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Sample records for healthy older women

  1. Importance of generativity for healthy aging in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M C; Seeman, T; Fried, L P

    2000-04-01

    This article reviewed increasing evidence that remaining physically, cognitively, or socially active confers health benefits by delaying or preventing the onset of disease and disability in older adults. The desire to be generative, or to make a difference, has long been considered an important developmental objective in later years in order to give meaning to one's life, and may provide the necessary impetus for older women to initiate and maintain health-promoting activities. Because the prevalence of disability is greatest in older women, it is critical to find ways to maximize their opportunities for generative activity to promote healthier life-styles. Unfortunately, those who stand to gain most from the promotion of generative roles face many limiting factors, including low education, financial dependence and poverty, primary care-taking responsibilities, social isolation, and low self-efficacy. These obstacles may be too difficult and pervasive for an individual to overcome by oneself. Rather, these challenges need to be addressed through progressive changes in social programs that acknowledge the contributions that older adults can make in later years. Decreasing the structural lag between current social and demographic realities of older women's roles with increasing age will become ever more critical as a growing proportion of older women and men transition from a job outside the home to retirement.

  2. Coronary endothelial function is better in healthy premenopausal women than in healthy older postmenopausal women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Mathews

    Full Text Available Premenopausal women have fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD events than postmenopausal women and age-matched men, but the reasons are not fully understood. Coronary endothelial function (CEF, a barometer of coronary vascular health, promises important insights into age and sex differences in atherosclerotic CVD risk, but has not been well characterized in healthy individuals because of the invasive nature of conventional CEF measurements. Recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI methods were used to quantify CEF (coronary area and flow changes in response to isometric handgrip exercise (IHE, an endothelial-dependent stressor to test the hypothesis that healthy women have better CEF compared to men particularly at a younger age.The study participants were 50 healthy women and men with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD or traditional CV risk factors and Agatston coronary calcium score (on prior CT <10 for those ≥ 50 years. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA measurements and flow-velocity encoded images (CBF were obtained at baseline and during continuous IHE using 3T breath-hold cine MRI-IHE. CEF (%change in CSA and CBF with IHE comparisons were made according to age and sex, and all women ≥50 years were post-menopausal.In the overall population, there were no differences in CEF between men and women. However, when stratified by age and sex the mean changes in CSA and CBF during IHE were higher in younger premenopausal women than older postmenopausal women (%CSA: 15.2±10.6% vs. 7.0±6.8%, p = 0.03 and %CBF: 59.0±37.0% vs. 30.5±24.5% p = 0.02. CBF change was also nearly two-fold better in premenopausal women than age-matched men (59.0±37.0% vs. 33.6±12.3%, p = 0.03.Premenopausal women have nearly two-fold better mean CEF compared to postmenopausal women. CEF, measured by CBF change is also better in premenopausal women than age-matched men but there are no sex differences in CEF after menopause. Fundamental age and sex

  3. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

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    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  4. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Regina Nepomuceno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years and 2003-2008 (19.4 years. However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  5. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdorf, Virginia; Kollia, Betty; Makarec, Katherine; Alleva Szeles, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  6. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Overdorf EdD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  7. Body composition of healthy sedentary and trained, young and older men and women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohrt, W M; Malley, M T; Dalsky, G P; Holloszy, J O

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of age and physical activity on body composition and fat distribution by comparing differences between young and older endurance trained men and women with differences...

  8. Alterations in gait speed and age do not fully explain the changes in gait mechanics associated with healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, L; Vanicek, N; O'Brien, T D

    2013-04-01

    Older adults exhibit modified gait patterns compared to the young, adopting movement strategies in response to changes in musculoskeletal function. Investigating the functional mobility of older women is particularly important because of their increased life expectancy and greater falls risk compared to men. We explored the relationships between gait parameters and age in healthy older women whilst accounting for declining gait speeds. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-nine women (60-83 years) whilst walking at a comfortable cadence. Regression analysis assessed the capacity of gait speed and age to explain the variance in gait associated with older age. Speed explained the majority of variance in many gait parameters. By including age in the regression, the total explained variance (R2) for foot clearance (70%), ankle plantarflexion angle (30%), peak ankle plantarflexor moment (58%), and hip power generation (56%) were significantly (polder age and other contributing factors must exist. Losses of 1.2%/year in gait speed were predicted by age, exceeding previous predictions of -0.7%/year. Furthermore, the accumulation of apparently small decreases of 0.2 cm/year in peak foot-to-ground clearance has clinical implications and offers insight into the mechanisms by which gait becomes hazardous in older age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Healthy Community-dwelling Older Women

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    Trompeter, Susan E.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female sexual dysfunction is a focus of medical research but few studies describe the prevalence and covariates of recent sexual activity and satisfaction in older community-dwelling women. METHODS 1303 older women from the Rancho Bernardo Study were mailed a questionnaire on general health, recent sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS 806 of 921 respondents (87.5%) age ≥40 years answered questions about recent sexual activity. Their median age was 67; mean years since menopause, 25; most were upper-middle class; 57% had attended at least one year of college; 90% reported good to excellent health. Half (49.8%) reported sexual activity within the past month with or without a partner, the majority of whom reported arousal (64.5%), lubrication (69%), and orgasm (67.1%) at least most of the time, although one-third reported low, very low, or no sexual desire. Although frequency of arousal, lubrication, and orgasm decrease with age, the youngest (80 yrs) women reported a higher frequency of orgasm satisfaction. Emotional closeness during sex was associated with more frequent arousal, lubrication, and orgasm; estrogen therapy was not. Overall, two-thirds of sexually active women were moderately or very satisfied with their sex life, as were almost half of sexually inactive women. CONCLUSION Half these women were sexually active, with arousal, lubrication, and orgasm maintained into old age, despite low libido in one-third. Sexual satisfaction increased with age and did not require sexual activity. PMID:22195529

  10. Growth hormone and sex steroid effects on serum glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations in healthy older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Thomas; Harman, S Mitchell; Sorkin, John D; Blackman, Marc R

    2009-10-01

    With aging, GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid concentrations and glucose tolerance decrease, and body fat and serum lipids increase. The aim of the study was to assess GH and/or sex steroid administration effects on serum glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in older individuals. A double-masked, 2 x 2 factorial, placebo-controlled, double-dummy design was used for the study. GH and/or sex steroid [transdermal estradiol plus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate in women (HRT); testosterone enanthate (T) in men] were administered for 6 months. Healthy, community-dwelling women (n = 57) and men (n = 74) ages 65-88 yr (mean, 72 yr) participated in the study. We measured serum glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity [quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI)] before and during an oral glucose tolerance test and lipid profiles. In women, GH did not alter oral glucose tolerance test 120 min or 2-h area under the curve (AUC) glucose values, but it increased 120 min insulin and AUC insulin. There were no significant effects of HRT or GH+HRT. ISI and QUICKI decreased after GH. In men, GH increased 120 min and AUC glucose and insulin AUC. GH+T increased 120 min glucose and glucose and insulin AUCs. T alone did not affect glucose or insulin. ISI decreased after GH and GH+T, whereas QUICKI decreased after GH. GH in women and men and GH+T in men decreased QUICKI by 4 wk. In women, HRT decreased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and GH decreased LDL-cholesterol. In men, total cholesterol decreased after T and GH+T. LDL-cholesterol decreased after GH and GH+T. GH increased serum triglycerides. GH administration to healthy older individuals for 6 months increased insulin resistance with moderately beneficial effects on lipids.

  11. Nutritional status predicts primary subclasses of T cells and the lymphocyte proliferation response in healthy older women.

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    Molls, Roshni R; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Mastro, Andrea M; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Handte, Gordon C

    2005-11-01

    Aging is often associated with a dysregulation in immune function, particularly in T-cell responses, even in the healthy elderly. Adequate nutrition is important for optimal immune function. The literature on the relation of nutritional status with immune function in the elderly offers mixed findings. Because several nutrients can influence immune response, and there are interactions among nutrients, examining the association of various nutrients measured simultaneously with tests of immune function is important. We examined the association of protein, iron, zinc, vitamin B-12, and folic acid with tests of acquired immunity in healthy older women (76.7 +/- 7.0 y; n = 130). Discriminant analysis was used to identify the predictive subset of nutrients that could correctly classify subjects into the lowest or highest quartiles (75th percentile) on various immune function tests (T cells and subsets and lymphocyte proliferation in response to culture with mitogens). Protein and iron status variables were identified in the predictive subset for all immune tests; in addition, zinc emerged in the predictive model for T cells and their subsets as well as for the proliferation response to concanavalin A. The probability of correctly classifying women into the lowest or highest quartiles of immune tests by the predictive subset of nutrition variables was high, i.e., 62.8-83.5% for T cells and their subsets, and 79.3-89.7% for the proliferation response to mitogens. In conclusion, protein, iron, and zinc were significant predictors of immune function in older women. Adequate status of these nutrients may help maintain immunity in older adults.

  12. Association of spinal muscle composition and prevalence of hyperkyphosis in healthy community-dwelling older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Wendy; Cawthon, Peggy; Hicks, Gregory E; Vittinghoff, Eric; Shepherd, John; Cauley, Jane A; Harris, Tamara; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Strotmeyer, Elsa; Womack, Catherine; Kado, Deborah M

    2012-02-01

    Older adults with hyperkyphosis are at increased risk of falls, fractures, and functional decline. Modifiable risk factors for hyperkyphosis have not been well studied. Our objective was to determine whether spinal muscle area and density are associated with hyperkyphosis, independent of age, race, sex, bone mineral density, and trunk fat. Using data from the Pittsburgh site of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we performed a baseline cross-sectional analysis. Participants were black and white men and women 70-79 years old (N = 1172), independent in activities of daily living and able to walk ¼ mile and up 10 steps without resting. We measured Cobb's angle of kyphosis from supine lateral scout computed tomography scans, and categorized hyperkyphosis as Cobb's angle >40°. Axial images from lateral scout computed tomography scans assessed spinal extensor muscle cross-sectional area and density (proxy for fat infiltration). In our sample, 21% had hyperkyphosis. Prevalence in black men was 11%; in white men, 17%; in black women, 26%; and in white women, 30%. In multivariate analysis, each standard deviation increase in muscle density was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of hyperkyphosis, independent of covariates. Muscle area was not significantly associated with hyperkyphosis. Lower spinal muscle density is associated with hyperkyphosis in healthy community-dwelling older adults. This potentially modifiable risk factor could be targeted in exercise interventions. Randomized trials are needed to determine whether an exercise program targeting spinal muscle density reduces hyperkyphosis and in turn improves health outcomes.

  13. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women.

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    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; George, L K; Coleman, R E; Riddle, M W; McKee, D C; Reasoner, J; Williams, R S

    1989-09-01

    The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise group, a Yoga and Flexibility control group, or a Waiting List control group. Prior to and following the 4-month program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and psychological evaluations. Physiological measures included measurement of blood pressure, lipids, bone density, and cardiorespiratory fitness including direct measurements of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and anaerobic threshold. Psychological measures included measures of mood, psychiatric symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning. This study demonstrated that 4 months of aerobic exercise training produced an overall 11.6% improvement in peak VO2 and a 13% increase in anaerobic threshold. In contrast, the Yoga and Waiting List control groups experienced no change in cardiorespiratory fitness. Other favorable physiological changes observed among aerobic exercise participants included lower cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure levels, and for subjects at risk for bone fracture, a trend toward an increase in bone mineral content. Although few significant psychological changes could be attributed to aerobic exercise training, participants in the two active treatment groups perceived themselves as improving on a number of psychological and behavioral dimensions.

  14. Leg extension power asymmetry and mobility limitation in healthy older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegijs, Erja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Alen, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Tiainen, Kristina; Rantanen, Taina

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of asymmetry in leg extension power (LEP) with walking and standing balance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy female twins (N=419), ages 63 to 75 years. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME

  15. Healthy Lifestyle: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and sleep disturbances. However, regular exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight, relieve stress and improve your quality of life. For most healthy women, the Department ...

  16. Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women Aged 40 and Older: An Effective Intervention in 10 Cities Using Tailored Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jane A; Haynes, Suzanne G; Eliason, Michele J; Wood, Susan F; Gilbert, Tess; Barker, Linda Toms; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2016-07-07

    Lesbian and bisexual women are more likely to be overweight or obese than heterosexual women, leading to increased weight-related health risks. Overweight women aged 40 or older who self-identified as lesbian, bisexual, or "something else" participated in five pilot interventions of 12 or 16 weeks' duration. These tailored interventions took place at lesbian and bisexual community partner locations and incorporated weekly group meetings, nutrition education, and physical activity. Three sites had non-intervention comparison groups. Standardized questionnaires assessed consumption of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, alcohol, physical activity, and quality of life. Weight and waist-to-height ratio were obtained through direct measurement or self-report. Within-person changes from pre-intervention to post-intervention were measured using paired comparisons. Participant characteristics that influenced the achievement of nine health objectives were analyzed. Achievement of health objectives across three program components (mindfulness approach, gym membership, and pedometer use) was compared with the comparison group using generalized linear models. Of the 266 intervention participants, 95% achieved at least one of the health objectives, with 58% achieving three or more. Participants in the pedometer (n = 43) and mindfulness (n = 160) programs were more likely to increase total physical activity minutes (relative risk [RR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.36; p = .004; RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.01-1.89; p = .042, respectively) and those in the gym program (n = 63) were more likely to decrease their waist-to-height ratio (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.97-3.68, p = .06) compared with the comparison group (n = 67). This effective multisite intervention improved several healthy behaviors in lesbian and bisexual women and showed that tailored approaches can work for this population. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights

  17. Biomarker-calibrated nutrient intake and healthy diet index associations with mortality risks among older and frail women from the Women's Health Initiative.

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    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Hebert, James R; Steck, Susan E; Shivappa, Nitin; Tabung, Fred K; Wirth, Michael D; Bu, Yunqi; Shikany, James M; Orchard, Tonya; Wallace, Robert B; Snetselaar, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F

    2017-06-01

    Background: Although studies to date have confirmed the association between nutrition and frailty, the impact of dietary intake and dietary patterns on survivorship in those with frailty is yet to be examined in a well-powered cohort with validated frailty status. Moreover, previous studies were limited by measurement error from dietary self-reports.Objective: We derived biomarker-calibrated dietary energy and protein intakes to address dietary self-report error. Using these data, we then evaluated the association of mortality in older women with frailty and dietary intake and healthy diet indexes, such as the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII).Design: The analytic sample included 10,034 women aged 65-84 y with frailty and complete dietary data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Frailty was assessed with modified Fried's criteria. Dietary data were collected by food-frequency questionnaire.Results: Over a mean follow-up period of 12.4 y, 3259 (31%) deaths occurred. The HRs showed progressively decreased rates of mortality in women with higher calibrated dietary energy intakes (P-trend = 0.003), higher calibrated dietary protein intakes (P-trend = 0.03), higher aMED scores (P-trend = 0.006), and higher DASH scores (P-trend = 0.02). Although the adjusted point estimates of HRs (95% CIs) for frail women scoring in the second, third, and fourth quartiles on DII measures were 1.15 (1.03, 1.27), 1.28 (1.15, 1.42), and 1.24 (1.12, 1.38), respectively, compared with women in the first quartile, no overall effect was observed across quartiles (P-trend = 0.35). Subgroup analyses by chronic morbidity or smoking status or by excluding women with early death did not substantially change these findings.Conclusions: The current study highlights the importance of nutrition in older, frail women. Diet quality and quantity should be considered in managing persons

  18. National dissemination of StrongWomenHealthy Hearts: A community-based program to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among midlife and older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: We describe the national dissemination of an evidence-based community cardiovascular disease prevention program for midlife and older women using the RE-AIM (reach effectiveness adoption implementation maintenance) framework and share key lessons learned during translation. Methods: In a ...

  19. Indicators of "Healthy Aging" in older women (65-69 years of age. A data-mining approach based on prediction of long-term survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swindell William R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of long-term survival in healthy adults requires recognition of features that serve as early indicators of successful aging. The aims of this study were to identify predictors of long-term survival in older women and to develop a multivariable model based upon longitudinal data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF. Methods We considered only the youngest subjects (n = 4,097 enrolled in the SOF cohort (65 to 69 years of age and excluded older SOF subjects more likely to exhibit a "frail" phenotype. A total of 377 phenotypic measures were screened to determine which were of most value for prediction of long-term (19-year survival. Prognostic capacity of individual predictors, and combinations of predictors, was evaluated using a cross-validation criterion with prediction accuracy assessed according to time-specific AUC statistics. Results Visual contrast sensitivity score was among the top 5 individual predictors relative to all 377 variables evaluated (mean AUC = 0.570. A 13-variable model with strong predictive performance was generated using a forward search strategy (mean AUC = 0.673. Variables within this model included a measure of physical function, smoking and diabetes status, self-reported health, contrast sensitivity, and functional status indices reflecting cumulative number of daily living impairments (HR ≥ 0.879 or RH ≤ 1.131; P Conclusions The multivariate model we developed characterizes a "healthy aging" phenotype based upon an integration of measures that together reflect multiple dimensions of an aging adult (65-69 years of age. Age-sensitive components of this model may be of value as biomarkers in human studies that evaluate anti-aging interventions. Our methodology could be applied to data from other longitudinal cohorts to generalize these findings, identify additional predictors of long-term survival, and to further develop the "healthy aging" concept.

  20. What is important in the surroundings in order to extend the healthy life period? A regional study of 19 older women in a northern part of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn-Tove Minde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Participating in a community with other retired individuals to increase life quaøity can be possible for the older persons. Cultural and ethnical background is important for their social identity. Objective . To identify what the informants think is important in their surroundings in order to extend their healthy life period. Study design . A structured questionnaire developed by the OCIN network. Methods . Nineteen elderly women aged 75 years or more were interviewed. This regional survey is a pilot study in Norway. The data were collected during 2 periods, in 2009 and 2010. The data are analyzed using a result scheme prepared by the network OCIN. Results . Our findings show that this is a group of elderly women that are concerned with promoting their own health. The participants wish to take care of themselves, so they do not become a burden for society and the local authorities. Conclusions . The findings of this study suggest that participation in the local context is important for promoting health and well-being among elderly in all ethnicities. For the Sami elderly, this is particularly important because meeting equal-minded people helps them maintain their Sami identity. In the Sami culture and among the Sami elderly, it is important to be “strong” and “healthy”. Due to these norms, the elderly Sami women try to live with their illnesses and are less eager to go to the doctor when they are seriously ill.

  1. Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also can be a problem for some older adults. Here are a few tasty tips to pump up your protein intake, without upsetting your food budget or energy balance. Enjoy More Beans. Add canned beans to salads, soups, rice dishes and ...

  2. Short-term transdermal estradiol therapy, cognition and depressive symptoms in healthy older women. A randomised placebo controlled pilot cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rebekah; Bulpitt, Christopher John; Wesnes, Keith A; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2005-05-01

    The potential role of estrogen in protecting women from cognitive decline and reducing depressive symptoms is of great therapeutic interest. In a pilot randomised placebo controlled cross-over study, we aimed to determine the short-term effects of transdermal estradiol therapy on cognition and depressive symptoms in healthy cognitively normal post-menopausal women over 60 years of age. Nineteen cognitively normal women, without clinical depression whom had undergone a hysterectomy in the past were recruited. Women were randomised to receive either transdermal estradiol 50 microg/24 h (Femseven) or transdermal placebo for 12 weeks before crossing over to the other medication for a further 12 weeks. Cognition was assessed every 6 weeks by the cognitive drug research (CDR) computerised assessment which recorded both accuracy and speed in the following cognitive tests; simple reaction time, choice reaction time, digit vigilance, visual tracking, spatial working memory, immediate and delayed word recall and delayed face and picture recall. Depressive symptoms were measured using the brief assessment scale depression card (BASDEC) depression rating scale at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Participants had a mean age of 71, IQ of 115 and MMSE of 29. Simple reaction time and the BASDEC depression rating scale improved after 12 weeks of estradiol use. All other tests were unaltered by estradiol. Twelve weeks of transdermal estradiol therapy did not consistently improve the speed or accuracy of older women in various cognitive tests. However, the results do support the concept that depressive symptoms may be reduced by estradiol, and not simply due to the relief of climacteric symptoms.

  3. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program: reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural sedentary, overweight, and obese midlife and older women.

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    Folta, Sara C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Seguin, Rebecca A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Kuder, Julia F; Nelson, Miriam E

    2009-07-01

    We tested a community-based intervention designed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in sedentary midlife and older women who were overweight or obese. In a randomized controlled trial conducted in 8 counties in Arkansas and Kansas, counties were assigned to the intervention (a 12-week twice-weekly heart health program) group or to the delayed-intervention control group. Ten to fifteen women were selected from each site, and participants' weight, waist circumference, diet, physical activity, and self-efficacy were measured before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed with multiple regressions. Compared with the control group, participants in the intervention group had a significant decrease in body weight (-2.1 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.2, -1.0), waist circumference (-2.3 in; 95% CI = -4.2, -0.5), and energy intake (-390 kcal/day; 95% CI = -598, -183); an increase in activity (+1637 steps/day; 95% CI = 712, 2562); and an increase in self-efficacy for dietary and physical activity behaviors. Our results suggest that a community-based program can improve self-efficacy, increase physical activity, and decrease energy intake, resulting in decreased waist circumference and body weight among at-risk women.

  4. Diet Quality of Middle Age and Older Women from Primorsko-Goranska County Evaluated by Healthy Eating Index and Association with Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kenđel Jovanović, Gordana; Pavičić Žeželj, Sandra; Malatestinić, Đulija; Mrakovčić Šutić, Ines; Nadarević Štefanac, Vesna; Dorčić, Fedor

    2010-01-01

    Accorded dietary habits provide adequate nutrient intakes, especially important for quality aging. Adequate nutrition for older persons has vital influence on maintaining good health and social functioning. Therefore, using simple tool for evaluation of diet of older population in relation to overweight and obesity is of public health importance. Among many factor that influence quality of aging has obesity, where in Croatia the prevalence of obesity is greater in older women than men. Our ai...

  5. Older lesbian women. An invisible minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevey, S

    1990-05-01

    Older lesbian women have been "invisible" because of their age, gender, and sexual orientation. Some nurses have inaccurate homophobic stereotypes about older lesbian women. Research indicates that older lesbian women report demographic variety, excellent mental health, and positive attitudes toward aging. Nurses who are educated and comfortable about sexual orientation issues can provide a safe environment for older lesbian patients.

  6. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  7. Eating disorders in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Financial Abuse of Older Women in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, Nevena; Todorovic, Natasa; Vracevic, Milutin; Jankovic, Brankica

    2015-01-01

    A survey of older women in Serbia was conducted to understand the structural and individual financial abuse they experienced within the family context, as well as the risks of this form of abuse and their knowledge of their rights. This is the first study on financial abuse of older women in Serbia. It has important implications for older women who experience lower overall economic status than older men and women of younger ages. A convenience sample of 97 older women age 65 years and older from ten cities/municipalities of Serbia was interviewed. Respondents provided information on their finances, experience of receiving/forgoing their inheritance, lifelong contract with family members, etc. Given the sampling methodology, findings do not allow for generalization of the results. However, they provide insights that can inform more efficient policies to protect older people, in particular older women, from this form of abuse.

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Reported Olfactory Function in a Home-Based Study of Independent-Living, Healthy Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Chapo, Audrey K; Duffy, Valerie B

    2014-12-01

    The 2011-14 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey chemosensory protocol asks adults to self-rate their orthonasal (via nostrils) and retronasal (via mouth) smell abilities for subsequent odor identification testing. From data collected with a similar protocol, we aimed to identify a self-reported olfactory index that showed the best sensitivity (correctly identifying dysfunction) and specificity (correctly indentifying normosmia) with measured olfaction. In home-based testing, 121 independent-living older women (age 73±7 years) reported their olfactory function by interviewer-administered survey. Olfactory function was measured orthonasally via composite (odor threshold, identification task) or identification task alone. Only 16 % of women self-rated "below average" smell function. More women perceived loss of smell (38 %) or flavor (30 %) with aging. The rate of measured dysfunction was 30 % by composite (threshold and identification) and 21.5 % by identification task, the latter misclassifying some mild dysfunction as normosmia. An index of self-rated smell function and perceived loss yielded the most favorable sensitivity (65 %) and specificity (77 %) to measured function. Self-rated olfaction showed better agreement with severe measured dysfunction; mild dysfunction was less noticed. Self-reported indices that query about current and perceived changes in smell and flavor with aging showed better sensitivity estimates than those previously reported. Specificity was somewhat lower-some older adults may correctly perceive loss unidentified in a single assessment, or have a retronasal impairment that was undetected by an orthonasal measure. Our findings should inform self-rated measures that screen for severe olfactory dysfunction in clinical/community settings where testing is not routine.

  10. The StrongWomen–Healthy Hearts Program: Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Rural Sedentary, Overweight, and Obese Midlife and Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Goldberg, Jeanne P.; Kuder, Julia F.; Nelson, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We tested a community-based intervention designed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in sedentary midlife and older women who were overweight or obese. Methods. In a randomized controlled trial conducted in 8 counties in Arkansas and Kansas, counties were assigned to the intervention (a 12-week twice-weekly heart health program) group or to the delayed-intervention control group. Ten to fifteen women were selected from each site, and participants' weight, waist circumference, diet, physical activity, and self-efficacy were measured before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed with multiple regressions. Results. Compared with the control group, participants in the intervention group had a significant decrease in body weight (−2.1 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −3.2, −1.0), waist circumference (–2.3 in; 95% CI = −4.2, −0.5), and energy intake (–390 kcal/day; 95% CI = −598, −183); an increase in activity (+1637 steps/day; 95% CI = 712, 2562); and an increase in self-efficacy for dietary and physical activity behaviors. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a community-based program can improve self-efficacy, increase physical activity, and decrease energy intake, resulting in decreased waist circumference and body weight among at-risk women. PMID:19443826

  11. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When DSS, TMT, DFT, and TT were included in the model, there was a significant change in the model and the final model was also significant, with DFT as the only significant predictor. The model accounted for approximately 20% of the variability in fluid intelligence. Our findings suggest that the most reliable means of assessing fluid intelligence is to assess it directly. PMID:28250990

  12. Pregnancy in women aged 40 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-Green, C; Cohen, W R

    1993-06-01

    Counseling patients about pregnancy at advanced maternal age is a difficult process. This is true both because our knowledge of the attendant risks is incomplete and still evolving, and because of the difficulties of assigning risks and addressing counterbalancing benefits for individual patients. There are a number of social and personal considerations involved in a decision to become a parent after the age of 40. Generally, older parents tend to be more mature, to be in stable and healthy marriages, and to have more financial and family resources to assist with the process of child rearing. Parents in their fifth decade, however, may complain of having less energy to devote to young children or may be at a stage in their careers in which they have less time for family participation than when they were younger. Also, grandparents, who can play a critical role in early childhood development, often have become too old to participate in that role or have died. All of these issues must be considered by parents contemplating late childbearing. A great deal has been written, much of it positive, even enthusiastic, about the quality of pregnancy and childbirth among older women. Nevertheless, much of the literature is difficult to interpret because of problems in controlling for confounding variables. In addition, much of the focus on so-called older women has been on those older than 35 years. In fact, the great majority of the medical literature concerning late childbearing relates to women between the ages of 35 and 40. The data that directly concern women in their fifth decade suggest that risks that began to accelerate after the age of 35 become considerably greater and increase more rapidly after the age of 40. Obviously, couples must decide what risks they are willing to accept and how these potential risks might be countervailed by the presumed advantages of parenthood relatively late in the reproductive years. There is convincing evidence to show that fecundity

  13. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Judith B; Putney, Jennifer M; Shepard, Bonnie L; Sass, Samantha E; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly; Cahill, Sean

    2016-04-01

    In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly.

  14. Preventing FASD: Healthy Women, Healthy Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use by pregnant women: Anonymous versus confidential questionnaires with item nonresponse differences. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 29(8):1444–1449. 8. Moraes, C.L.; ...

  15. Diabetes and Depression in Older Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on the association between diabetes and depression in older women and the importance of getting help when feeling depressed.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  16. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  17. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  18. Cardiac Responses to Exercise with Age in Healthy Women

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Masako; Yoneda, Junko; Tsukahara, Masato; Haraguchi, Masahiko

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the cardiac responses during exercise across the age groups in healthy women. Cordiopilmonary indices and Borg scale were obstained at rest and during exercise in twenty0one young female university students and 23 healthy postmenopausal volunteers. Exercise workloads in the younger group were significantly higher than those in the older group at anaerobic threshold (85±13 vs 58±13 watts, respectively ; p < 0.001) and at peak exercise (141±18 vs 93±17 watts, respectively : p < 0.00...

  19. Older women: victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, P A

    1993-05-01

    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  20. Interactive video dance games for healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenski, S; Perera, S; Hile, E; Keller, V; Spadola-Bogard, J; Garcia, J

    2010-12-01

    Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate healthy older adults' interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user. Healthy older adults were recruited from 3 senior living settings and offered three months of training and supervision using a video dance game designed for older people. Before and after the program, data was collected on vital signs, physical function and self reported quality of life. Feedback was obtained during and after training. Of 36 persons who entered (mean age 80.1 + 5.4 years, 83 % female), 25 completed the study. Completers were healthier than noncompleters. Completers showed gains in narrow walk time, self-reported balance confidence and mental health. While there were no serious adverse events, 4 of 11 noncompleters withdrew due to musculoskeletal complaints. Adapted Interactive video dance is feasible for some healthy older adults and may help achieve physical activity goals.

  1. Perceived stress and everyday memory complaints among older adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Guy G; Hartman, Marilyn; Ward, Taeh

    2009-07-01

    Memory complaints among older adults are often influenced by depression and anxiety, but the association of stress to memory complaints has received little attention. We examined the associations of perceived stress, life events, and activity level to everyday memory complaints among healthy older women, while controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety. Participants (N=54) completed self-report questionnaires on memory complaints, perceived stress, recent life events, activity level, depression, and anxiety. Partial correlation analyses indicated that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with higher levels of memory complaints when controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety, but that life events and activity level were not related to memory complaints. This study highlights that perceived stress, like depression and anxiety, is a psychological factor that influences the appraisal of cognitive ability; however, larger and more heterogeneous samples will be needed to better understand the multifactorial nature of memory complaints in older adulthood.

  2. Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geriatrics Osteoporosis Prevention Related Documents PDF Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Tools and ...

  3. Physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Kilding, Andrew; Pidgeon, Philippa; Ashley, Linda; Gillis, Dawn

    2009-10-01

    Dancing is a mode of physical activity that may allow older adults to improve their physical function, health, and well-being. However, no reviews on the physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults have been published in the scientific literature. Using relevant databases and keywords, 15 training and 3 cross-sectional studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that older adults can significantly improve their aerobic power, lower body muscle endurance, strength and flexibility, balance, agility, and gait through dancing. Grade C evidence suggested that dancing might improve older adults' lower body bone-mineral content and muscle power, as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks. Further research is, however, needed to determine the efficacy of different forms of dance, the relative effectiveness of these forms of dance compared with other exercise modes, and how best to engage older adults in dance participation.

  4. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  5. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  6. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  8. Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between healthy diet and exercise, individually and combined, and low muscle mass in older Korean adults. Population-based cross-sectional study from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2011. Community. Nationally representative sample aged 65 and older (1,486 men, 1,799 women) in the Republic of Korea. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine frequency of food group consumption (meat, fish, eggs, legumes; vegetables; fruits). Participation in exercise (aerobic and resistance) was based on self-report. Combined healthy lifestyle factors were calculated as the number of recommendations met regarding consumption of food groups and exercise performed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and low muscle mass was defined using the variable of ASM adjusted for weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between healthy lifestyle factors and low muscle mass, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. In women, after controlling for covariates, vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass. Older women who exercise and consume a healthy diet have lower odds of low muscle mass. Engaging in multiple healthy behaviors may be important in preventing low muscle mass in late life. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Exercise, Health, and Falls Risks among Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kosma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background of Study: Although exercise has many benefits, older African American (AA women are less active than older Caucasian women and older AA men. Balance and muscle-strengthening activities are typically recommended for decreased falls, whereas the role of aerobic training alone on falls prevention is controversial. Objective: This was a mixed methods phronetic (pragmatic study – without an intervention – including quantitative data (falls risks and qualitative data on exercise behavior and its importance to health and falls prevention; therefore, the studied phenomenon was thoroughly and pragmatically investigated. The first purpose of the study was to examine differences in falls risks based on exercise type (aerobics vs. combination of aerobics, muscle training, and balance activities and exercise level (active people vs. somewhat active people. Secondly, participants’ exercise values were examined in relation to their health, falls-risk prevention, exercise behavior, and falls risks. Method: Interviews and falls risk assessments were conducted among 12 older AA women in an inner-city community center. Results: ANCOVA and ANOVA showed that the aerobics group performed better in Dynamic Gait Index (DGI and Timed Up and Go than the combination group (d =0.85, -0.97; the latter surpassed the former in Functional Reach (d = 2.27. The active group (met the 150 minutes/week exercise recommendation performed better in DGI and Six-Minute Walk than the somewhat active group (d =0.62.,50; the latter outperformed the former in balance-eyes open (d = -0.52. Emerging themes about lifestyle values included: a reasons for health conditions and staying healthy and b falls prevention. Conclusion: Exercise programs for fall risk reduction should include not only muscle strengthening and balance activities, but also aerobic exercises. Meeting minimum exercise recommendations is key to falls risk reduction. Beyond healthy diet, the role of exercise

  10. Racial Differences in Neighborhood Perceptions and their Influences on Physical Activity among Urban Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenjun; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Youssef, Gretchen A.; Crouter, Scott E.; Cheng, Jie; Brown, Kristen; Churchill, Linda; Clarke, Anthony; Ockene, Judith K.; Magee, Michelle F

    2017-01-01

    Background Proper levels of physical activity (PA) are important to healthy aging. Little is known about racial differences in influences of neighborhood perceptions (NP) on PA and use of neighborhood resources among community-dwelling older women. Materials and methods In 2014 and 2015, 49 white and 44 black women of age 65 and older living in Washington, DC were queried about their PA, NP, use of neighborhood resources and sociodemographic characteristics. They wore an accelerometer and a G...

  11. Racial Differences in Neighborhood Perceptions and their Influences on Physical Activity among Urban Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Li; Elizabeth Procter-Gray; Youssef, Gretchen A.; Crouter, Scott E.; Jie Cheng; Kristen Brown; Linda Churchill; Anthony Clarke; Ockene, Judith K.; Magee, Michelle F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Proper levels of physical activity (PA) are important to healthy aging. Little is known about racial differences in influences of neighborhood perceptions (NP) on PA and use of neighborhood resources among community-dwelling older women. Materials and methods: In 2014 and 2015, 49 white and 44 black women of age 65 and older living in Washington, DC were queried about their PA, NP, use of neighborhood resources and sociodemographic characteristics. They wore an accelerometer and a...

  12. Arterial elasticity, strength, fatigue, and endurance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Neumeier, William H; Bickel, C Scott; McCarthy, John P; Fisher, Gordon; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Glasser, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation). Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.

  13. Arterial Elasticity, Strength, Fatigue, and Endurance in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation. Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P<0.01 and treadmill endurance (P<0.02 after adjusting for VO2 max and knee extension strength. Subjective fatigue at rest was related to large artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (<0.02. Strength was significantly related to small artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.

  14. Correlates of Spirituality in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin A.; Palmer, Barton W.; Fellows, Ian; Golshan, Shahrokh; Thompson, Wesley; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The role of spirituality in the context of mental health and successful aging is not well understood. In a sample of community-dwelling older women enrolled at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative study, we examined the association between spirituality and a range of variables associated with successful cognitive and emotional aging, including optimism, resilience, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods A detailed cross-sectional survey questionnaire on successful aging was completed by 1,973 older women. It included multiple self-reported measures of positive psychological functioning (e.g., resilience, optimism,), as well as depression and HRQoL. Spirituality was measured using a 5-item self report scale constructed using two items from the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality and three items from Hoge's Intrinsic Religious Motivation Scale Results Overall, 40% women reported regular attendance in organized religious practice, and 53% reported engaging in private spiritual practices. Several variables were significantly related to spirituality in bivariate associations; however, using model testing, spirituality was significantly associated only with higher resilience, lower income, lower education, and lower likelihood of being in a marital or committed relationship. Conclusions Our findings point to a role for spirituality in promoting resilience to stressors, possibly to a greater degree in persons with lower income and education level. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:20924814

  15. Combined Healthy Behaviors and Healthcare Services Use in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aceituno, Ana; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2017-07-31

    Data on the combined impact of healthy behaviors on healthcare use in older adults are limited. Study with community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years from the Spanish Seniors-ENRICA cohort, recruited in 2008-2010, followed through 2012-2013, and analyzed in 2016 (N=2,021). At baseline, the following healthy behaviors were self-reported: three traditional (never smoking, being physically active, having a healthy diet) and three emerging (sleeping 7-8 hours/day, sitting healthy behaviors and healthcare services used in 2012-2013 were summarized with ORs and 95% CIs from multiple logistic regression, adjusting for demographics, lifestyles, comorbidities, and baseline health services used. Most single healthy behaviors were associated with lower use of most health services. Compared with participants with zero or one healthy behavior, those with five or six healthy behaviors showed lower risk of polypharmacy (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.24, 0.85, p-trend=0.001), visits to the primary care physician (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.26, 0.96, p-trend=0.013), and hospitalization (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.24, 1.01, p-trend=0.016). No association was found with visits to the medical specialist. The combination of five to six healthy behaviors in older adults is associated with half the risk of polypharmacy and using several healthcare services. In an era of constrained resources in most countries, this information may help inform health policy to control healthcare spending in the future. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Healthy life expectancy in older adults with social security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Ramírez-Sánchez, Teresita Jesús; Torres-Cosme, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Population aging increases the prevalence of chronic diseases. This morbidity impacts on the relatively high mortality levels and has disabling effects. Classic health indicators -life expectancy at birth and gross mortality rate- are complemented by the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), whose advantage is a standardization of concepts, sources of information and calculation methods. In this investigation, the healthy life expectancy in adult older population with social security in Mexico is estimated. Life expectancy was estimated from the mortality analysis and by constructing life tables of the population affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Chiang's method was used and the disability prevalence-adjusted life table was modified using Sullivan's method. The healthy life expectancy, life expectancy free of disability and life expectancy with disability in the older adult analysis was highlighted. Life expectancy free of disability was estimated at 66.5 years. In females, it was 16 years and, in men, 15.2 years, indicating that from this age on they live less time with a healthy life. Healthy life expectancy is an indicator that can be useful to build scenarios to support the planning, administration and strategic management of healthy aging programs.

