased adiposity at adulthood in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA TERESA RAMÍREZ-LÓPEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet during pre-gestational and gestational periods on a neonatal outcomes, b endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth, c metabolism-related parameters, and d behavior in adult male offspring. We found that calorie-restricted dams tended to have a reduced litter size, although the offspring showed normal weight at birth. Pups from calorie-restricted dams also exhibited a strong decrease in the levels of anandamide (AEA, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, arachidonic acid (AA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA in the hypothalamus at birth. Additionally, pups from diet-restricted dams displayed reduced levels of AEA in the hippocampus without significant differences in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, offspring exhibited increased weight gain, body weight and adiposity in adulthood as well as increased anxiety-related responses. We propose that endocannabinoid signaling is altered by a maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy periods, which might lead to modifications of the hypothalamic and hippocampal circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term effects found in the adult offspring.

  1. Maternal Caloric Restriction Implemented during the Preconceptional and Pregnancy Period Alters Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Overweight and Increased Adiposity at Adulthood in Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosarío Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring. We found that calorie-restricted dams tended to have a reduced litter size, although the offspring showed normal weight at birth. Pups from calorie-restricted dams also exhibited a strong decrease in the levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the hypothalamus at birth. Additionally, pups from diet-restricted dams displayed reduced levels of AEA in the hippocampus without significant differences in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, offspring exhibited increased weight gain, body weight and adiposity in adulthood as well as increased anxiety-related responses. We propose that endocannabinoid signaling is altered by a maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy periods, which might lead to modifications of the hypothalamic and hippocampal circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term effects found in the adult offspring. PMID:27847471

  2. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in a Nigerian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruf, Fatai A; Udoji, Nwannedimma V

    2015-01-01

    This survey explored prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associations with socio-demographic variables in a Nigerian population. This cross-sectional survey involved 1521 adults in Nnewi. Age, sex, educational and occupational status, and BMI were recorded. Prevalence of overweight was higher in males (32.3%; 95% CI, 29.5%-35.2%) than in females (29.8%; 95% CI, 26.8%-33.0%); the reverse was the case for prevalence of obesity (19.6%; 95% CI, 17.3%-22.2% in males and 36.0%; 95% CI, 32.8%-39.4% in females). Higher odds ratios (ORs) for overweight and obesity were observed in participants aged 41-60 years (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.57-2.61 for overweight and OR 4.29; 95% CI, 3.25-5.67 for obesity) and those >60 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21-2.43 for overweight and OR 4.21; 95% CI, 2.86-6.19 for obesity) compared to those aged 18-40 years. Female sex was associated with higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96-1.51) and obesity (OR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.73-2.83). Participants with secondary education had marginally higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88-1.51) and obesity (OR 1.17; 95% CI, 0.86-1.59) than those with tertiary education, and so were those with primary education for obesity (OR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.74-1.89) but higher OR for overweight (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 0.98-2.13). Unskilled participants had about the same OR for overweight and obesity as professionals, and while skilled participants had about the same OR for overweight as professionals, their OR for obesity (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 0.67-2.43) was fairly higher than that for professionals. Prevalence of overweight is higher in males than in females, but the reverse is the case for prevalence of obesity. Older age and female sex are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, while working at a skilled occupation is associated with obesity, and tertiary educational attainment is associated with overweight.

  3. Overweight and obesity related factors in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Caldeira, Gilberto Veras; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation of socioeconomic, dietary, and anthropometric-nutritional variables of parents and their children to overweight (including obesity) in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This is a transversal study conducted on 4,964, 6 to 10-year-old schoolchildren registered in 345 Santa Catarina elementary schools. The following data were acquired: the children's current weight and height, birth weight and length, duration of breastfeeding, age at which water, herbal tea and other foods were introduced to their diet; parental income, education level, age, weight and height were also obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obese children were estimated by point and by interval with a 95% confidence; prevalence rates were obtained based on the Poisson model. An hierarchical approach was used, in which variables were adjusted within blocks and included in the model when they presented p overweight including obesity). The results indicate that 47.8% of the subjects were male. The prevalence of overweight and obese students was 15.4% (C195%: 14.4%-16.5%) and 6.1% (C195%: 5.4%-6.7%) respectively and were statistically similar among sexes and age ranges. BMI values were higher in males and among older children (p overweight (including obesity). Overweight (including obesity) in schoolchildren is associated with a higher per capita household income and parental overweight and obesity.