  17. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  18. Cardiovascular aging and exercise in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, George A; McKelvie, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Physical inactivity in an aging population is a major contributing factor to the rising numbers of older persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The purpose of this article is to review the relationship between physical inactivity and age-associated changes to the cardiovascular system, and provide guidance on prescribing exercise to healthy older persons in order to mitigate the adverse effects of cardiovascular aging. Interpretive review of the literature. A number of structural and functional changes occur in the cardiovascular system with advancing age, many of which are mediated by changes in vascular stiffness. These changes lead not only to cardiovascular events and strokes, but also to frailty, functional decline, and cognitive impairment. A substantial proportion of the decline in aerobic capacity with age may result from physical inactivity. Guidelines for the prescription of aerobic, resistance, and balance training for otherwise healthy older persons are provided. Lack of physical activity is a major risk factor for the epidemic of chronic disease and disability facing an aging population. Many age-associated changes in cardiovascular function result from physical inactivity. The benefits of regular exercise include prevention of cardiovascular events, disability, and cognitive impairment. Age is not a contraindication to exercise, which can usually be initiated safely in older persons.

  19. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  20. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Women's Health and Mindfulness (WHAM): A Randomized Intervention Among Older Lesbian/Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Natalie; Harbatkin, Dawn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Plumb, Marj; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2017-05-01

    Lesbian and bisexual (LB) women have higher body weight than heterosexual women. Interventions focused on health and well-being versus weight loss may be more likely to succeed among LB women. This article describes effects of Women's Health and Mindfulness, a 12-week pilot intervention addressing mindfulness, healthy eating, and physical activity, on outcomes associated with chronic disease risk among overweight and obese LB women older than 40 years. Eighty women were randomized, using a stepped-wedge design, to either an immediate- or a delayed-start intervention group; the delayed-start group served as the control. Eligible participants were aged 40 years or older, identified as LB, and had a body mass index of 27 or greater. We compared differences in biological markers of chronic disease, mindfulness, nutrition, and physical activity between immediate- and delayed-start intervention groups. We observed clinically significant improvements in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but no change in hemoglobin A1c. We found evidence of intervention effects on improved mindfulness and mindful eating scores and on nutrition (improved vegetable intake). The Women's Health and Mindfulness pilot intervention appears to have initiated positive behavioral and physical health changes in this population. Refinements to the intervention model, such as extended intervention duration, and longer term follow-up are warranted to determine sustained effects.

  2. The relationship between healthy behaviors and health outcomes among older adults in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, Anna; Cramm, Jane M

    2014-11-19

    Worldwide, populations are aging and the health of elderly individuals is deteriorating. Healthy habits may slow the process of health deterioration, but research investigating relationships between health and various health behaviors is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between health and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, dietary behavior, and physical activity) among older men and women in Russia. Wave 1 Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data (2007-2010) collected in the European portion of the Russian Federation, southern federal districts of the European portion of Russia and from the Asian portion of the country were used for this study. Relationships between self-rated health and four risk behavior measures [physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and dietary behavior (fruit and vegetable consumption)] were examined. Analyses controlled for several socioeconomic factors: gender, age, marital status, educational level, area of residence, ethnicity, and employment status. To estimate the effect of healthy behavior on the probability that participants rated their health as very good/good/moderate/bad/very bad, the ordered logit model and average marginal effects were used. Sufficient physical activity affected self-rated health most significantly in both genders, whereas excessive alcohol consumption had no significant effect. Smoking had explanatory power (being a current smoker decreased the probability of a very good health assessment and increased the probability of a very bad rating compared with being a non-smoker) among men, but not women. Fruit and vegetable consumption had a strong effect on self-rated health among women, but not men. The results of this study indicate that health behaviors, especially physical activity, are important for the health of Russia's older population. Smoking behavior had a strong impact on the health of men, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption was a relevant factor

  3. Validity of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Aya; Yamada, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Adachi, Tetsuji; Kimura, Misaka

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure in older people is important for nutritional support. The current literature contains controversial or inconsistent data regarding the resting metabolic rate (RMR, or basal metabolic rate) in older adults, including the relationship between the RMR and ethnicity. Little information about the RMR in healthy Asian older adults is available. This study was performed to examine the RMR in healthy Japanese older adults and compare it with previously established 16 equations. Thirty-two community-dwelling, healthy, and active elderly Japanese adults were enrolled (age, 64-87 years; 14 men, 18 women; mean height, 154.9 ± 8.9 cm; mean weight, 53.5 ± 9.1 kg; mean body mass index, 22.2 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ). The RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. The measured RMR was compared among 16 equations. Correlation analysis, a paired t test, and a Bland-Altman plot were used to assess the agreement among the equations. The average RMR was 1132 ± 178 kcal/day with 2233 ± 437 kcal/day average total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water (DLW). The smallest bias was established by De Lorenzo et al.'s equation as bias ±1.96SD = 4 ± 121 kcal/day. De Lorenzo et al. and Ikeda et al.'s equations had no significant average bias both in men and women (P > 0.05). The 1.96SD of bias in six equations was within 160 kcal/day. In contrast, residuals between the measured and predicted RMR were largely correlated with the RMR in four equations. A sex-related difference in the mean bias was observed in many equations. Although the average Japanese healthy older adult has a shorter stature and lower weight than older adults in the Western population, the current data suggest that a similar predictive equation for the RMR can be applied to both Japanese and Western older adults. This study demonstrate that the De Lorenzo et al.'s or Ikeda's equation may be useful for estimating RMR in the community

  4. Community Priorities for Healthy Eating in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy L; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Woolf, Kathleen; Gilbride, Judith; Francis, Sarah L

    2017-01-01

    Community planners such as policymakers and health care and nutrition service providers can create an "age-friendly" environment to support healthy eating in older residents by addressing the highest priorities that enable older adults to improve their dietary intake through different food-related community settings. To identify and prioritize these factors that facilitate behavioral change (enablers) and behavioral settings important for older adult nutrition based on the social ecological model, nutrition and aging professionals (n = 30) from two rural (West Virginia, Iowa) and two urban (Massachusetts, New York) city/county regions (communities) participated in an online or live focus group discussion and completed an analytic hierarchy process survey online. Overall, the most important perceived enablers were accessibility and cost, followed by transportation and social support, but their relative importance varied by community. Participants from all communities considered congregate meal sites and food banks among the most important behavioral settings. Participants from most communities considered food stores to be important and also highlighted other settings unique to the area, such as senior housing, neighborhood, and farmers' markets. By targeting interventions to address the most notable enablers and behavioral settings specific to their community, planning groups can enhance their older residents' ability to achieve optimal nutritional health.

  5. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally.

  6. BMI and healthy life expectancy in old and very old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, L; Byles, J E; Jagger, C

    2016-08-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the effect of BMI on mortality at older ages, and little information on its effect on healthy life expectancy (HLE). Longitudinal data were from the 1921-1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n 11 119), over 18 years of follow-up. Self-rated health status was measured at each survey, and BMI was measured at baseline. Multi-state models were fitted to estimate the effect of BMI on total life expectancy (TLE) and HLE. Compared with women of normal weight, overweight women at the age of 75 years had similar TLE but fewer years healthy (-0·79; 95 % CI -1·21, -0·37) and more years unhealthy (0·99; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·42). Obese women at the age of 75 years lived fewer years in total than normal-weight women (-1·09; 95 % CI -1·77, -0·41), and had more unhealthy years (1·46; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·95 years). Underweight women had the lowest TLE and the fewest years of healthy life. Women should aim to enter old age at a normal weight and in good health, as the slight benefit on mortality of being overweight is offset by spending fewer years healthy. All outcomes were better for those who began in good health. The relationship between weight and HLE has important implications for nutrition for older people, particularly maintenance of lean body mass and prevention of obesity. The benefit of weight loss in obese older women remains unclear, but we support the recommendation that weight-loss advice be individualised, as any benefits may not outweigh the risks in healthy obese older adults.

  7. Muscle function of the pelvic floor in healthy, puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pardiñas, M A; Torres-Lacomba, M; Navarro-Brazález, B

    2017-05-01

    To understand the function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) at different ages in healthy women and in puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD) and to ascertain whether there are differences among them. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2016 and included 177 women, 70 of whom had no symptoms of PFD, 53 primiparous mothers in late postpartum and 54 with PFD. The function of the PFM was measured through vaginal palpation (quality of the contraction); manometry (force); dynamometer (tone, strength, and response to stretching), and surface electromyography (neuromuscular activity and resistance). The healthy women showed superior values for PFM tone, maximum strength, neuromuscular activity and resistance than the puerperal mothers and the women with PFD (P.05). The muscle function of the healthy women did not vary significantly with age, except in the case of tone, which was lower in the women older than 46 years (P=.004). Age and births decrease the baseline tone of the PFM in healthy women. Therefore, lower strength, resistance and neuromuscular activity appear to be the main difference between the PFM of women with PFD and the PFM of healthy women. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Singapore Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) Study: Prevalence of Frailty and Associated Factors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Reshma A; Chen, Matthew Zhixuan; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Moses YiDong; Ho, Han Kwee; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-08-01

    In the context of a rapidly ageing population, Singapore is anticipating a rise in multimorbidity, disability, and dependency, which are driven by physical frailty. Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) is an epidemiologic population-based study on community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older in Singapore. To investigate the prevalence of frail and prefrail states and their association with polypharmacy, multimorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. Participants for HOPE were older adults aged 65 years and older recruited from a cohort study on the northwest region of Singapore. Analysis was performed on data collected from a combination of interviewer-administered questionnaires (including FRAIL scale, EQ-5D, Mini Mental State Examination, Barthel index, and Lawton IADL scale), clinical assessments, and physical measurements (including hand grip strength and Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG] test). A total of 1051 older adults (mean age 71.2 years) completed the study. More than half (57.2%) were female. The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 6.2% and 37%, respectively. Frailty was associated with older age, female gender, Indian (instead of Chinese) ethnicity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment, weaker hand grip strength, longer TUG times, and poor perceived health status. Those with underlying cognitive impairment and frailty were at greater risk of adverse health outcome. Frailty is a complex health state with multiple domains and dimensions. In our study in a multiethnic Asian population, we identified nonmodifiable factors and modifiable risk factors (multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment) that were associated with frailty. Interventions will have to be multipronged and will require a collaborated effort in order to effect change and improve the health span in rapidly ageing populations. Copyright © 2017 AMDA

  9. Effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women living in the community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    ), maximal quadriceps and hand grip strength. RESULTS: physical performance was lower in 15°C room temperature compared with 25°C room temperature for leg extensor power (P ... strength (P = 0.015), but not for hand grip strength. CONCLUSION: in healthy older women a moderately cold indoor environment decreased important physical performance measures necessary for independent living....

  10. Body positions used by healthy and frail older adults to rise from the floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, J; Raheja, A; Alexander, N B

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how older adults, particularly more physically impaired older adults, might differ from healthy controls in the body positions used to rise from the floor. Cross-sectional analysis of young, healthy older, and congregate housing older women. University-based laboratory and congregate housing facility. Healthy young university student controls (n = 22, mean age 23 years); healthy old adults living independently in the community (n = 24, mean age 73 years); and congregate housing older adults (n = 29, mean age 81 years). Videotaping and timing of rising from a supine position on the floor to standing. In addition to the time taken to rise from the floor, 10 specific trunk and extremity positions used during the rise, termed Intermediate Positions (IP), were identified. The Young controls had the fastest rise time and used the fewest number of IP, whereas the Congregate residents had the slowest rise time and used the most IP, with the Healthy old adults intermediate in both time and IP use. Prevalence of certain IP, together with correlational and factor analyses, suggest that use of Sit and Crouch was the most preferred rise strategy for the Young controls, whereas use of Tuck, Crouch-Kneel, All Fours, and Bearwalk was the most preferred rise strategy among the Congregate residents. The Healthy old used IP common to both Young and Congregate residents, reflecting a rise strategy intermediate to the latter groups. A substantial subset of the Congregate residents (38%) were unable to rise without assistance and appeared to use certain preparatory positions (Sit, Kneel, Tuck) but were unable to get into presumably more challenging positions (Crouch-Kneel, All Fours, Bearwalk). With increasing age and physical impairment, body positions used during rising from the floor suggest a preference for maintaining upper and lower extremity contact with the floor, presumably minimizing the lower extremity strength requirements to rise

  11. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  12. Violence Against Older Women: Activism, Social Justice, and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Older Women's Network (OWN) of New South Wales (NSW) is an activist organization dedicated to promoting the rights of older women, preventing gender- and aged-based violence, and working toward social justice and social change. In 2007, the OWN NSW Inc. initiated the Prevention of Violence Against Older Women Working Party to research and document current knowledge and understanding of violence against older women; focus public attention on this issue; and bring about changes in public perceptions, policy, and practice. Presented here is an overview of the major achievements of the OWN Working Party, including a meta-analysis of three research projects, with their findings, recommendations, and outcomes. In conclusion, research conducted by activist organizations such as OWN can make a significant contribution to furthering our understanding of violence against older women and to policy and practice.

  13. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  14. Predicting healthy lifestyle patterns among retirement age older adults in the WELL study: a latent class analysis of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Marita; Wang, Wei Chun; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of retirement age older adults with respect to their lifestyle patterns of eating, drinking, smoking, physical activity and TV viewing behaviors, and to examine the association between these patterns and socio-demographic covariates. The sample consisted of 3133 older adults aged 55-65 years from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study, 2010. This study used latent class analysis (stratified by sex), with a set of lifestyle indicators and including socio-demographic covariates. Statistical analyses were performed by generalized linear latent and mixed models in Stata. Two classes of lifestyle patterns were identified: Healthy (53% men and 72% women) and less healthy lifestyles. Physical activity, TV-viewing time, and fruit intake were good indicators distinguishing the "Healthier" class, whereas consumption of vegetables, alcohol (men) and fast food (women) could not clearly discriminate older adults in the two classes. Class membership was associated with education, body mass index, and self-rated health. This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults, and provides evidence that there are meaningful sex differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adults. From a policy perspective, understanding indicators or "markers" of healthy and less healthy lifestyle patterns is important for identifying target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  16. VIOLENCE AGAINST OLDER WOMEN: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Celdrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although elder abuse and neglect are not unfamiliar situations in research and intervention programmes, current perspectives indicate that when highlighting age as a factor for this kind of violence, the gender perspective in the understanding of violence towards the elderly has been overlooked. This review attempts to shed light on this gender perspective when we look at what kind of abuse older people, and especially older women, are suffering. Three issues concerning the mistreatment of older women will be reviewed: the characteristics of intimate partner violence against older women, the health and quality of life consequences of this kind of abuse, and intervention programmes that can be implemented for this group. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for starting up national studies and interventions regarding intimate partner violence against older women, an issue barely studied in our country so far.

  17. Decision-Making Regarding Mammography Screening for Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A

    2016-12-01

    The population is aging, and breast cancer incidence increases with age, peaking between the ages of 75 and 79. However, it is not known whether mammography screening helps women aged 75 and older live longer because they have not been included in randomized controlled trials evaluating mammography screening. Guidelines recommend that older women with less than a 10-year life expectancy not be screened because it takes approximately 10 years before a screen-detected breast cancer may affect an older woman's survival. Guidelines recommend that clinicians discuss the benefits and risks of screening with women aged 75 and older with a life expectancy of 10 years or longer to help them elicit their values and preferences. It is estimated that two of 1,000 women who continue to be screened every other year from age 70 to 79 may avoid breast cancer death, but 12% to 27% of these women will experience a false-positive test, and 10% to 20% of women who experience a false-positive test will undergo a breast biopsy. In addition, approximately 30% of screen-detected cancers would not otherwise have shown up in an older woman's lifetime, yet nearly all older women undergo treatment for these breast cancers, and the risks of treatment increase with age. To inform decision-making, tools are available to estimate life expectancy and to educate older women about the benefits and harms of mammography screening. Guides are also available to help clinicians discuss stopping screening with older women with less than a 10-year life expectancy. Ideally, screening decisions would consider an older woman's life expectancy, breast cancer risk, and her values and preferences. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Asymmetry of the structural brain connectome in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eBonilha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome. This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks.Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults.Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI from 17 healthy older adults. For each subject, the brain connectome was reconstructed by parcelating the probabilistic map of gray matter into anatomically defined regions of interested (ROIs. White matter fiber tractography was reconstructed from diffusion tensor imaging and streamlines connecting gray matter ROIs were computed. Asymmetry indices were calculated regarding ROI connectivity (representing the sum of connectivity weight of each cortical ROI and for regional white matter links. All asymmetry measures were compared to a normal distribution with mean=0 through one sample t-tests.Results: Leftward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in medial temporal, dorsolateral frontal and occipital regions. Rightward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in middle temporal and orbito-frontal regions. Link-wise asymmetry revealed stronger connections in the left hemisphere between the medial temporal, anterior and posterior peri-Sylvian and occipito-temporal regions. Rightward link asymmetry was observed in lateral temporal, parietal and dorsolateral frontal connections.Conclusions: We postulate that asymmetry of specific connections may be related to functional hemispheric organization. This study may provide reference for future studies evaluating the architecture of the connectome in health and disease processes in senior individuals.

  19. Program Design for Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women: A Ten-City Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah C; McElroy, Jane A; Garbers, Samantha; McDonnell, Cheryl; Brooks, Jacquetta; Eliason, Michele J; Ingraham, Natalie; Osborn, Ann; Rayyes, Nada; Redman, Sarah Davis; Wood, Susan F; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Adult lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are more likely to be obese than adult heterosexual women. To address weight- and fitness-related health disparities among older LB women using culturally appropriate interventions, the Office on Women's Health (OWH) provided funding for the program, Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women (HWLB): Striving for a Healthy Community. This paper provides a description of the interventions that were implemented. Five research organizations partnered with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community organizations to implement healthy weight interventions addressing the needs of LB women 40 years and older. The interventions incorporated evidence-based recommendations related to physical activity and nutrition. Each group intervention developed site-specific primary objectives related to the overall goal of improving the health of LB women and included weight and waist circumference reduction as secondary objectives. A 57-item core health survey was administered across the five sites. At a minimum, each program obtained pre- and post-program assessments. Each program included the OWH-required common elements of exercise, social support, and education on nutrition and physical activity, but adopted a unique approach to deliver intervention content. This is the first time a multisite intervention has been conducted to promote healthy weight in older LB women. Core measurements across the HWLB programs will allow for pooled analyses, and differences in study design will permit analysis of site-specific elements. The documentation and analysis of the effectiveness of these five projects will provide guidance for model programs and future research on LB populations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  20. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Grönholm-Nyman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17 performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session, while the active control group (n = 16 played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  1. Racial Differences in Eating Patterns and Food Purchasing Behaviors among Urban Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Youssef, G; Procter-Gray, E; Olendzki, B; Cornish, T; Hayes, R; Churchill, L; Kane, K; Brown, K; Magee, M F

    2017-01-01

    To examine differences in diet and food purchasing behaviors between Black and White older women living in urban neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observational study. Urban neighborhoods in Washington, DC, USA. Community-dwelling White and Black women of age 65 and older. Participants were queried on diet via 24-hour recalls, food purchasing habits, their use of neighborhood resources and local travel patterns. Frequency and location of self-reported food purchasing and consumption were compared by race. In 2014 and 2015, 49 White and 44 Black older women were enrolled in the study. Compared to Whites, Blacks reported lower daily caloric intake (mean (SD) 1314 (404) vs. 1529 (448), p=0.02), with a higher percent of calories from protein and fat 1.8 (7.0), p=0.03), and a slightly higher polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio (p=0.05). Blacks had substantially lower alternate healthy eating index (AHEI) (33.5 (10.2) vs. 43.9 (10.8) of 80 possible points, ppurchasing behaviors differed substantially between older Black and White women, which should be further investigated and considered to promote healthy eating in older populations.

  2. Older women living and coping with domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Devaney, John; Gildea, Aideen

    2013-02-01

    Although domestic violence is seen as a serious public health issue for women worldwide, international evidence suggests that women aged over 50 who are victims are suffering in silence because the problem is often ignored by health professionals. More U.K. research is needed to identify the extent of the problem, and services to meet the needs of older women. This study aims to bridge this gap by gaining a deeper understanding of how 'older women' cope with domestic violence and how it affects their wellbeing. Eighteen older women who were currently, or had been in an abusive relationship were recruited. Semi-structured interview schedules were used to discuss the personal nature of DV and its effects on wellbeing, ways of coping and sources of support. Findings suggest that living in a domestically violent context has extremely negative effects on older women's wellbeing leading to severe anxiety and depression. Three-quarters of the women defined themselves as in 'very poor' mental and physical health and were using pathogenic coping mechanisms, such as excessive and long-term use of alcohol, prescription and non-prescription drugs and cigarettes. This negative coping increased the likelihood of these women experiencing addiction to drugs and alcohol dependence and endangered their health in the longer term. Our findings suggest that health professionals must receive appropriate education to gain knowledge and skills in order to deal effectively and support older women experiencing domestic violence.

  3. Risk factors for low BMD in healthy men age 50 years or older: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, A; Kennedy, C C; Cranney, A; Hawker, G; Brown, J P; Kaiser, S M; Leslie, W D; O'Brien, C J M; Sawka, A M; Khan, A; Siminoski, K; Tarulli, G; Webster, D; McGowan, J; Adachi, J D

    2009-04-01

    In this systematic review, we summarize risk factors for low bone mineral density and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years or older. Consistent risk factors were: age, smoking, low weight, physical/functional limitations, and previous fracture. Data specific to men has clinical and policy implications. Osteoporosis is a significant health care problem in men as well as women, yet the majority of evidence on diagnosis and management of osteoporosis is focused on postmenopausal women. The objective of this systematic review is to examine risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years or older. A systematic search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and Embase, Health STAR. The three main search concepts were bone density, densitometry, and risk factors. Trained reviewers assessed articles using a priori criteria. Of 642 screened abstracts, 299 articles required a full review, and 25 remained in the final assessment. Consistent risk factors for low BMD/bone loss were: advancing age, smoking, and low weight/weight loss. Although less evidence was available, physical/functional limitations and prevalent fracture (after age 50) were also associated with low BMD/bone loss. The evidence was inconsistent or weak for physical activity, alcohol consumption, calcium intake, muscle strength, family history of fracture/osteoporosis, and height/height loss. In this systematic review, we identified several risk factors for low BMD/bone loss in men that are measurable in primary practice.

  4. Cougars on the prowl? New perceptions of older women's sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Beth; Siefken, Jenna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Images of women's sexuality beyond the age of forty are lacking in popular culture. Recently, however, the term cougar has been embraced by American media as a label describing "older" women who assertively pursue younger sexual partners. This term and women's opinions of it can be viewed as exemplary of two competing ideologies about aging and sexuality. These are: 1) recognition of older women's sexual desire, consistent with new trends that promote lifelong sexual health and sexual activity; or, 2) linking aging and asexuality, when the term cougar is used as a pejorative that reinforces age and gender stereotypes. Based on in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of 84 women in their 20s-60s, we explore reactions to this term and its implications for women's aging and sexuality. We find that the majority of women viewed the label cougar negatively, or had mixed feelings about what it suggests regarding older women's sexuality, particularly as it marked women as predators or aggressors. Some women, however, embraced the term or its meaning, as indicative of the reality of older women's sexuality and continued sexual desire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding older women's health care concerns: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara B; Nasmith, Louise; Mayo, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Older women often have different physical and psychological health priorities compared to men, and health systems must strive to extend and improve health care delivery to meet older women's specific health care needs. The goal of this study was to obtain information from older women on how to improve health care services to best support their efforts to age successfully and receive optimal quality health care in later life. Focus groups were conducted among women aged 65 or older recruited from the community in the Montreal, Quebec, area. A total of 36 women participated. The focus group sessions were audiotaped, and the transcripts of each session were analyzed for issues and themes emerging from the text. Content analysis using the framework approach was used to explore and understand the experience of the focus group participants. The data from the text were then coded according to the relevant and emergent ideas and concepts. Participants felt that their physical health care needs were being met, but that a number of issues relating to psychological health were inadequately addressed by health care professionals. The importance of feeling validated as active participants in a health care relationship, recognition of fears and anxieties associated with aging, and the need for information-sharing and education were all viewed as important health care priorities for older women. Time and accessibility were identified as the most significant barriers towards receiving optimal health care in later life. The current health care system does not meet the global health care needs of older women. Health care leaders must recognize that success in program development and delivery for older women will require designing clinical programs that address both the physiological and psychosocial requirements of women. Only when women feel that they are being cared for in a comprehensive manner, one that includes attention to physical, psychological and emotional health, are we

  6. A Feminist Approach to Health Promotion for Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Ploeg, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    Uses a feminist analysis to critique health promotion, identifying gender, class, race, and age biases that influence older women's health and recommends changes in health promotion theory, research, practice, and education. (Author/JOW)

  7. Excess Alcohol May Speed Muscle Loss in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166348.html Excess Alcohol May Speed Muscle Loss in Older Women After ... risk drinking was defined as frequent and significant alcohol use, along with a lack of control over ...

  8. Living with urinary incontinence: a longitudinal study of older women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byles, Julie; Millar, Cynthia J; Sibbritt, David W; Chiarelli, Pauline

    ...: the aim of this study was to investigate changes in continence status among a large cohort of older women, and to identify factors associated with incidence of incontinence in later life. Subjects...

  9. Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, B A; Sturm, K; MacIntosh, C G; Feinle, C; Horowitz, M; Chapman, I M

    2004-02-01

    Visual analogue scales are widely used in appetite research, yet the validity of these scales to evaluate appetite and mood has not been assessed in older subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between food intake and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of appetite and nonappetite sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Retrospective combined analysis of four single-blind, randomised, controlled appetite studies. All studies were conducted in the University of Adelaide, Department of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia. A total of 45 healthy young men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 18-35 y and 45 healthy older men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 65-85 y were recruited by advertisement. Oral, intraduodenal or intravenous administration of treatments which suppressed food intake were compared to control. Up to 90 min after treatment, a test meal was offered and subjects ate freely for between 30 and 60 min. Perceptions were assessed by 100-mm visual analogue scales administered at regular intervals. Food intake at the test meal was positively related to perceptions of hunger, drowsiness, and calmness at both baseline and premeal (r>0.16, P 0.2, P<0.05) in both older and young subjects. Food intake was related to VAS ratings at least as strongly, if not more so, in older as in young subjects. These observations (i) confirm that food intake is related to perceptions of hunger and fullness as assessed by VAS in healthy older and young subjects, and (ii) suggest that sensations, not obviously associated with appetite, including 'drowsiness' and 'calmness', are also associated with food intake.

  10. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  11. Abuses against Older Women: Prevalence and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bonnie S.; Zink, Therese; Regan, Saundra L.

    2011-01-01

    A clinical sample of 995 community dwelling women aged 55 and older were surveyed by telephone about their experience with psychological/emotional, control, threat, physical, and sexual abuse. Nearly half of the women experienced at least one type of abuse since turning 55. Sizable proportions were victims of repeated abuse, and many experienced…

  12. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women | Davey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women older than 50 years. Risk factors for CVD differ in some aspects from those in men. The prevention of CVD in women has undergone a reappraisal with the publication of studies looking at the use of menopausal hormone therapy for both primary and ...

  13. Alcohol consumption and risk type 2 diabetes among older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study aimed to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Between 1993 and 1997, 16,330 women aged 49–70 years and free from diabetes were enrolled in one of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective

  14. Older women play predominant role in building social ties and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... It describes how participation in the CWP is compatible with older and younger women's priorities in terms of their personal, familial, and community responsibilities. It also provides insights on why greater numbers of women are drawn to the programme than men, and it provides recommendations for ...

  15. Sexual satisfaction and risk of disability in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Graziano; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Guralnik, Jack M; Jones, Heather; Fried, Linda P; Pahor, Marco; Williamson, Jeff D

    2003-10-01

    Most studies evaluating sexuality in older adults have focused on men, and relatively little research has evaluated the relationship between sexual satisfaction and health outcomes in older women. The aims of this study were to describe correlates of sexual satisfaction in community-dwelling older women with moderate to severe levels of disability and to examine the association of sexual satisfaction with progression of disability in this population. A total of 980 moderately to severely disabled women aged 65 years or older who had participated in The Women's Health and Aging Study entered this study. Baseline evaluations took place from 1992 through 1995. Participants rated their satisfaction with their level of sexual activity on a 0-to-10 scale. Women scoring > or = 8 were considered sexually satisfied. The onset of new severe disability was determined by semiannual assessments, over 3 years, of disability in performing activities of daily living (ADLs) and walking across a room. Of 203 (49.8%) women living with a spouse, 101 were satisfied with their level of sexual activity. In this group, older age, white race, and higher level of physical function were independent predictors of sexual satisfaction. In addition, among women living with a spouse, higher sexual satisfaction was associated with a significantly decreased risk for incident disability in performing ADLs (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36 to 0.94) and walking across a small room (HR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.79). Among women not living with a spouse, the response on the sexual satisfaction question showed different determinants and was not associated with disability risk. Sexual satisfaction in community-dwelling, older, disabled women living with their spouse is associated with reduced risk for subsequent new severe disabilities.

  16. Older Australians' perceptions and practices in relation to a healthy diet for old age: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, S; Coutts, R

    2013-02-01

    To explore older independently-living Australians' perceptions and practices about what constitutes a healthy diet for older people. Qualitative methodology, focus groups. Independently-living retirees in Northern NSW, Australia. A total of 29 participants in five focus groups, ranging in age from 60-93 years, with a mean age of 73.3 ± 8.8years; the majority (79%) were women. Thematic analysis of the focus group interviews revealed four themes that best represent older people's perceptions and practices in relation to healthy eating for old age. These included: 1) healthy foods - participants believed in a hierarchy of perceived healthfulness or importance of foods; 2) quantity - participants believed that ageing was associated with a reduced dietary intake and less need for meat; 3) personal circumstances - participants acknowledged that food costs, social situations and health conditions influenced their food choices; and 4) good intention - participants acknowledged that the desire to regain or maintain wellbeing and to preserve health positively influenced their food choices. Participants were unaware of the national nutrient targets for older Australians. The trend towards reduced dietary intake of meat and the indifference to dairy products expressed by many participants in this study suggests that they are at risk of not achieving the requirements for protein and calcium in particular. Failure to meet these age-adjusted nutrient targets has important implications for the health and functional capacity of older people.

  17. Body composition parameters in healthy Brazilian women differ from white, black, and Hispanic American women reference range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria das Graças Barbosa; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Szejnfeld, Vera L; Castro, Charlles H M

    2013-01-01

    Body composition (BC) seems to vary between populations, suggesting the need for regional reference data. The objective of this study was to determine BC in Brazilian women. Five hundred healthy non-black Brazilian women aged 20 yr or older were included. Women with fractures, chronic diseases, medications affecting bone and mineral metabolism, coronary heart disease, pregnancy, silicone prosthesis, and Asians or Indians were excluded. BC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) included total lean mass, appendicular lean mass, skeletal muscle index, and total body fat (BF). Reference values were made for 10-yr age groups. Lean mass decreased with age reaching the lowest values in women aged 80 yr and older. BF showed a bimodal distribution: increased with age until 50-59 yr, with a slight subsequent decrease. BF in Brazilian women did not differ from American women, except in the age groups 75-79 and 80-84 yr, where BF was lower (p Brazilian women compared with Americans in almost all age and ethnic groups (p Brazilian women differs from American reference data. Our findings support the notion that BC varies according to ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Geographic variation in cardiovascular inflammation among healthy women in the Women's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R Clark

    Full Text Available Geographic variation in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors has been observed among women in the US. It is not known whether state-level variation in cardiovascular inflammation exists or could be explained by traditional clinical risk factors and behavioral lifestyle factors.We used multilevel linear regression to estimate state-level variation in inflammatory biomarker patterns adjusted for clinical and lifestyle characteristics among 26,029 women free of CVD. Participants derived from the Women's Health Study, a national cohort of healthy middle-aged and older women. Inflammatory biomarker patterns (plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, and fibrinogen were compared to state-level patterns of traditional CVD risk factors and global risk scores. We found that all three inflammatory biomarkers exhibited significant state-level variation including hsCRP (lowest vs. highest state median 1.3 mg/L vs. 2.7 mg/L, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range for log hsCRP 0.52, p<.001, sICAM-1 (325 ng/ml vs. 366ng/ml, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range 0.44, p<.001, and fibrinogen (322 mg/dL vs. 367 mg/dL, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range 0.41, p = .001. Neither demographic, clinical or lifestyle characteristics explained away state-level effects in biomarker patterns. Southern and Appalachian states (Arkansas, West Virginia had the highest inflammatory biomarker values. Regional geographic patterns of traditional CVD risk factors and risk scores did not completely overlap with biomarkers of inflammation.There is state-level geographic variation in inflammatory biomarkers among otherwise healthy women that cannot be completely attributed to traditional clinical risk factors or lifestyle characteristics. Future research should aim to identify additional factors that may explain

  19. Mammography decision making in older women with a breast cancer family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Karen E; Nail, Lillian M; Kendall, Judy; Cartwright, Juliana; Messecar, Deborah C

    2010-09-01

    This study's purpose is to describe and explain how women 55 years of age and older with a family history of breast cancer make screening mammography decisions. A qualitative design based on grounded theory. This purposeful sample consisted of 23 women 55 years of age or older with one more first-degree relatives diagnosed with breast cancer. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 23 women 55 years of age and older with a family history of breast cancer using a semistructured interview guide. Transcribed interview data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify the conditions, actions, and consequences associated with participant's screening mammography decision making. Women reported becoming aware of their breast cancer risk usually due to a triggering event such as having a family member diagnosed with breast cancer, resulting in women "guarding against cancer." Women's actions included having mammograms, getting health check-ups, having healthy behaviors, and being optimistic. Most women reported extraordinary faith in mammography, often ignoring negative mammogram information. A negative mammogram gave women peace of mind and assurance that breast cancer was not present. Being called back for additional mammograms caused worry, especially with delayed results. The "guarding against cancer" theory needs to be tested in other at-risk populations and ultimately used to test strategies that promote cancer screening decision making and the adoption of screening behaviors in those at increased risk for developing cancer. Women 55 years of age and older with a breast cancer family history need timely mammogram results, mammography reminders, and psychosocial support when undergoing a mammography recall or other follow-up tests.

  20. Improving Outcomes for Older women with Gynaecological Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Lucy; Ring, Alistair; Butler, John; Kalsi, Tania; Harari, Danielle; Banerjee, Susana

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of most gynaecological malignancies rises significantly with increasing age. With an ageing population, the proportion of women over the age of 65 with cancer is expected to rise substantially over the next decade. Unfortunately, survival outcomes are much poorer in older patients and evidence suggests that older women with gynaecological cancers are less likely to receive current standard of care treatment options. Despite this, older women are under-represented in practice changing clinical studies. The evidence for efficacy and tolerability is therefore extrapolated from a younger; often more fit population and applied to in every day clinical practice to older patients with co-morbidities. There has been significant progress in the development of geriatric assessment in oncology to predict treatment outcomes and tolerability however there is still no clear evidence that undertaking a geriatric assessment improves patient outcomes. Clinical trials focusing on treating older patients are urgently required. In this review, we discuss the evidence for treatment of gynaecological cancers as well as methods of assessing older patients for therapy. Potential biomarkers of ageing are also summarised. PMID:27664393

  1. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. © 2015 World Obesity.

  2. Older Women, Exercise to Music, and Yoga: Senses of Pleasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stuart, Sue

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the lived experience of older women participants in (a) a low-impact exercise to music (ETM) class and (b) a yoga class to uncover what is important for them in taking part in these classes. Researcher S is the instructor of the ETM group and draws upon individual and focus group interviews and participant observation. Researcher B is a member of the yoga class where she interviewed the women and undertook participant observations. Both authors are a similar age to the older women interviewees. Through a phenomenological interpretative approach, the paper examines the women's perceptions of their exercise class and yoga experiences, highlighting pleasurable experiences and features that contribute to this enjoyment. The paper considers relationships between pleasure, wellbeing, the senses, physical activity, and aging, drawing upon a variety of analyses. It pays attention to the contextual features of the ETM and yoga classes in making available and accessible pleasurable physical activity experiences for the women and draws, in part, on 'typologies' of pleasure to frame the debate around older women, physical activity, and senses of pleasure. Our research highlights the considerable wellbeing affects for women when physical activity provision takes account of context (the spatial, cultural, social, and sentient).

  3. Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.; Roszkowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    interval (95% CI). Participants: a multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. Results and conclusions: maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed...... to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle...

  4. Effects of motor and cognitive dual-task performance in depressive elderly, healthy older adults, and healthy young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairments in dual-task performance can be observed in healthy older adults when motor and cognitive assignments are applied simultaneously. According to the hypofrontality hypothesis, there may be a reduction in frontal cognitive function during exercise. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance changes on cognitive tests of depressive elderly (n=10, healthy older adults (n=10, and healthy young individuals (n=10 during cycle ergometer exercise. Methods: The groups were submitted to a working memory test, a short memory test and a semantic memory test, before and during a 20-minute cycle ergometer exercise at 80% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Results: Significant differences (p=0.04 were observed in scores on the digit backward test during exercise when young individuals were compared to healthy older adults. This result indicates that young subjects, as expected, had better performance than elderly. No significant differences were found among the groups for the digit forward subtest (p=0.40 or the vocabulary test (p=0.69. Conclusion: Data from this study showed that healthy older adults had impaired performance on higher cognitive tasks when these assignments were applied together with motor tasks.

  5. Improved postural control after dynamic balance training in older overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Farina, Felicia; Palma, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported a greater frequency of falls among older women than men in conditions which stress balance. Previously, we found an improvement in static balance in older women with an increased support surface area and equal load redistribution on both feet, in response to a dynamic balance training protocol. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the same training program and body composition would have effects on the postural control of older overweight women. Ten healthy women (68.67 ± 5.50 yrs; 28.17 ± 3.35 BMI) participated in a five-week physical activity program. This included dynamic balance exercises, such as heel-to-toe walking in different directions, putting their hands on their hips, eyes open (EO) or closed (EC), with a tablet on their heads, going up and down one step, and walking on a mat. Postural stability was assessed before and after training with an optoelectronic platform and a uni-pedal balance performance test. Body composition of the trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs was measured by bio-impedance analysis. The mean speed (MS), medial-lateral MS (MS-x), anterior-posterior MS (MS-y), sway path (SP) and ellipse surface area (ESA) of the pressure center was reduced after training in older women. However, only MS, MS-x, MS-y and SP significantly decreased in bipodalic conditions with EO and MS-y also with EC (pstatic balance. Our dynamic balance training protocol appears to be feasible, safe and repeatable for older overweight women and to have positive effects in improving their lateral and anterior-posterior postural control, mainly acting on the visual and skeletal muscle components of the balance control system.

  6. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shufei Yin; Xinyi Zhu; Rui Li; Yanan Niu; Baoxi Wang; Zhiwei Zheng; Xin Huang; Lijuan Huo; Juan Li

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle fro...

  7. The role of older siblings in the sexual and reproductive health of Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Scandlyn, Jean N

    2017-02-01

    In the USA, young people of Mexican-origin are more economically disadvantaged and experience higher birth rates than many other Latino groups. In this paper, we examine the influence of older siblings on the sexual and reproductive health of Mexican-origin immigrant women. Qualitative data were drawn from life history interviews with 21 first- and second-generation Mexican-origin women, aged 27-41 years old, resident in the Metro Denver area. Data suggest that older siblings may protect younger sisters from risky sexual behaviours through older siblings' responsibility and care for younger siblings, close and supportive sibling relationships, older siblings' advice about both sexual health and academic success, and sibling modelling. These mechanisms appear particularly protective due to the social and economic hardships immigrant families often face. Implications include fostering healthy sibling relationships and involving older siblings more fully in the sexuality education of younger siblings.

  8. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2017-07-21

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging.

  9. Dietary patterns and survival in older Dutch women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, Patricia M C M; Ocké, Marga C; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Peeters, Petra H M; Bamia, Christina; Chloptsios, Yiannis; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Slimani, Nadia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The need to gain insight into prevailing eating patterns and their health effects is evident. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and their relation to total mortality in older Dutch women. DESIGN: A principal component analysis of 22 food groups was used to identify

  10. Predicting Positive Well-Being in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Erin L.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of background, psychological, and social variables on older adults' well-being, and how this may differ for men and women. Participants included 800 adults from the 2002 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), aged 60 to 101 years old (M = 71.22, SD = 8.46), who completed the optional positive…

  11. Challenges faced by older women in Botswana in accessing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-14

    Apr 14, 2012 ... Original Research: Challenges faced by older women in accessing services that address sexual and reproductive health. 281 ... The main SRH services used by them were screening for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune ... of access to health facilities, disability-related technical and.

  12. Food-related health perceptions and food habits among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Kerstin; Sidenvall, Birgitta

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore food-related health perceptions and food habits among older women. Food-related health promotion has its main focus on disease prevention. With a holistic perspective on health, social and psychological aspects also need to be considered for total wellbeing. Qualitative interviews, representing an ethnographic approach, were carried out with 18 women, aged 65-88, living alone or cohabiting, who independently managed shopping and cooking. Interviews were conducted at the women's homes, and analysed for coherent themes. The women also gave data on three days' eating and drinking in a food diary. FINDINGS; Two themes were found: 'A healthy slimming meal or the usual' and 'Meals -- a pleasure or an obligation'. The first theme summarized the women's health perceptions related to food, where the dominating view was fear of fat. Some also had a bad conscience about not eating according to recommendations. Use of low-fat products was not a predominant habit among these women. In the second theme, meals in fellowship were perceived as a pleasure, while women living alone tended to simplify cooking and eating. This was also reflected in their food habits, with fewer cooked meals, as well as events with coffee with cakes, compared with cohabiting women. Food-related health promotion must pay more attention to women living alone. Women who have lost their partners, may be at risk for poor nutritional intake as they often simplified the entire meal situation, while cohabiting women perceived food and cooking as a central task in their lives. One responsibility for nurses working in the community is to recognize and assess older women's deficient eating habits, assess them and plan eating together with the woman to prevent poor nutritional intake. Relatives and community staff could also be involved in this work.

  13. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women......, a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following...

  14. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  15. The muscle metabolome differs between healthy and frail older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves Rolo, Rodrigo; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Müller, M.R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  16. Costs of a healthy diet: analysis from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J; Upmeier, H; Calvert, C; Greenwood, D

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the direct and indirect cost differences associated with eating a 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' diet. Analysis of data from a baseline postal questionnaire for the UK Women's Cohort Study, including a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), supplemented by a telephone interview on a sub-sample. The first 15,191 women who responded to the questionnaire, aged 35-69 years with similar numbers of meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A healthy diet indicator (hdi), with values from 0 (lowest) to 8 (highest) was developed based on the WHO dietary recommendations. Direct monetary cost of the diet was calculated using prices from the 1995 National Food Survey and the Tesco home shopping catalogue. Women in the healthy diet group were almost four times as likely to be vegetarian and have a higher educational level. For direct costs, the difference between the most extreme hdi groups was 1.48 day-1 (equivalent to 540 year-1), with fruit and vegetable expenditure being the main items making a healthy diet more expensive. Forty-nine per cent of the food budget was spent on fruit and vegetables in hdi group 8 compared to 29% in hdi group 0. Interestingly, 52% of those questioned in both extreme hdi groups did not think that it was difficult to eat healthily. To achieve a particularly healthy diet independent predictive factors were spending more money, being a vegetarian, having a higher energy intake, having a lower body mass index (BMI) and being older.

  17. Unclaimed treasures:older women's reflections on lifelong singlehood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbusch, Jennifer L

    2004-01-01

    Ever-single, older women are a diverse group, whose experiences of singlehood have received little attention from researchers. In this qualitative study, eight women between the ages of 65 and 77 living in a mid-sized Southwestern Ontario city were interviewed about being ever single, including their perspectives of the benefits and drawbacks of this status at their current age. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews, and the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Emergent themes illustrated how the women's stories of singlehood were affected by the sociopolitical contexts of their youth. Upon reflection, the women articulated the benefits of lifelong singlehood, strongly emphasizing their independence and "ability to be alone," which was viewed as very important as they aged. The drawbacks of singlehood focused on loneliness and the absence of a social support network, which took on particular importance as the women experienced increasing age and frailty. Overall, the participants expressed satisfaction with their marital status and defied common stereotypes about older, single women. Implications of these findings relate to the social structure of marital status and its impact upon the lives of women who remain single.

  18. High-velocity resistance exercise protocols in older women: effects on cardiovascular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo P; Novaes, Jefferson; Oliveira, Ricardo J; Gentil, Paulo; Wagner, Dale; Bottaro, Martim

    2007-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y) performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP). All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP) involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5) or 15 (DP15) seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women. Key pointsThe assessment of cardiovascular responses to high-velocity resistance exercise in older individuals is very important for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in elderly population.Discontinuous protocol decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (HR x SBP) during the performance of dynamic high-velocity resistance exercise in older women.The decrease in RPP (~ 8.5%) during the discontinuous protocol has clinical implications when developing high-velocity resistance exercise strategies for elderly individuals.

  19. Comparison between static stretching and the Pilates method on the flexibility of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Campos de; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2016-10-01

    Flexibility decreases with advancing age and some forms of exercise, such as static stretching and Pilates, can contribute to the improvement of this physical ability. To compare the effects of static stretching and Pilates on the flexibility of healthy older women, over the age of 60 years. Thirty-two volunteers were randomized into two groups (Static stretching or Pilates) to perform exercises for 60 min, twice a week, for three months. Evaluations to analyze the movements of the trunk (flexion and extension), hip flexion and plantar and dorsiflexion of the ankle were performed before and after the intervention, using a fleximeter. The static stretching exercises improved the trunk flexion and hip flexion movements, while the Pilates improved all evaluated movements. However, over time, the groups presented differences only for the trunk extension movement. For some body segments, Pilates may be more effective for improving flexibility in older women compared to static stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lumbar spine listhesis in older African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Molly T; Rubin, David A; Palermo, Lisa; Christianson, Lisa; Kang, James D; Nevitt, Michael C; Cauley, Jane A

    2003-01-01

    Degenerative changes in the lumbar spine may result in a loss of spinal stability and subluxation of one vertebra relative to another. Cadaveric studies and clinical case series have suggested that listhesis may be much more common in African Americans than in whites. To determine the prevalence of lumbar spine listhesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) among African American women aged 65 years and older and the relationship of listhesis to low back pain, physical function and quality of life. Cross-sectional study. A total of 481 African American women aged 65 years and older who were enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. These women were recruited from population-based listings in Baltimore, MD, Minneapolis, MN, Pittsburgh, PA, and Portland, OR. Not applicable. Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were digitized, and listhesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) was assessed at spinal levels L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5-S1. Usable data were obtained for 470 women. Listhesis was defined as present when the subluxation (antero or retro) was 3 mm or more. The overall prevalence of anterolisthesis was 58.3% and varied by spinal level (13.2% at L3-L4, 36.5% at L4-L5 and 29.6% at L5-S1). The prevalence increased with age but was lower among oophorectomized women and those currently on estrogen replacement therapy. Anterolisthesis was not associated (p>.05) with disc height nor was it related to back function. Retrolisthesis occurred in 4% of women and was associated with decreased disc height and an increased prevalence of spinal problems and walking problems. The prevalence of anterolisthesis among older African American women living in the community was two to three times greater than that found in white women of a similar age. This condition was not related to an increased frequency of back problems nor did it adversely affect general physical function. Retrolisthesis was relatively rare but was associated with decreased back function.

  1. Breast cancer risk assessment in women aged 70 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Pamela M; Skelly, Joan M; Geller, Berta M

    2011-11-01

    Although the benefit of screening mammography for women over 69 has not been established, it is generally agreed that screening recommendations for older women should be individualized based on health status and breast cancer risk. However, statistical models to assess breast cancer risk have not been previously evaluated in this age group. In this study, the original Gail model and three more recent models that include mammographic breast density as a risk factor were applied to a cohort of 19,779 Vermont women aged 70 and older. Women were followed for an average of 7.1 years and 821 developed breast cancer. The predictive accuracy of each risk model was measured by its c-statistic and associations between individual risk factors and breast cancer risk were assessed by Cox regression. C-statistics were 0.54 (95% CI = 0.52-0.56) for the Gail model, 0.54 (95% CI = 0.51-0.56) for the Tice modification of the Gail model, 0.55 (95% CI = 0.53-0.58) for a model developed by Barlow and 0.55 (95% CI = 0.53-0.58) for a Vermont model. These results indicate that the models are not useful for assessing risk in women aged 70 and older. Several risk factors in the models were not significantly associated with outcome in the cohort, while others were significantly related to outcome but had smaller relative risks than estimated by the models. Age-related attenuation of the effects of some risk factors makes the prediction of breast cancer in older women particularly difficult.

  2. Are women with fibromyalgia less physically active than healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Michael J; Colbert, Lisa H; Stegner, Aaron J; Cook, Dane B

    2011-05-01

    The primary purpose was to quantify and compare physical activity in fibromyalgia (FM) patients to age-matched healthy controls using both objective and self-report measures. Secondary purposes were to compare self-reported and objective measurement of physical activity and to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and pain and mood. Patients with FM (n=39) and healthy controls (n=40) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer at the hip for 7 d. Pain and mood were measured using the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. FM patients had significantly lower physical activity than controls measured by both the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and accelerometer (Pphysical activities than were measured by the accelerometer (P activity showed significant correlations in healthy controls (r=0.41-0.51, ρ=0.41, P0.05). Finally, physical activity levels were negatively related (r=-0.37, Pphysically active than healthy controls, thus extending on two earlier investigations that did not show differences in total physical activity levels using wrist-mounted actigraphy methods. Physical activity levels were not predictive of pain in FM but were significantly related to depressed mood. FM patients may also have a greater variability in their manner of self-report than healthy controls. Therefore, physical activity measurement in FM patients should not be limited solely to self-report measures. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  3. DNA methylation and cognitive functioning in healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, O.J.G.; Boxtel, van M.P.J.; Groot, R.H.M.; Jolles, J.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, P.; Durga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term supplementation with folic acid may improve cognitive performance in older individuals. The relationship between folate status and cognitive performance might be mediated by changes in methylation capacity, as methylation reactions are important for normal functioning of the brain.

  4. Keep Your Mouth Healthy: Oral Care for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the simple routine you learned as a kid—brush your teeth twice a day and floss regularly—can become more of a challenge as you get older. Among adults ages 75 and up, about 1 in 4 has lost all natural teeth, largely because of gum disease and tooth decay. You can take steps to keep your ...

  5. Neglect, abuse and violence against older women: Definitions and research frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Brownell

    2015-12-01

    Disease Control. Each focuses on a different aspect of abuse of older women: active ageing, old age dependency, and domestic violence in later life. A fourth conceptual framework, the human rights perspective, shows promise for addressing abuse of older women in a more holistic manner than the other definitions, but Is not fully developed as a way of understanding neglect, abuse and violence against older women. This is the first of a four-part series on older women and abuse.

  6. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    , absence of observable direct immediate results, social impact (for older people - the impact of family members and social image; for children and adolescents - the influence of parents and peers). For children and adolescents, availability and temptation of unhealthy foods and unavailability of good...... and palatable healthy foods appeared to be significant implementation barriers. Older people tended to emphasize that their eating habits, craving for unhealthy food and practical issues hindered healthy eating. In general, in the absence of health problems (and, in some cases, in the presence of illnesses......), "liking" remains the main food choice criterion, including the healthy foods. Conclusion: The study presented a number of barriers to healthy eating identified by older people and children/adolescents. Based on the results of the study, further investigations should be undertaken in this area...

  7. The effects of object height and visual information on the control of obstacle crossing during locomotion in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimune, Sho; Okada, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    In order to safely avoid obstacles, humans must rely on visual information regarding the position and shape of the object obtained in advance. The present study aimed to reveal the duration of obstacle visibility necessary for appropriate visuomotor control during obstacle avoidance in healthy older adults. Participants included 13 healthy young women (mean age: 21.5±1.4years) and 15 healthy older women (mean age: 68.5±3.5years) who were instructed to cross over an obstacle along a pressure-sensitive pathway at a self-selected pace while wearing liquid crystal shutter goggles. Participants were evaluated during three visual occlusion conditions: (i) full visibility, (ii) occlusion at T-1 step (T: time of obstacle crossing), and (iii) occlusion at T-2 steps. Toe clearances of both the lead and trail limb (LTC and TTC) were calculated. LTC in the occlusion at T-2 steps condition was significantly greater than that in other conditions. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between LTC and TTC in both groups, regardless of the condition or obstacle height. In the older adult group alone, step width in the occlusion at T-2 steps condition increased relative to that in full visibility conditions. The results of the present study suggest that there is no difference in the characteristics of visuomotor control for appropriate obstacle crossing based on age. However, older adults may exhibit increased dependence on visual information for postural stability; they may also need an increased step width when lacking information regarding their positional relationship to obstacles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence among Midlife and Older Women: A Descriptive Analysis of Women Seeking Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2008-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…

  9. Scottish country dance: benefits to functional ability in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Susan; Nelson, Norah; Dougall, Paul K; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term participation in Scottish country dance on body composition, functional ability, and balance in healthy older females were examined. Participants were grouped into dancers and physically active nondancers (ages 60-70 and 70-80 for both groups). Physical activity, body composition (body-mass index, skinfold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio), functional ability (6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, 8-ft up-and-go time, lower body flexibility, shoulder flexibility), and static balance were measured. Younger dancers and physically active nondancers had similar 6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, and 8-ft up-and-go time results; however, while older dancers performed similarly to younger dancers, older physically active nondancers performed poorer than their younger counterparts (p dance can delay the effects of aging on locomotion-related functional abilities.

  10. Breast cancer screening in older women: law and patient rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1992-11-01

    Legal principles that apply to breast cancer in older women have been developed in judicial decisions related to other medical screening tests. There are no special legal rules for either mammography or older women, although older women seldom file malpractice suits. The general standard is that a screening test must be offered to any particular age group when it is considered "reasonably prudent" to do so, and this almost always means when the medical profession--usually speaking though its specialty boards--declares it the standard of care. The standard of care should be set by medical professionals, with open opportunity for public input, rather than by lawyers or risk managers. In actual practice, private regulation may not be sufficient to protect the public, and both state and federal regulation of mammography facilities now seems inevitable. Patients have the right to be fully informed prior to screening, the right to refuse screening, and the right to have full knowledge of the consequences of such refusal. Mammography is not a consumer good, but American women should be actively involved in determining issues of costs and benefits, as well as helping to develop the best strategies for counseling and informed consent.

  11. Reaching Perinatal Women Online: The Healthy You, Healthy Baby Website and App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hearn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overwhelming evidence reveals the close link between unwarranted weight gain among childbearing women and childhood adiposity. Yet current barriers limit the capacity of perinatal health care providers (PHCPs to offer healthy lifestyle counselling. In response, today’s Internet savvy women are turning to online resources to access health information, with the potential of revolutionising health services by enabling PHCPs to guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents the findings of a project designed to develop an online resource to promote healthy lifestyles during the perinatal period. The methodology involved focus groups and interviews with perinatal women and PHCPs to determine what online information was needed, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The outcome was the development of the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and smartphone app. This clinically-endorsed, interactive online resource provides perinatal women with a personalised tool to track their weight, diet, physical activity, emotional wellbeing, and sleep patterns based on the developmental stage of their child with links to quality-assured information. One year since the launch of the online resource, data indicates it provides a low-cost intervention delivered across most geographic and socioeconomic strata without additional demands on health service staff.

  12. Comparison of Dietary Quality Assessment Using Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour-recalls in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Procter-Gray

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternative healthy eating indices (AHEI between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and 24-hour recall (24HR measurements of diet by gender, among older adults. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of 105 men and 99 women aged 65 and older living in urban and rural neighborhoods in Worcester County, Massachusetts, USA. Participants were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24HR. The healthy eating classification was compared between the two instruments by gender. Results: For men, the mean ± SD of AHEI total score was 48.2 ± 12.3 based on FFQ versus 34.7 ± 10.2 based on 24HR. For women, the mean ± SD was 47.9 ± 10.1 based on FFQ versus 36.1 ± 10.0 based on 24HR. Using 32 as the cutoff (40% of maximum AHEI score, 9% of men and 7% of women were classified as eating unhealthy based on the FFQ, versus 47% of men and 38% of women based on 24HR. Compared to women, men had larger 24HR to FFQ discrepancies in the nuts and vegetable protein subscore and white/red meat ratio, and smaller discrepancy in alcohol beverages subscore. Conclusion: Agreements between FFQ and 24HR-based measures of diet quality were roughly comparable between men and women, though slightly better for women than men. Compared to 24HR, the FFQ tended to underestimate the proportions of older men and women classified as eating unhealthy and misclassified more men than women. Such limitations should be considered when the FFQ is used to study healthy eating in older age.

  13. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young ...

  14. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  15. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-24

    Oct 24, 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  16. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women...... with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA. Results In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA...

  17. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  18. Postponement of health care by unmarried older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, P M

    1987-01-01

    This longitudinal research examined postponement of needed health care by unmarried older women. This research is timely since the unmarried are projected to be an increasing proportion of the aged population. Relationships between being unmarried (widowed, separated/divorced, never married) and postponement of treatment, reasons for postponement of care, and changes in health care behavior were examined. Data were analyzed from 1,159 widowed, 264 never married, and 251 separated/divorced women age 58 to 63 years at the time of the initial interview. Marital status was associated with postponing care and reasons for delaying care. The proportion of women who failed to obtain care and their reasons for doing so were fairly stable over a decade. Distress over finances tended to be more salient in determining postponement of care than health status. Formerly married and never-married women had somewhat different reasons for delaying care suggesting the need for targeted interventions by professionals.

  19. Experiences of Sleep and Benzodiazepine Use among Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older women; however, little is known about sleep experiences among chronic benzodiazepine users. The experience of sleep, sleep troubles, and management of sleep problems were explored through semi-structured interviews with 12 women aged 65 to 92 who had used a benzodiazepine for three months or longer to treat a sleep disturbance. Themes that emerged from an interpretive phenomenological analysis included multiple reasons for sleep disruptions (health problems, mental disturbances, and sleeping arrangements); opposing effects of benzodiazepines on sleep (helps or does not work); and several supplemental sleep strategies (modification of the environment, distraction, and consumption). PMID:25581296

  20. Benzodiazepine prescriptions and falls in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Monica; Diaz-Gutierrez, Maria Jose; Besga, Ariadna; Bermúdez-Ampudia, Cristina; López, Purificación; Rondon, Marta B; Stewart, Donna E; Perez, Patricia; Gutierrez, Miguel; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana

    2017-03-02

    Despite cautions by professional associations, benzodiazepines (BZD) and Z hypnotics (BZD/Z) are widely prescribed to older adults who are particularly susceptible to insomnia and anxiety, but who are also more sensitive to drugs adverse events. In this study, we assessed the prescription of BZD/Z drugs in a sample of older adults (≥65) who presented for emergency care after a fall. We collected the type, number and dose of BZD/Z drugs prescribed and explored gender differences in the prescription. BZD/Z drugs were prescribed to 43.6% of the sample (n=654) and more frequently to women; 78.4% of prescriptions were for BZD/Z drugs with a short half-life. The majority of patients (83.5%) were prescribed only one type of BZD/Z, but 16.5% had been prescribed multiple BZD/Z drugs, with no gender difference. Doses higher than those recommended for older adults were prescribed to 58% of patients, being the doses significantly higher for men compared to women (70.0% vs 53.1%). Over 40% of older adults presenting for emergency care after a fall had previously been prescribed BZD/Z drugs. Some important gender differences in the prescription of BZD/Z drugs were seen, especially prescription above the recommended dose and of drugs with a long-half life. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Jamie S; French, David P; Jackson, Dean; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil; Degens, Hans

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity helps to improve physical and mental functions as well as reverse some effects of chronic disease to keep older people mobile and independent. Despite the highly publicised benefits of physical activity, the overwhelming majority of older people in the United Kingdom do not meet the minimum physical activity levels needed to maintain health. The sedentary lifestyles that predominate in older age results in premature onset of ill health, disease and frailty. Local authorities have a responsibility to promote physical activity amongst older people, but knowing how to stimulate regular activity at the population-level is challenging. The physiological rationale for physical activity, risks of adverse events, societal and psychological factors are discussed with a view to inform public health initiatives for the relatively healthy older person as well as those with physical frailty. The evidence shows that regular physical activity is safe for healthy and for frail older people and the risks of developing major cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, obesity, falls, cognitive impairments, osteoporosis and muscular weakness are decreased by regularly completing activities ranging from low intensity walking through to more vigorous sports and resistance exercises. Yet, participation in physical activities remains low amongst older adults, particularly those living in less affluent areas. Older people may be encouraged to increase their activities if influenced by clinicians, family or friends, keeping costs low and enjoyment high, facilitating group-based activities and raising self-efficacy for exercise.

  2. Functional fitness of older women performing physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive process and physical activities have been indi-cated as a possibility to minimize its impact and, especially, to maintain the functional capacity of older adults for a longer period of time. The objective of the present study was to analyze modifications in the General Functional Fitness Index (GFFI in older adults participating in a physical activity program for a period of 10 months and to associate the results with different age strata, duration of participation in the program and modifications in physical fitness. The study was conducted on 225 older women (mean age: 69.26, sd=5.685, participating in the Physical Activity and Folk Dance Program for The Elderly of the Sports Center, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Descriptive statistics, Student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for analysis of the data. A significant difference (p< 0.01 in GFFI and in the variables agility/balance and coordination (p< 0.01 was observed between March and December 2005. Strength (p=0.323, resistance (p=0,946 and flexibility (p=0.722 did not differ significantly during the period analyzed. In addition, the group performing physical activity for more than 10 years and the group older than 80 years presented the best GFFI in the assessments. Physical activity for older adults might be an important factor to improve and/or maintain functional fitness during the process of aging.

  3. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Come On! Using intervention mapping to help healthy pregnant women achieve healthy weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-06-01

    Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan. A consortium of users and related professionals guided the process of development. As a result of the needs assessment, two goals for the intervention were formulated: (i) helping healthy pregnant women to stay within the IOM guidelines for GWG; and (ii) getting midwives to adequately support the efforts of healthy pregnant women to gain weight within the IOM guidelines. To reach these goals, change objectives and determinants influencing the change objectives were formulated. Theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Practical strategies to use the theories were the foundation for the development of 'Come On!', a comprehensive programme that included a tailored Internet programme for pregnant women, training for midwives, an information card for midwives, and a scheduled discussion between the midwife and the pregnant woman during pregnancy. The programme was pre-tested and evaluated in an effect study.

  5. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    Full Text Available The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628, leg push power (r = 0.550, isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442, hand grip strength (r = 0.367, fast gait speed (r = 0.291, habitual gait speed (r = 0.256, body mass index (r = 0.411 and age (r = -0.392. Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  6. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Mohr, Christian; Machann, Juergen; Blatzonis, Konstantinos; Rapp, Kilian; Becker, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years) was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628), leg push power (r = 0.550), isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442), hand grip strength (r = 0.367), fast gait speed (r = 0.291), habitual gait speed (r = 0.256), body mass index (r = 0.411) and age (r = -0.392). Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  7. Comparison of thoracic kyphosis and postural stiffness in younger and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Martha R

    2004-01-01

    An increase in thoracic kyphosis and postural stiffness is commonly associated with aging and many pathological conditions. Simple clinical measurements are needed to estimate the relative degree of postural stiffness to determine whether clinical interventions, such as exercise, are beneficial. To compare the amount of kyphosis and postural stiffness in the thoracic spine of younger and older women. Experimental design conducted at a large health science center in southeastern Texas. Fifty-one healthy adult women, 25 between the ages of 21 and 51 years and 26 aged 66 to 88 years. Index of kyphosis (IK) measured with a surveyor's flexicurve. Differences, percent change and ratios between IK measures taken in the relaxed and maximally erect positions were used to estimate postural stiffness. Subjects were measured while standing in their usual relaxed posture and again in their maximally erect posture by three different raters. IK measures were calculated by each rater and averaged for further data analysis. Independent t tests were used to compare the two age groups at the .05 alpha level. Significant differences were found in both the relaxed (p= .018) and erect (polder women. The differences, percent change and ratio between the two IK measures were also significantly different in that the younger women demonstrated a greater degree of active reduction of their kyphosis (in the erect posture) than older women. Age-related differences in thoracic kyphosis and postural stiffness were documented between younger and older women by means of repeated flexicurve measurements performed in both a relaxed and a maximally erect position.

  8. Cognitive functioning in healthy older adults aged 64-81: a cohort study into the effects of age, sex, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, S A H; Valentijn, A M; Bosma, H; Ponds, R W H M; van Boxtel, M P J; Jolles, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine a possible differential effect of age, education, and sex on cognitive speed, verbal memory, executive functioning, and verbal fluency in healthy older adults. A group of 578 healthy participants in the age range of 64-81 was recruited from a large population study of healthy adults (Maastricht Aging Study). Even in healthy individuals in this restricted age range, there is a clear, age-related decrease in performance on executive functioning, verbal fluency, verbal memory, and cognitive speed tasks. The capacity to inhibit information is affected most. Education had a substantial effect on cognitive functioning: participants with a middle or high level of education performed better on cognitive tests than did participants with a low level of education. Women performed better than men on verbal memory tasks. Therefore, education and sex must be taken into account when examining an older individual's cognitive performance.

  9. Racial Differences in Neighborhood Perceptions and their Influences on Physical Activity among Urban Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper levels of physical activity (PA are important to healthy aging. Little is known about racial differences in influences of neighborhood perceptions (NP on PA and use of neighborhood resources among community-dwelling older women. Materials and methods: In 2014 and 2015, 49 white and 44 black women of age 65 and older living in Washington, DC were queried about their PA, NP, use of neighborhood resources and sociodemographic characteristics. They wore an accelerometer and a Global Positioning System device concurrently for 7 consecutive days. Data were analyzed by race. Results: Compared to Whites, Blacks had lower NP scores (71% positive vs. 77%, p = 0.01, lower mean daily step counts (mean (SD: 3256 (1918 vs. 5457 (2989, p < 0.001, and lower frequencies of all exercise activities combined (19.7 (8.7 vs. 25.2 (11.8 per week, p = 0.01. For both Whites and Blacks, better NPs were associated with more frequent PA both at (p = 0.05 and away from home (p = 0.01. However, better NPs were associated with higher frequencies of exercise activities, moderate-to-high intensity activities, and utilitarian walking for Whites but not Blacks (p < 0.05 for race-perception interaction terms. Conclusions: In an urban setting, older Black women were more likely than older White women to have poor NPs, less PA, and weaker or no association of positive NPs with higher levels of certain PAs. Such substantial racial differences warrant further investigation and consideration in health promotion programs.

  10. Social Network Characteristics and Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. L. Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in “cultivation” exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  11. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  12. Sleep and executive function in older women: the moderating effect of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiase, Maya J; Gabriel, Kelley P; Kuller, Lewis H; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Sleep and physical activity are both important for cognition. However, few cognitive function studies include comprehensive measurement of both sleep and physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive associations of sleep and physical activity in relation to cognitive function in older women. A subset of 121 women from the Healthy Women Study, mean age 73.3 ± 1.7 years, wore an actigraphy sleep monitor, physical activity accelerometer, and kept sleep and physical activity diaries for 7 consecutive days. Executive function was measured with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and the Trail Making Test B. Verbal fluency was assessed with a word generation task. In adjusted models, greater actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency was associated with more correct responses on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (β = 0.35, SE = 0.15, p function in older women, with the clearest effects observed using direct measurements of sleep and physical activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. Recent findings The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The

  14. Abdominal breathing increases tear secretion in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Ikeura, Kazuhiro; Arita, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between abdominal breathing and tear meniscus volume in healthy women, we investigated the change in tear meniscus volume in two groups: normal breathing and abdominal breathing. We used a crossover experimental model and examined 20 healthy women aged 20-54 years (mean ± SD, 32.7 ± 11.1 years). The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. During the first visit, the normal breathing group was subjected to normal breathing for 3 min, whereas the abdominal breathing group was subjected to abdominal breathing (4-second inhalation and 6-second exhalation) for 3 min. During the second visit, the protocols were swapped between the two groups. We estimated the R wave to R wave (R-R) interval, tear meniscus volume, salivary amylase activity, pulse, and blood pressure before and immediately after, 15 min after, and 30 min after completion of the breathing activity. After abdominal breathing, compared to that before breathing, the tear meniscus volume increased significantly 15 min after breathing (Pabdominal breathing (PAbdominal breathing for 3 minutes increases the tear meniscus volume in healthy women. Consequently, abdominal breathing may be considered in the treatment of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candow, Darren G; Vogt, Emelie; Johannsmeyer, Sarah; Forbes, Scott C; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2015-07-01

    Creatine supplementation in close proximity to resistance training may be an important strategy for increasing muscle mass and strength; however, it is unknown whether creatine supplementation before or after resistance training is more effective for aging adults. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design, older adults (50-71 years) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: creatine before (CR-B: n = 15; creatine (0.1 g/kg) immediately before resistance training and placebo (0.1 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin) immediately after resistance training), creatine after (CR-A: n = 12; placebo immediately before resistance training and creatine immediately after resistance training), or placebo (PLA: n = 12; placebo immediately before and immediately after resistance training) for 32 weeks. Prior to and following the study, body composition (lean tissue, fat mass; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum leg press and chest press) were assessed. There was an increase over time for lean tissue mass and muscle strength and a decrease in fat mass (p Creatine supplementation, independent of the timing of ingestion, increased muscle strength more than placebo (leg press: CR-B, Δ 36.6 ± 26.6 kg; CR-A, Δ 40.8 ± 38.4 kg; PLA, Δ 5.6 ± 35.1 kg; chest press: CR-B, Δ 15.2 ± 13.0 kg; CR-A, Δ 15.7 ± 12.5 kg; PLA, Δ 1.9 ± 14.7 kg; p creatine supplementation improves muscle strength, with greater gains in lean tissue mass resulting from post-exercise creatine supplementation.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Rejnmark, Lars; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome.......To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome....

  17. Barriers to healthy nutrition: perceptions and experiences of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahmand Maryam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sound understanding of community perceptions and experiences regarding barriers to a healthy diet is a prerequisite for the design of effective interventions aimed at prevention of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This study focused on exploring barriers to healthy nutrition as experienced by women participating in the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS. Methods A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants’ experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Data collection was conducted through sixteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 102 women, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results The study revealed that the most important barriers to healthy nutrition were: 1 Interpersonal/cultural effects, 2 Lack of access to healthy foods, and 3 Food preferences. Conclusions Understanding these barriers might contribute to existing literature by providing evidence from a different culture, and help design effective preventive strategies, and implement appropriate interventions among Tehranian families.

  18. Fall scenarios In causing older women's hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägvide, Mona-Lisa; Larsson, Tore J; Borell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries among older women constitute a major public health problem with huge costs for the society and personal suffering. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate how a number of circumstances, conceptualized as a scenario, that were related to the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation contributed to a fall that led to a hip fracture among women. The sample included 48 women over 55 years old. Interviews were conducted during home visits and the analysis provided a descriptive picture of circumstances in the shape of a scenario related to the risk of falling. A number of scenarios were developed based on the data and named to provide an understanding of the interplay between the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation at the time of the fall. By applying the concept of a scenario, occupational therapists can increase the awareness of fall risks among older people, and are relevant also for interior designers, architects, and town planners to consider when designing the local environment as well as furniture and other objects.

  19. Multisensory reweighting of vision and touch is intact in healthy and fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Leslie K; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J

    2006-11-01

    Unexplained falls in older adults are thought to arise from subtle deficits in multiple components of the postural control system, including peripheral sensory loss and central sensory processing. One commonly proposed central sensory processing deficit is a decline in the adaptive use of changing or conflicting sensory inputs for estimating body dynamics, i.e., multisensory reweighting. We examined the assumption of impaired multisensory reweighting in healthy and fall-prone older adults using quantitative methods that have previously demonstrated reweighting in young adults. Standing subjects were exposed to simultaneous medio-lateral oscillatory visual and fingertip touch inputs at varying relative amplitudes. No group differences in overall levels of vision and touch gain were found. Both healthy and fall-prone older adults demonstrated the same pattern of adaptive gain change as healthy young adults. Like the young adults, both elderly groups displayed clear evidence of intra- and inter-sensory reweighting to both vision and touch motion stimuli. These data suggest that, for small amplitude vision and touch stimuli, the central sensory reweighting adaptation process remains intact in healthy and fall-prone older adults with sufficiently intact peripheral sensation.

  20. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  1. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picorelli AMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra Miranda Assumpção Picorelli, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Diogo Carvalho Felício, Daniela Maria Dos Anjos, Danielle Aparecida Gomes Pereira, Rosângela Corrêa Dias, Marcella Guimarães Assis, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Background: Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods: This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results: The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003 for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310 and also significant (P=0.008 for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154. A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003 only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236. The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion: Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. Keywords: older women, adherence, therapeutic exercises

  2. Testosterone and sexual desire in healthy women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual desire is typically higher in men than in women, with testosterone (T) thought to account for this difference as well as within-sex variation in desire in both women and men. However, few studies have incorporated both hormonal and social or psychological factors in studies of sexual desire. The present study addressed how three psychological domains (sexual-relational, stress-mood, body-embodiment) were related to links between T and sexual desire in healthy adults and whether dyadic and solitary desire showed associations with T. Participants (n = 196) were recruited as part of the Partnering, Physiology, and Health study, which had 105 men and 91 women who completed questionnaires and provided saliva for cortisol and T assays. T was positively linked to solitary desire in women, with masturbation frequency influencing this link. In contrast, T was negatively correlated with dyadic desire in women, but only when cortisol and perceived social stress were controlled. Replicating past findings, no significant correlations between T and desire in men were apparent, but these analyses showed that the null association remained even when psychological and confound variables were controlled. Men showed higher desire than women, but masturbation frequency rather than T influenced this difference. Results were discussed in terms of challenges to assumptions of clear links between T and desire, gendered approaches to T, and the unitarity of desire.

  3. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Manasatchakun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons’ family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative’s perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  5. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID

  6. Case studies of food shopping, cooking and eating habits in older women with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, I; Sidenvall, B

    2001-07-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate how married and single-living older women diagnosed with Parkinson's disease managed to shop for food, cook and carry out their meals; and to observe whether their nutritional needs were satisfied. A secondary aim was to identify women with severe motor problems and describe their food-related situation. Parkinson's disease is associated with motor and eating problems, which, combined with age-related declines in physical functioning, may affect activities of daily living and dietary intake. Qualitative interviews and food survey were carried out in the homes of 10 women aged 67-80 years. The sample was recruited from outpatient registers. Decreased sense of smell, appetite and taste in combination with problems transporting food to the mouth and swallowing were risks for nutritional well-being. Food shopping was most difficult to manage, but six cooked even if their cooking style was changed. Married women with healthy husbands received support from their spouses. Single-living women suffering from motor problems had to call for help, which represented a threat to their well-being. Independence was given high priority. The whole situation - including psychosocial and stress factors - must be taken into account when discussing shopping, cooking and eating among old women with Parkinson's disease. A home-helper should not take over but facilitate procedures so that the woman can manage as long as possible. This gave them self-esteem.