  4. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral...... arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples...

  5. Daily consumption of tea catechins improves aerobic capacity in healthy male adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Noriyasu; Soga, Satoko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with tea catechins combined with exercise improved endurance capacity in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of daily tea catechin consumption on aerobic capacity in humans. Sixteen Japanese non-athlete male subjects (aged 25-47 years) took 500 mL of a test beverage with or without tea catechins (570 mg) daily for 8 weeks and attended a training program twice a week. Aerobic capacity was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and near-infrared spectroscopy during graded cycle exercise. Catechin beverage consumption was associated with a significantly higher ventilation threshold during exercise and a higher recovery rate of oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin levels after graded cycle exercise when compared to subjects receiving the placebo beverage. These results indicate that daily consumption of tea catechins increases aerobic capacity when combined with semiweekly light exercise, which may be due to increased skeletal muscle aerobic capacity.

  6. Relative bioavailability of generic and branded acetylcysteine effervescent tablets: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen

    2010-11-01

    Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and

  7. Hispanic children and overweight: causes and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella-Nigro, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of overweight is increasing to alarming rates in children and adolescents in the United States. Hispanic children are one of the highest risk groups for overweight. Many different factors are positively correlated with childhood overweight in Hispanics: lower socioeconomic status, lacking health insurance or being under-insured, poor diet, decreased physical activity, overweight status of parents, mother's perception of overweight, and degree of acculturation. Pediatric nurses are in a pivotal position to assist in curtailing the epidemic. Various evidence-based practices to prevent and treat pediatric overweight are discussed with recommendations to intervene, particularly with Hispanic youth.

  8. The 100-meter timed test: Normative data in healthy males and comparative pilot outcome data for use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Lindsay N; Miller, Natalie F; Berry, Katherine M; Yin, Han; Rolf, Kimberly E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Mendell, Jerry R; Lowes, Linda P

    2017-02-17

    Timed walking tests are often used to measure function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our objective was to evaluate the 100 meter timed test (100m), a fixed distance test of maximal performance, for use in DMD. To this end, we sought to establish normative 100m performance in healthy controls, compare DMD performance to controls, and evaluate the reliability of 100m. Seventy-two boys with DMD (18 steroid-naïve, 54 on steroids) and 599 controls (4-14 years) completed the 100m as speedily as possible on a 25-meter track. Repeat testing was completed between 1 and 42 days later and again at 1 year in a subgroup of 96 control boys. Additionally 35 DMD boys were followed longitudinally (5-19 months). Descriptive statistics are presented by age and cohort. There was a significant difference in performance between groups (p  0.90, p < 0.001). Normative data can be used to determine percent-predicted 100m times to quantify the severity of running impairment in children with a motor deficit. Performance of 100m follows the natural history established by other outcome measures in DMD.

  9. 载脂蛋白C3基因多态性与男性超重及肥胖的关系%Research on Relationship Between Apolipoprotein C3 Gene C3175G Polymorphism and Overweight-Obesity in Male

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳丹; 唐晓君; 唐敏; 张名均; 戴勇

    2012-01-01

    Aim To study the relationship between apolipoprotein C3 gene C3175G polymorphism and over-weight-obesity in male, as well as the risk factors of overweight-obesity. Methods A total 154 normal weight subjects (control group) and 184 overweight-obese subjects (case group) were selected from one hospital in Chongqing during the period of May, 2008 to Sep, 2008. PCR-RFLP was applied to analyze the polymorphism, and logistic regression was used for the analysis of the risk factors of overweight-obesity. Results Genotype frequency distribution of CC, CG and GGwere 51. 78% , 39. 94% , 8. 28% respectively, C and G allele frequencies were 71. 75% and 28. 25%. There was no significant difference of CC genotype, CG genotype, GG genotype and C allele, G allele between case group (47. 28% , 14. 57% ,8. 15% , 69. 57% , 30. 43% ) and control group(57. 14% , 34. 42% , 8. 44% , 74. 35% ,25. 65% ). In each group, there was no significant difference for the level of age, serum total cholesterol ( TC ) , high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) between the 2 C3175G genotypes, except waist-hip ratio (WHR) , triglyceride (TG) between the 2 C3175G genotypes in control group. The logistic regression analysis showed that TG may be the risk factor of overweight-obesity. Conclusion The polymorphism of Apolipoprotein C3 gene C6175G may not be associatedwith overweight-obesity, but the persons with CC gene type are more likely to suffer from central obesity.%目的 分析探讨载脂蛋白C3基因C3175G多态性与男性超重及肥胖的关系,以及超重和肥胖的危险因素.方法 采用病例对照研究方法,调查了重庆市某医院338名男性门诊病人和健康体检者,以体质指数作为肥胖的评价指标,获得超重及肥胖患者184人,体质指数正常者(对照组)154人,选择健康人和肥胖患者载脂蛋白C3( ApoC3),检测3175位核苷酸C→G多态性,并对其血脂水平进行比较.结果 该人群CC、CG、GG的基

  10. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children of low socioeconomic status - the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Theresa A.; Adolph, Anne L.; Butte, Nancy F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to 1) assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and 2) test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic families at high risk for obesity. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess dietary intake in low-SES non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls were recorded on two random, weekday occasions. Diet quality was evaluated according to United States (US) Dietary Guidelines. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using z-scores based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Subjects/Setting The study included 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents, ages 4-19 y, in Houston, Texas who participated between November 2000 and August 2004. Statistical analysis STATA was used for generalized estimating equations and random effects regression. Results Diet quality did not adhere to US dietary guidelines for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar and sodium. Although energy intake was significantly higher in overweight children, food sources, diet quality, macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight children. Relative to EAR or AI, mean nutrient intakes were adequate (70-98% probability) in the non-overweight and overweight children, except for vitamins D and E, pantothenic acid, calcium and potassium for which z-scores cannot be interpreted given the uncertainty of their AI's. Conclusion While the diets of low-SES, non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children were adequate in most essential nutrients, other components of a healthy diet, which promote long-term health, were suboptimal. Knowledge of the diet of high risk Hispanic children will inform nutritional interventions and

  11. Contraceptive considerations in overweight teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Bliss; Edelman, Alison

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the efficacy and safety of contraceptives in overweight adolescents. There are few studies exploring hormonal contraceptive efficacy and safety in overweight and obese adults and almost none addressing these issues in adolescents. Luckily for teens, in terms of safety, many of the comorbidities associated with obesity are yet to transpire and their options for contraception remain relatively unrestricted. Studies of the combined oral contraceptive pill and patch in adults suggest that efficacy may be decreased in overweight adolescents. There is no evidence to suggest that the efficacy of the contraceptive implant or intrauterine device (IUD) is decreased in overweight adolescents. Indeed, these long-acting reversible methods will be the best choice for many adolescents because of their high efficacy. Although the literature is not definitive, there is probably a subset of adolescents who are susceptible to weight gain with use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. Although there is little research regarding contraceptive efficacy in overweight adolescents, IUDs and implants will be the best methods for many adolescents because of their high efficacy, reversibility, and safety. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  12. Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zalewska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity. Materials and methods The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school students chosen at random. The research tool consisted an original survey questionnaire. The measurements of respondents’ height and body mass provided data for calculating the body mass index. Results and conclusion The percentage of youth with deficient body mass was estimated at 8.4%. The percentage of normal weight students in the surveyed group was estimated at 77.6%. Overweight and obesity characterized 14.0% of the total number. As many as 21.8% of overweight and obese respondents would eat one or two meals as opposed to 16.8% of normal weight students. Three-fourths of the surveyed students would eat breakfast regardless of their nutritional habits. Lunch is eaten by 52.9% of normal weight 18-year-olds and 46.1% of overweight and obese students. The analysis of mealtimes suggests that overweight and obese students would have their breakfast and dinner at later hours than the rest of the surveyed. More than half of the participating students failed to eat lunch (53.9%, and one in four students within this group resigned from supper. Girls would eat fruit and vegetables more frequently than boys several times a day. The percentage of persons in the surveyed groups who would eat fast foods on a daily basis was similar regardless of their nutritional status. Sweetened carbonated beverages would be drunk more often by overweight and obese boys (81.2% as compared with boys with proper body mass (75.8%. The same type of beverages would be popular with two