  7. Reducing falls and resulting hip fractures among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J A; Olson, S

    2000-03-31

    Fall-related injuries are the leading cause of injury deaths and disabilities among older adults (i.e., persons aged > or = 65 years). The most serious fall injury is hip fracture; one half of all older adults hospitalized for hip fracture never regain their former level of function. In 1996, a total of 340,000 hospitalizations for hip fracture occurred among persons aged > or = 65 years, and 80% of these admissions occurred among women. From 1988 to 1996, hip fracture hospitalization rates for women aged > or = 65 years increased 23%. Risk factors for falls include increasing age, muscle weakness, functional limitations, environmental hazards, use of psychoactive medications, and a history of falls. Age is also a risk factor for hip fracture. Women aged > or = 85 years are nearly eight times more likely than women aged 65-74 years to be hospitalized for hip fracture. White women aged > or = 65 years are at higher risk for hip fracture than black women. Other riskfactors for hip fracture include lack of physical activity, osteoporosis, low body mass index, and a previous hip fracture. Because approximately 95% of hip fractures result from falls, minimizing fall risk is a practical approach to reducing these serious injuries. Research demonstrates that effective fall prevention strategies require a multifaceted approach with both behavioral and environmental components. Important elements include education and skill building to increase knowledge about fall risk factors, exercise to improve strength and balance, home modifications to reduce fall hazards, and medication assessment to minimize side effects (e.g., dizziness and grogginess). Coordination needs to be improved among the diverse Federal, state, and local organizations that conduct fall prevention activities. The effectiveness of existing fall prevention programs among specific groups of women (e.g., those aged > or = 85 years or living with functional limitations) needs careful evaluation. New primary fall

  8. Perceptions of Benzodiazepine Dependence Among Women Age 65 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L.; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: 1) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; 2) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; 3) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and 4) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use. PMID:24918963

  9. Perceptions of benzodiazepine dependence among women age 65 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: (a) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; (b) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; (c) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and (d) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use.

  10. Diet quality and telomere length in older Australian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Russell, Aaron P; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-26

    Telomere length is a biomarker of cellular ageing, with longer telomeres associated with longevity and reduced risk of chronic disease in older age. Consumption of a healthy diet may contribute to longevity via its impact on cellular ageing, but studies on diet and telomere length to date have been limited and their findings equivocal. The aim of this study was to examine associations between three indices of diet quality and telomere length in older men and women. Adults aged 57-68 years participating in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study in Victoria, Australia (n = 679), completed a postal survey including an 111-item food frequency questionnaire in 2012. Diet quality was assessed via three indices: the Dietary Guideline Index, the Recommended Food Score, and the Mediterranean Diet Score. Relative telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations between diet quality and telomere length were assessed using linear regression adjusted for covariates. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI), there were no significant associations between diet quality and relative telomere length. In a sample of older adults residing in Victoria, Australia, men and women aged 57-68 years with better-quality diets did not have longer telomeres. Further investigation in longitudinal studies will determine whether diet can influence telomere length over time in an ageing population.

  11. Postural differences in hemodynamics and diastolic function in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, James C; Lalande, Sophie; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Johnson, Bruce D

    2007-04-01

    The shift from upright to supine posture increases stroke volume in healthy young adults, primarily through increased end-diastolic volume. Aging is associated with increased ventricular stiffness and impaired diastolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the stroke volume change between the upright and supine posture was blunted in healthy older men and whether the early mitral inflow response to this postural change was reduced by aging. Pulsed Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging were used to assess stroke volume and left ventricular function during upright and supine posture in 10 young and 12 older healthy men. Cardiac output was greater in the supine versus upright condition in both groups. In young men supine posture was associated with a large increment in stroke volume (63.1 +/- 7.2 upright to 98.6 +/- 11.7 ml supine; P older men, the stroke volume increment was smaller (63.9 +/- 3.6 upright to 82.0 +/- 5.7 ml supine; P posture. Increased stroke volume was associated with higher peak early diastolic filling velocity (E) in young men and higher peak late diastolic filling velocity (A) in older men. These findings indicate that healthy aging attenuates the increase in early filling associated with moving from an upright to a supine posture. Furthermore, healthy older men are more dependent upon atrial diastolic filling to augment end-diastolic and stroke volume, which may be due to age-associated increases in left ventricular filling pressure and impaired compliance.

  12. High-Velocity Resistance Exercise Protocols in Older Women: Effects on Cardiovascular Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo P.; Novaes, Jefferson; Oliveira, Ricardo J.; Gentil, Paulo; Wagner, Dale; Bottaro, Martim

    2007-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y) performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP). All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP) involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5) or 15 (DP15) seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05) with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women. Key pointsThe assessment of cardiovascular responses to high-velocity resistance exercise in older individuals is very important for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in elderly population.Discontinuous protocol decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (HR x SBP) during the performance of dynamic high-velocity resistance exercise in older women.The decrease in RPP (~ 8.5%) during the discontinuous protocol has clinical implications when developing high-velocity resistance exercise strategies for elderly individuals. PMID:24149492

  13. Creative Dance Improves Physical Fitness and Life Satisfaction in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Marmeleira, José; Formigo, Alexandra; Gomes, Dulce; Fernandes, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of creative dance on physical fitness and life satisfaction in older women. A total of 57 women (65-80 years old) were randomized to either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in a supervised creative dance program for 24 weeks. Physical fitness (strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, motor ability/dynamic balance, and body composition) and life satisfaction were assessed pre- and posttreatment (at 12 and 24 weeks) by the Senior Fitness Test and the Life Satisfaction scale, respectively. After the intervention, the experimental group had better physical fitness and life satisfaction when compared with the control group. Creative dance has a positive effect in different dimensions of functioning and has the potential to contribute to healthy aging. This could be related to the integrated mobilization of physical, cognitive, and social skills promoted by creative dance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Texting literacies as social practices among older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyers, Charlyn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While many studies on mobile messaging have tended to focus on the communicative practices of the urban young, this paper considers the role of mobile messaging (also called texting both as a social practice as well as a form of literacy enhancement among a group of older working class women between the ages of 50 and 80 in a Cape Town township. The paper examines how these women, with little or no formal education, acquire this form of literacy, as well as the purposes for which they use texting. It also explores how this form of late-modern communication is adding to four of their existing or developing literacies – text, numeracy, visual and personal. The paper therefore adopts a multiliteracies approach within the context of portable literacies.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  16. Nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost in young, middle-aged and older Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Okubo, Hitomi; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women. Monetary diet cost was estimated using retail food prices. Total vegetables, fish and shellfish, green and black tea, white rice, meat, fruit and alcoholic beverages contributed most (79-89 %) to inter-individual variation in monetary diet cost. Multiple regression analyses showed that monetary diet cost was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake, but positively with intakes of all other nutrients examined (including not only dietary fibre and key vitamins and minerals but also saturated fat and Na) in all generations. For food group intakes, irrespective of age, monetary diet cost was associated inversely with white rice and bread but positively with pulses, potatoes, fruit, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, green and black tea, fish and shellfish, and meat. In conclusion, in all three generations of Japanese women and contrary to Western populations, monetary diet cost was positively associated with not only healthy dietary components (including fruits, vegetables, fish and shellfish, dietary fibre, and key vitamins and minerals), but also less healthy components (including saturated fat and Na).

  17. Relationship between quadriceps echo intensity and functional and morphological characteristics in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akima, Hiroshi; Yoshiko, Akito; Tomita, Aya; Ando, Ryosuke; Saito, Akira; Ogawa, Madoka; Kondo, Shohei; Tanaka, Noriko I

    The age-related decrease in human skeletal muscle mass; i.e. sarcopenia, has received much attention, but an age-related increase in the ratio of adipose tissue to muscle tissue has received noticeably less. A few studies have shown that ultrasonographic echo intensity, an index of the adipose-to-muscle ratio, is negatively associated with functional capacity, but the best parameters by which to predict this ratio have not yet been established for older individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between quadriceps femoris (QF) echo intensity and demographic, functional and morphological characteristics of older men and women. Sixty-four healthy men (n=27) and women (n=37) aged 62-88 years (72.0±5.0years) participated in this study. The echo intensity and muscle thickness of the QF were calculated using ultrasonography. Sit-up, supine-up, sit-to-stand, 5-m maximal walk and 6-min walk tests were performed. There were no significant differences in QF echo intensity between sexes, but QF echo intensity was significantly correlated with QF muscle thickness. Stepwise multiple regression analysis with QF echo intensity as a dependent variable revealed QF muscle thickness, sit-to-stand test in men and age, and QF muscle thickness and sit-to-stand test in women, to be significant variables. These results suggest that QF echo intensity can be explained by QF muscle thickness, sit-to-stand and/or age in older men and women; however, an "age" effect was present only in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  19. Sleep duration, cognitive decline, and dementia risk in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Espeland, Mark A; Brunner, Robert L; Lovato, Laura C; Wallace, Robert B; Leng, Xiaoyan; Phillips, Lawrence S; Robinson, Jennifer G; Kotchen, Jane M; Johnson, Karen C; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E; Mysiw, W Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence linking habitual sleep duration with risks of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia is lacking. We conducted a prospective study on 7444 community-dwelling women (aged 65-80 y) with self-reported sleep duration, within the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study in 1995-2008. Incident MCI/dementia cases were ascertained by validated protocols. Cox models were used to adjust for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other clinical characteristics. We found a statistically significant (P = .03) V-shaped association with a higher MCI/dementia risk in women with either short (≤6 hours/night) or long (≥8 hours/night) sleep duration (vs. 7 hours/night). The multicovariate-adjusted hazard for MCI/dementia was increased by 36% in short sleepers irrespective of CVD, and by 35% in long sleepers without CVD. A similar V-shaped association was found with cognitive decline. In older women, habitual sleep duration predicts the future risk for cognitive impairments including dementia, independent of vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Healthy Mind, Healthy Mobility Trial: A Novel Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Gregory, Michael A; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Hachinski, Vladimir; Fitzgerald, Clara; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    More evidence is needed to conclude that a specific program of exercise and/or cognitive training warrants prescription for the prevention of cognitive decline. We examined the effect of a group-based standard exercise program for older adults, with and without dual-task training, on cognitive function in older adults without dementia. We conducted a proof-of-concept, single-blinded, 26-wk randomized controlled trial whereby participants recruited from preexisting exercise classes at the Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging in London, Ontario, were randomized to the intervention group (exercise + dual-task [EDT]) or the control group (exercise only [EO]). Each week (2 or 3 d · wk(-1)), both groups accumulated a minimum of 50 min of aerobic exercise (target 75 min) from standard group classes and completed 45 min of beginner-level square-stepping exercise. The EDT group was also required to answer cognitively challenging questions while doing beginner-level square-stepping exercise (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of interventions on standardized global cognitive function (GCF) scores at 26 wk was compared between the groups using the linear mixed effects model approach. Participants (n = 44; 68% female; mean [SD] age: 73.5 [7.2] yr) had on average, objective evidence of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, mean [SD]: 24.9 [1.9]) but not dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination scores, mean [SD]: 28.8 [1.2]). After 26 wk, the EDT group showed greater improvement in GCF scores compared with the EO group (difference between groups in mean change [95% CI]: 0.20 SD [0.01-0.39], P = 0.04). A 26-wk group-based exercise program combined with dual-task training improved GCF in community-dwelling older adults without dementia.

  1. Reach capacity in older women submitted to flexibility training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elciana de Paiva Lima Vieira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of flexibility training on the maximum range of motion levels and reach capacity of older women practitioners of aquatic exercises of the Prev-Quedas project. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention (IG, n = 25, which were submitted to flexibility training program and control (CG, n = 21, in which older women participated only in aquatic exercises. Flexibility training lasted three months with weekly frequency of two days, consisting of stretching exercises involving trunk and lower limbs performed after aquatic exercises. The stretching method used was passive static. Assessment consisted of the functional reach, lateral and goniometric tests. Statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Shapiro-Wilk normality, ANCOVA, Pearson and Spearman correlations. Significant results for GI in gains of maximum range of motion for the right hip joint (p = 0.0025, however, the same result was not observed in other joints assessed, and there was no improvement in functional and lateral reach capacity for both groups. Significant correlations between reach capacity and range of motion in the trunk, hip and ankle were not observed. Therefore, flexibility training associated with the practice of aquatic exercises promoted increased maximum range of motion only for the hip joint; however, improvement in the reach capacity was not observed. The practice of aquatic exercises alone did not show significant results.

  2. Hyperkyphosis predicts mortality independent of vertebral osteoporosis in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Deborah M; Lui, Li-Yung; Ensrud, Kristine E; Fink, Howard A; Karlamangla, Arun S; Cummings, Steven R

    2009-05-19

    Excessive kyphosis may be associated with earlier mortality, but previous studies have not controlled for clinically silent vertebral fractures, which are a known mortality risk factor. To determine whether hyperkyphosis predicts increased mortality independent of vertebral fractures. Prospective cohort study. Four clinical centers in Baltimore County, Maryland; Portland, Oregon; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania. 610 women, age 67 to 93 years, from a cohort of 9704 women recruited from community-based listings between 1986 and 1988. Kyphosis was measured by using a flexicurve. Prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures at baseline were defined by morphometry, and mortality was assessed during an average follow-up of 13.5 years. In age-adjusted models, each SD increase in kyphosis carried a 1.14-fold increased risk for death (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27; P = 0.023). After adjustment for age and other predictors of mortality, including such osteoporosis-related factors as low bone density, moderate and severe prevalent vertebral fractures, and number of prevalent vertebral fractures, women with greater kyphosis were at increased risk for earlier death (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.15 [CI, 1.01 to 1.30]; P = 0.029). On stratification by prevalent vertebral fracture status, only women with prevalent fractures were at increased mortality risk from hyperkyphosis, independent of age, self-reported health, smoking, spine bone mineral density, number of vertebral fractures, and severe vertebral fractures (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.58 [CI, 1.06 to 2.35]; P = 0.024). The study population included only white women. In older women with vertebral fractures, hyperkyphosis predicts an increased risk for death, independent of underlying spinal osteoporosis and the extent and severity of vertebral fractures. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and National Institute on Aging.

  3. Differences in muscle coactivation during postural control between healthy older and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Koutatsu; Yamada, Minoru; Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in muscle coactivation during postural control between older and young adults and to identify the characteristics of postural control strategies in older adults by investigating the relationship between muscle coactivation and postural control ability. Forty-six healthy older adults (82.0±7.5 years) and 34 healthy young adults (22.1±2.3 years) participated. The postural tasks selected consisted of static standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary and gait. Coactivation of the ankle joint was recorded during each task via electromyography (EMG). The older adults showed significantly higher coactivation than the young adults during the tasks of standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary (forward), and gait (pPostural sway area (ρ=0.42, polder adults, i.e., muscle coactivation was significantly higher in the elderly with low postural control ability than in the elderly with high balance ability. Increased muscle coactivation could be a necessary change to compensate for a deterioration in postural control accompanying healthy aging. Further research is needed to clarify in greater detail positive and negative effects of muscle coactivation on postural control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Video analysis of sagittal spinal posture in healthy young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    Changes in posture are of concern because of their association with pain or impaired physical function. Previous studies that have used computer-aided video motion analysis systems to measure posture have been compromised by the use of problematic models of skin marker placement. This study aimed to quantify and compare sagittal spinal posture in standing and sitting between young and older adults using a two-dimensional PEAK Motus system and a revised skin marker model. Twenty-four healthy young adults and 22 healthy older adults volunteered for this study. The angles of the upper and lower cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine as well as the orientations of the head, neck, and pelvic plane with respect to an external reference were measured in the standing and sitting positions. Compared to young adults, healthy older adults demonstrated a forward head posture, with increased lower cervical spine flexion and increased upper cervical extension in both positions. Older adults also sat with significantly increased thoracic kyphosis and decreased lumbar spine flexion. The angular relationship between adjacent spinal regions in the sagittal plane can be objectively quantified using image-based analysis. The concept that the anteroposterior tilt of the pelvis in standing dictates the lumbar and thoracic curves was supported by the correlations between these adjacent regions in both age groups. The model of skin marker placement used in this study can have a broader application as a clinical tool for image-based postural assessment.

  5. The evaluation of walking footwear on postural stability in healthy older adults: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Angela; Bassett, Sandra; Walsh, Annie; Rome, Keith

    2011-10-01

    It has been proposed that walking footwear enhances postural stability in healthy older adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences between two different types of athletic footwear in relation to postural stability in healthy older adults. A convenience sample of 21 healthy older adults with mean (SD) of 74 (5) years was recruited. Postural stability was measured using a force plate for anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) centre of pressure excursion for 30s with eyes closed and open using two different types of athletic footwear. Each participant performed three repetitions of bipedal standing. Two-way analysis of variance tested the interaction effect of the footwear and eye conditions on anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) postural sway. There was no significant footwear-eye condition interaction for anterior-posterior(AP) postural sway but there were significant main effects for both the footwear and eye conditions (Ppostural sway there was no significant interaction effect and no main effects for the footwear and eye conditions (P>0.05). The results suggest that older adults demonstrate an initial destabilisation effect which could possibly be of benefit to functional ability but the long-term effects of ability of athletic footwear to enhance postural stability requires further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ascorbic acid does not enhance hypoxia‐induced vasodilation in healthy older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jonathan P.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Randolph, Brittney J.; Heffernan, Matthew J.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In response to hypoxia, a net vasodilation occurs in the limb vasculature in young healthy humans and this is referred to as “hypoxia‐induced vasodilation”. We performed two separate experiments to determine (1) if hypoxia‐induced forearm vasodilation is impaired in older men (n = 8) compared to young men (n = 7) and (2) if acute systemic infusion of ascorbic acid would enhance hypoxia‐induced vasodilation in older men (n = 8). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, minute ventilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC, Doppler ultrasound), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler flowmetry) were recorded continuously while subjects breathed 10% oxygen for 5 min. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and between treatments. The older adults had a significantly attenuated increase in FBF (13 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) and FVC (16 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) in response to 5 min of hypoxia. However, skin blood flow responses were comparable between groups (young: 35 ± 9, older: 30 ± 6%). In Experiment 2, FVC responses to 5 min of breathing 10% oxygen were not significantly different following saline (3 ± 10%) and ascorbic acid (8 ± 10%) in the older men. Ascorbic acid also had no physiological effects in the young men. These findings advance our basic understanding of how aging influences vascular responses to hypoxia and suggest that, in healthy humans, hypoxia‐induced vasodilation is not restrained by reactive oxygen species. PMID:25052494

  7. The dynamics of visual reweighting in healthy and fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, John J; Allison, Leslie K; Kiemel, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Multisensory reweighting (MSR) is an adaptive process that prioritizes the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs to provide the most reliable information for postural stability when environmental conditions change. This process is thought to degrade with increasing age and to be particularly deficient in fall-prone versus healthy older adults. In the present study, the authors investigate the dynamics of sensory reweighting, which is not well-understood at any age. Postural sway of young, healthy, and fall-prone older adults was measured in response to large changes in the visual motion stimulus amplitude within a trial. Absolute levels of gain, and the rate of adaptive gain change were examined when visual stimulus amplitude changed from high to low and from low to high. Compared with young adults, gains in both older adult groups were higher when the stimulus amplitude was high. Gains in the fall-prone elderly were higher than both other groups when the stimulus amplitude was low. Both older groups demonstrated slowed sensory reweighting over prolonged time periods when the stimulus amplitude was high. The combination of higher vision gains and slower down weighting in older adults suggest deficits that may contribute to postural instability.

  8. A Systematic Review of Behavioural Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating among Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people’s physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence and direction for further research. Three electronic bibliographic databases—PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. English language peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2011 and 2016 were selected for data extraction and quality assessment. Finally, a total of 16 studies were identified. The studies’ duration ranged from three weeks to seven years. The majority of studies were carried out in European countries. Seven studies had a moderate quality while the remaining studies were at a less than moderate level. Three dietary educational interventions and all meal service related interventions reported improvements in older people’s dietary variety, nutrition status, or other health-related eating behaviours. Multicomponent dietary interventions mainly contributed to the reduction of risk of chronic disease. The results supported that older people could achieve a better dietary quality if they make diet-related changes by receiving either dietary education or healthier meal service. Further high-quality studies are required to promote healthy eating among older people by taking regional diet patterns, advanced information technology, and nudging strategies into account.

  9. A Systematic Review of Behavioural Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating among Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Santos, Quenia Dos; Monteleone, Erminio; Giboreau, Agnès; Appleton, Katherine M; Bjørner, Thomas; Bredie, Wender L P; Hartwell, Heather

    2018-01-26

    Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people's physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence and direction for further research. Three electronic bibliographic databases-PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. English language peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2011 and 2016 were selected for data extraction and quality assessment. Finally, a total of 16 studies were identified. The studies' duration ranged from three weeks to seven years. The majority of studies were carried out in European countries. Seven studies had a moderate quality while the remaining studies were at a less than moderate level. Three dietary educational interventions and all meal service related interventions reported improvements in older people's dietary variety, nutrition status, or other health-related eating behaviours. Multicomponent dietary interventions mainly contributed to the reduction of risk of chronic disease. The results supported that older people could achieve a better dietary quality if they make diet-related changes by receiving either dietary education or healthier meal service. Further high-quality studies are required to promote healthy eating among older people by taking regional diet patterns, advanced information technology, and nudging strategies into account.

  10. Subthreshold depression and successful aging in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Meeks, Thomas W; Thompson, Wesley K; Depp, Colin A; Zisook, Sidney; Allison, Matthew; Judd, Lewis L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2010-03-01

    Subthreshold depression (StD) is common in older adults and is associated with poor self-rated health. However, the impact of StD on broader indicators of successful aging, such as positive psychological constructs, cognitive functioning, or quality of well-being, has not been assessed. The authors compared persons with scores above and below a predetermined threshold on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) with nondepressed (ND) persons on measures of multiple domains associated with successful aging. Cross-sectional survey-based psychological assessments. A total of 1,979 community-dwelling older women participating in the Women's Health Initiative study. ND was defined as a CES-D score below 8, StD as a score between 8 and 15, and CES-D Depression (CD) as a score of 16 or above. The study questionnaire consisted of multiple self-reported measures of positive psychological functioning (e.g., optimism and resilience), cognitive functioning and complaints, and quality of well-being. The authors also obtained a history of diagnosis, treatment, and hospitalization related to mental health problems. Overall 20.2% of women met CES-D criteria for StD and 7% for CD. Women with StD had worse self-rated successful aging, worse physical and emotional functioning, lower optimism, more negative attitudes toward aging, lower personal mastery and self-efficacy, and greater anxiety and hostility than ND women but scored better on all these measures than women with CD. Subjects with StD also had higher self-reported rates of previous diagnosis, treatment, and hospitalization for mental health problems than the ND group. Subjects with StD with depressed mood and/or anhedonia were largely similar to those without these symptoms. Mild-moderate levels of depressive symptoms that likely fall under a general category of StD were common and were associated with worse functioning on virtually every component of successful aging that the authors examined. St

  11. Survivors in the Margins: The Invisibility of Violence Against Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Cailin; Brandl, Bonnie; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2015-01-01

    Violence against older women exists in the margins between domestic violence and elder abuse, with neither field adequately capturing the experiences of older women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). This commentary explores this oversight, identifying how the lack of gender analysis in the elder abuse field exacerbates older survivors' invisibility when the wider violence against women (VAW) field lacks a lifespan approach to abuse. Examining the impact of generational and aging factors on how older women experience IPV, we assert that the VAW field may be overlooking a wider population of survivors than previously thought.

  12. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Plantarflexor Muscle Tendon Properties are Associated With Mobility in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stenroth, Lauri; Sillanpää, Elina; McPhee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati; Barnouin, Yoann; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Bijlsma, Astrid; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Finni Juutinen, Taija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Muscle mass, strength, and power are known determinants of mobility in older adults but there is limited knowledge on the influence of muscle architecture or tendon properties on mobility. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mobility and plantarflexor muscle–tendon properties in healthy older adults. Methods. A total of 52 subjects (age 70–81 years) were measured for 6-minute walk test (6MWT), timed “up and go”-test (TUG), isometric pla...

  14. Reliability of pelvic floor muscle strength assessment in healthy continent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Dulcegleika V B; Gameiro, Monica O; Yamamoto, Hamilto A; Kawano, Paulo R; Guerra, Rodrigo; Padovani, Carlos R; Amaro, João L

    2015-04-10

    The aim of this study was to compare pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength using transvaginal digital palpation in healthy continent women in different age groups, and to compare the inter- and intra-rater reliability of examiners performing anterior and posterior vaginal assessments. We prospectively studied 150 healthy multiparous women. They were distributed into four different groups, according to age range: G1 (n = 37), 30-40 years-old; G2 (n = 39), 41-50 years-old; G3 (n = 39), 51-60 years-old; and G4 (n = 35), older than 60 years-old. PFM strength was evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation in the anterior and posterior areas, by 3 different examiners, and graded using a 5-point Amaro's scale. There was no statistical difference among the different age ranges, for each grade of PFM strength. There was good intra-rater concordance between anterior and posterior PFM assessment, being 64.7%, 63.3%, and 66.7% for examiners A, B, and C, respectively. The intra-rater concordance level was good for each examiner. However, the inter-rater reliability for two examiners varied from moderate to good. Age has no effect on PFM strength profiles, in multiparous continent women. There is good concordance between anterior and posterior vaginal PFM strength assessments, but only moderate to good inter-rater reliability of the measurements between two examiners.

  15. Long-term Cognitive Trajectories and Mortality in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Kristine; Peltz, Carrie B; Ewing, Susan K; McCulloch, Charles E; Cummings, Steve R; Cauley, Jane A; Hillier, Teresa A; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have examined whether change in cognition is linked to mortality. This study examined the relationship between cognitive trajectories in older age and risk of death. We studied community-dwelling, nondemented women aged 65+ (mean age = 71) enrolled in a prospective study of aging and followed up to 25 years. A modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMSE) and Trail Making Task Part B (TMTB) were administered at multiple visits during follow-up. We examined the association between cognitive trajectories (analyzed by quintiles) from baseline to age 80 (n = 7,477 for mMMSE and n = 6,503 for TMTB) and all-cause mortality after age 80 using Cox regression models, both unadjusted and adjusted for education, physical activity, alcohol, depression score, current smoking and history of hypertension and diabetes. Cause of death was determined from death certificates, classified as cardiovascular, cancer and other. Women with greater rate of decline were older, less educated, less physically active, had higher depression score and were more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes (all p < .01). Participants with the greatest decline (quintile 1) had an increased risk of death (mMMSE hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28; TMTB HR = 1.43] and those with the least decline (quintile 5) had a decreased risk of death (mMMSE HR = 0.73; TMTB HR = 0.61) compared with intermediate decliners (quintiles 2-4). Cognitive trajectories were associated with cardiovascular mortality and other causes of death, but not cancer deaths. Our study suggests that greater decline in general cognition or executive function is associated with higher rates of mortality in oldest-old women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Characteristic muscle activity patterns during gait initiation in the healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Roya; Talebian, Saeed; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that gait initiation (GI) might be an optimal task for identifying postural control deficiencies. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify the strategies adopted by older subjects during this task. 16 healthy younger and 15 healthy older adults participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to begin forward stepping with their dominant limb in response to an auditory stimulus. The mean muscle activity, co-contraction index, and intra-subject coefficients of variation (intra-subject CVs) of dominant limb muscles in different phases of GI were measured. The level of association between the co-contraction index and intra-subject CV of muscles was also explored. This study showed that in the anticipatory phase, the younger group had larger amplitudes and more intra-subject CVs than older the group, particularly for the tibialis anterior muscle. However, the co-contraction index was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. During the weight transition phase, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and vastus lateralis muscles of older adults had a lower amplitude as compared to younger adults. However, during the locomotor phase, the activity of tibialis anterior was greater in comparison to younger adults. Also, during this phase, similar to the anticipatory phase, the co-contraction index between tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. Additionally, the larger co-contraction index of some muscles was associated with smaller intra-subject CV. These findings suggest that muscle behaviors are altered with aging and older adults employ different strategies in the different phases of GI as compared to younger adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Gano, Lindsey B; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults. In 127 men and women aged 48-77 yr, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was positively related to dietary niacin intake [%change (Δ): r = 0.20, P niacin intake (≥ 22 mg/day, NHANES III), FMD was 25% greater than in subjects with below-average intake (P niacin intake (above vs. below average) was an independent predictor of FMD (%Δ: β = 1.8; mmΔ: β = 0.05, both P niacin intake (r = -0.23, P niacin intake (48 ± 2 vs. 57 ± 2 mg/dl, P niacin intake (P 0.05, n = 20). In endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery of a subgroup, dietary niacin intake was inversely related to nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage (r = -0.30, P niacin intake [nitrotyrosine: 0.39 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.07; NADPH oxidase: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs. 0.53 ± 0.05 (ratio to human umbilical vein endothelial cell control), both P niacin intake is associated with greater vascular endothelial function related to lower systemic and vascular oxidative stress among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

  18. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  19. Barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle: insight from postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Katrina M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum weight retention can contribute to obesity. There may be unique barriers to weight loss in this period. Findings Cases are presented for three postpartum women who declined to participate in a postpartum weight loss intervention. Despite their desire to engage in healthier behaviors, or partake in an intervention uniquely designed to promote healthy lifestyles for postpartum women, some find it too difficult to make such commitments. Barriers women face in adopting a healthier lifestyle in this period include 1 time availability; 2 prioritizing other competing life responsibilities above their own health; 3 support from family members, friends, and/or co-workers; and 4 lack of flexibility in the intervention structure. These illustrations describe their perspectives in the context of life balance, perceived health, and support, and reflect the multi-dimensional nature of their lives during the life cycle change of the postpartum period. Conclusion Postpartum women face difficult and complex challenges to prioritizing their health and their weight management.

  20. Being Active, Engaged, and Healthy: Older Persons' Plans and Wishes to Age Successfully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijg, Johanna M; van Delden, A Lex E Q; van der Ouderaa, Frans J G; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Slaets, Joris P J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2017-03-01

    This study took an emic multidimensional approach on successful aging and examined what older people consider important to age successfully by asking them about their plans and wishes (PWs). Associations between participants' demographics, health status, working life, social contacts, life satisfaction, and their PWs were investigated. An online questionnaire was completed by 649 older individuals (55-90 years). Conceptual content analysis was performed to identify important categories in PWs. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine associations between PWs and participants' characteristics. Most mentioned PWs were related to activities, engagement with life, and health. Seventy-four participants (11.4%) expressed no PWs. Multivariate analysis revealed that having PWs was most strongly related to participants' life satisfaction. Older individuals with a higher life satisfaction indicated significantly more often to have PWs than individuals with a lower life satisfaction. The majority of older people desire an active, engaged, and healthy life. PWs were variable and personal, which endorses an emic, multidimensional approach to successful aging. Knowledge on what older individuals find important in their lives and what they want to achieve can assist older individuals in setting and attaining their goals toward aging well.

  1. Naturalistic Assessment of Executive Function and Everyday Multitasking in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults. PMID:23557096

  2. The influence of age and the beginning of menopause on the lipid status, LDL oxidation, and CRP in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čaparević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atherogenic lipid profile is an important risk factor in development of atherosclerosis in menopausal women. High level of small dense LDL, that is more susceptible to oxidation, and high levels of inflammatory markers are also associated with an increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid profile, oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL and C-reactive protein (CRP as inflammatory reaction in healthy women dependent on age and menopause. Method. The study included a group of clinically healthy women (total of 97 women. Group 1: 15 women younger than 45 years; group 2: 62 women between 46 and 55 years, group 3: 20 women between 56 and 65 years, group of menopausal women (73 and group of premenopausal women (24. None of the women had history of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular, ischaemic heart disease, and hypertension. Lipid profiles were measured by enzymatic methods. Ox-LDL was measured by using a specific monoclonal antibody, mAb4E6. CRP was measured using hemiluminiscent methods (Immulite-DPC. Results. Results showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (p<0.01 and LDL cholesterol (p<0.01 in women over 56 years compared with women younger than 45 years. We also found similar results in menopausal women. Levels of Ox-LDL (p<0.05 and CRP (p<0.01 showed significantly higher levels in women over 56 years. In menopausal women, we found significantly higher levels of CRP (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the levels of oxLDL between the menopausal and premenopausal women. Levels of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were not different among groups. We found that 51% women had levels of HDL cholesterol lower than 1.3 mmol/L. In all groups of women, we found positive correlation among age, Ox-LDL (p<0.01 and CRP (p<0.01. Ox-LDL also positively correlated with CRP (p<0.01. Conclusion. In healthy women older than 56 as in menopausal

  3. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Aged 50 and Older Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and ... and anticonvulsants history of anorexia nervosa. What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that makes bones fragile ...

  4. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Johanna C; Dehon, Hedwige; Larøi, Frank

    2017-01-01

    KEY POINTS ➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement), highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions. Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the emergence of

  5. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  6. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  7. Combined Cognitive Training vs. Memory Strategy Training in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Xinyi; Hou, Jianhua; Chen, Tingji; Wang, Pengyun; Juan LI

    2016-01-01

    As mnemonic utilization deficit in older adults associates with age-related decline in executive function, we hypothesized that memory strategy training combined with executive function training might induce larger training effect in memory and broader training effects in non-memory outcomes than pure memory training. The present study compared the effects of combined cognitive training (executive function training plus memory strategy training) to pure memory strategy training. Forty healthy...

  8. Disturbance of attention network functions in Chinese healthy older adults: an intra-individual perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hanna; Fung, Ada W T; Chan, Sandra S M; Lam, Linda C W

    2016-02-01

    Intra-individual variability (IIV) and the change of attentional functions have been reported to be susceptible to both healthy ageing and pathological ageing. The current study aimed to evaluate the IIV of attention and the age-related effect on alerting, orienting, and executive control in cognitively healthy older adults. We evaluated 145 Chinese older adults (age range of 65-80 years, mean age of 72.41 years) with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and the Attention network test (ANT). A two-step strategy of analytical methods was used: Firstly, the IIV of older adults was evaluated by the intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT). The correlation between ICV-RT and age was used to evaluate the necessity of subgrouping. Further, the comparisons of ANT performance among three age groups were performed with processing speed adjusted. Person's correlation revealed significant positive correlations between age and IIV (r = 0.185, p = 0.032), age and executive control (r = 0.253, p = 0.003). Furthermore, one-way ANOVA comparisons among three age groups revealed a significant age-related disturbance on executive control (F = 4.55, p = 0.01), in which oldest group (group with age >75 years) showed less efficient executive control than young-old (group with age 65-70 years) (Conventional score, p = 0.012; Ratio score, p = 0.020). Advancing age has an effect on both IIV and executive attention in cognitively healthy older adults, suggesting that the disturbance of executive attention is a sensitive indicator to reflect healthy ageing. Its significance to predict further deterioration should be carefully evaluated with prospective studies.

  9. Healthy life expectancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients aged 75years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Hiroshi; Tomioka, Takahiro; Ohta, Ryousuke; Yoshimura, Nobuhiko; Nishimaki, Fumihiro; Koyama, Yoshihito; Kondo, Eiji; Kamata, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Healthy life expectancy, an extension of the concept of life expectancy, is a summary measure of population health that takes into account the mortality and morbidity of a population. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the self-reliance survival times of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. One hundred and twelve patients aged 75years or older with primary OSCC were included and examined at Shinshu University Hospital. To investigate healthy life expectancy, OSCC patients older than 75years were divided into 3 groups: 75-79, 80-84, and older than 85years. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the median times of healthy life expectancy. The Log-rank test was used to test significant differences between actual curves. The median self-reliance survival times of patients aged 75-79, 80-84, and older than 85years were 5.7, 1.6, and 1.4years, respectively. Most patients with early stage cancers underwent curative treatments and showed a health expectancy of more than 5years. In patients with advanced cancers, health expectancy was poor (less than one year), except among patients aged 75-79years who underwent standard treatments. It seems that in patients with advanced cancers, health expectancy was poor (less than 1year), except among patients aged 75-79years who underwent standard treatments. In elderly patients, healthy life expectancy (self-reliance survival time) may be one of the measures of patient prognosis as well as overall survival times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Balance control in the elderly: do Masters athletes show more efficient balance responses than healthy older adults?

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    Brauer, Sandra G; Neros, Christina; Woollacott, Marjorie

    2008-10-01

    Older adults can improve several components of their balance such as timed stance ability by participating in a short specific exercise program. However, it is not clear whether participation in more frequent and intense training can result in improved reactive balance performance in older adults. Optimal reactive responses are required to prevent falls. This study begins to evaluate this issue by comparing the reactive balance ability of elite older adults (Masters athletes) to that of healthy older adults. Kinetic and electromyography data were collected from elite older athletes and healthy older adults during backward linear underfoot perturbations at high and low speeds. Behavioral outcomes of postural recovery strategy, timing and levels of muscular activation, and time to stabilize the displaced center of pressure were measured and compared between groups. The elite older athletes were able to more frequently regain balance without stepping, stabilized their center of pressure faster than did healthy older adults and activated their tibialis anterior with a greater magnitude when perturbed at the higher speed. There were no differences between groups in these measures at the lower perturbation speed and no differences in onset latencies at either speed. Older athletes undertaking longterm high intensity training demonstrate better and more rapid stabilization of posture following perturbation than healthy older adults under challenging conditions. Further studies are advocated to determine the relative contribution of processes such as neuromotor adaptation, strength, motivation and arousal to this finding.