  13. Pharmacokinetics study of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (8:1)--a new combination in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers using the LC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanhong; Wang, Yinfu; Xie, Hua; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping; Men, Xiandong; Xu, Liting; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    New oral granules of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio have recently been developed and approved to conduct clinical trial in China. To date, there has been no report studying the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 with different dosage in healthy volunteers and provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determining the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma was developed and applied to this open-label, single- and multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 1, 2, and 4 pouches of the test granulation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio (amoxicillin is 250 mg and clavulanic acid is 31.25 mg per pouch). In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 to determine the Cmin of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. In the 4th day, samples were collected from 0.25 to 24 h after drug administration. Profiles of the concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were best fitted to two-compartment model. In this group of healthy Chinese subjects, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin fitted the linear dynamic feature at doses of 250,500 and 1,000 mg, and not obviously about clavulanic acid at doses of 31.25, 62.5, and 125 mg. The t 1/2 of single dose and multidoses were (1.45 ± 0.12) and (1.44 ± 0.26) h of amoxicillin and (1.24 ± 0.23) and (1.24 ± 0.17) of clavulanic acid, respectively; The AUC0-24 of single dose

  14. Genome-wide scan identifies variant in TNFSF13 associated with serum IgM in a healthy Chinese male population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    Full Text Available IgM provides a first line of defense during microbial infections. Serum IgM levels are detected routinely in clinical practice. And IgM is a genetically complex trait. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic variants affecting serum IgM levels in a Chinese population of 3495, including 1999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1496 independent individuals in the second stage. Our data show that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs11552708 located in the TNFSF13 gene was significantly associated with IgM levels (p = 5.00×10(-7 in first stage, p = 1.34×10(-3 in second stage, and p = 4.22×10(-9 when combined. Besides, smoking was identified to be associated with IgM levels in both stages (P0.05. It is suggested that TNFSF13 may be a susceptibility gene affecting serum IgM levels in Chinese male population.

  15. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP, cyclooxygenase (COX, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS. We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO, and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans.

  16. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  17. Differences and relationship of the levels of blood fat and uric acid between male and female healthy persons%体检人群血脂和尿酸水平的性别差异及相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳茹; 黄群; 王俊丰; 王帅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the differences in the levels of blood fat and uric acid (UA) between gender and the correlation of them in healthy persons.Methods A total of 695 healthy persons were divided into male group (n=412) and female group (n=283).The levels of cholesterol,triglycedde,high density lipoprotein (HDL) and UA were detected,and the data obtained were statistically analyzed.Results The ratios of high triglyceride and high uric acid (HUA) in male group were both significantly higher than those in female group (P<0.01).The levels of triglyceride,cholesterol and UA of male group were significantly higher than female group,but the level of HDL was significantly lower (P<0.01 or P<0.05).The level of UA was in positive correlation to the levels of cholesterol and triglyceride,but in negative correlation to the level of HDL.Conclusion The levels of blood fat and UA are significantly different between males and females,to which importance should be attached in early prevention and treatment.%目的 了解健康体检人群中血脂和尿酸水平的性别差异及相关性.方法 将695例健康体检者按照性别分为男性体检组412例和女性体检组283例,检测总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)和尿酸(UA)水平,并对其进行统计学分析.结果 男性体检组中高甘油三酯和高尿酸血症的检出率明显高于女性(P<0.01);甘油三酯、胆固醇及尿酸的水平也明显高于女性,但高密度脂蛋白水平明显低于女性(P<0.01或P<0.05),尿酸与胆固醇和甘油三酯水平呈正相关,与HDL水平呈负相关.结论 男性和女性人群血脂和尿酸水平存在性别差异,在早期预防和治疗中应引起重视.

  18. Nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Santos do Nascimento Rodrigues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents from public schools, according to the International Classification for Nursing Practice. A population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological characteristics of adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years. 11 nursing diagnoses were identified: "Risk of overweight", "Risk of impaired adolescent development", "Risk of insecurity in parental role performance", "Risk of the family impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of lack of knowledge of dietary regime", "Risk of excess food intake", "Risk of negative self-image", "Risk of low self-esteem", "Risk of impaired social well-being" and "Impaired exercise pattern". These diagnoses reflect the multifactorial nature of obesity, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary and intersectoral articulation of nursing interventions for prevention and control of overweight.

  19. Overweight in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Haugen, A G; Glintborg, D

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women affecting 5-10%. Nearly 50% are overweight or obese, which result in a more severe phenotype of PCOS. Weight loss is therefore considered the first line treatment in overweight women with PCOS...... was weight loss. The clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism and menstrual cyclicity were secondary outcomes. Metabolic parameters were not included in the present review. Results: Weight loss is most effectively achieved through a 12-1500 kcal/day diet, which results in a clinically relevant weight loss...... style changes, preferably a low calorie diet, should be the first line treatment in overweight/obese women with PCOS. Metformin can be considered as an additional treatment but has subtle additive effect....

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

  1. Comparison of sulcus bleeding index between hemophilia patients and healthy males%血友病男性患者与健康男性牙龈出血指数的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京华; 李魁星; 李春; 孙丽丽; 何涛; 杨文东

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较血友病男性患者和健康男性龈沟出血指数的差异.方法 选择北京市北京协和医院血液科血友病门诊的100例男性血友病患者和北京某城区的100例健康男性进行全口牙龈沟出血指数检查.并检查100例血友病患者的茵斑指数和牙石指数.结果 血友病患者龈沟出血指数(1.79±1.27)显著高于健康男性组(1.65±1.14)(P<0.05).35岁及以上年龄组血友病患者(1.80±1.28)及健康男性龈淘出血指数(1.71±1.22)均显著高于35岁以下组(1.76±1.08,1.61±1.08)(P<0.05).血友病患者茵斑指数和牙石指数与龈沟出血指数中度相关.结论 血友病患者牙龈出血情况严重;牙龈出血与口腔卫生状况相关.%Objective To compare the differences of sulcus bleeding index between hemophilia patients and healthy males.Methods Data were derived from the survey of 100 hemophilia patients from Hematology Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and 100 healthy males from one district in Beijing.Sulcus bleeding index ( SBI) between them was evaluated for full mouth.Plaque index ( PLI) and calculus index ( CI) were evaluated for 100 hemophilia patients too.Results SBI of hemophilia patients ( 1.79 ± 1.27) was higher than that of the healthy males ( 1.65 ± 1.14) ( P < 0.05).SBI of hemophilia patients (1.80 ± 1.28) and healthy males ( 1.71 ± 1.22) above 35 years old were higher than those of the subjects (1.76 ± 1.08, 1.61 ±1.08) under 35 years old ( P <0.05).PLI and CI are moderately interrelated with SBI for hemophilia patients.Conclrrsion Cingival bleeding is rather severe in hemophilia patients, and it is interrelated with dental health situation.

  2. A rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantitation of choline, an active metabolite of citicoline: Application to in vivo pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study in Indian healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amlan Kanti; Ghosh, Debotri; Haldar, Dhiman; Sarkar, Pradipta; Gupta, Bhaswati; Dastidar, Sujata Ghosh; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-12-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of choline (CL), active metabolite of citicoline in human plasma using metformin (MF) as IS. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase Phenomenx Gemini C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol:water (containing 10mM ammonium formate) (9:1, v/v). The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.05-5μg/ml. The validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters and bioequivalence study of test and reference control release (CR) tablet preparation of citicoline 1000mg after a single oral administration to all 12 healthy male volunteers.

  3. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  4. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  5. How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... common way to determine if a person is overweight or obese is to calculate body mass index ( ...