  11. Different rates of forearm bone loss in healthy women with early or late menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Zangari, M; Bottega, F; Peccolo, F; Galuppo, P; Nardi, A; Ziliotto, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether healthy women with early or late menopause have different rates of age- and menopause-related bone loss, and whether premature menopause really represents a risk factor for osteopenia. Healthy women aged from 27 to 84 years (n = 2204), with no history of fractures, were divided into two groups according to their age at menopause (AAM): group A with AAM or = 50 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the distal non-dominant forearm by single-photon absorptiometry. Group B had a significantly lower average BMD than group A (group A, 0.430 +/- 0.074 g/cm2; group B, 0.419 +/- 0.081; p = 0.003); however, the average age of group A was significantly lower, and weight and height were significantly higher. When women older than 50 years of age were divided into five age-matched subgroups, BMD was significantly lower in women with AAM < or = 43 years up to 60 years; after that age this difference disappeared and, in the oldest subgroups, BMD was significantly lower in group B than in group A. Independent variables such as age, AAM and body mass index (BMI) explain about 30% of the variation of BMD, using a multiple linear regression analysis. In both groups age and BMI weighted more than AAM in determining BMD. When BMD was plotted versus either chronological age or years since menopause, women with late menopause showed a significantly faster bone loss than those with early menopause.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

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    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  13. Road test and naturalistic driving performance in healthy and cognitively impaired older adults: does environment matter?

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    Davis, Jennifer D; Papandonatos, George D; Miller, Lindsay A; Hewitt, Scott D; Festa, Elena K; Heindel, William C; Ott, Brian R

    2012-11-01

    To relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional observational study. Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. One hundred three older drivers (44 healthy, 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not affect global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination) was correlated with road test and naturalistic driving errors. In healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and more errors in naturalistic driving. Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals' typical driving environments, but differences between performance assessed using these two methods remain poorly understood and deserve further study. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Healthy Lifestyle Status among Non- Institutionalized Older People: A Literature Review

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    Mahin Alineghad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Advances in medical and health sciences have led to increase in the number of older people. The most common non- communicable diseases can be prevented by following a healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle of elderly people by reviewing the literatures and background of the previous researches in order to obtain a holistic view about lifestyle. Methods: A fast literature review was conducted applying retrospective approach to identify the status of lifestyle among older people. For this purpose, the related references with keywords involving 'lifestyle', 'elderly people', 'aging', and 'multiple chronic conditions' were electronically searched in databases ‘All Academic’, ‘ISI web of knowledge’, ‘PsycNET’, ‘Social Sciences Citation Index’, and ‘PubMed’ from 2002 to 2015. Results: 26 related articles were finalised and reviewed according to the study aims. The results showed that those people with an inappropriate lifestyle were more likely to die because of health difficulty reasons. Improving healthy lifestyle including dietary habits, weight control, physical activity, smoking cessation, managing stressful life events, and social capital were closely related with reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusion: It seems that the awareness about the relationship between healthy lifestyle and incidence of multiple chronic conditions among older people may be effective in understanding of the potential health consequences of their performance, and also in modifying lifestyle.

  15. Factors influencing the life satisfaction in the older Korean women living alone.

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    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2013-04-01

    The population of Korea is aging rapidly. The older population varies in characteristics in accordance with a wide-range of circumstances; therefore, categorizing the overall older population as a homogeneous group, could misrepresent their issues. For that reason, the study of older people should be focused on the diversity of characteristics among the older population. The aims of this study were to examine and identify the factors related to life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone. This study was a cross-sectional survey design. The participants comprised of 243 older women over the age of 65, who met eligibility criteria. Measures were a demographic characteristics form, the Health Self-Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Korean Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, and the Life Satisfaction Instrument. Degrees of the perceived health status, self-esteem, and depression were higher than the median. Life satisfaction was lower than the median. Predictors that determine life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone were depression, perceived health status, self-esteem, and monthly allowance. All these predictors, or factors, had an explanatory power of 48.2% for life satisfaction among older Korean women living alone. Of all these predictor factors, depression had the largest impact. The major factor influencing the life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone was depression. These findings suggest that there is a need to develop nursing strategies aimed at decreasing depression in order to increase life satisfaction in older women living alone.

  16. Independence through social networks: bridging potential among older women and men.

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    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Most studies of older adults' social networks focus on their access to dense networks that yield access to social support. This paper documents gender differences in the extent to which older adults maintain a related, but distinct, form of social capital-bridging potential, which involves serving as a tie between two unconnected parties and thus boosts independence and control of everyday social life. I use egocentric social network data from a national sample of 3,005 older adults--collected in 2005-2006 by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project--to compare older men's and women's network bridging potential using multivariate regression analysis. Older women are more likely than older men to have bridging potential in their networks-between both kin and non-kin contacts. These gender differences increase with age. Older women are also more likely to have network members who are not connected to or monopolized by their spouse or partner. Some, but not all, of these gender differences are due to the fact that older women have larger social networks and maintain more ties to people outside of the household. These findings raise important questions about the relational advantages older women have over older men, including greater autonomy, and contradict stereotypes about women having more closely knit, kin-centered networks than men.

  17. Executive control deficits as a prodrome to falls in healthy older adults: a prospective study linking thinking, walking, and falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Talia; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Schweiger, Avraham; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2010-10-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits may increase fall risk, even among older adults with no overt cognitive impairment. Indeed, the effects of dual tasking (DT) on gait, a challenge to executive control, are more exaggerated in persons with a history of falls. Prospective evidence is, however, lacking. We prospectively evaluated whether EF predicts falls over a 2-year period among 262 community-living, healthy, and well-functioning older adults, focusing on the 201 who reported no falls during the previous year. At baseline, participants completed a computerized cognitive battery that generated an index of EF and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed using performance-based tests and by quantifying walking during single- and dual-task conditions. The 262 participants (mean age: 76.3 ± 4.3 years, 60.3% women) had intact cognitive function on testing, a low comorbidity index, and good mobility. The EF index predicted future falls. Among those who reported no previous falls, participants in the worst EF quartile were three times more likely to fall during the 2 years of follow-up, and they were more likely to transition from nonfaller to faller sooner. DT gait variability also predicted future falls and multiple falls, whereas other measures of cognitive function, gait, and mobility did not. Among healthy older adults, individuals with poorer EF are more prone to falls. Higher-level cognitive functions such as those regulated by the frontal lobes are apparently needed for safe everyday navigation that demands multitasking. Optimal screening, early detection, and treatment of falls should, apparently, also target this cognitive domain.

  18. Effects of Mindfulness Interventions on Health Outcomes in Older Lesbian/Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Natalie; Eliason, Michele J; Garbers, Samantha; Harbatkin, Dawn; Minnis, Alexandra M; McElroy, Jane A; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are at higher risk for obesity, but no reported interventions focus on older LB women who are overweight or obese. The Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women study funded five programs (n = 266 LB women age ≥40); two examined effects of mindfulness interventions on health outcomes. Analysis of variance and regression measured the impact of mindfulness-based programs on health behaviors and quality of life (MCS). Outcomes were also compared between intervention sites (mindfulness vs. standard weight loss approaches). Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) subscale scores improved significantly from preassessment to postassessment in mindfulness interventions. LB women who reported an increase (top tertile) in mindful eating had the most significant increase in MCS scores (35.3%) compared with those with low gains (low and medium tertile) in mindfulness (3.8%). MEQ score increase predicted 40.8% of the variance (adjusted) in MCS score, R(2) = .431, F(6,145) = 18.337, p mindfulness were significantly related to increases in physical activity and some nutrition outcomes. Mindfulness intervention sites showed within-person improvements in MCS and fruit and vegetable intake, whereas standard intervention sites showed within-person decreases in alcohol intake and increases in physical activity level. Although weight loss was not a primary outcome at the mindfulness sites, small but significant weight loss and weight-to-height ratio decreases were reported at all five sites. Increases in mindfulness were associated with a number of significant self-reported health improvements, including a great increase in perceived mental health quality of life. Mindfulness may be a promising practice to address health issues in aging LB women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Family Support for Older Chinese Singaporean Women in a Confucian Society.

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    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the functions of family support in older Chinese Singaporean women's daily health management in a Confucian cultural context, wherein family solidarity and women's caregiving responsibilities are emphasized. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with ethnic Chinese women above the age of 60 in Singapore. Our thematic analysis showed that older women played dual roles as support providers and recipients in the family. Their caregiver identity and intent to preserve tradition resulted in a downward transmission of informational and physical support and their hesitance to accept resources provided by younger family members. The asymmetrical flow of family support generated mixed impacts on the women's daily health management. In their transition between tradition and modernity, older women fulfilled their family responsibilities but did not require their children to do so. Our findings suggested an integration of familial and institutional resources to meet older women's support needs and help them enhance their health behavior.

  20. Effect of a step-training program on muscle strength in older women

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    Daniela Coelho Zazá

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Step-training is associated with strength improvement of the lower limbs. Muscle strength is a critical component for the maintenance of functional capacity. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of 6 weeks of step-training on work and power of the lower limbs in older women. Thirteen healthy and active women volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects underwent step-training classes three times per week for 60 min. Strength variables of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle work and power were assessed at an angular velocity of 60 and 180°/s. A significant difference (p<0.05 in knee flexor muscle work was observed between pre- and post-test at 60 and 180°/s. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in knee extensor muscle work between pre- and post-test at 60°/s. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-test values of knee flexor muscle power at 60°/s (p<0.05 and knee extensor muscle power at 60 and 180°/s (p<0.05. In conclusion, step-training can be recommended as an alternative physical activity to increase strength performance (work and power of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in older subjects.

  1. HIGH-VELOCITY RESISTANCE EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN OLDER WOMEN: EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE

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    Rodrigo P. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP. All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5 or 15 (DP15 seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, rate pressure product (RPP, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, and blood lactate (BLa were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05 with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women

  2. Motivation and Physical Activity Behaviors among Older Women: A Self-Determination Perspective

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    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of our study was to examine the motivational determinants of older women's dropout and participation in physical activity (PA). Older women who dropped out (n = 242) or remained (n = 332) in an organized PA program completed the Sport Motivation Scale as well as health and PA measures. We found…

  3. The Exercise Plus Program for Older Women Post Hip Fracture: Participant Perspectives

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    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; Wehren, Lois; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Simpson, Marjorie; Magaziner, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of older women post hip fracture who were exposed to a motivational intervention, the Exercise Plus Program, intended to increase adherence to exercise. Design and Methods: This study used a naturalistic inquiry. We interviewed a total of 70 older women, 12 months post hip fracture,…

  4. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; pcalf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

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    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  6. Identifying and responding to gaps in domestic abuse services for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse report more health-related concerns than any other group, and demonstrate a higher incidence of significant mental health issues. Research suggests that older women who have experienced domestic abuse are not having their psychological and physical support needs met by existing services. This article examines the physical and mental health issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers to seeking help. Multidisciplinary healthcare professionals can facilitate the therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited in terms of the support they can offer, however, research suggests that developing a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial.

  7. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation does not increase blood pressure of healthy elderly women.

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    Pereira, Marcelo Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is an attractive method to increase strength and proprioception of elderly individuals. However, a major clinical concern about the prescription of PNF is the belief that it can cause a cardiovascular overload, because it involves close-to-maximal loads and isometric contractions. Yet the acute effect of a PNF training session on cardiovascular response in elderly individuals is still unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PNF on diastolic and systolic blood pressure of healthy elderly people. Fifteen older women (mean age 72.40±6.82 years) performed three sets (five repetitions each) of three different PNF techniques (rhythmic initiation, dynamic reversion, and isotonic combination), executing a single movement pattern. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP) were evaluated by means of a manual sphygmomanometer immediately before and during the last two repetitions (last set) of each technique. A two-way ANOVA test (time and technique) was performed to investigate the PNF effect on blood pressure. No time (preexercise to postexercise) (p=0.33 for DBP; p=0.06 for SBP) or PNF technique (p=0.75; p=0.81) effect were observed. In conclusion, we can state that the execution of these PNF techniques is safe for the cardiovascular system of healthy elderly women, because no blood pressure increases were found.

  8. Ascorbic acid does not enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in healthy older men.

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    Pollock, Jonathan P; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Randolph, Brittney J; Heffernan, Matthew J; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

    2014-07-01

    In response to hypoxia, a net vasodilation occurs in the limb vasculature in young healthy humans and this is referred to as "hypoxia-induced vasodilation". We performed two separate experiments to determine (1) if hypoxia-induced forearm vasodilation is impaired in older men (n = 8) compared to young men (n = 7) and (2) if acute systemic infusion of ascorbic acid would enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in older men (n = 8). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, minute ventilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC, Doppler ultrasound), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler flowmetry) were recorded continuously while subjects breathed 10% oxygen for 5 min. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and between treatments. The older adults had a significantly attenuated increase in FBF (13 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) and FVC (16 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) in response to 5 min of hypoxia. However, skin blood flow responses were comparable between groups (young: 35 ± 9, older: 30 ± 6%). In Experiment 2, FVC responses to 5 min of breathing 10% oxygen were not significantly different following saline (3 ± 10%) and ascorbic acid (8 ± 10%) in the older men. Ascorbic acid also had no physiological effects in the young men. These findings advance our basic understanding of how aging influences vascular responses to hypoxia and suggest that, in healthy humans, hypoxia-induced vasodilation is not restrained by reactive oxygen species. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  9. Sagittal spinal posture after Pilates-based exercise in healthy older adults.

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    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2009-05-01

    Longitudinal, repeated-measures study. The aim of this study was to determine changes in sagittal spinal posture in older adults during standing and sitting after a Pilates-based exercise program. Pilates exercise is purported to improve posture, however, few peer-reviewed articles are available to provide scientific support. Most previous studies were conducted in young dancers, and the effect of Pilates exercise on spinal posture in older adults remained unclear. Thirty-four healthy older adults aged over 60 years volunteered for this study. A two-dimensional PEAK Motus motion analysis system was used to measure sagittal spinal angles. Participants were tested on 2 occasions before the exercise program to establish a baseline measure, and undertook a supervised Pilates-based exercise program twice weekly for 10 weeks. Participants were tested on another 2 occasions, immediately after the exercise program, and after a short-term follow-up. Baseline measures in both standing and sitting postures remained unchanged except for the lumbar spine angle in sitting. Immediately after the Pilates-based exercise program, older adults stood with slightly decreased thoracic flexion and sat with slightly increased lumbar extension. No significant differences were found during the follow-up period. The individually designed Pilates-based exercise program was feasible for healthy older adults, and the high attendance rate supports the suitability of the exercise program over a long period. Considering the variability of the baseline measure, small improvement was only observed in the thoracic kyphosis during standing. The long-term effect of Pilates exercise requires further investigation.

  10. Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy older subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amir I A; van den Elsen, Geke A H; Colbers, Angela; van der Marck, Marjolein A; Burger, David M; Feuth, Ton B; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Kramers, Cornelis

    2014-09-01

    There is a great concern about the safety of THC-based drugs in older people (≥65 years), as most of THC-trials did not include such group. In this phase 1, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, we evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of three oral doses of Namisol(®), a novel THC in tablet form, in older subjects. Twelve healthy older subjects (6 male; mean age 72±5 years) randomly received a single oral dose of 3mg, 5mg, or 6.5mg of THC or matching placebo, in a crossover manner, on each intervention day. The data for 11 subjects were included in the analysis. The data of 1 subject were excluded due to non-compliance to study medication. THC was safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events (AEs) were drowsiness (27%) and dry mouth (11%). Subjects reported more AEs with THC 6.5mg than with 3mg (p=0.048), 5mg (p=0.034) and placebo (p=0.013). There was a wide inter-individual variability in plasma concentrations of THC. Subjects for whom the Cmax fell within the sampling period (over 2h), Cmax was 1.42-4.57ng/mL and Tmax was 67-92min. The AUC0-2h (n=11) was 1.67-3.51ng/mL. Overall, the pharmacodynamic effects of THC were smaller than effects previously reported in young adults. In conclusion, THC appeared to be safe and well tolerated by healthy older individuals. Data on safety and effectiveness of THC in frail older persons are urgently required, as this population could benefit from the therapeutic applications of THC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Progressive strength training in sedentary, older African American women.

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    Adams, K J; Swank, A M; Berning, J M; Sevene-Adams, P G; Barnard, K L; Shimp-Bowerman, J

    2001-09-01

    This study investigated effects of an 8-wk, low-frequency and low-volume, supervised, progressive strength training program emphasizing free weight, multijoint movements on the muscular power, strength, endurance, and flexibility of African American women 44 to 68 yr of age. Nineteen sedentary African American women were randomly assigned to a strength training (ST) only group (N = 12; mean age, 51 yr) or a nonexercise control (C) group (N = 7; mean age, 52 yr). Maximal power, strength, absolute endurance, and flexibility were assessed before and after training. Subjects trained 2 d x wk(-1) using free weight (barbells and dumbbells) and machine (plate loaded) exercises for two to three sets of 8 to 10 repetitions on both primary and assistance exercises. Upper body power (medicine ball put distance) significantly increased statistically (P = 0.002), but gains possibly lacked practical significance because of measurement variation. Lower body power (peak watts on bicycle) experienced a small, nonsignificant increase in the ST group. Significant increases (P = 0.000) in 1RM muscle strength occurred in the ST group (leg press, +99.8%; bench press, +34.4%). Absolute endurance significantly increased (P = 0.000) in the ST group (leg press repetitions to failure at 70% pretest 1RM, +221%; bench press repetitions to failure at 50% pretest 1RM, +112%). Significant flexibility gains occurred in the ST group (sit-and-reach test, +8.2%; P = 0.017). No significant changes occurred in power, strength, absolute endurance, or flexibility in the C group. This study demonstrates that 8 wk of low-frequency, supervised, progressive strength training emphasizing free weight, multijoint movements can safely cause significant gains in muscle strength, absolute endurance, and flexibility in older African American women.

  12. Sarcopenia and Health Care Utilization in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Li-Yung; McCulloch, Charles E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent; Schousboe, John T.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although there are several consensus definitions of sarcopenia, their association with health care utilization has not been studied. Methods: We included women from the prospective Study of Osteoporotic Fractures with complete assessment of sarcopenia by several definitions at the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Year 10 (Y10) exam (1997–1998) who also had available data from Medicare Fee- For-Service Claims (N = 566) or Kaiser Encounter data (N = 194). Sarcopenia definitions evaluated were: International Working Group, European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons, Foundation for the NIH Sarcopenia Project, Baumgartner, and Newman. Hurdle models and logistic regression were used to assess the relation between sarcopenia status (the summary definition and the components of slowness, weakness and/or lean mass) and outcomes that included hospitalizations, cumulative inpatient days/year, short-term (part A paid) skilled nursing facility stay in the 3 years following the Y10 visit. Results: None of the consensus definitions, nor the definition components of weakness or low lean mass, was associated with increased risk of hospitalization or greater likelihood of short-term skilled nursing facility stay. Women with slowness by any criterion definition were about 50% more likely to be hospitalized; had a greater rate of hospitalization days amongst those hospitalized; and had 1.8 to 2.1 times greater likelihood of a short-term skilled nursing facility stay than women without slowness. There was the suggestion of a protective association of low lean mass by the various criterion definitions on short-term skilled nursing facility stay. Conclusion: Estimated effects of sarcopenia on health care utilization were negligible. However, slowness was associated with greater health care utilization. PMID:27402050

  13. Raloxifene for older women: a review of the literature

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    Helga Hansdóttir

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Helga HansdóttirDepartment of Geriatrics, Landspitali University Hospital, Landakoti, Reykjavik, IcelandAbstract: Raloxifene is a non-steroidal selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM which is used for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Raloxifene decreases the incidence of vertebral fractures by 30%–50% in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis but has not been shown to decrease the incidence of hip fractures or other non-vertebral fractures. At the present time, estrogen-replacement therapy and bisphosphonate treatment are the only medical treatments that are proven to prevent hip fractures with the exception of vitamin D and calcium replacement, which has been shown to prevent hip fractures in elderly individuals and nursing home residents. Raloxifene has been shown to have additive effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD when used along with alendronate and teriparatide. Raloxifene could have a role in renal failure as it has been shown to increase BMD of the vertebra over 1 year of therapy. Raloxifene is as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer. The increased incidence of venous thromboembolism is the main concern of raloxifene therapy and previous history of venous thromboembolism is a contraindication for use of raloxifene. Raloxifene has a role in treatment of vertebral osteoporosis in older women. The decision to use raloxifene should be based on evaluation of fracture risk and on potential other benefits than fracture reduction along with consideration of side effects.Keywords: SERM, raloxifene, osteoporosis, women, fractures, old age

  14. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women.

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    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W; Pope, Harrison G

    2014-11-01

    To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related body-image concerns in middle-aged and elderly women. Preliminary findings suggest that pathological eating behaviors and frank eating disorders are surprisingly common in older women, as are associated body-image disturbances. Older women appear less likely to exhibit anorexia and bulimia nervosa and more likely to exhibit binge eating disorder and eating disorder not otherwise specified. The prevalence of such conditions in older women has likely increased in recent decades. On many indices of disordered eating and body image, older women with eating disorder resemble younger women with similar conditions, although older women exhibit certain unique concerns, such as dealing with menopause and with aging. It appears that clinicians should be alert for eating and body-image disorder even in women well beyond the younger age range in whom these disorders have traditionally been described. Subsequent research should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women with eating disorders.

  15. Healthy older observers show equivalent perceptual-cognitive training benefits to young adults for multiple object tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eLegault

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, travelling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002 and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006. Here we assess the capacity of older observers to learn complex dynamic visual scenes by using the 3D-multiple object tracking speed threshold protocol (Faubert & Sidebottom, 2012. Results show that this capacity is significantly affected by healthy aging but that perceptual-cognitive training can significantly reduce age-related effects in older individuals, who show an identical learning function to younger healthy adults. Data support the notion that plasticity in healthy older persons is maintained for processing complex dynamic scenes.

  16. Vitamin K supplementation and progression of coronary artery calcium in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Hoffmann, Udo; Dallal, Gerard E; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Ordovas, José M; Price, Paul A; Williamson, Matthew K; Booth, Sarah L

    2009-06-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. A preventive role for vitamin K in CAC progression has been proposed on the basis of the properties of matrix Gla protein (MGP) as a vitamin K-dependent calcification inhibitor. The objective was to determine the effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation on CAC progression in older men and women. CAC was measured at baseline and after 3 y of follow-up in 388 healthy men and postmenopausal women; 200 received a multivitamin with 500 microg phylloquinone/d (treatment), and 188 received a multivitamin alone (control). In an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference in CAC progression between the phylloquinone group and the control group; the mean (+/-SEM) changes in Agatston scores were 27 +/- 6 and 37 +/- 7, respectively. In a subgroup analysis of participants who were > or =85% adherent to supplementation (n = 367), there was less CAC progression in the phylloquinone group than in the control group (P = 0.03). Of those with preexisting CAC (Agatston score > 10), those who received phylloquinone supplements had 6% less progression than did those who received the multivitamin alone (P = 0.04). Phylloquinone-associated decreases in CAC progression were independent of changes in serum MGP. MGP carboxylation status was not determined. Phylloquinone supplementation slows the progression of CAC in healthy older adults with preexisting CAC, independent of its effect on total MGP concentrations. Because our data are hypothesis-generating, further studies are warranted to clarify this mechanism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00183001.

  17. Effect of licorice on PTH levels in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarello, Mee Jung; Benedini, Stefano; Fiore, Cristina; Camozzi, Valentina; Sartorato, Paola; Luisetto, Giovanni; Armanini, Decio

    2006-05-01

    Licorice has been considered a medicinal plant for thousands of years. Its most common side effect is hypokalemic hypertension, which is secondary to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 at the level of the kidney, leading to an enhanced mineralocorticoid effect of cortisol. This effect is due to glycyrrhetinic acid, which is the main constituent of the root, but other components are also present, including isoflavans, which have estrogen-like activity, and are thus involved in the modulation of bone metabolism. We investigated nine healthy women 22-26 years old, in the luteal phase of the cycle. They were given 3.5 g of a commercial preparation of licorice (containing 7.6%, w/w of glycyrrhizic acid) daily for 2 months. Plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone, cortisol, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D (1,25OHD), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), estradiol, FHS, LH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, phosphate and creatinine, urinary calcium and phosphate and mineralometry were measured. PTH, 25OHD and urinary calcium increased significantly from baseline values after 2 months of therapy, while 1,25OHD and ALP did not change during treatment. All these parameters returned to pretreatment levels 1 month after discontinuation of licorice. PRA and aldosterone were depressed during therapy, while blood pressure and plasma cortisol remained unchanged. licorice can increase serum PTH and urinary calcium levels from baseline value in healthy women after only 2 months of treatment. The effect of licorice on calcium metabolism is probably influenced by several components of the root, which show aldosterone-like, estrogen-like and antiandrogen activity.

  18. Older adult Alexander Technique practitioners walk differently than healthy age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Kate A; Ross, Christopher; Schultz, Brooke; O'Neill, Matthew; Anderson, David I

    2016-10-01

    The Alexander Technique (AT) seeks to eliminate harmful patterns of tension that interfere with the control of posture and movement and in doing so, it may serve as a viable intervention method for increasing gait efficacy in older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the comfortable pace gait kinematics of older AT practitioners with those of healthy, age-matched controls. Participants were six licensed AT practitioners and seven healthy age-matched controls between the ages of 61-76. During the stance phase, AT participants exhibited significantly greater ankle stance range of motion (ROM) and plantar flexion at toe off, as well as lower ROM of the trunk and head compared to controls. During the swing phase, the AT practitioners had significantly increased hip and knee flexion and a trend toward significantly increased dorsiflexion. The findings suggest that the older AT practitioners walked with gait patterns more similar to those found in the literature for younger adults. These promising results highlight the need for further research to assess the AT's potential role as an intervention method for ameliorating the deleterious changes in gait that occur with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transfer after process-based object-location memory training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; von Bastian, Claudia C; Röcke, Christina; Martin, Mike; Eschen, Anne

    2016-11-01

    A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years). For this purpose, the experimental group (n = 36) completed 30 sessions of process-based object-location memory training, while the active control group (n = 31) practiced visual perception on the same material. Near (spatial episodic memory), intermediate (verbal episodic memory), and far transfer effects (reasoning) were each assessed with multiple tasks at four measurements (before, midway through, immediately after, and 4 months after training). Linear mixed-effects models revealed transfer effects on spatial episodic memory and reasoning that were still observed 4 months after training. These results provide first empirical evidence that process-based training can enhance healthy older adults' associative memory performance and positively affect untrained episodic memory and reasoning abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Healthy lifestyle and decreasing risk of heart failure in women: the Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Golareh; Loucks, Eric B; Tinker, Lesley F; Waring, Molly E; Michaud, Dominique S; Foraker, Randi E; Li, Wenjun; Martin, Lisa W; Greenland, Philip; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-10-28

    The impact of a healthy lifestyle on risk of heart failure (HF) is not well known. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a combination of lifestyle factors on incident HF and to further investigate whether weighting each lifestyle factor has additional impact. Participants were 84,537 post-menopausal women from the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) observational study, free of self-reported HF at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HL score) was created wherein women received 1 point for each healthy criterion met: high-scoring Alternative Healthy Eating Index, physically active, healthy body mass index, and currently not smoking. A weighted score (wHL score) was also created in which each lifestyle factor was weighted according to its independent magnitude of effect on HF. The incidence of hospitalized HF was determined by trained adjudicators using standardized methodology. There were 1,826 HF cases over a mean follow-up of 11 years. HL score was strongly associated with risk of HF (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.62], 0.36 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.46], 0.24 [95% CI: 0.19 to 0.31], and 0.23 [95% CI: 0.17 to 0.30] for HL score of 1, 2, 3, and 4 vs. 0, respectively). The HL score and wHL score were similarly associated with HF risk (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.52] for HL score; HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.55] for wHL score, comparing the highest tertile to the lowest). The HL score was also strongly associated with HF risk among women without antecedent coronary heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension. An increasingly healthy lifestyle was associated with decreasing HF risk among post-menopausal women, even in the absence of antecedent coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Weighting the lifestyle factors had minimal impact. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and rationale for a technology-based healthy lifestyle intervention in older adults grieving the loss of a spouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah T. Stahl

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Several challenges in implementing our lifestyle interventions to older widow(ers who are at risk for common mental disorders have been identified. Direct outreach to hospice organizations is an effective way to identify older adults in the early months following spousal death. Results from study may advance the field of grief support and promote a healthy adaptation to widowhood.

  2. Moderators of physical activity and healthy eating in an integrated community-based intervention for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, Karla A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Winter, Andrea F.

    Background: An integrated community-based intervention was developed to stimulate physical activity (PA) and healthy eating in older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area. This study aims to assess whether its short-term effects among older adults vary by sociodemographic, psychosocial

  3. Perception of the older adults regarding the practise of physical activity and healthy eating

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    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the perception of regular physical activity and healthy eating among the older adults. Methods: This descriptive study (qualitative approach included 36 older adults (69 to 91 years residents in a rural community in southern Brazil. A semi-structured interview was used and the information were recorded, transcribed and interpreted (content analysis technique. Results: The following categories of analysis were identified: a facilitators and barriers for the practising PA, b benefits of regular PA, and c healthy eating habits-consumption of food (beneficial and harmful for health. Facilitating factors were related to social interaction, motivation, willpower, practise enjoying, having company, and being encouraged. Barriers perceived were diseases, physical limitations, pain, lack of willingness and age. The PA benefits were wellbeing, pain reduction, increased willingness, treatment and disease prevention. Fruits, vegetables, vitamin D, calcium, and water were cited as important to health. The consumption of foods rich in fat and sugars was associated with the occurrence of diseases. Conclusion: Personal aspects, of coexistence and motivation, are factors cited as facilitators for the practise of physical activities, while the barriers are related to health, unwillingness, and age. Health promotion strategies may be multidisciplinary and should consider personal aspects, of coexistence, motivation and health. Strategies should focus on the benefits of regular PA and healthy eating.

  4. Factors influencing bolus dwell times in healthy older adults assessed endoscopically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Susan G; Maslan, Jonathan; Stuart, Andrew; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wilhelm, Erika; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Williamson, Jeff; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Scant data exist on normal bolus dwell time assessed during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The purpose of this study was to examine bolus dwell time in healthy older adults. Because it has been previously reported that some healthy older adults aspirate, we also sought to determine if bolus dwell time varied as a function of aspiration status. Prospective. Seventy-six healthy volunteers from the seventh, eighth, and ninth decades of life participated. Dwell times were analyzed via FEES as a function of pharyngeal location, liquid type, delivery method, purée type, viscosity, age, and gender. Longer dwell times were evidenced with the eldest participants, straw delivery, and the smallest volume. Adults in the ninth decade were 4.8 (P = .01) and 3.8 (P = .02) times more likely to have longer dwell times at the vallecula and 7.1 (P = .002) and 3.8 (P = 0.02) at the pyriform sinus than those in the seventh and eighth decades, respectively. Longer dwell times at the vallecula and pyriform sinuses were 2 and 2.38 times (P times (P dwell times than larger volumes. Bolus dwell times did not significantly differ as a function of aspiration status. Advanced age, straw delivery, and small volumes yielded longer dwell times. These variables should be considered before diagnosing an abnormal bolus dwell time in elder patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shufei; Zhu, Xinyi; Li, Rui; Niu, Yanan; Wang, Baoxi; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Huo, Lijuan; Li, Juan

    2014-12-04

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and anterior cerebellum lobe was enhanced for the intervention group, while the control group showed reduced ALFF in these three regions. Moreover, changes in trail-making performance and well-being could be predicted by the intervention-induced changes in ALFF. Additionally, individual differences in the baseline ALFF were correlated with intervention-related changes in behavioral performance. These findings suggest that a multimodal intervention is effective in improving cognitive functions and well-being and can induce functional changes in the aging brain. The study extended previous training studies by suggesting resting-state ALFF as a marker of intervention-induced plasticity in older adults.

  6. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (pshopping bags and help encourage shopping, both as a social and as a physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age, education and gender effects on neuropsychological functions in healthy Indian older adults

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    Ravikesh Tripathi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is essential to use culturally appropriate, sensitive and specific tests that reflect true cognitive performance. However, several factors including age, education and gender can influence neuropsychological test performance. Objective: To examine the effects of age, education and gender on neuropsychological function in older adults using measures of global cognitive screening, attention, working memory, executive functions, memory, construction, language and parietal focal signs. Methods: This is a cross sectional normative study of 180 community-dwelling normal older adults. All participants were screened with the Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE, Everyday Activities Scale for India (EASI, Edinburgh handedness inventory (EDI and MINI Screen, and followed by a detailed neuropsychological assessment. Results: Stepwise regression analysis revealed that education was associated with better performance on all the neuropsychological tests. Females performed significantly better on measures of memory. Further, most of the illiterate subjects, including low educated participants, refused to cooperate on measures of executive functioning. Conclusion: Education was found to be the strongest determinant of neuropsychological test performance followed by age and gender. Our study demonstrates that Indian healthy normal older adults with low education perform poorly on measures of planning and working memory. Traditional measures of planning and working memory should be avoided or used cautiously in the presence of low education. There is an urgent need to develop tasks for measuring executive functions, especially in low educated Indian older adults.

  8. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-11-01

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  9. Plasma Testosterone and the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Roos C; Lauwen, Esther; Heijboer, Annemieke C; de Waal, Margot W M; Comijs, Hannie C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate associations between testosterone levels and major depressive disorder (MDD) in older men and women. In a cross-sectional, 2-year prospective analyses within the Netherlands Study on Depression in Older persons cohort study, 469 participants comprised 350 patients with MDD and 119 nondepressed participants in the comparison group (mean age 70.5 ± 7.3 years; 166 [35.4%] men). MDD was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Baseline plasma total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were assessed to calculate free testosterone. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology was assessed every 6 months. Whereas SHBG levels did not differ between the depressed/nondepressed groups (F(1,149) = 0.075, p = 0.78), men with MDD had lower mean total and free testosterone levels than the comparison group in the multivariate adjusted analyses (F(1,150) = 7.249, p = 0.008, Cohen's d = 0.51; and F(1,149) = 8.548, p = 0.004 Cohen's d = 0.55, respectively). This could be ascribed to lower testosterone in men with "pure" MDD and not in men with MDD and comorbid anxiety. Nine men (5.4%) had a total testosterone level women, hormone levels showed no significant difference between the groups. In men (using all five measurement points during follow-up) baseline free testosterone was inversely associated with depression severity in the adjusted analyses (β = -0.15, t(151) = -2.15, p = 0.03). Testosterone levels were lower in men with MDD compared with healthy men after adjustment for confounders, such as body mass index. No significant associations were found in women. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a static calf muscle-tendon unit stretching program on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Bradley, Bruce; Witkowski, Kimberly; McKee, Rose; Telesmanic, Christopher; Chavez, Andre; Kennedy, Karen; Zimmerman, Grenith

    2007-01-01

    While there has been considerable research on stretching, a paucity of research has focused on stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in older women. Because limited ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) is associated with gait abnormalities and increases the risk of falls in the elderly, we investigated the effect of static stretching on flexibility of the calf MTU of healthy elderly adults. Twenty healthy female volunteers, 76 to 91 years of age, were recruited from Linda Valley Villa, an independent living center. Subjects performed a static stretching program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was taken prior to beginning the stretching program and 3 days after the last stretching day. Mean increase in passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was 12.3 degrees (SD= 4.4 degrees ) (p dorsiflexion ROM for elderly women.

  11. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J. Lee; Smed, Mette Kiel; Gildengorin, Virginia L.; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hetland, Merete Lund; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Olsen, Jørn; Jawaheer, Damini

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA. Results In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters) over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p valuepregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256) showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data. PMID:26683605

  12. Memory-guided force control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Samimy, Shaadee; Blouch, Samantha L; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda; Diaz, Michele T; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.

  13. Views of hospice and palliative care among younger and older sexually diverse women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Andrea; Segal, Daniel L; Klebe, Kelli; Watts, Linda K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore end-of-life health care attitudes among younger and older sexually diverse women. Self-identified lesbian and heterosexual older women as well as lesbian and heterosexual middle-aged women were recruited. Results indicated that lesbian women held significantly more positive beliefs about hospice services and the role of alternative medicines in health care. No differences among sexual orientation were found for comfort discussing pain management but heterosexual women reported a significantly greater desire for life-sustaining treatments in the event of an incurable disease and severe life-limiting conditions (eg, feeding tube, life support, no brain response). Additionally, as expected, older women in this study held more positive beliefs about hospice and more comfort discussing pain management than middle-aged women.

  14. Reproducibility of a knee and hip proprioception test in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin, Mina; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Burger, Bart J; Verschueren, Sabine M P; van Dieën, Jaap H; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2015-04-01

    Proprioception can be assessed by measuring joint position sense (JPS). Most studies have focused on JPS of the knee joint while literature for other joints especially for hip JPS is scarce. Although some studies have evaluated proprioception of the knee joint, the reproducibility of methods has rarely been investigated. To estimate intrasession reliability and agreement of an active-active JPS test for hip flexion/abduction and knee flexion in healthy older adults. Nineteen healthy older adults participated in this study. The proprioception of the hip (flexion and abduction) and knee (flexion) were assessed in both legs using the "active-active" reproduction technique. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and limits of agreement (LOA) were estimated for relative angular error (RE), absolute angular error (AE), and variable angular error (VE). Reliability of our JPS test was substantial to almost perfect for the RE for both joints and legs (ICC values ranging from 0.75 to 0.93). We also found that the ICC values for AE were substantial for knee flexion and hip abduction of the left and right leg. The ICC results of VE showed poor reliability for hip and knee joints. SEM and LOA values for hip abduction were generally lower than for hip and knee flexion, indicating lower measurement error or more precise scores for the proprioception test of hip abduction. Proprioceptive acuity of the knee and hip joints in healthy older adults can be reliably assessed with an active-active procedure in a standing position with respect to relative and absolute error.

  15. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P learning effects were evident, particularly for the SOT. The SEM and MDC95 for the LOS and SOT measures were relatively large for this healthy elderly cohort. A relationship between FP measures, which assess underlying balance mechanisms, and clinical balance and gait measures was not strongly supported in this study. Further research is needed to justify the value of adding FP measures to a test battery for balance assessment in older adults without a history of falls.