  6. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in healthy Korean male volunteers: a randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Lee, Donghwan; Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Guk, Jinju; Jang, Seong Bok; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, and telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, are commonly prescribed in combination for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. However, the nature of the pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs is not clearly understood. The goal of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in a healthy Korean population. This was a randomized, 2-part, open-label, 2-period, crossover, multiple-dose study, with each part composed of different subjects between the ages of 20 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received rosuvastatin 20 mg with and without telmisartan 80 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In part 2, each subject received telmisartan 80 mg with and without rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In both parts, there was a 16-day washout period between mono- and coadministration. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after the last dose. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. In part 1, the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for coadministration of the 2 drugs to monoadministration of each drug were 1.0736-1.2932 for AUCτ and 1.7442-2.3229 for Cmax,ss for rosuvastatin and 0.9942-1.1594 for AUCτ and 1.3593-1.7169 for Cmax,ss for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, whereas in part 2, the CIs were 1.0834-1.2672 for AUCτ and 1.1534-1.5803 for Cmax,ss for telmisartan. The most frequently noted AE was cough in part 1, which occurred in 2 subjects receiving the combination therapy, and oropharyngeal pain in part 2, which occurred in 3 subjects receiving the combination therapy. All reported AEs were mild or moderate, and there was no significant difference in incidence between the treatments. These findings demonstrated that rosuvastatin and telmisartan mutually affected each other

  7. A longitudinal cohort study examining determinants of overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline; Saeed, Usman; Elliott, Susan

    2017-04-20

    Adulthood overweight and obesity are multifaceted conditions influenced by a combination of biological, environmental and socio-cultural factors across the lifespan. Using a longitudinal study design, we aimed to identify determinants of adulthood overweight and obesity, in relation to: 1) childhood and life course factors, 2) geographical differences in air quality, and 3) gender-specific factors, in a cohort followed from childhood into adulthood. Childhood data were acquired (1978-1986) from children residing in four distinct Hamilton neighbourhoods (Ontario, Canada), including air-quality assessments. Adulthood data were obtained (2006-2007) from successfully retraced participants (n = 315) using comprehensive self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate determinants of adulthood overweight (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: ≥30). The prevalence of normal weight decreased drastically at follow-up in adulthood, while that of overweight and obesity increased. Both overweight and obesity in adulthood were associated with male gender and occupational exposures to contaminants. Childhood residence in Hamilton neighbourhoods with better air quality was associated with lesser odds of adulthood overweight, whereas adulthood obesity was strongly linked to childhood weight gain (overweight or obesity). Among females, childhood weight status predicted overweight and obesity in adulthood, with always living in Hamilton, lack of additional health insurance, negative self-appraisal and high blood pressure during adulthood identified as other significant predictors. Among males, prolonged occupational exposures to contaminants emerged as a unique determinant of adulthood weight gain. Adulthood overweight and obesity are associated with childhood and life course determinants, including childhood weight status, residential air quality and occupational contaminant exposures, in a gender-specific manner.

  8. Socioeconomic position and overweight among adolescents: data from birth cohort studies in Brazil and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Victora, Cesar G; Golding, Jean; Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria; Araujo, Cora L; Smith, George Davey

    2009-01-01

    Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separately for males and females. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between overweight status and two SEP indicators – family income and maternal education. Results A strong positive association was observed in 11-year-old boys from the 1993 Pelotas cohort, with higher prevalence of overweight among the least poor and among those whose mothers had more years of schooling (x2 for linear trend p < 0.001). In ALSPAC study higher prevalence of overweight was seen among boys whose mothers had lower educational achievement (x2 for linear trend p = 0.006). Among 11 year-old girls from 1993 Pelotas cohort study there was a positive association (higher prevalence of overweight in the higher socioeconomic and educational strata, x2 for linear trend p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) while an inverse association was found in the ALSPAC study (x2 for linear trend p < 0.001). Among males from the 1982 cohort study, overweight at 18 years of age showed a positive association with both SEP indicators while among females, the reverse association was found. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the social patterning of overweight varies between and within populations over time. Specific approaches should be developed within populations in order to contain the obesity epidemic and reduce disparities. PMID:19368733

  9. Promoting sustainable consumption and healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    and food cultures. The questionnaire researched the attitude, policies and serving practices regarding promoting organic foods and healthy eating habits through school food service and classroom activities. The data illustrated that schools with organic supply or policies children tend to behave healthier......, and schools were also more likely to promote nutritional education and availability of healthy food items. The study among the school food coordinators document that schools have a huge potential to promote nutritional education, healthy eating patterns and sustainable consumption. However, some difficulties......The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is currently increasing as trend of globalization. Schools as a setting may play a crucial role in preventing children from becoming obese and overweight, through providing healthy school foods and curricular activities. The current study aims...

  10. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in adolescents attending an art school. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analytical study involving the population of adolescent students attending the Nigelia Soria Public School and Art Institute (n=213, 24% boys, 76% girls in the two career paths (non-physical: visual arts and music, and physical artistic activities: dance was conducted. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (systolic, SBP, and diastolic, DBP, and heart rate were measured. A semi-structured questionnaire collecting personal data regarding non-communicable chronic diseases, trauma, menstrual cycle, non-school physical activity, inactivity, and sleep duration was administered. The participation rate was 70%. In boys (age 15.6±1.8 years, the prevalence rates of low weight, eutrophy, overweight, and obesity were 0%, 87.5%, 12.5% and 0%, respectively. In girls (age 15.5±1.7 years, these rates were 1.1%, 86%, 8.6%, and 4.3%. Body mass index was significantly associated with waist circumference and brachial circumference in both genders (p<0.001. In the overweight/obesity group, two students were diagnosed with isolated systolic hypertension (SBP 90th percentile. A eutrophic male student with SBP/DBP 90th percentile was confirmed as borderline by 24-h blood pressure measurement. In the group of overweight/obese girls, two students were identified with isolated SBP 90th percentile, one with isolated DBP 90th percentile, and two with SBP/DBP 90th percentile. The nutritional status of students is satisfactory, with a high proportion of young healthy adolescents of both genders. However, the implementation of this protocol permitted to identify adolescents with high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. These factors may pose a health risk considering the school activity of these students.

  11. Efficacy of wearing compression garments during post-exercise period after two repeated bouts of strenuous exercise: a randomized crossover design in healthy, active males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kazushige; Mizuno, Sahiro; Mori, Ayaka

    2017-12-01

    The efficacy of wearing [a] compression garment (CG) between repeated bouts of exercise within a same day has not been fully understood. The present study determined the effect of wearing a CG after strenuous exercise sessions (consisting of sprint exercise, resistance exercise, drop jump) twice a day on exercise performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory responses. Eleven physically active males (age, 22.7 ± 0.9 years; height, 175.7 ± 6.7 cm; body mass, 73.6 ± 10.2 kg; BMI, 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) performed two trials (a randomized crossover design), consisting of the trial with either wearing a whole-body CG during post-exercise period (CG trial) or the trial with wearing a normal garment without specific pressure (CON trial). Two exercise sessions were conducted in the morning (09:00-10:00, Ex1) and afternoon (14:00-15:00, Ex2). Immediately after completing 60 min of each exercise, the subjects in the CG trial changed into a whole-body CG. Time-course changes in exercise performance (bench press power, jump performances, repeated sprint ability), blood variables (lactate, glucose, myoglobin, creatine kinase, interleukin-6, leptin), and scores of subjective feeling (fatigue, muscle soreness) were compared between the CG and CON trials before Ex1 (8:40), immediately before Ex2 (14:00, 4 h after Ex1), 4 h after Ex2 (19:00), and 24 h after the onset of Ex1 (9:00). Two bouts of exercise significantly decreased performances of counter movement jump (main effect for time: P = 0.04, F = 3.75, partial η (2) = 0.27) and rebound jump (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F = 12.22, partial η (2) = 0.55), while no significant difference was observed between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.10, F = 1.96, partial η (2) = 0.16 for counter movement jump, P = 0.93, F = 0.01, partial η (2) = 0.001 for rebound jump). Repeated sprint ability (power output during 10 × 6 s maximal sprint, 30-s rest

  12. The Scope of Overweight/Obesity among Medical Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled K Aldossari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and overweight occurrence in individuals is regarded to be the major concern in numerous countries. The study aimed to understand the scope and identify the factors that could associate with overwe