  16. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  17. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Dubyak, Pamela; Cesari, Matteo; Cheng, Jing; Daniels, Michael J; Marsiske, Michael; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Perri, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women. Participants (N = 34) were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55-79 years) with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i) weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5]) or (ii) educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]). In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i) body weight, (ii) walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test), (iii) the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and (iv) knee extension isokinetic strength. Participants randomized to the WL+E group lost significantly more weight than participants in the educational control group (5.95 [0.992] vs 0.23 [0.99] kg; P walking speed of participants in the WL+E group significantly increased compared with that of the control group (reduction in time on the 400-meter walk test = 44 seconds; P moderate caloric restriction plus moderate exercise can produce significant weight loss and improve physical function while maintaining muscle strength in obese, older adult women with mild to moderate physical impairments.

  18. Relationship Between the Remaining Years of Healthy Life Expectancy in Older Age and National Income Level, Educational Attainment, and Improved Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2016-10-01

    The remaining years of healthy life expectancy (RYH) at age 65 years can be calculated as RYH (65) = healthy life expectancy-aged 65 years. This study confirms the associations between socioeconomic indicators and the RYH (65) in 148 countries. The RYH data were obtained from the World Health Organization. Significant positive correlations between RYH (65) in men and women and the socioeconomic indicators national income, education level, and improved drinking water were found. Finally, the predictors of RYH (65) in men and women were used to build a model of the RYH using higher socioeconomic indicators (R(2 )= 0.744, p educational attainment, national income level, and improved water quality influenced the RYH at 65 years. Therefore, policymaking to improve these country-level socioeconomic factors is expected to have latent effects on RYH in older age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The Red Hat Society: Exploring the role of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay Yarnal, Careen

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on play. Yet, the role of play in older adults' lives has received limited attention. Strikingly absent is research on play and older women. Missing from the literature is how older women use play as a liminal context for social interaction and communitas. This is odd because by 2030 one in four American women will be over the age of sixty-five. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the roles of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives. The focus is the Red Hat Society, a social group for women over age 50 that fosters play and fun. Using qualitative interviews with focus groups and participant observation of a regional Red Hat Society event, the study highlights some of the strengths and weaknesses of current conceptualizations of play, liminality, and communitas.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence against Older Women in Germany: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Penhale, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women is a recognized human rights and public health issue, with significant impacts on women's life and health. Until now, several studies, most of them relying on small scale samples, have explored the prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence against older women, whereas few have examined what actually puts…

  1. Older Chinese women immigrants and their leisure experiences: before and after emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Hua Ho; Jaclyn A. Card

    2002-01-01

    The concept of leisure has generally focused on men. This is especially true in Chinese society where women seldom have the right to speak about leisure or mention leisure activities. For many Chinese women, the integration of household and leisure has been necessary to find meaning in life. Based on this concept, we explored older Chinese women immigrants'...

  2. Reactions of Older Women to the Death of Their Close Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A.; Stanis, Pat Ianni

    1994-01-01

    Examined reactions of 38 older women to death of close friends. Sense of loss women felt resulted in development of new and closer relationships with other friends and relatives. Women's advice to others who had lost close friend was to remember friend, seek out new friendships, and be active. Found differences according to age, marital status,…

  3. Challenges to older women's sense of self in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A; Henderson, Tammy L; Kamo, Yoshinori; McCann, Brandy Renee

    2010-11-01

    We examined the personal challenges older women faced as they began to rebuild their sense of self after Hurricane Katrina. In-depth interviews with 74 older women approximately 6 months after the disaster revealed challenges in four domains: maintaining social connections, family connections but loss of independence, reestablishing a sense of place, and managing their own health or the health of a loved one. Follow-up data gathered several months after the initial interviews from 21 of the older women indicated that feelings of displacement persisted as they dealt with health concerns, found a place to live, and managed family roles.

  4. The effects of an unsupervised water exercise program on low back pain and sick leave among healthy pregnant women - A randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Tabor, Ann; Albert, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain is highly prevalent among pregnant women, but evidence of an effective treatment are still lacking. Supervised exercise-either land or water based-has shown benefits for low back pain, but no trial has investigated the evidence of an unsupervised water exercise program...... on low back pain. We aimed to assess the effect of an unsupervised water exercise program on low back pain intensity and days spent on sick leave among healthy pregnant women. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, parallel-group trial, 516 healthy pregnant women were randomly assigned to either...... unsupervised water exercise twice a week for a period of 12 weeks or standard prenatal care. Healthy pregnant women aged 18 years or older, with a single fetus and between 16-17 gestational weeks were eligible. The primary outcome was low back pain intensity measured by the Low Back Pain Rating scale at 32...

  5. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients.

  6. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  7. Effects of Timing of Whey Protein Intake on Appetite and Energy Intake in Healthy Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Coudert, Zoé; Baqeri, Abdul; Jensen, Caroline; Hausken, Trygve; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-10-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage malnutrition in older adults. We previously showed that 30 g whey protein ingestion, 3 hours before a buffet meal, suppressed energy intake in young, but not in older men. Information about the impact of the timing of ingestion of protein drinks on the suppression of energy intake in older adults is lacking. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the timing of whey protein ingestion on appetite and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy older men. In a single blind, randomized design, 16 older men were studied on 5 occasions, on which they consumed a whey protein drink (30 g/120 kcal, 140 mL) 3, 2, 1 hour(s), or immediately before a buffet meal, from which ad libitum energy intake was quantified, and isopalatable noncaloric drinks (∼1 kcal) at the remaining time points. On the control day, noncaloric drinks were ingested at all time points. Perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were determined, by visual analog scales, throughout the study days. There was no effect of the timing of protein ingestion on perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms (P > .05) or energy intake at the buffet meal (3 hours: 888 ± 49 kcal, 2 hours: 879 ± 56 kcal, 1 hours: 909 ± 47 kcal, 0 hour: 892 ± 51 kcal, control: 930 ± 49 kcal, P = .94). Total energy intake (ie, preload + test meal) was higher on the protein days compared with control (82 ± 24 kcal increase, P = .003). In older men, ingestion of 30 g protein increased total energy intake, irrespective of the time of intake in relation to the meal. These observations support the use of "pure" whey protein drinks to increase overall protein and energy intake in older adults at risk of undernutrition. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loe, Henrik; Rognmo, Øivind; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years.......To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years....

  9. Study of Comparison between Autonomic Dysfunction and Dyslipidemia in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamudi, Kavyach

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, physical inactivity, and altered estrogen levels play an important role in contributing to disease risk profile and autonomic dysfunction in healthy postmenopausal women. This study was conducted to test the correlation between autonomic dysfunction and dyslipidemia in healthy postmenopausal women. This study was carried out on sixty healthy postmenopausal women before the age of 65 years, without any gross systemic disease. The following five autonomic functional tests were performed on the study group: heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to Valsalva maneuver, heart rate response to standing up from supine position, blood pressure response to sustained hand grip, and blood pressure response to standing up from supine position. Fasting lipid profile of the study group was tested. In the present study, autonomic dysfunction was found in 67% of healthy postmenopausal women. Among the sixty female healthy postmenopausal women included in the study, 68% were found to have dyslipidemia. In our study, there is a statistically significant correlation between autonomic dysfunction and dyslipidemia in healthy postmenopausal women. In these healthy postmenopausal women with increased serum cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein, and serum triglycerides, there was autonomic dysfunction which is statistically significant. There is no statistical significance on comparing serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with autonomic dysfunction in healthy postmenopausal women.

  10. Olfaction and Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Sarah C.; Kamath, Vidyulata; Giovannetti, Tania; Arnold, Steven E.; Moberg, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Apathy is a prevalent neuropsychiatric manifestation in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that is associated with decreased social functioning and increased caregiver burden. Olfactory deficits are also commonly observed in AD, and prior work has indicated a link between increased apathy and olfactory dysfunction in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Here, we examined odor identification performance in patients with probable AD (n = 172), individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 112), and neurologically and psychiatrically healthy older adults (n = 132) and its relation to apathy, depression, and overall psychopathology. Method Participants were administered the Sniffin’ Sticks odor identification test and measures assessing severity of apathy, depression, and overall neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Results Consistent with previous research, AD and MCI patients were significantly worse at identifying odors than healthy older adults. Additionally, a sex by diagnosis interaction was observed. AD patients had significantly higher levels of apathy relative to MCI and control participants. Of note, across the entire sample odor identification deficits were correlated with level of apathy at the level of p apathy in AD may result from the progression of disease pathology in shared neural substrates. PMID:23398350

  11. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X......-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA......) (CLA-mix); 2) cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA); or 3) control (olive oil). We assessed all variables before and after the intervention. The CLA-mix group had less total FM (4%) and lower-body FM (7%) than the control (P = 0.02 and

  12. Amphetamine alters neural response to sucrose in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, A James; Bailer, Ursula; Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-06-30

    Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. We hypothesized that neural response in both limbic and cognitive sweet taste circuits would mirror past work with monetary rewards by effectively blunting sweet taste reward, and 'equalizing' it's rewarding taste with receipt of water. Behavioral results showed that amphetamine reduced self-reported hunger (supporting the existence of amphetamine anorexia) and increased self-report euphoria. In addition, region of Interest analysis revealed significant treatment by taste interactions in the middle insula and dorsal anterior cingulate confirming the 'equalizing' hypothesis in the cingulate, but unlike monetary reinforcers, the insula actually evinced enhanced separation between tastes on the amphetamine day. These results suggest a divergence from prior research using monetary reinforcers when extended to primary reinforcers, and may hint that altering dopaminergic signaling in the insula and anterior cingulate may be a target for pharmacological manipulation of appetite, and the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hormonal background of physiological aggressiveness in psychologically healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Speca, Azzurra; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Biondi, Massimo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether or not physiological hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle modulate normal aggressiveness in psychophysically healthy women. In 15 probands estrogens (E), progesterone (PROG) and free testosterone (FT) plasma levels were measured by immunochemiluminescence and levels of global aggressiveness and its subitems "verbal aggressiveness", "suspiciousness" and "resentments" were measured by the Buss-Durkee Rating Scale in the early follicular, midluteal and premenstrual phases of the cycle. E and PROG levels varied significantly along the menstrual cycle, while those of FT, of global aggressiveness (GA) and of its subitems did not change. Values of global aggressiveness did not correlate with any of the hormonal parameters studied. However, E values correlated positively with "verbal aggression" scores in the follicular phase and positively with "resentment" in the premenstruum, while PROG levels correlated negatively with "suspiciousness" and "resentment" in the premenstrual phase of the cycle. Hormonal and psychological changes from one phase to the next (Delta) revealed that Delta E in the second half of the cycle correlated negatively with "verbal aggressiveness", while Delta PROG from follicular to luteal and from luteal to premenstrual phases correlated negatively with "resentment". Thus, although aggressiveness did not seem to vary along the menstrual cycle, nor to correlate with hormonal changes, hormone secretions and fluctuations might possibly modulate some of the physiological aspects of the behavioral parameter. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A lifetime of healthy skin: implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, W F

    1999-01-01

    ultraviolet (UV) light. It is the leading cause of extrinsic aging, or alterations of the skin due to environmental exposure. Estimates indicate that almost half of a person's UV exposure occurs by age 18. Photoaging causes numerous histologic, physiologic, and clinical changes; it also increases the risk for skin cancer. Photodamage can be prevented through the use of sun screens, protective clothing, and avoidance of the sun during peak intensity time. The only product approved by the FDA for the treatment of photodamage (fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin roughness), topical tretinoin emollient cream, may help prevent additional photoaging when it is used to treat existing photoaging. Other management options for photodamaged skin include alpha-hydroxy acids, antioxidants, antiandrogens, moisturizers, and exfoliants. In patients with excessive manifestations of photodamage, surgical management may be needed, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, soft tissue augmentation, laser resurfacing, botulism toxin, and Gortex threads. Clinicians must educate their patients about the most appropriate skin care regimen as well as approaches for preventing and treating common afflictions. In this way, women will have the best opportunity for having and maintaining healthy skin.

  16. A preliminary examination of gut microbiota, sleep, and cognitive flexibility in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason R; Carroll, Ian; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Rochette, Amber D; Heinberg, Leslie J; Peat, Christine; Steffen, Kristine; Manderino, Lisa M; Mitchell, James; Gunstad, John

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate sleep increases the risk for age-related cognitive decline and recent work suggests a possible role of the gut microbiota in this phenomenon. Partial sleep deprivation alters the human gut microbiome, and its composition is associated with cognitive flexibility in animal models. Given these findings, we examined the possible relationship among the gut microbiome, sleep quality, and cognitive flexibility in a sample of healthy older adults. Thirty-seven participants (age 64.59 ± 7.54 years) provided a stool sample for gut microbial sequencing and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stroop Color Word Test as part of a larger project. Better sleep quality was associated with better Stroop performance and higher proportions of the gut microbial phyla Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Stroop Word and Color-Word performance correlated with higher proportions of Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Partial correlations suggested that the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop Color-Word performance was better accounted for by sleep quality; sleep quality remained a significant predictor of Color-Word performance, independent of the Lentisphaerae proportion, while the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop performance was non-significant. Verrucomicrobia and sleep quality were not associated with Stroop Word performance independent of one another. The current findings suggest a possible relationship among sleep quality, composition of the gut microbiome, and cognitive flexibility in healthy older adults. Prospective and experimental studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether improving microbiome health may buffer against sleep-related cognitive decline in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of Healthy Older Adults that Influence Self-rated Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Bryce P; Smart, Colette M; Segalowitz, Sidney J; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2017-07-19

    We sought to clarify the nature of self-reported cognitive function among healthy older adults by considering the short-term, within-person association (coupling) of subjective cognitive function with objective cognitive performance. We expected this within-person coupling to differ between persons as a function of self-perceived global cognitive decline and depression, anxiety, or neuroticism. This was an intensive measurement (short-term longitudinal) study of 29 older adult volunteers between the ages of 65 and 80 years without an existing diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Baseline assessment included neuropsychological testing and self-reported depression, anxiety, and neuroticism, as well as self- and informant-reported cognitive decline (relative to 10 years previously). Intensive within-person measurement occasions included subjective ratings of cognitive function paired with performance on a computerized working memory (n-back) task; each participant attended four or five assessments separated by intervals of at least one day. Statistical analysis was comprised of multilevel linear regression. Comparison of models suggested that both neuroticism and self-rated cognitive decline explained unique variance in the within-person, across-occasion coupling of subjective cognitive function with objective working memory performance. Self-ratings of cognition may accurately reflect day-to-day variations in objective cognitive performance among older adults, especially for individuals lower in neuroticism and higher in self-reported cognitive decline. Clinicians should consider these individual differences when determining the validity of complaints about perceived cognitive declines in the context of otherwise healthy aging. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-10).

  18. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  19. Donepezil Impairs Memory in Healthy Older Subjects: Behavioural, EEG and Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Joshua H.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Martin, Mary P.; Galli, Alessandra; Cassidy, Sarah M.; Kilcullen, Sophia M.; Delmonte, Sonja; Brennan, Sabina; Meaney, Jim F.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Upton, Neil; Lai, Robert; Laruelle, Marc; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil) on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL)) and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power) that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta), right frontal-parietal network (Alpha), and default-mode network (Beta). We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify the precise

  20. Breast and cervical cancer screening and associated factors among older adult women in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    ...: cervical and breast cancer in order to establish their prevalence estimates and correlates among older South African women who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in 2008...

  1. Older Women's Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population. PMID:24995267

  2. Effects of core stability exercises on multifidus muscles in healthy women and women with chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Klizas, Sarunas; Imbrasiene, Daiva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low-back pain (LBP) may be related to decreased lumbar multifidus muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). In this study, core stabilization exercises were designed to enhance neuromuscular control and correct multifidus dysfunction. The subjects were healthy women (n = 11) and women with chronic LBP (n = 17). Lumbar multifidus muscle CSAs were measured by ultrasonography. Tests were carried out before training exercises for lumbar stability, and again 4 months and 8 months after training. In women with LBP, the mean multifidus muscle CSA increased by 22% on the right side and 23% on the left side after 8 months of lumbar stabilization training, compared with baseline measurements. In healthy women, mean multifidus muscle CSA increased by 24% on the right side and 23% on the left side, compared with baseline values. A core stabilization exercise program significantly increased multifidus muscle CSAs in both healthy women and women with chronic LBP.

  3. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing...

  4. Agency and fatalism in older Appalachian women's information seeking about gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Emma C; Allen, Katherine R; Roberto, Karen A

    2018-02-16

    Researchers consider older women in rural Appalachia to have low levels of agency and high levels of fatalism regarding decision making about cancer treatment. Using the life course perspective, we examined older women's agency with information seeking about gynecological cancer. Semistructured interviews with 20 White women living in central Appalachia revealed four trajectories: Surrendering Control, Accepting Death, Self-Care, and Advocacy, each with its own forms of agency. Some women experienced personal transformation, increased self-efficacy, and a passion for community empowerment. Fatalism was not understood apart from placing trust in medical expertise. We implore researchers to further explore rural expressions of agency.

  5. Sequins, sass, and sisterhood: an exploration of older women's belly dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Disempowering stereotypes plague public perceptions of older women's bodies, particularly within Western contemporary societies. Consequently, as women age, their bodies often become sources of shame, discomfort, and ridicule. Belly dance, as a form of recreative leisure, provides a unique and somewhat unexpected space for women to subvert such perceptions. Based on qualitative interviews with older American women who belly dance, this article examines the ways in which this form of recreation provides participants a means of (re)gaining mobility, (re)claiming social space, (re)building social support, and (re)defining what it means to be sensual later in life.

  6. Vision in relation to lower extremity deficit in older women: cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Jenni; Sipilä, Sarianna; Tiainen, Kristina; Pärssinen, Olavi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-10-01

    Vision problems are common experiences within the older population. This study aimed to examine the association between vision and lower extremity impairment. 434 women aged 63-75 participated in visual acuity (VA) measurements at baseline and 313 persons at three-year follow-up. Measurements of lower extremity function included maximal isometric knee extension strength, leg extension power, maximal walking speed and standing balance. At baseline, knee extension strength was lower among participants with visual impairment (VI) (273.2±6.4 N) compared to those with good vision (306.5±5.9 N, pvision. Decreased isometric knee extension strength (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.45), poorer standing balance (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35) as well as lower maximal walking speed (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13-1.59) were associated with VI in the logistic regression models. Additionally, the association between poorer leg extension power and VI (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.31) was of borderline statistical significance. In longitudinal analyses, VI did not predict decline in lower extremity function. Lower extremity impairment was associated with VI among relatively healthy older women. However, change in lower extremity function was quite similar between the vision groups. It is possible that decreased VA may be a marker of underlying systemic factors or the aging process, which lead to poorer functional capacity, or there may be shared background factors, which lead to decreased vision and lower extremity impairment.

  7. Plasma Testosterone and the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in Older Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, Erik J.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Lauwen, Esther; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate associations between testosterone levels and major depressive disorder (MDD) in older men and women. In a cross-sectional, 2-year prospective analyses within the Netherlands Study on Depression in Older persons cohort study, 469 participants comprised 350 patients with MDD and 119

  8. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  9. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  10. Effects of exercise training on bone density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; Schniebolk, S; Riddle, M W; Cobb, F R; Higginbotham, M; Coleman, R E

    1991-11-01

    To determine the effects of up to 14 months of aerobic exercise on measures of bone density in older adults. Randomized controlled trial with subjects assigned to either an aerobic exercise condition, non-aerobic yoga, or a wait list non-exercise control group for 4 months. Aerobic fitness and bone density were evaluated in all subjects at baseline (Time 1) and after 4 months (Time 2). A semi-crossover design was utilized with all subjects completing 4 months of aerobic exercise, followed by another evaluation (Time 3). All subjects were then given the option of 6 additional months of aerobic exercise, after which they had a fourth evaluation (Time 4). An outpatient exercise rehabilitation facility at a large, major medical center. One-hundred-one healthy men (n = 50) and women (n = 51) over age 60 (Mean age = 67.0), recruited from the community. The exercise program included stretching, cycle ergometry, and walking three times per week for 60 minutes throughout the course of the study. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) as assessed by cycle ergometry, and bone density (bone mineral content) measured by single photon absorptiometry. Subjects achieved a 10%-15% increase in VO2max after 4 months of exercise training, and 1%-6% further improvement with additional training. Aerobic fitness was associated with significant increases in bone density in men, but not women, who maintained aerobic exercise for 14 months.

  11. Correlations between aerobic capacity, pulmonary and cognitive functioning in the older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, B; Pinar, L; Uğur, F; Oğuz, M

    2005-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity and increases brain blood flow and oxygenation. Exercise also stimulates the reticular activating system and leads to a centrally excited state thereby makes the brain active and alert. In the present study, an aerobic exercise program consisting of submaximal level calisthenic exercises was devised for relatively healthy women between 60 and 80 years old, attending a solidarity center for the aged for daily activities. The effects of exercise on aerobic fitness, and the correlations between aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions and cognition were evaluated. Following a general health examination, 45 female volunteers fulfilling the international criteria of exercising standards for the aged were included in the program. The rhythmic and entertaining calisthenic exercises were performed by the older women for four months, three days a week, 40 or 50 minutes a day. Tests for aerobic capacities, pulmonary functions, and some neuropsychologic performances were carried out during the sedentary period and after the exercise program. The results revealed significant improvements in aerobic capacity, pulmonary functions, and some of the cognitive functions after the 4-month exercise program. We found strong relationships between aerobic capacities and cognitive functioning. Overall, the subjects expressed their happiness and well being on every occasion, during and after the exercise program.

  12. Differences in Exercise Performance and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Older Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Montgomery, Polly S.

    2008-01-01

    Purposes: (a) To compare exercise performance and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) between older men and women, (b) to assess the relationship between exercise performance and LTPA, and (c) to determine whether group differences in exercise performance persist after controlling for LTPA.Methods: A total of 105 women and 155 men who were 65 years of age and older participated in this study. Subjects were characterized on exercise performance by a 6-minute walk test, and by a short physi...

  13. The physical capabilities underlying timed "Up and Go" test are time-dependent in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Junior, Hélio José; Rodrigues, Bruno; Gonçalves, Ivan de Oliveira; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-02-02

    Timed 'Up and Go' (TUG) has been widely used in research and clinical practice to evaluate physical function and mobility in older adults. However, the physical capabilities underlying TUG performance are not well elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating a selection of physical capacities underlying TUG performance in community-dwelling older women. Four hundred and sixty-eight apparently healthy older women independent to perform the activities of daily living (mean age: 65.8 ± 6.0 years) were recruited from two specialized healthcare centers for older adults to participate in the study. Volunteers had their medical books reviewed and underwent evaluations of anthropometric data as well as physical and functional capacities. Pearson's correlation results indicate that TUG performance was significantly associated with upper (i.e., handgrip strength) and lower (i.e., sit-to-stand) limb muscle strength, balance (i.e., one-leg stand), lower limb muscle power (i.e., countermovement jump), aerobic capacity (i.e., 6-minute walk test), and mobility (i.e., usual and maximal walking speeds). When the analyses were performed based on TUG quartiles, a larger number of physical capabilities were associated with TUG >75% in comparison with TUG performance was determined. As a whole, our findings indicate that the contribution of physical capabilities to TUG performance is altered according to the time taken to perform the test, so that older women in the lower quartiles - indicating a higher performance - have an important contribution of lower limb muscle strength, while volunteers in the highest quartile demonstrate a decreased dependence on lower limb muscle strength and an increased contribution of other physical capabilities, such as lower limb muscle power and balance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Life events and stress: do older men and women in Malaysia cope differently as consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Fon Sim; Phillips, David R; Chai, Sen Tyng

    2013-06-01

    The study of major life events and their effects on well-being has considerable relevance for scientific disciplines and policy making in understanding the consumer behaviour of older people. There is evidence of differences in reactions to and coping with stress between males and females but relatively little knowledge about such gender differences amongst older people, especially in middle-income countries. This study of older Malaysians looked at both coping strategies and gender differences in reactions to stress when people are confronted with certain life events. Seventeen major life events were used in interviews with 645 respondents aged 50 years or older in five major urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The analysis showed older women tended to experience higher levels of chronic stress than older men. They also had more health problems, had lower levels of self-esteem and were less satisfied with life. Whilst the results showed little support for gender differences in coping behaviours, stress had a significant influence on the way older men and women change store preferences. A hypothesis that older women would use more emotion-focused coping strategies was not supported. Knowledge of how older Malaysians cope with life events and stress and especially in this instance with regard to consumption behaviour, is likely to be of considerable academic and policy related interest.

  15. Differences in levels of social integration among older women and men in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Zeinab

    2011-06-01

    The current study explores factors underlying the observed gender differences in levels of social integration among older adults within the context of the Arab countries. Reports on older adults' engagement in social activities were classified into two broad categories; "private activities that are child-centered" and "public activities that are adult-centered and extend beyond the realm of the family's children." Findings revealed that gender differences in older adults' involvement in both types of activities were found to be insignificant, a result that indicates older women's withdrawal from shouldering private-type activities and their increase engagement in public-type activities. Patrilocal residence, which is very common in the Arab countries, exhibited two different patterns of effects on levels of social integration. It increased older adults' reports of involvement in private-type activities in general, but decreases older women's reports of their involvement in these activities. Modernization and its impact on older adults' levels of social integration were also investigated in terms of both education and urban/rural residence. Education was positively correlated with older adults' engagements in private-type activities, but not public-type activities. Urban residence and living in a less restricted social environment in general was associated with decreases in older adults' reports of their involvement in private-type activities. Nevertheless, older women residing in urban settings were found to report more involvement in both private and public activities. The current study highlights the need for more future studies that explore aspects of older adults' integration within the family and the community, the interplay between attributes of older adults and members of their social network as well as the impact of social integration on the well-being of older adults within various normative cultural contexts.

  16. Perception of emotion and bilateral advantage in women with eating disorders, their healthy sisters, and nonrelated healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Michal Hason; Latzer, Yael; Stein, Daniel; Eviatar, Zohar

    2011-11-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized not only by disordered eating, but also by other psychopathology. In this exploratory study, we examined the ability of women with different diagnoses of EDs, their unaffected sisters, and healthy unrelated controls to recognize their own and other's emotions. We also looked at interhemispheric integration of emotion recognition and its relationship with depression. Five groups of women participated: 1. anorexia nervosa restricting (AN-R) and 2. (AN-B/B) binge/purge, 3. bulimia nervosa binge/purge, (BN-B/P), 4. healthy sisters of women with ED, and 5. unrelated healthy controls. We used two questionnaires measuring alexithymia and depression, and two lateralized experimental tasks requiring recognition of facial emotion. Unilateral versus bilateral presentation allow the indexing of interhemispheric integration. Alexithymia: All the ED groups were found to be more alexithymic and depressed on the self report scales compared to the two healthy groups. Depression completely mediated alexithymia in the AN-R group but not in the AN-B/P and BN-B/P patients. Sisters of ED women were more alexithymic than unrelated controls. Lateralized facial emotion recognition: ED women showed no deficits in recognizing basic emotions. However, the clinical groups did not show a bilateral advantage whereas the two healthy groups did so. We present three conclusions: we show, for the first time, evidence for a deficit in hemispheric integration in EDs. This implies that EDs may be a disconnection syndrome; alexithymia characterizes women with EDs and members of their family; depression is manifested differently in AN-R, than in women who binge/purge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mittal

    Full Text Available Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA.In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR-adjusted p value<0.05. These genes were enriched in pathways spanning multiple systems, as would be expected during pregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256 showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA.Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data.

  18. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Lim, Myong Cheol; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires...

  19. Perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia: explanatory factors and comparison with healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Bjersing, Jan; Löfgren, Monika; Ernberg, Malin; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ghafouri, Bijar; Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    To investigate perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia. A controlled cross-sectional multi-centre study. Seventy-three women with fibromyalgia and 73 healthy women matched by occupation and physical workload were compared in terms of perceived exertion at work (0-14), muscle strength, 6-min walk test, symptoms rated by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), work status (25-100%), fear avoidance work beliefs (0-42), physical activity at work (7-21) and physical workload (1-5). Spearman's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were conducted. Perceived exertion at work was significantly higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the reference group (p = 0.002), while physical activity at work did not differ between the groups. Physical capacity was lower and symptom severity higher in fibromyalgia compared with references (p fibromyalgia, perceived exertion at work showed moderate correlation with physical activity at work, physical workload and fear avoidance work beliefs (rs = 0.53-0.65, p anxiety (rs = 0.26, p = 0.027). Regression analysis indicated that the physical activity at work and fear avoidance work beliefs explained 50% of the perceived exertion at work. Women with fibromyalgia perceive an elevated exertion at work, which is associated with physical work-related factors and factors related to fear and anxiety.

  20. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    0.08, p = 0.0009, and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between α-carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated (β ± SE = 0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.07. In a fully adjusted model (Model 3, only β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.03 was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of α-carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels. Conclusions: In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2.

  1. Future healthy life expectancy among older adults in the US: a forecast based on cohort smoking and obesity history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bochen

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, the elderly population in the United States experienced increase in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (LE(ND)), but decrease in life expectancy with disability (LE(D)). Smoking and obesity are two major risk factors that had negative impacts on these trends. While smoking prevalence continues to decline in recent decades, obesity prevalence has been growing and is currently at a high level. This study aims to forecast the healthy life expectancy for older adults aged 55 to 85 in the US from 2011 to 2040, in relation to their smoking and obesity history. First, population-level mortality data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) and individual-level disability data from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the transition rates between different health states from 1982 to 2010, using a multi-state life table (MSLT) model. Second, the estimated transition rates were fitted and projected up to 2040, using a modified Lee-Carter model that incorporates cohort smoking and obesity history from NHIS. Mortality and morbidity for both sexes will continue to decline in the next decades. Relative to 2010, men are expected to have 3.2 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). For women, there will be 1.8 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). By 2040, men and women are expected to spend respectively 80 % and 75 % of their remaining life expectancy between 55 and 85 disability-free. Smoking and obesity have independent negative impacts on both the survival and disability of the US older population in the coming decades, and are responsible for the present and future gender disparity in mortality and morbidity. Overall, the US older population is expected to enjoy sustained health improvements and compression of disability, largely due to decline in smoking.

  2. Genetic predictors of skeletal outcomes in healthy fertile women: the Bonturno study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Francesco; Marini, Francesca; Bianchi, Gerolamo; Minisola, Salvatore; Luisetto, Giovanni; Pirazzoli, Antonella; Salvi, Sara; Micheli, Dino; Miccoli, Mario; Baggiani, Angelo; Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2013-07-01

    Skeletal traits as height (Ht) or bone mineral density (BMD) are strongly inherited. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and farnesyl diphosphonate synthase (FDPS) are candidate genes for bone phenotypes. From Bonturno study, we genotyped 570 healthy Caucasian women aged 20 to 50 years (yrs) for LRP5 rs4988321 (A/G) and rs3736228 (C/T) and FDPS rs2297480 (A/C) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) were measured in BMD-evaluated subjects at lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) sites. LRP5 rs4988321 locus correlated with FN-BMD (P = 0.0230), while LRP5 rs3736228 genotypes differed in LS-BMD (P = 0.0428). When clustered by age, lower FN-BMD was detected in LRP5 GG (P = 0.030) subjects of 41 to 50 years but not in younger. Both LRP5 GG and CC genotypes showed higher age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Increased CTX values were in LRP5 GGCC subjects than in those having at least one LRP5 A plus T alleles (P = 0.0190). LRP5 CC, GG or GGCC subjects with at least one FDPS C allele showed higher levels of CTX and OC in 31 to 40 yrs or older subjects. In conclusion, LRP5 and FDPS loci age-specifically affect skeletal traits in healthy fertile women. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the self-selected resistance exercise intensity by older women consistent with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines to improve muscular fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsangedy, Hassan M; Krause, Maressa P; Krinski, Kleverton; Alves, Ragami C; Hsin Nery Chao, Cheng; da Silva, Sergio G

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the self-selected intensity during resistance training (RT) in older women. Twenty healthy women (mean age, 65.6 years) underwent a 2-week familiarization period followed by 3 experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric measurements were taken. The second session involved completion of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test for the following exercises: chest press, leg press, lat pull-down, leg extension, lateral shoulder raise, leg curl, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown. Last, a single RT session was performed at a self-selected intensity. During the RT session, participants were instructed to self-select a load for performing 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions. Data were analyzed by mean (SD) and analysis of variance with repeated measures (p 0.05). These results indicate that inactive older women self-selected an intensity exercise during RT below the recommendation for improvements on muscle fitness in apparently healthy older adults. However, this intensity is recommended for very deconditioned individuals. Nevertheless, the use of self-selection strategy during an exercise program can have greater advantages because of its easy applicability, its positive relation with exercise adherence, and for promoting initial muscle conditioning in older adults. Furthermore, it is crucial to gradually increase the RT load to guarantee better and sustainable effects on muscle fitness. Finally, future studies are needed to establish the chronic effects of RT at self-selected intensity on muscle fitness and the functional health of older adults.

  4. Humors Effect on Short-term Memory in Healthy and Diabetic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Schwab, Ernie; Deshpande, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    With aging, the detrimental effects of stress can impair a person's ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor and its associated mirthful laughter can reduce stress by decreasing the hormone cortisol. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampal neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. Objectives • The study intended to examine the effect of watching a humor video on short-term memory in older adults. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, CA, USA. The study included 30 participants: 20 normal, healthy, older adults-11 males and 9 females-and 10 older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-6 males and 4 females. The study included 2 intervention groups of older adults who viewed humorous videos, a healthy group (humor group), aged 69.9 ± 3.7 y, and the diabetic group, aged 67.1 ± 3.8 y. Each participant selected 1 of 2 humorous videos that were 20 min in length, either a Red Skeleton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos. The control group, aged 68.7 ± 5.5 y, did not watch a humor video and sat in quiescence. A standardized, neuropsychological, memory-assessment tool, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), was used to assess the following abilities: (1) learning, (2) recall, and (3) visual recognition. The testing occurred twice, once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the humorous video for the humor and diabetic groups, and once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the period of quiescence for the control group. At 5 time points, measurements of salivary cortisol were also obtained. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to measure significance of the data based on the 3 groups. In the humor, diabetic, and control groups, (1) learning ability improved by 38.5%, 33.4%, and 24.0%, respectively (P = .025); (2) delayed recall improved by 43.6%, 48.1%, and 20.3%, respectively (P = .064); and (3) visual recognition

  5. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective: We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design: A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory. Results: The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions: A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the

  6. Physical Fitness can Partly Explain the Metabolically Healthy Obese Phenotype in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelkens, F.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Brussee, P.; Verheggen, R.J.H.M.; Tack, C.J.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether physical fitness and/or fat distribution and inflammation profile may explain why approximately 30% of the women with obesity are protected against obesity-related disorders.10 metabolically healthy obese women and 10 age- and weight-matched women with the metabolic syndrome

  7. Correlation between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Platelet Function in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Stefan; Assinger, Alice; Pokan, Rochus; Volf, Ivo

    2016-06-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) represents a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, and platelets play a key role in the development of this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between CRF and platelet function. CRF and different aspects of platelet function were assessed in healthy, young, nonsmoking women. Results were compared between groups of low (LF), medium (MF) and high CRF (HF). Measurements were repeated in group LF after a supervised endurance training program lasting two menstrual cycles and obtained results were compared with groups MF and HF. CRF was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) determined by an incremental treadmill exercise test. V˙O2max criteria for groups were (mL·min·kg bodyweight): LF 55. Platelet activation state and platelet reactivity were assessed by basal and agonist-induced surface expression of CD62P and CD40L as well as the intraplatelet amount of reactive oxygen species. In group LF, basal platelet activation as well as agonist-induced platelet reactivity were increased compared with groups MF and HF. Between groups MF and HF parameters of platelet function were roughly equal despite a pronounced difference regarding CRF. Exercise training improved CRF in group LF and aligned platelet function to levels observed in groups MF and HF, although CRF still markedly differed. Low levels of CRF favor a proinflammatory platelet phenotype. A relatively low dose of exercise is sufficient to normalize platelet function, whereas superior levels of physical activity and CRF do not provide any further substantial benefit, but also no appreciable adverse effects.

  8. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age

    OpenAIRE

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. Recent findings The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1–2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like ‘perimenopausal eating disorders’ and ‘muscularity-oriented eating disorders’ indicating the impact of the ...

  9. Serum Ghrelin Is Associated with Verbal Learning and Adiposity in a Sample of Healthy, Fit Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bellar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the relationship between serum ghrelin concentrations, adiposity, and verbal learning in a group of healthy, fit older adults. Participants were 28 healthy older adults (age: yrs, BMI: . Participants reported to the laboratory and basic anthropometric data were collected, followed by a blood draw to quantify serum ghrelin. Participants then underwent cognitive testing that included the revised Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT, as well as the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE. The results of the MMSE test revealed that the volunteers were cognitively intact (MMSE . A significant correlation emerged between serum ghrelin concentrations, 2 trials of the HVLT (Trial 1: , ; Trial 2: , , and the sum of three-site skinfold analysis (. Based upon the aforementioned relationships, it appears that fasting levels of serum ghrelin are related to both verbal learning and adiposity in healthy, fit older adults.

  10. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  11. The effects of an unsupervised water exercise program on low back pain and sick leave among healthy pregnant women - A randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Tabor, Ann; Albert, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    on low back pain. We aimed to assess the effect of an unsupervised water exercise program on low back pain intensity and days spent on sick leave among healthy pregnant women. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, parallel-group trial, 516 healthy pregnant women were randomly assigned to either...... unsupervised water exercise twice a week for a period of 12 weeks or standard prenatal care. Healthy pregnant women aged 18 years or older, with a single fetus and between 16-17 gestational weeks were eligible. The primary outcome was low back pain intensity measured by the Low Back Pain Rating scale at 32...... weeks. The secondary outcomes were self-reported days spent on sick leave, disability due to low back pain (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire) and self-rated general health (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS). RESULTS: Low back pain intensity was significantly lower in the water exercise group, with a score of 2...

  12. Women Gossip and Men Brag: Perceived Gender Differences in the Use of Humor by Romanian Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Schiau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates perceived gender differences in the producion and social use of humor in the interpersonal communication of Romanian older women, aged 60 and above. The study is a qualitative investigation, based on semi-structured interviews. The aim was to understand the perceptions and motivations that women have when using humor in social interactions, and to explore the functions that humor serves in their day-to-day communication. A previous quantitative investigation found statistically significant gender differences between Romanian older men and women on a sense of humor scale, and suggested that the use of humor in interpersonal communication had stronger social benefits for women (Schiau, 2016a. Drawing on these findings, and keeping in mind other studies that discuss the different use of humor by men and women, this study aims to investigate specific gender differences in the production of humor, as perceived by the participants.

  13. Financial Exploitation of Older Women: A Case Analysis Using the Struggle for Recognition Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie; Crevier, Marie; D'Amours, Monia; Diaz, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to make a theoretical contribution to the field of mistreatment of older adults by introducing Honneth's Struggle for Recognition theory in order to document financial mistreatment of older women. Through a case analysis of an older woman financially exploited by her son, considering self-agency and structure, it shows how financial mistreatment disrespects the three components of Honneth's theory, primary relationships, legal relations, and community of value. Personal integrity, social integrity, and honor and dignity are threatened by mistreatment. This case analysis opens for further theoretical exploration of the Struggle for Recognition theory in the understanding of mistreatment of older adults.

  14. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women.......To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women....

  15. Understanding older women's decision making and coping in the context of breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifford, Kate J; Witt, Jana; Burton, Maria; Collins, Karen; Caldon, Lisa; Edwards, Adrian; Reed, Malcolm; Wyld, Lynda; Brain, Kate

    2015-06-10

    Primary endocrine therapy (PET) is a recognised alternative to surgery followed by endocrine therapy for a subset of older, frailer women with breast cancer. Choice of treatment is preference-sensitive and may require decision support. Older patients are often conceptualised as passive decision-makers. The present study used the Coping in Deliberation (CODE) framework to gain insight into decision making and coping processes in a group of older women who have faced breast cancer treatment decisions, and to inform the development of a decision support intervention (DSI). Semi-structured interviews were carried out with older women who had been offered a choice of PET or surgery from five UK hospital clinics. Women's information and support needs, their breast cancer diagnosis and treatment decisions were explored. A secondary analysis of these interviews was conducted using the CODE framework to examine women's appraisals of health threat and coping throughout the deliberation process. Interviews with 35 women aged 75-98 years were analysed. Appraisals of breast cancer and treatment options were sometimes only partial, with most women forming a preference for treatment relatively quickly. However, a number of considerations which women made throughout the deliberation process were identified, including: past experiences of cancer and its treatment; scope for choice; risks, benefits and consequences of treatment; instincts about treatment choice; and healthcare professionals' recommendations. Women also described various strategies to cope with breast cancer and their treatment decisions. These included seeking information, obtaining practical and emotional support from healthcare professionals, friends and relatives, and relying on personal faith. Based on these findings, key questions were identified that women may ask during deliberation. Many older women with breast cancer may be considered involved rather than passive decision-makers, and may benefit from DSIs

  16. Understanding Women in the Role of Caregivers for Older Adults in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Atsuko; Dahlen, Penny

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Japanese women in the role of caregivers of older family members. Cultural influence on women's identity, significance of the caregiver's role, and the struggles and rewards of being caregivers are discussed. Finally, ideas are provided for the use of arts in counseling and implications of their use are…

  17. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  18. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Charlotte F A; Eccles, Fiona J R; Armitage, Jocelyn R; Murray, Craig D

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) navigating visibility centred on how homophobia led to a lack of recognition of the women's grief; and (3) finding new places to be authentic related women's need for new relationships in which they could be themselves. The findings indicate that existing models of partner bereavement may provide useful frameworks when seeking to understand the experiences of older women who have lost their same-sex partners. The findings indicate that in addition to the experiences of partner bereavement noted in research with heterosexual widows, older women who lose same-sex partners may face particular challenges, which can impact upon psychological well-being and adjustment to loss. These challenges appear to result from past and current homophobic and heterosexist attitudes within the UK culture. A range of interventions at individual, group, health service, and societal levels may be beneficial in improving the psychological well-being of older women who lose a same-sex partner.

  19. Effect of Strength Training on Rate of Force Development in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjao, Andre Luiz Demantova; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Carneiro, Nelson Hilario; Goncalves, Raquel; Ferreira de Moura, Rodrigo; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of an 8-week strength training (ST) program on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromyographic activity (EMG) in older women. Seventeen women (M age = 63.4 years, SD = 4.9) without previous ST experience were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 10) group. A leg-press isometric test was…

  20. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes among older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, JWJ; Stolk, RP; Van der Schouw, YT; Grobbee, DE; Hendriks, HFJ; Bots, ML

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - This study aimed to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Between 1993 and 1997, 16,330 women aged 49-70 years and free from diabetes were enrolled in one of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC ( European Prospective

  1. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes among older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - This study aimed to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Between 1993 and 1997, 16,330 women aged 49-70 years and free from diabetes were enrolled in one of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective

  2. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  4. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62-87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road.

  5. The Attention Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I): reliability and validity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Yoko; Eskes, Gail A; Tyndall, Amanda V; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-03-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a frequently used computer-based tool for measuring the three attention networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control). We examined the psychometric properties of performance on a variant of the ANT, the Attention Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I) in healthy older adults (N = 173; mean age = 65.4, SD = 6.5; obtained from the Brain in Motion Study, Tyndall et al. BMC Geriatr 13:21, 2013. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-13-21) to evaluate its usefulness as a measurement tool in both aging and clinical research. In terms of test reliability, split-half correlation analyses showed that all network scores were significantly reliable, although the strength of the correlations varied across networks as seen before (r = 0.29, 0.70, and 0.68, for alerting, orienting, and executive networks, respectively, p's older adult population. The results provide insights into the psychometrics of the ANT-I and its potential utility in clinical research settings.

  6. Response inhibition and avoidance of virtual obstacles during gait in healthy young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocanac, Zrinka; Smulders, Ellen; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Verschueren, Sabine; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Adjustments of preplanned steps are essential for fall avoidance and require response inhibition. Still, inhibition is rarely tested under conditions resembling daily living. We evaluated the ability of young and older adults to modify ongoing walking movements using a novel precision step inhibition (PSI) task combined with an auditory Stroop task. Healthy young (YA, n=12) and older (OA, n=12) adults performed the PSI task at 4 individualized difficulty levels, as a single and dual task (DT). Subjects walked on a treadmill by stepping on virtual stepping stones, unless these changed color during approach, forcing the subjects to avoid them. OA made more failures (40%) on the PSI task than YA (16%), but DT did not affect their performance. In combination with increased rates of omitted Stroop task responses, this indicates a "posture first" strategy. Yet, adding obstacles to the PSI task significantly deteriorated Stroop performance in both groups (the average Stroop composite score decreased by 13% in YA and 27% in OA). Largest deficit of OA was observed in rates of incorrect responses to incongruent Stroop stimuli (OA 35% and YA 12%), which require response inhibition. We concluded that the performance of OA suffered specifically when response inhibition was required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exergames for unsupervised balance training at home: A pilot study in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diest, M; Stegenga, J; Wörtche, H J; Verkerke, G J; Postema, K; Lamoth, C J C

    2016-02-01

    Exercise videogames (exergames) are gaining popularity as tools for improving balance ability in older adults, yet few exergames are suitable for home-based use. The purpose of the current pilot study was to examine the effects of a 6-week unsupervised home-based exergaming training program on balance performance. Ten community dwelling healthy older adults (age: 75.9 ± 7.2 years) played a newly developed ice skating exergame for six weeks at home. In the game, the speed and direction of a virtual ice skater on a frozen canal were controlled using lateral weight shifts, which were captured using Kinect. Sway characteristics during quiet standing in eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and dual task (DT) conditions were assessed in time and frequency domain before, and after two, four and six weeks of training. Balance was also evaluated using the narrow ridge balance test (NRBT). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine changes in balance ability. Participants played 631 (± 124)min over the intervention period and no subjects dropped out. Balance in terms of sway characteristics improved on average by 17.4% (EO) and 23.3% (EC) after six weeks of training (polder adults, but also that participants do not benefit equally from the program, thereby emphasizing the need for more personalized exergame training programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is the perception of time pressure a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nicky; McNaughton, Sarah A; Hunter, Wendy; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David

    2009-07-01

    To describe the proportion of women reporting time is a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity, the characteristics of these women and the perceived causes of time pressure, and to examine associations between perceptions of time as a barrier and consumption of fruit, vegetables and fast food, and physical activity. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity and perceived causes of time pressure. A randomly selected community sample. A sample of 1580 women self-reported their food intake and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to healthy eating. An additional 1521 women self-reported their leisure-time physical activity and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to physical activity. Time pressure was reported as a barrier to healthy eating by 41% of the women and as a barrier to physical activity by 73%. Those who reported time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating were significantly less likely to meet fruit, vegetable and physical activity recommendations, and more likely to eat fast food more frequently. Women reporting time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity are less likely to meet recommendations than are women who do not see time pressure as a barrier. Further research is required to understand the perception of time pressure issues among women and devise strategies to improve women's food and physical activity behaviours.

  9. No Association between Dietary Patterns and Risk for Cognitive Decline in Older Women with 9-Year Follow-Up: Data from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Bernhard; Wu, Chunyuan; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Snetselaar, Linda; Brunner, Robert; Wallace, Robert B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2016-06-01

    Data on the association between dietary patterns and age-related cognitive decline are inconsistent. To determine whether dietary patterns assessed by the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED), the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), or the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score are associated with cognitive decline in older women, and to examine whether dietary patterns modify the risk for cognitive decline in women with hypertension. Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Food frequency questionnaires were used to derive dietary patterns at baseline. Hypertension was defined as self-report of current drug therapy for hypertension or clinic measurement of systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg. Postmenopausal women (N=6,425) aged 65 to 79 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and were cognitively intact at baseline. Cognitive decline was defined as cases of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable dementia (PD). Cases were identified through rigorous screening and expert adjudication. Cox proportional hazards models with multivariable adjustment were used to estimate the relative risk for developing MCI or PD. During a median follow-up of 9.11 years, we documented 499 cases of MCI and 390 of PD. In multivariable analyses we did not detect any statistically significant relationships across quintiles of aMED, HEI-2010, DASH, and AHEI-2010 scores and MCI or PD (P values for trend=0.30, 0.44, 0.23, and 0.45). In women with hypertension, we found no significant association between dietary patterns and cognitive decline (P values for trend=0.19, 0.08, 0.07, and 0.60). Dietary patterns characterized by the aMED, HEI-2010, AHEI-2010, or DASH dietary score were not associated with cognitive decline in older women. Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern did not modify the risk for cognitive decline in women with hypertension

  10. Temporal relationships between depressive symptoms and white matter hyperintensities in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Zonderman, Alan B; Kraut, Michael A; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Associations between vascular disease and depression in late life, including increased white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), have been reported. Whether depression is an etiology or a consequence of vascular disease is still unknown. We investigated the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and WMHs in older men and women. We utilized data from 90 dementia-free older adults (39 women, 51 men), 57 years of age and older at baseline, from the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed for up to 8 years. Ratings of white matter disease burden were available for the first, last, and at least one interim visit, and participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) annually. Statistical models, performed separately in men and women, examined whether depressive symptoms predicted subsequent WMH ratings or WMHs predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. The total CES-D score was not associated with WMHs in men or women. In men, the CES-D depressed mood subscale predicted accelerating longitudinal increases in WMHs at older ages, but WMHs did not predict subsequent depressive symptoms. In women, there were no significant associations between the CES-D depressed mood subscale and WMHs. White matter disease may be a consequence of depressed mood in men but not in women. Intervention strategies for depression may slow the progression of white matter disease in older men. These results add to previous findings documenting sex differences in the correlates of depressive disorders in late life. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Association of Healthy Habits Beliefs and Mortality in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Villa, Julio M; Marquez, David X; Sanchez-Garrido, Natalia; Perez-Zepeda, Mario U; Gonzalez-Lara, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish the association between beliefs about healthy habits and mortality in a group of Mexican older adults. This is an 11-year follow-up secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. There was a significant difference ( p healthy habits have the potential to improve health compared with those who did not. After adjustment for confounders, Cox regression models showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.07, 0.38], p healthy habits. Although the mechanism is not completely clear, according to our results, believing that healthy habits can improve health was associated with lower rates of mortality. Further research should elucidate potential strategies for changing beliefs in older adults with the goal of improving their overall health.

  12. Validity of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass in healthy Japanese middle-aged and older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Yohei; Ohta, Megumi; Akagi, Ryota; Kato, Emika; Wakahara, Taku; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-09-25

    The skeletal muscle mass of the lower limb plays a role in its mobility during daily life. From the perspective of physical resources, leg muscle mass dominantly decreases after the end of the fifth decade. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the muscle mass is important for the middle-aged and older population. The present study aimed to clarify the validity of ultrasound muscle thickness (MT) measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass (SM) in the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population. MTs at four sites of the lower limb and the bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM) of the right leg were determined using brightness-mode ultrasonography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively, in 44 women and 33 men, 52- to 78-years old. LTM was used as a representative variable of leg skeletal muscle mass. In the model-development group (30 women and 22 men), regression analysis produced an equation with R2 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.958 and 0.3 kg, respectively: LTM (kg) = 0.01464 × (MTSUM×L) (cm2) - 2.767, where MTSUM is the sum of the product of MTs at four sites, and L is length of segment where MT is determined. The estimated LTM (7.0 ± 1.7 kg) did not significantly differ from the measured LTM (7.0 ± 1.7 kg), without a significant systematic error on a Bland-Altman plot. The application of this equation for the cross-validation group (14 women and 11 men) did not yield a significant difference between the measured (7.2 ± 1.6 kg) or estimated (7.2 ± 1.6 kg) LTM and systematic error. The developed prediction equation may be useful for estimating the lean tissue mass of the lower extremity for the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population.

  13. Bone Density Screening and Re-screening in Postmenopausal Women and Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Robert A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines universally recommend bone mineral density (BMD) screening to identify osteoporosis in women aged 65 years and older. Risk assessment is recommended to guide BMD screening in postmenopausal women under age 65. Insufficient data are available to inform standard ages to start and stop BMD screening in postmenopausal women. Based on longitudinal studies of incident osteoporosis and fracture in postmenopausal women, an initial BMD test should be ordered for all women aged 65, and the frequency of re-screening should be based on age and BMD T score (more frequent testing for older age and lower T score). Although clinical practice guidelines recommend BMD screening according to risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal women under age 65, no standard approach to risk assessment exists. Minimal evidence is available to guide osteoporosis screening in men, but some experts recommend initiation of BMD screening in men at age 70. PMID:26408154

  14. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults

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    Oliver C. Witard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise, is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS and is a key factor that regulates skeletal muscle mass (SMM. The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective. In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions.

  15. Muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty-three community-dwelling women were divided into the following groups: older, with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty in the contralateral limb (OKG; N= 7; older, without symptomatic osteoarthritis (OG; N= 8; and young and healthy (YG; N= 8. Muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength test and exercise intensity progression (workload increases of 5%-10% were made whenever adaptation occurred were compared before and after 13 weeks of a twice-weekly progressive resistance-training program. RESULTS: At baseline, OKG subjects displayed lower muscle strength than those in both the OG and YG. Among OKG subjects, baseline muscle strength was lower in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total arthroplasty leg. Muscle strength improved significantly during follow-up in all groups; however, greater increases were observed in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total knee arthroplasty leg in OKG subjects. Greater increases were also seen in the osteoarthritic leg of OKG than in OG and YG. The greater muscle strength increase in the osteoarthritic leg reduced the interleg difference in muscle strength in OKG subjects, and resulted in similar posttraining muscle strength between OKG and OG in two of the three exercises analyzed. Greater exercise intensity progression was also observed in OKG subjects than in both OG and YG subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OKG subjects displayed greater relative muscle strength increases (osteoarthritic leg than subjects in the YG, and greater relative exercise intensity progression than subjects in both OG and YG. These results suggest that resistance training is an effective method to counteract the lower-extremity strength deficits reported in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty.

  16. Body composition in healthy older persons: role of the ratio of extracellular/total body water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczyk, E; Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak, S; Fatyga, E; Ziółko, E; Kokot, T; Muc-Wierzgon, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the best prognostic parameters for quickly assessing fluid volume status in the context of nutritional status and water balance in older persons and to facilitate decision-making of the general practitioner (GP). This pilot study was conducted with 142 volunteers aged 60 years or older who were Polish students of the University of the Third Age. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study were defined. Assessment tools included: the Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire (MNA®) and the anthropometric measurements. Weight and body composition analysis were determined by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) using the Tanita MC-780 multi frequency segmental Body Composition Analyzer. According to the MNA scale, 89.2% of the sample was wellnourished and 10.8% were at risk of malnutrition. A total of 47.1% participants had normal body mass index, 20.6% were overweight, and 32.3% were obese. The BIA showed that females had more fat mass (FM) compared to males (35.84% vs 23.90%), while men had more free fat mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW; 61.16% vs 45.22% and 53.31% vs 45.22%respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in FM, FFM, and TBW by age. The ratio of Extracellular to Total Body Water (ECW/TBW) was higher in women than in men (46.76% vs 43.66%). Of all measures, only ECW/TBW increased significantly with age and sex, especially after 65 years. We propose that ECW/TBW may be used as the first, simple, and fast indicator of water volume status in the context of nutritional status and water balance in older subjects. Systematic control of the ECW/TBW by GP or nurse may increase senior independence, resulting in longer self-maintenance at home and reduced hospital admissions.

  17. Vitamin D status and measures of cognitive function in healthy older European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, K M; Hill, T R; Scully, L; Meunier, N; Andrillo-Sanchez, M; Polito, A; Hininger-Favier, I; Ciarapica, D; Simpson, E E A; Stewart-Knox, B J; O'Connor, J M; Coudray, C; Cashman, K D

    2010-10-01

    Data from human studies that have investigated the association between vitamin D status and cognitive function in elderly adults are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status (reflected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) in older European subjects (n=387; aged 55-87 years) and examine its association with measures of cognitive function. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas measures of cognitive function were assessed using a comprehensive Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB). In all, 12, 36 and 64% of subjects had serum 25(OH)D concentrations working memory (SWM) test parameter (SWM between errors (r=-0.166; P=0.003); SWM between errors 8 boxes (r=-0.134; P=0.038); SWM strategy (r=-0.246; P85.8 (T(3)) nmol/l), fewer errors in SWM test scores occurred in subjects in the third T when compared with the first T (P0.6) in males. Vitamin D insufficiency, but not deficiency, is widespread in the older population of several European countries. Low vitamin D status was associated with a reduced capacity for SWM, particularly in women.

  18. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality.

  19. The Hispanic Paradox and Older Adults’ Disabilities: Is There a Healthy Migrant Effect?

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    Ferrah Raza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “Hispanic Paradox” suggests that despite rates of poverty similar to African Americans, Hispanics have far better health and mortality outcomes, more comparable to non-Hispanic White Americans. Three prominent possible explanations for the Hispanic Paradox have emerged. The “Healthy Migrant Effect” suggests a health selection effect due to the demands of migration. The Hispanic lifestyle hypothesis focuses on Hispanics’ strong social ties and better health behaviors. The reverse migration argument suggests that the morbidity profile in the USA is affected when many Hispanic immigrants return to their native countries after developing a serious illness. We analyzed data from respondents aged 55 and over from the nationally representative 2006 American Community Survey including Mexican Americans (13,167 U.S. born; 11,378 immigrants, Cuban Americans (314 U.S. born; 3,730 immigrants, and non-Hispanic White Americans (629,341 U.S. born; 31,164 immigrants. The healthy migrant effect was supported with SES-adjusted disability comparable between Mexican, Cuban and non-Hispanic Whites born in the USA and all immigrants having lower adjusted odds of functional limitations than U.S. born non-Hispanic Whites. The reverse migration hypothesis was partially supported, with citizenship and longer duration in the USA associated with higher rates of SES-adjusted disability for Mexican Americans. The Hispanic healthy life-style explanation had little support in this study. Our findings underline the importance of considering nativity when planning for health interventions to address the needs of the growing Hispanic American older adult population.

  20. Changes in community mobility in older men and women. A 13-year prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Fristedt

    Full Text Available Community mobility, defined as "moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation", has a unique ability to promote older peoples' wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons' subjective health.

  1. HIV sexual risk behavior in older black women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanyka K; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health concern in the United States, particularly among older Black women who comprise approximately 40% of the newly diagnosed cases among women. This systematic review sought to answer the research question: What are the sexual practices in older Black women associated with HIV risk? CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge electronic databases were searched for English-language research studies published between 2003 and 2013 that focused on the HIV sexual risk practices of Black women over the age of 50. Using PRISMA guidelines, two reviewers independently reviewed and appraised the quality of relevant articles; agreement of select studies was achieved by consensus. Among the 3,167 articles surveyed, 9 met inclusion criteria. The majority (88%) were quantitative, observational studies. All nine articles addressed at least one of three factors that contribute to HIV sexual risk: Behavioral (inconsistent condom use and multiple sexual partners), psychological (risk perception, depression/stress, trauma, and self-esteem issues), and social factors (economics, education, and drugs/alcohol use). Outcome measures varied across studies. Although this systematic review appraised few studies, findings suggest that many older Black women are engaged in HIV risk-taking practices. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the HIV risk practices of older Black women to improve health outcomes through education, effective communication and risk appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship Power, Sexual Decision Making, and HIV Risk Among Midlife and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Joanne; Rhee, Siyon

    2015-01-01

    The number of midlife and older women with HIV/AIDS is high and increasing, especially among women of color. This article addresses these demographic realities by reporting on findings about self-esteem, relationship power, and HIV risk from a pilot study of midlife and older women. A purposive sample (N = 110) of ethnically, economically, and educationally diverse women 40 years and older from the Greater Los Angeles Area was surveyed to determine their levels of self-esteem, general relationship power, sexual decision-making power, safer sex behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Women with higher levels of self-esteem exercised greater power in their relationships with their partner. Women with higher levels of general relationship power and self-esteem tend to exercise greater power in sexual decision making, such as having sex and choosing sexual acts. Income and sexual decision-making power were statistically significant in predicting the use of condoms. Implications and recommendations for future HIV/AIDS research and intervention targeting midlife and older women are presented.

  3. Gender modulates the APOE ε4 effect in healthy older adults: convergent evidence from functional brain connectivity and spinal fluid tau levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, Jessica S; Seeley, William W; Zhou, Juan; Shirer, William R; Coppola, Giovanni; Karydas, Anna; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Greicius, Michael D

    2012-06-13

    We examined whether the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on functional brain connectivity is modulated by gender in healthy older human adults. Our results confirm significantly decreased connectivity in the default mode network in healthy older APOE ε4 carriers compared with ε3 homozygotes. More important, further testing revealed a significant interaction between APOE genotype and gender in the precuneus, a major default mode hub. Female ε4 carriers showed significantly reduced default mode connectivity compared with either female ε3 homozygotes or male ε4 carriers, whereas male ε4 carriers differed minimally from male ε3 homozygotes. An additional analysis in an independent sample of healthy elderly using an independent marker of Alzheimer's disease, i.e., spinal fluid levels of tau, provided corresponding evidence for this gender-by-APOE interaction. Together, these results converge with previous work showing a higher prevalence of the ε4 allele among women with Alzheimer's disease and, critically, demonstrate that this interaction between APOE genotype and gender is detectable in the preclinical period.

  4. Hemoglobin A1c Is Positively Correlated with Framingham Risk Score in Older, Apparently Healthy Nondiabetic Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Shin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral studies have suggested that elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD in nondiabetic individuals. However, it is unclear whether HbA1c levels can serve as a simple screening marker for increased CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c levels and CVD risk using the Framingham risk score (FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 2,879 Korean adults between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent voluntary health check-ups at the Health Promotion Center of our hospital from July 2009 to June 2011. Subjects were subdivided based on their HbA1c levels into four groups: tertiles within the HbA1c normal tolerance range and a group for subjects with an increased risk for diabetes (IRD.ResultsThe mean FRS for the upper tertile (9.6±3.8 group was significantly higher than that of the middle tertile (8.4±4.0 and lower tertile (7.6±3.8 groups. In addition, FRS was highest in the IRD group (10.5±3.7. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that HbA1c levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with FRS when adjusted for confounding variables in all subjects (β±standard error [SE], 0.018±0.002; R2, 0.131, women (β±SE, 0.023±0.003; R2, 0.170, and men (β±SE, 0.016±0.004; R2, 0.109.ConclusionHbA1c levels were positively correlated with FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults. We propose that HbA1c levels may reflect CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals.

  5. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

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    Bemben Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  6. Prevalence of uterine diseases in healthy women with hysteroscopy as part of routine gynecological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paredes Palma

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Hysteroscopy showed a high prevalence of detecting uterine pathologies that were never previously described in a population of healthy women in a common sample of patients attending the outpatient Hospital Pemex Picacho.

  7. Women and Heart Disease | Healthy Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Women and Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Photos: ... still underestimate their own personal risk of getting heart disease.” "Having even one risk factor can double a ...

  8. Relationship of quadriceps muscle power and optimal shortening velocity with angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostka J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Kostka,1,2 Joanna Sikora,3 Tomasz Kostka1 1Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre, 2Department of Physical Medicine, 3Laboratory of Bioanalysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Radiopharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Background: The goal of this study was to assess whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity is related to muscle function (strength, power and velocity, as well as to assess if ACE inhibitors (ACEIs and other angiotensin system blocking medications (ASBMs influence muscle performance in elderly women.Subjects and methods: Ninety-five community-dwelling elderly women took part in this study. Anthropometric data, blood ACE activity analysis, maximum power (Pmax and optimal shortening velocity (υopt of the knee extensor muscles, handgrip strength, physical activity (PA and functional performance were measured.Results: Women taking ACEI were on average almost 2 years older than the women who did not take ACEI. They took more medicines and were also characterized by significantly lower level of ACE, but they did not differ in terms of PA level, results of functional performance and parameters characterizing muscle functions. No correlations of ACE activity with Pmax and handgrip strength, as well as with PA or functional performance were found. Higher ACE activity was connected with lower υopt for women who did not take any ASBMs (rho =−0.37; p=0.01.Conclusion: Serum ACE activity was not associated with muscle strength, power and functional performance in both ASBM users and nonusers, but was associated with optimal shortening velocity of quadriceps muscles in older women. Further prospective studies are needed to assess if ACEIs or other ASBMs may slow down the decline in muscle function and performance. Keywords: sarcopenia, frailty, muscle strength, functional performance, aging, ACE inhibitors 

  9. Interrelations between fat distribution, muscle lipid content, adipocytokines, and insulin resistance: effect of moderate weight loss in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, Gloria; Di Francesco, Vincenzo; Zoico, Elena; Fantin, Francesco; Zamboni, Giulia; Benati, Claudia; Bambara, Valentina; Negri, Mauro; Bosello, Ottavio; Zamboni, Mauro

    2006-11-01

    Interrelations between fat distribution, muscle lipid infiltration, adipocytokines, insulin resistance, and moderate weight loss have not been investigated in obese older subjects. The objective was to evaluate relations between fat distribution, muscle lipid content, adipocytokines, and insulin resistance in older women and the effects of moderate weight loss. In 35 healthy women aged 58-83 y, body mass index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were evaluated. A midthigh single computed tomography scan was performed to determine subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT), intermuscular AT (IAT), muscular tissue, and muscle lipid infiltration, evaluated as low-density lean tissue. Metabolic variables, insulin resistance measured by homeostasis model assessment, adiponectin, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in all subjects and after weight loss in a subgroup of 15 obese women. Waist circumference and SAD were positively correlated with leptin and insulin resistance and negatively correlated with adiponectin. Adiponectin was associated negatively with insulin resistance and positively with HDL cholesterol, whereas leptin was positively associated with insulin resistance and triacylglycerols. Midthigh subcutaneous AT was associated with insulin resistance and leptin, whereas IAT was associated with triacylglycerols. Stepwise regression with insulin resistance as the dependent variable and body mass index, SAD, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and midthigh subcutaneous AT as independent variables showed that SAD entered the regression first (R(2) = 0.492) followed by adiponectin (R(2) = 0.63). After moderate weight loss, midthigh subcutaneous AT, IAT, low-density lean tissue, leptin, and insulin resistance decreased significantly; no significant changes in adiponectin were observed. Fat distribution

  10. HIV-Risk Related Attitudes and Behaviors Among Older Impoverished Women Living in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Lisa R; Loue, Sana

    2015-12-01

    HIV has increasingly impacted older adults regarding sero-prevalence and sero-incidence as long-term survivors of HIV/AIDS are living longer. This study examines the relationship between age and HIV-related attitudes and risk behaviors among female public housing residents in Puerto Rico. Using a self-administered survey instrument, 1,138 female public housing residents were surveyed between April and August 2006. Bivariate results showed that older women (aged 50+ years) were significantly less likely to report HIV testing and to discuss safer sex with their most recent "steady" sex partner than women under the age of 50 years. Older women were also more likely to express anxiety associated with condoms and more barriers to using condoms. The older versus younger groups did not significantly differ regarding condom use, which was extremely low across the groups. In the past three and 12 months, older women were less likely than younger women to report having (a) multiple sex partners and; (b) oral and anal sex with their most recent steady sex partner; (c) oral sex with their most recent non-steady sex partner and, (d) engaging in sexual activity in the previous three and 12 months. Age-specific messages concerning their increased risk of HIV among other interventions would likely curtail the increase in the number of new HIV cases being reported among members of this sub-population.

  11. "Good for older ladies, not me": how elderly women choose their shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Annette; Murphy, Anna; Haines, Terry P

    2013-01-01

    Footwear selection is important among older adults. Little is known about factors that influence footwear selection among older women. If older women are to wear better footwear that reduces their risk of falls and foot abnormalities, then a better understanding of the factors underlying footwear choice is needed. This study aims to identify factors that drive footwear selection and use among older community-dwelling women with no history of falls. A cross-sectional survey using a structured, open-ended questionnaire was conducted by telephone interview. The participants were 24 women, 60 to 80 years old, with no history of falls or requirement for gait aids. The responses to open-ended questions were coded and quantified under a qualitative description paradigm. The main themes identified about footwear selection were aesthetics and comfort. Aesthetics was by far the main factor influencing footwear choice. Wearing safe footwear was not identified as a consideration when purchasing footwear. This study indicates that older women are driven primarily by aesthetics and comfort in their footwear selection. These footwear drivers have implications for health-care providers when delivering fall and foot health education.

  12. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Mousavi; Manoochehr Makvandi; Ali Teimoori; Angila Ataei; Shokouh Ghafari; Mahin Najafian; Ziba Ourang; Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The lactobacilli are a part of the bacterial flora of the human vagina. Detection of normal Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in different geographical locations, and evaluation of their specific properties, can aid in the selection of the best species for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in the future. This study was performed to isolate and identify the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women and to evaluate the adherence of these lactob...

  13. The division of visual attention affects the transition point from level walking to stair descent in healthy, active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telonio, Alessandro; Blanchet, Sophie; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Villeneuve, Sophie; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2014-02-01

    Stair descent is a frequent daily activity that poses great risks for injury due to falling. Very little is understood about the attentional demands of stair descent and their changes with aging. The present study compared combined locomotor and cognitive functioning during different phases of stair descent between healthy young and older individuals. Sixteen young and sixteen healthy older subjects walked down a 5-step staircase, performing a simultaneous visual Stroop task (i.e., a dual task) during the approach, transition or steady-state descent phases in some trials. Three dimensional kinematics of trunk and foot motion were recorded along with the accuracy and dual task costs (DTCs) for responses to the Stroop stimuli. Dual tasking influenced both gait and cognitive performance for all subjects, and older adults generally walked slower with higher foot clearances and had greater DTCs. Specific age differences were found at stair transition where older adults showed more attentional effects. Healthy, active older adults showed changes to attention and planning due to normal aging specifically associated with a crucial point of fall risk during stair descent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training vs. Pilates training on balance and muscle function in older women: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Goran; Sarabon, Nejc; Greblo, Zrinka; Krizanic, Valerija

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in physical function that could result in the development of physical impairment and disability. Hence, interventions that simultaneously challenge balance ability, trunk (core) and extremity strength of older adults could be particularly effective in preserving and enhancing these physical functions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training utilizing the a special computer-controlled device (Huber®) with the conventional Pilates training on balance ability, neuromuscular function and body composition of healthy older women. Thirty-four older women (age: 70±4 years) were randomly assigned to a Huber group (n=17) or Pilates group (n=17). Both groups trained for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors, extensors, and lateral flexors, leg power, upper-body strength, single- and dual-task static balance, and body composition were measured before and after the intervention programs. Significant group×time interactions and main effects of time (pcore resistance training proved to be more effective in improving single- and dual-task balance ability, trunk muscle strength, leg power, and body composition of healthy older women than the traditional Pilates training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    to expose it to increased chances of trauma during sexual intercourse4. Uncomplicated UTI is common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, but the mean incidence peaks in the 15 to 39 year age bracket5. This is also the period of maximum sexual and reproductive activity in many women's lives. About 40-50% ...

  16. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neglected older women and men: Exploring age and gender as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored how women's and men's gendered experiences from childhood to old age have shaped their vulnerability in relation to HIV both in terms of their ... Women's position, the cultural management of sex and gender and contextual stigma related to HIV and to old age inter-relate to produce particular areas of ...

  18. Marital Property Reforms: Implications for Older Farm Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Kathleen K.

    Throughout American history, marital property reform has been a concern of farm women. With most of the farm family's business assets in real estate, women without the right of ownership can find that they have limited wealth and no influence in the distribution of the farm's assets. The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws…

  19. Correlates of anxiety symptoms in physically disabled older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenes, G.A.; Guralnik, J.M.; Williamson, J.D.; Fried, L.P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors describe characteristics that are associated with chronic anxiety symptoms and examine the use of anxiolytic and antidepressant medications in physically disabled women with and without symptoms of anxiety. METHODS: Participants were 791 physically disabled women age 65+ years

  20. Perspectives on the integration of older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Hagestad, G.O.

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue “Social Integration in Later Life” addresses the background ideas and concepts of the articles encompassing research into the extent and quality of older adults’ integration in organizations, family, and personal networks. A rough conceptual framework is

  1. Combating loneliness: A friendship enrichment programme for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, N.L.

    2001-01-01

    Research indicates that friendship contributes to wellbeing in later life in various ways: through the provision of companionship in daily life, support during stressful transitions, sustainment of identity under changing circumstances and adaptation to old age. However not all older people have

  2. Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Boivin, Diane B.

    2010-01-01

    A relationship exists between the sleep-wake cycle and hormone secretion, which, in women, is further modulated by the menstrual cycle. This interaction can influence sleep across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), who experience specific alterations of circadian rhythms during their symptomatic luteal phase along with sleep disturbances during this time. This review will address the variation of sleep at different menstrual phases in healthy and PMDD women, as well as changes in circadian rhythms, with an emphasis on their relationship with female sex hormones. It will conclude with a brief discussion on nonpharmacological treatments of PMDD which use chronotherapeutic methods to realign circadian rhythms as a means of improving sleep and mood in these women. PMID:20145718

  3. Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship exists between the sleep-wake cycle and hormone secretion, which, in women, is further modulated by the menstrual cycle. This interaction can influence sleep across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, who experience specific alterations of circadian rhythms during their symptomatic luteal phase along with sleep disturbances during this time. This review will address the variation of sleep at different menstrual phases in healthy and PMDD women, as well as changes in circadian rhythms, with an emphasis on their relationship with female sex hormones. It will conclude with a brief discussion on nonpharmacological treatments of PMDD which use chronotherapeutic methods to realign circadian rhythms as a means of improving sleep and mood in these women.

  4. Food-addiction scale measurement in 2 cohorts of middle-aged and older women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Corbin, William R; Brownell, Kelly D; Field, Alison E; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excess weight is a major threat to public health. An addiction-like tendency toward certain foods may contribute to overeating. Objective: We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated characteristics in relation to a food-addiction scale in middle-aged and older women. Design: We examined the prevalence and associated characteristics of a food-addiction scale measure in a cross-sectional analysis of 134,175 women participating in 2 ongoing prospective cohort studies of US nurses. Results: Overall, 7839 (5.8%) of the women surveyed met the criteria for food addiction measured by using the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale. The prevalence of food addiction was 8.4% in the younger cohort of women aged 45–64 y and 2.7% in the older cohort of women aged 62–88 y. In the multivariate model, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) ≥35.0 (compared with 18.5–22.9) was associated with food addiction, a prevalence ratio (PR) of 15.83 (95% CI: 12.58, 19.91) in the younger cohort of women, and a PR of 18.41 (95% CI: 11.63, 29.14) in the older cohort of women. Several other demographic characteristics and other factors were associated with the food-addiction measure in both cohorts of women. Conclusions: To our knowledge, for the first time in a large, US-based population of women, we documented the prevalence of food addiction by using a novel measurement scale in middle-aged and older women. The results may provide insight into the strong association between behavioral attributes of food consumption and the development of obesity. PMID:24452236

  5. Fitness and fatness as mortality predictors in healthy older men: the veterans exercise testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Paul; Pittsley, Jesse; Myers, Jonathan; Abella, Joshua; Froelicher, Victor F

    2009-06-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independently associated with increased mortality in the elderly. However, interactions among BMI, CRF, and mortality in older persons have not been adequately explored. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for predetermined strata of BMI and CRF. Independent and joint associations of CRF, BMI, and all-cause mortality were assessed by Cox proportional hazards analyses in a prospective cohort of 981 healthy men aged at least 65 years (mean age [+/-SD], 71 [+/-5] years; range, 65-88 years) referred for exercise testing during 1987-2003. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 +/- 4.4 years, a total of 208 patients died. Multivariate relative risks (95% confidence interval [CI]) of mortality across BMI groups of or =35.0 were 2.51 (1.26-4.98), 1.0 (reference), 0.66 (0.48-0.90), 0.50 (0.31-0.78), and 0.44 (0.20-0.97), respectively, and across CRF groups of 8.0 metabolic equivalents were 1.0 (reference), 0.56 (0.40-0.78), and 0.39 (0.26-0.58), respectively. In a separate analysis of within-strata CRF according to BMI grouping, the lowest mortality risk was observed in obese men with high fitness (HR [95% CI] 0.26 [0.10-0.69]; p = .007). In this cohort of elderly male veterans, we observed independent and joint inverse relations of BMI and CRF to mortality. This warrants further investigation of fitness, fatness, and mortality interactions in older persons.

  6. Comparison of Cognitive Change after Working Memory Training and Logic and Planning Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette

    2017-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the benefits of cognitive training in healthy adults. Many commercial cognitive training programs are available given the attraction of not only bettering one's cognitive capacity, but also potentially preventing age-related declines, which is of particular interest to older adults. The issue of whether cognitive training can improve performance within cognitive domains not trained (i.e., far transfer) is controversial, with meta-analyses of cognitive training both supporting and falsifying this claim. More support is present for the near transfer (i.e., transfer in cognitive domain trained) of cognitive training; however, not in all studies. To date, no studies have compared working memory training to training higher-level processes themselves, namely logic and planning. We studied 97 healthy older adults above the age of 65. Healthy older adults completed either an 8-week web-based cognitive training program on working memory or logic and planning. An additional no-training control group completed two assessments 8-weeks apart. Participants were assessed on cognitive measures of near and far transfer, including working memory, planning, reasoning, processing speed, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and creativity. Participants improved on the trained tasks from the first day to last day of training. Bayesian analyses demonstrated no near or far transfer effects after cognitive training. These results support the conclusion that performance-adaptive computerized cognitive training may not enhance cognition in healthy older adults. Our lack of findings could be due to a variety of reasons, including studying a cohort of healthy older adults that were performing near their cognitive ceiling, employing a training protocol that was not sufficient to produce a change, or that no true findings exist. Research suggests numerous study factors that can moderate the results. In addition, the role of psychological variables, such as

  7. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins-Crépeau L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau,1,2 Nicolas Berryman,2,3 Sarah A Fraser,4 Thien Tuong Minh Vu,5,6 Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,2,6 Karen ZH Li,7 Laurent Bosquet,8 Louis Bherer2,7 1Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Research Center, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Sports Studies, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 4Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Research Center, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Department of Psychology and PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada; 8Faculté des sciences du sport, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France Purpose: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults.Methods: Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention.Results: All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training

  8. Nitrogen balance of healthy Dutch women before and during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Boekholt, H.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies including longitudinal nitrogen balance studies could provide insight into protein metabolism in pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to determine the development of nitrogen balance during pregnancy compared with nitrogen balance before pregnancy in women consuming

  9. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  11. Health in middle-aged and elderly women : A conceptual framework for healthy menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; Van Dijk, Gabriella M.; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M. Carola; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H.; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the

  12. The enhancement of vaginal vasocongestion by sildenafil in healthy premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.; Everaerd, Walter; Riley, Alan; Scott, Elizabeth; Boolell, Mitradev

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of a single oral dose of sildenafil citrate (Viagra(R) Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY) on vaginal vasocongestion and subjective sexual arousal in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Twelve women without sexual dysfunction were randomly assigned to receive

  13. Gender and the double burden of economic and social disadvantages on healthy eating: cross-sectional study of older adults in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-07-22

    Multiple economic factors and social relationships determine dietary behaviours, but the inter-relations between determinants is unknown. Whether women and men differ in the vulnerability to, and impact of, combined disadvantages is also unclear. We examined associations between diverse combinations of economic resources and social relationships, and healthy eating in British older women and men. Our sample comprised 9,580 over-50s (47 % of over-50 respondents) in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. We examined six economic factors (education, social class, home-ownership, money for needs, frequency of insufficient money for food/clothing, paying bills) and three social relationships (marital status, living arrangement and friend contact), independently and in combination, in relation to fruit variety and vegetable variety. We analysed gender-specific associations using multivariable linear regression with interaction terms. Lower social class, lower education, and difficulty paying bills were associated with lower fruit and vegetable variety in both genders, independent of social relationships. All social relationships were independently associated with fruit variety in men and with vegetable variety in both genders. Substantially lower variety was found for all combinations of low economic resources and lack of social relationship than for either measure alone, with men faring worse in the majority of combined disadvantages. For example, the difference in vegetable variety for men reporting low social class and non-married was much greater (β -4.1, [-4.8, -3.4]), than the independent association of low social class (β -1.5, [-1.8,-1.2]), or non-married (β -1.8, [-2.3,-1.3]). Variety was also lower among men with high economic resources but non-married or lone-living. A double burden of low economic resources and lack of social relationships suggested they are unique joint determinants, particularly in older men, and that public health efforts to improve healthy

  14. "Working with COW": Social Work Supporting Older Women Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawsthorne, Margot; Ellis, Kayleigh; de Pree, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Australia, like all developed Western countries, is experiencing a demographic shift resulting in an increasing proportion of the population being over the age of 65 years. Contrary to stereotypes, the vast majority of older people live independently in communities. This article explores the potential of social work practice informed by community development principles to enable socially disadvantaged older women to live in vibrant and supportive communities, in which they feel safe and are able to access the support services they need. It argues that participation in social action not only builds older women's well-being but also enables them to become (or continue to be) agents for social change in local communities. Adopting a community-based research methodology, this article draws on a decade of community development practice with the Concerned Older Women's (COW) Group. This data suggests that community development practice based on participation, empowerment, and social action founded on respectful relationships may accrue significant benefits to individuals and the broader community. This social work practice creates the social conditions to facilitate older women's capacity to work collectively to achieve social change, challenging ageist stereotypes.

  15. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  16. Perceptions of cancer fatalism and cancer knowledge: a comparison of older and younger African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Hamilton, Jill; Brooks, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    Cancer fatalism (the belief that death is inevitable when cancer is present) may influence cancer screening practices among older African American women. Little is known about cancer fatalism among younger women. Guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model, this descriptive study compares cancer fatalism and cancer knowledge among African American college students (n = 353) and women from primary care centers (n = 361). Their average age was 29 years. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory and breast and cervical cancer knowledge scales. Women at health centers had higher cancer fatalism and lower cancer knowledge. Differences in life experiences may help explain these findings.

  17. Prevalence correlates and impact of fecal incontinence among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, Magnus; Koloski, Natasha A; Jones, Michael; Byles, Julie; Chiarelli, Pauline; Forder, Peta; Talley, Nicholas J

    2013-09-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common problem that has been associated with anatomic, physiological, and medical conditions. There are very few data on the factors associated with fecal incontinence in elderly women. We aimed to determine the factors associated with fecal incontinence via a population-based survey in a large cohort of elderly Australian women. Data from a large longitudinal population-based study of elderly Australian women aged 82 to 87 years were analyzed. Participants were 5560 women (aged 82-87 years) who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health; 4815 women responded to questions relating to fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence was defined as leakage of liquid and/or solid stool at least once per month over the past 12 months. Self-reported medical conditions and lifestyle factors as well as demographic factors were recorded. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 10.4% (95% CI, 9.6-11.3) (n = 510). The prevalence was significantly higher among institutional- versus community-dwelling women (14.1% vs 9.7%; p = 0.0002). Univariately, lifestyle factors including fruit intake and fluid intake, along with a range of comorbidities, were associated. However, independent factors for fecal incontinence among community-dwelling women included diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14-2.01; p = 0.004), depression (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.30-2.62; p = 0.001), urinary incontinence (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.83-2.86; p < 0.0001), and osteoarthritis (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94; p = 0.013). Among institutional-dwelling women, however, we found urinary incontinence (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 2.83-6.93; p < 0.0001) and poorer general health (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; p = 0.003) to be independently associated. This is a cross-sectional study, which prevents making conclusions about the cause and effect of observed correlations. The independent factors associated with fecal incontinence in this population do not appear readily modifiable, and many

  18. Aerobic Exercise Increases Hippocampal Volume in Older Women with Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brinke, Lisanne F.; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Hsu, Chun Liang; Davis, Jennifer C.; Miran-Khan, Karim; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-recognized risk factor for dementia and represents a vital opportunity for intervening. Exercise is a promising strategy for combating cognitive decline, by improving both brain structure and function. Specifically, aerobic training (AT) improved spatial memory and hippocampal volume in healthy community-dwelling older adults. In older women with probable MCI, we previously demonstrated that both resistance training (RT) and AT improved memory. In this secondary analysis, we investigated: 1) the effect of both RT and AT on hippocampal volume; and 2) the association between change in hippocampal volume and change in memory. Methods Eighty-six females aged 70 to 80 years with probable MCI were randomly assigned to a six-month, twice-weekly program of: 1) AT, 2) RT, or 3) Balance and Tone Training (BAT; i.e., control). At baseline and trial completion, participants performed a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scan to determine hippocampal volume. Verbal memory and learning was assessed by Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results Compared with the BAT group, AT significantly improved left, right, and total hippocampal volumes (p≤0.03). After accounting for baseline cognitive function and experimental group, increased left hippocampal volume was independently associated with reduced verbal memory and learning performance as indexed by loss after interference (r=0.42, p=0.03). Conclusion Aerobic training significantly increased hippocampal volume in older women with probable MCI. More research is needed to ascertain the relevance of exercise-induced changes in hippocampal volume on memory performance in older adults with MCI. PMID:24711660

  19. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Strength, flexibility, balance, resistance and flexibility assessment according to body mass index in active older women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Martínez González-Moro, Ignacio; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Ros Simón, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate among older people. This is mainly because this population is predominantly sedentary. The aim of this study was to classify, according to the body mass index (BMI), a group of older active women and to evaluate the different basic physical abilities as a function of this. The BMI and fitness were evaluated in 60 elderly active women (mean age: 66.14 ± 6.59 years) using the 2-minute step test, arm curl test, chair stand test, back scratch test, chair-sit and reach-test, flamenco test, and 8-foot up-and-go test. It was found that 52.23% of the women studied had a normal BMI and 47.76% were slightly overweight. There were no cases of obesity or underweight. Women with normal BMI had better values in all tests than overweight women. Significant differences were found in the flamenco test (P<.05), and 8-foot up-and-go test (P<.01). Older women who usually do physical activity had a normal or slightly overweight BMI. It was also found that women with lower BMI have better resistance, flexibility, balance and strength. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Community-based breast cancer intervention program for older African American women in beauty salons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, D A

    1995-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. African American women ages 50 and older have been a difficult group to reach through conventional breast cancer intervention programs. Cultural and health beliefs that differ from mainstream society are reported to be factors contributing to the low rates of breast screening among this group. In addition to these attitudinal factors, older African American women are disproportionately represented among uninsured and under-insured Americans. As a result, cost becomes a barrier to mammography screening for many of these women. This project proposes to increase breast cancer screening awareness and provide a referral or free breast screening, or both, for African American women ages 50 and older. This information will be offered in the culturally familiar setting of local beauty salons. The culturally sensitive educational pamphlets developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and video developed by the NCI-funded project, Cancer Prevention Research Unit, will be used to promote mammography, clinical breast examinations, and breast self-examination. Providers staffing a mobile mammography van provided by Dr. Anitha Mitchell of the Association of Black Women Physicians through a grant from the Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will perform mammograms for women on site during scheduled intervals. A followup telephone survey will be conducted.

  2. Five dimensions of faith and spiritually of older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois; Weinberger, Jennifer P

    2009-12-01

    Homelessness among older African American women is emerging as a serious social problem. The increasing cost of living, diminishing community resources, and shrinking retirement benefits, as well as reduced social services are resulting in greater numbers of older minority women becoming homeless. This investigation explores the relevance of faith and spirituality to an advocacy assessment designed to help participants resolve issues that operate as barriers to their leaving and staying out of homelessness. A substudy of a larger research and development project was undertaken, in which qualitative interview methods were used to illuminate the role of faith and spirituality resources in the lives of 84 older homeless African American women. Comparative thematic analysis of illustrative cases was undertaken to better understand the role of faith and spirituality in the women's lives and in how they used faith and spirituality in coping with homelessness. Five dimensions of faith and spirituality, (a) identity and beliefs; (b) affiliation and membership; (c) involvement; (d) practices; and (e) benefits, served as promising resources in understanding life spaces of homeless minority women and identified promising advocacy strategies. Two cases describe the realities of homelessness for older minority women endeavoring to transition out of homelessness and illustrate how faith and spirituality can buffer stress, facilitate coping, and sustain motivation. How older homeless African American women use their faith and spiritual resources to cope with demands of homelessness, challenges of transition, and recovery from the multiple traumas resulting from being homeless makes the assessment of faith and spirituality an important part of the advocacy process.

  3. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  4. Effects of physical therapy in older women with urinary incontinence: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI is one of the most common public health problems among older women. Despite conservative treatment being recommended as the first treatment option, the effects of physical therapy in older women with UI is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review the evidence about the effects of physical therapy on urinary symptoms in older women with UI. METHOD: The literature search for studies evaluating conservative treatment for incontinent in elderly women was conducted on Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, ISI Web of Knowledge and PEDro. We selected clinical trials published in English and Portuguese after the year 2000. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The results were analyzed using a critical review method. RESULTS: Six studies were reviewed in full revealing that pelvic floor muscle training was the treatment option in most studies. Five of the six selected studies were classified as having high methodological quality. There was significant improvement in urinary symptoms after treatment in five of the six selected studies. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that physical therapy treatment seems to be effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms in older women. However, the small number of studies and the use of concurrent interventions limit the conclusions on this issue.

  5. "Tailored" submaximal step test for VO2max prediction in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bellotti, Cecilia; Paterson, Donald H

    2014-04-01

    The authors developed and validated a "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test (tA-R) and a new equation for VO2max prediction in older adults (OA). Sixty subjects (age 68 ± 4 yr, 30 male, 30 female) performed their tA-R step test (5-min, 30-cm step, tailored stepping rate) and an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. VO2max was (a) predicted using the standard A-R equation (predicted VO2max), (b) predicted based on the authors' new multiple linear equation (equation VO2max), and (c) directly measured by incremental cycling test (direct VO2max). Agreement among values of VO2max was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. The predicted VO2max was not significantly different from the direct VO2max, yet with relatively large imprecision. The equation VO2max allowed more precise as well as accurate predictions of VO2max compared with standard A-R prediction. The "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test and the new prediction equation appear suitable for a rapid (5-min), safe (submaximal), accurate, and precise VO2max prediction in healthy OA.

  6. Loneliness and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings From the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Chen, Shu-Lin; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and to explore the mediating role of physical health on the loneliness-cognition relationship in Chinese older adults (OAs). Data came from a nationally representative sample of 14,199 Chinese OAs (aged 65+) from 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. A latent variable cross-lagged panel model combined with mediation analysis was used to determine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and the mediating effect of increase in the number of chronic conditions (ΔNCCs) on the ascertained loneliness-cognition relationship. Severe loneliness at prior assessment points was significantly associated with poorer cognitive function at subsequent assessments, and vice versa. The ΔNCCs partially mediated this prospective reciprocal relationships, accounting for 2.58% of the total effect of loneliness on cognition and 4.44% of the total effect of cognition on loneliness, respectively. Loneliness may predict subsequent cognitive decline, and vice versa. This loneliness-cognition relationship is partially explained by their impact on physical health. Multidisciplinary interventions aimed at reducing loneliness and cognitive decline per se and their associated risk factors as well as improving chronic illness management would be beneficial for emotional well-being and cognitive health in OAs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Benefits of computer-based memory and attention training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Caroline; Herrera, Cathy; Romaiguere, Patricia; Paban, Véronique; Alescio-Lautier, Béatrice

    2014-09-01

    Multifactorial cognitive training programs have a positive effect on cognition in healthy older adults. Among the age-sensitive cognitive domains, episodic memory is the most affected. In the present study, we evaluated the benefits on episodic memory of a computer-based memory and attention training. We targeted consciously controlled processes at encoding and minimizing processing at retrieval, by using more familiarity than recollection during recognition. Such an approach emphasizes processing at encoding and prevents subjects from reinforcing their own errors. Results showed that the training improved recognition performances and induced near transfer to recall. The largest benefits, however, were for tasks with high mental load. Improvement in free recall depended on the modality to recall; semantic recall was improved but not spatial recall. In addition, a far transfer was also observed with better memory self-perception and self-esteem of the participants. Finally, at 6-month follow up, maintenance of benefits was observed only for semantic free recall. The challenge now is to corroborate far transfer by objective measures of everyday life executive functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Music intervention on cognitive dysfunction in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Sui, Yi; Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Jin; Li, Li; Ren, Li; Wang, Xu

    2017-06-01

    The background of this study is to determine whether there is an association between music intervention and cognitive dysfunction therapy in healthy older adults, and if so, whether music intervention can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. The method used in this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effects of music intervention on patient-relevant and disease-specific outcomes. A comprehensive literature was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 10 studies (14 analyses, 966 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro scale score and CASP scale score. Compared with control group, the standardized mean difference was 0.03 (-0.18 to 0.24) for cognitive function as primary outcome by random effect model; secondary outcomes were included disruptive behavior, depressive score, anxiety and quality of life. No evidence of publication bias could be found in funnel plots, Begg's test and Egger's test. Subgroup analyses showed that intervention method, comparator, trial design, trial period and outcome measure instruments made little difference in outcomes. Meta-regression might not identify cause of heterogeneity. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD442016036264. There was positive evidence to support the use of music intervention on treatment of cognitive function.

  9. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. A lifetime of intimate partner violence: coping strategies of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Jacobson, C Jeff; Pabst, Stephanie; Regan, Saundra; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about how older women cope in long-term abusive intimate relationships. Understanding their coping strategies may give insight into how to further support their effective coping efforts. Interviews were conducted with 38 women older than age 55 years. Grounded theory analysis demonstrated that women who remained in their abusive relationships employed mainly cognitive (emotion-focused) strategies to find meaning in a situation that was perceived as unchangeable. By reappraising themselves, their spouses, and their relationships they refocused energies in certain roles, set limits with their abusers, and reached out to others (friends, family, and community organizations). Some women appeared to thrive, others merely survived, but all maintained the appearance of conjugal unity.

  11. Time spent moving is related to systolic blood pressure among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patrick; Pescatello, Linda S; Bohannon, Richard W; Marschke, Lisa; Murphy, Mary; Coble, Denis; Hasson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is present in the majority of older women. Exercise is an attractive antihypertensive lifestyle therapy for older women with isolated systolic hypertension, but the amount of exercise needed to reduce blood pressure (BP) is not clear. Evidence is accumulating that lower levels of physical exertion are associated with decreased BP. The authors sought to determine if BP was related to daily time spent moving. Participants were 109 women (mean +/- SD, 75.2+/-7.2 yr). A majority (63.3%) had hypertension, and 48.6% had isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic BP was lower among women moving > or =5 h/d (142.2+/-18.7 mm Hg) than those moving everyday life such as walking because of its BP benefits.

  12. Effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2017-01-01

    Labor force participation of women has declined since 1999; however, labor force participation of women 62+ has increased. The 2000-2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data, the initial years of the continuing upward trajectory, were used to test the effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment. The models tested: (a) the effect of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on whether employed; and (b) for women receiving Social Security retirement benefits, the effect of age elected receipt of benefits on whether employed. Both models included the effects of human capital characteristics and income sources. Receipt of Social Security benefits, pension income, and current age reduced the likelihood of employment; while educational level, good to excellent health, and nonmarried marital status increased the likelihood of employment. The older the woman was when she elected Social Security benefits, the more likely she was to be employed.

  13. Older Brazilian women's experience of psychological domestic violence: a social phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Rafaella Queiroga; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Guruge, Sepali; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de

    2015-05-12

    Domestic violence is a global public health issue, as it is in Brazil. The psychological violence is one of the most prevalent forms of domestic violence, affecting more women than men. However, many older adults do not consider it as a type of domestic violence. In addiction, psychological violence has received little attention from researchers. So, this study aims to further understand the phenomenon of psychological domestic violence perpetrated by relatives against older adult women (60 years and older). A qualitative study was conducted using a social phenomenological approach proposed by Alfred Schütz. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 older Brazilian women from three different agencies, two in Campina Grande and one in São Bernardo do Campo. Data collection took place between November 2012 and February 2013. We performed data analysis using the key concepts (such as the world of everyday life, natural attitude, intersubjetivity, stock of knowledge, biographical situation, social action, motivation and typification) proposed by Alfred Schutz. Despite the fact that participants reported being psychologically abused, they also referred to being neglected and financially abused. They revealed being threatened, disrespected, neglected, financially abused, forced to do housework, and humiliated. Older women expressed feelings of sadness, anger, grief, and fear, which had negative effects on their health. Attempts by the participants to change their current situations were unsuccessful and resulted in feelings of helplessness. The abuser's behaviour will change, and leaving the abusive situation were two possible outcomes pointed for participants. A support network is crucial to help changing the behaviour of aggressors and/or to help older adult women leave the abusive situation. Further research is needed to understand the risk factors linked to abuse behaviours, to develop educational programs for the abusers, and to design social support for the

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine use among older Australian women - a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Deirdre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM among older adults is an emerging health issue, however little is known about older people's experiences of using CAM and the cultural, geographical and other determinants of CAM use in this population. This study used qualitative methods to explore older women's views of CAM and reasons for their use of CAM. Participants for the project were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH 1921-1926 birth cohort. Women who responded positively to a question about CAM use in Survey 5 (2008 of the ALSWH were invited to participate in the study. A total of 13 rural and 12 urban women aged between 83 and 88 years agreed to be interviewed. Results The women expressed a range of views on CAM which fell into three broad themes: "push" factors such as dissatisfaction with conventional health services, "pull" factors which emphasised the positive aspects of choice and self-care in health matters, and barriers to CAM use. Overall, the "push' factors did not play a major role in the decision to use CAM, rather this was driven by "pull" factors related to health care self-responsibility and being able to source positive information about types of CAM. A number of barriers were identified such as access difficulties associated with increased age, limited mobility and restricted transport options, as well as financial constraints. Conclusions CAM use among older women was unlikely to be influenced by aspects of conventional health care ("push factors", but rather was reflective of the personal beliefs of the women and members of their close social networks ("pull factors". While it was also apparent that there were differences between the rural and urban women in their use of CAM, the reasons for this were mainly due to the difficulties inherent in accessing certain types of CAM in rural areas.

  15. Annual Feedback Is an Effective Tool for a Sustained Increase in Calcium Intake among Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Nicholson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to optimize calcium intake among the 2,000+ older women taking part in the Vital D study. Calcium supplementation was not included in the study protocol. Our hypothesis was that annual feedback of calcium intake and informing women of strategies to improve calcium intake can lead to a sustained increase in the proportion of women who consume adequate levels of the mineral. Calcium intake was assessed on an annual basis using a validated short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Supplemental calcium intake was added to the dietary estimate. Participants and their nominated doctor were sent a letter that the participant’s estimated daily calcium intake was adequate or inadequate based on a cutoff threshold of 800 mg/day. General brief statements outlining the importance of an adequate calcium intake and bone health were included in all letters. At baseline, the median daily consumption of calcium was 980 mg/day and 67 percent of 1,951 participants had calcium intake of at least 800 mg per day. Of the 644 older women advised of an inadequate calcium intake at baseline (< 800 mg/day, 386 (60% had increased their intake by at least 100 mg/day when re-assessed twelve months later. This desirable change was sustained at 24 months after baseline with almost half of these women (303/644 consuming over 800 mg calcium per day. This study devised an efficient method to provide feedback on calcium intake to over 2,000 older women. The improvements were modest but significant and most apparent in those with a low intake at baseline. The decreased proportion of these women with an inadequate intake of calcium 12- and 24-months later, suggests this might be a practical, low cost strategy to maintain an adequate calcium intake among older women.

  16. Noctural Enuresis as a Risk Factor for Falls in Older Community Dwelling Women with Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Avita K; Andy, Uduak U; Newman, Diane K; Stambakio, Hanna; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Arya, Lily A

    2016-05-01

    We determined the association of urinary symptoms with fall risk and physical limitations in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence. We performed an in-depth assessment of daytime and nighttime urinary symptoms, fall risk, physical function, physical performance tests and mental function in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence who had not sought care for urinary symptoms. All assessments were performed in participant homes. We used univariable and multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship of urinary symptoms to fall risk, physical function and physical performance. Of 37 women with a mean ± SD age of 74 ± 8.4 years who had urinary incontinence 48% were at high risk for falls. Nocturnal enuresis was reported by 50% of the women. Increased fall risk was associated with increasing frequency of nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.04), worse lower limb function (p enuresis had significantly lower physical performance test scores than women without nocturnal enuresis (median 7, range 0 to 11 vs 9, range 1 to 12, p = 0.04). In a multivariable regression model including age, nocturnal enuresis episodes and physical function only physical function was associated with an increased fall risk (p enuresis is common in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence. It may serve as a marker of fall risk even in women who do not seek care for urinary symptoms. Interventions targeting upper and lower body physical function could potentially decrease the risk of falls in older women with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes Mellitus and Sexual Function in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, KL; Brown, JS; Creasman, JM; Van Den Eeden, SK; Subak, LL; Thom, DH; Ferrara, A.; Huang, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, but its effect on female sexual function is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of diabetes to sexual function in middle-aged and older women. Sexual function was examined in a cross-sectional cohort of ethnically diverse women aged 40-80 years using self-administered questionnaires. Multivariable regression models compared self-reported sexual desire, frequency of sexual activity, overall sexual satisf...

  18. Copper and selenium status of healthy pregnant women in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary intake should be modified to ensure optimal selenium levels during pregnancy. Key words: Copper ... common practice to routinely supplement iron and folic acid with the aim of ... pregnant women to assist in the optimal formulation of micronutrient needs .... trend has been shown in many other studies from different.

  19. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Statistical analysis. All results were expressed as the mean ± SD, with the range in parentheses. An unpaired Student's t test was used to analyze all .... electrolytic assessment parameters. Serum GH concentrations. Men (n = 30). Serum GH concentrations. Women (n = 34). Variable r p r p. Calcium (mmol/l).

  20. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-12

    Sep 12, 2005 ... (CHD), atherosclerosis and stroke. It is the leading cause of death in women who are more than 50 ... systolic blood pressure there is a 2 X difference in death rates due to stroke.10. This is true in men and ... The most compelling is the Nurses Health Study (NHS), a 20 year prospective observational study.

  1. Older Women, the Student Role and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Judith O.; Traupmann, Jane A.

    1983-01-01

    Compared 106 middle-aged student (outwardly oriented) and nonstudent (home oriented) women on attitudes toward age, perceived happiness and satisfaction, perceived physical health, number and severity of depressing symptoms, self-esteem, and autonomy. The student group reported better health, fewer and less severe depressive symptoms, and higher…

  2. Follow-Up Care for Older Women With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Begg C, Glicksman A, et al. 20. Greene MG, Adelman R, Charon R, Hoffman S. Ageism inThe effect of age on the care of women with breast cancer in the...713-8. 11. Greene MG, Adelman R, Charon R, Hoffman S. Ageism in the medical encounter: An exp loratory study of the doctor-elderly patient

  3. Music and metronome cues produce different effects on gait spatiotemporal measures but not gait variability in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Rhythmic auditory cues including music and metronome beats have been used, sometimes interchangeably, to improve disordered gait arising from a range of clinical conditions. There has been limited investigation into whether there are optimal cue types. Different cue types have produced inconsistent effects across groups which differed in both age and clinical condition. The possible effect of normal ageing on response to different cue types has not been reported for gait. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of both rhythmic music and metronome cues on gait spatiotemporal measures (including variability) in healthy older people. Twelve women and seven men (>65 years) walked on an instrumented walkway at comfortable pace and then in time to each of rhythmic music and metronome cues at comfortable pace stepping frequency. Music but not metronome cues produced a significant increase in group mean gait velocity of 4.6 cm/s, due mostly to a significant increase in group mean stride length of 3.1cm. Both cue types produced a significant but small increase in cadence of 1 step/min. Mean spatio-temporal variability was low at baseline and did not increase with either cue type suggesting cues did not disrupt gait timing. Study findings suggest music and metronome cues may not be used interchangeably and cue type as well as frequency should be considered when evaluating effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait. Further work is required to determine whether optimal cue types and frequencies to improve walking in different clinical groups can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nulliparity is associated with less healthy markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease in young women with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Nancy Anderson; Catov, Janet M; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; McClure, Candace K; Roberts, James M; Tepper, Ping G; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Higher parity is associated with increased subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in mid-life and older women and with increased CVD risk overall. The relationship between parity, subclinical CVD, and infertility in young women with overweight and obesity has been infrequently evaluated. Reproductive histories were obtained in 191 (66%) young women with overweight and obesity (BMI 25-39.9 kg/m(2) ) participating in a weight loss trial. Baseline carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and inter-adventitial diameter (IAD) were assessed via B-mode ultrasound. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between parity and carotid measures, adjusted for demographic, cardiovascular, and reproductive risk factors. Nulliparous women (n = 70, age 34.9 ± 7.1) had increased common carotid IAD (0.230 mm, SE 0.08, P = 0.003) and mean common carotid artery (CCA) IMT (0.031 mm, SE 0.01, P = 0.007) compared with parous women (n = 102, age 39.5 ± 4.9), persisting after adjustment for age, race, and CVD risk factors. No other reproductive factors were statistically significantly associated. Nulliparity is associated with markers of less healthy carotid arteries in a sample of disease-free 25- to 45-year-old women with overweight or obesity. This may represent a beneficial effect of pregnancy or indicate overall better health in women with overweight/obesity who are capable of childbearing. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  5. Prevalence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer C; McKenzie, Donald C; Warburton, Darren E R; Road, Jeremy D; Sheel, A William

    2004-09-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is reported to occur in approximately 50% of highly trained male endurance athletes. Few studies have examined EIAH in women and the prevalence remains unclear. It has been reported that some female subjects who develop EIAH possess maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) values that are within 15% of their predicted value. This is unique to women, where EIAH has generally been reported in men who have a high VO2max. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of EIAH in a large female population with a wide range of VO2max values. It was hypothesized that EIAH would occur with a greater prevalence and at relatively lower predicted VO2max than that previously reported in males. Young women (N = 52; 26.5 +/- 4.9 yr) performed a cycle test to exhaustion to determine VO2max, and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was monitored via pulse oximetry. All subjects were tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. A >/= 4% drop in SaO2 represented EIAH. Values for VO2max were variable (VO2max range: 28.0-61.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). EIAH was present in 67% of the women with N = 19 displaying mild EIAH (92-94%SaO2) and N = 16 displaying moderate EIAH (87-91%SaO2). It appears that the prevalence of EIAH in women is slightly greater than the 50% prevalence value that is typically reported for highly fit men.

  6. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav J Parikh

    Full Text Available The contribution of poor finger force control to age-related decline in manual dexterity is above and beyond ubiquitous behavioral slowing. Altered control of the finger forces can impart unwanted torque on the object affecting its orientation, thus impairing manual performance. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to improve the performance speed on manual tasks in older adults. However, the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the finger force control during object manipulation in older adults remain to be fully explored. Here we determined the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the control of grip force in older adults while they manipulated an object with an uncertain mechanical property. Eight healthy older adults were instructed to grip and lift an object whose contact surfaces were unexpectedly made more or less slippery across trials using acetate and sandpaper surfaces, respectively. Subjects performed this task before and after receiving anodal or sham tDCS over M1 on two separate sessions using a cross-over design. We found that older adults used significantly lower grip force following anodal tDCS compared to sham tDCS. Friction measured at the finger-object interface remained invariant after anodal and sham tDCS. These findings suggest that anodal tDCS over M1 improved the control of grip force during object manipulation in healthy older adults. Although the cortical networks for representing objects and manipulative actions are complex, the reduction in grip force following anodal tDCS over M1 might be due to a cortical excitation yielding improved processing of object-specific sensory information and its integration with the motor commands for production of manipulative forces. Our findings indicate that tDCS has a potential to improve the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in older adults.

  7. The comparison of health literacy and lifestyle among retired and homemaker older adults’ women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodabakhshi-koolaee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The diseases during old age have an enormous impact on women elderly and their families. The previous study indicated that health literacy and lifestyle play a crucial role in prevention of diseases in elderly. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare the health literacy and lifestyle among retired and homemaker older adults’ women. Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. The 80 retired women and 80 homemakers were chosen through purposive sampling and sample random sampling respectively in Tehran in 2015. Then, they equalized in aspect of age, education, and economic family status with retired older adults’ women. The measuring instruments are Health- Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HELLA and Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HPLP II. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent and spss20. Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between the lifestyle (t=-6.46, df=158, p=0.001 and health literacy (t=-6.59, df= 158, p= 0.001 and the subscales of these variables among retired women and housewives (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings indicated that the level of health literacy and lifestyle in homemaker is lower than retire older adult’s women. Hence, it should be considered the educational program to enhance and improve the health literacy and lifestyle in homemaker women’s elderly adults. Paper Type: Research Article.

  8. Contextualizing older women's body images: Time dimensions, multiple reference groups, and age codings of appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekula, Clary

    2016-01-01

    The article sheds light on older women's body images and problematizes assumptions that women's aging is more painful and shameful than men's aging since men are not expected to live up to youthful beauty norms, the so-called double standard of aging hypothesis. Based on 12 qualitative interviews with women from the age of 75 from the Swedish capital area, I argue that older women have access to a double perspective of beauty, which means that they can relate to both youthful and age-related beauty norms. The results also illustrate that women's body image is created in a context where previous body images are central and that this time perspective can contribute toward a positive body image. Further, the results show how age codings of appearance-related qualities create a narrow framework for older women's body images and point to the benefits of shifting the analytical focus toward a material-semiotic body where corporeality and discourse are seen as interwoven.

  9. Are resistance and aerobic exercise training equally effective at improving knee muscle strength and balance in older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Figueiredo, Pedro; Harris, Tamara B; Wanderley, Flávia A; Carvalho, Joana

    This study aimed to compare the magnitude of knee muscle strength and static and dynamic balance change in response to 8 months of progressive RE and AE training in healthy community-dwelling older women. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between muscle strength and balance changes (up and go test (UGT), one-leg stance test, and center of pressure measures). This study was a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial, a three-arm intervention study in older women (n=71, mean age 69.0y). The results suggest that both interventions elicited likely to almost certain improvements (using magnitude-based inference) in balance performance. Leg strength was improved after RE whereas it was unclear following AE. Improvements in strength were almost certainly moderate after RE and possibly trivial after AE, with very likely greater improvements following RE compared to AE. A large and significant negative correlation (r=-0.5; CI 90%: -0.7 to -0.2) was found between ΔUGT and change in both knee extension and knee flexion strength after 8-month RE. In conclusion, our results showed that both types of training improve balance, but RE was also effective at improving leg strength. In addition, improvements in both knee extension and flexion strength after RE appear to make an important contribution to meaningful improvements in static and dynamic balance. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. The food environment and diet quality of urban-dwelling older women and men: Assessing the moderating role of diet knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercille, Geneviève; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Shatenstein, Bryna; Daniel, Mark; Payette, Hélène

    2016-06-09

    The relationships between local food environments and dietary patterns are important for older adults and could be different in men and women. We examined associations between exposure to neighbourhood food sources and food consumption and the moderating role of diet knowledge separately among older women and men living in Montreal in 2003-2005 (n = 722). The proportion of fast-food outlets relative to all restaurants (%FFO) and the proportion of healthy food stores relative to all stores (%HFS) were estimated for 500 m buffers around participants' homes. Two dietary patterns, designated "Western" and "prudent", reflecting lower- and higher-quality diets respectively, were identified from food frequency questionnaire data. The unique and interactive effects of diet knowledge and food-source exposure on diet scores were tested with separate linear regression models for women and men. For men, greater %FFO exposure was related to lower prudent diet scores (β = -0.18, p = 0.02), but no effect of %HFS exposure was observed and no interactions were statistically significant. For women, an inverse relationship between %FFO and prudent diet scores was strongest among those with low diet knowledge (β = -0.22, p Older men's diet patterns may reflect unhealthy cues associated with fast-food outlets. Among women, diet knowledge potentiated both negative and positive relationships with the food environment. In the absence of consistent main effects of the food environment on diet scores, subgroup analysis is a promising avenue for research.

  11. Correlates of Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Midlife and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Holly N; Hess, Rachel; Thurston, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life for women across their lifespan. Prior studies show a decline in sexual activity with age, but these studies often fail to consider the role of sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to give updated prevalence estimates of sexual activity among women and to elucidate factors associated with sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. We report a cross-sectional analysis of the second wave of a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 28 to 84 years, the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. The survey used self-administered questionnaires to assess demographic data, self-rated physical and mental health, medical problems and medication use, relationship factors, and sexual activity and satisfaction. Of 2,116 women who answered the questions regarding sexuality, 1,345 (61.8%) women were sexually active in the previous 6 months. The proportion of women who were sexually active decreased with advancing age. Women who were married or cohabitating had approximately 8 times higher odds of being sexually active (odds ratio = 7.91, 95% CI, 4.16-15.04; P relationship satisfaction (P satisfaction, but age was not (P = .79). A considerable proportion of midlife and older women remain sexually active if they have a partner available. Psychosocial factors (relationship satisfaction, communication with romantic partner, and importance of sex) matter more to sexual satisfaction than aging among midlife and older women. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  12. Developing Media Literacy Skills To Challenge Television's Portrayal of Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Harriet L.

    2002-01-01

    Focus groups of 19 graduate social work students viewed two episodes of "The Golden Girls." Students had differing opinions on whether the program reinforced or challenged social stereotypes about older women. The need for positive media portrayals and for media literacy was identified. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  13. There are no nonresponders to resistance-type exercise training in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchward-Venne, T.A.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Verdijk, L.; Leenders, M.; Dirks, M.L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the proposed prevalence of unresponsiveness of older men and women to augment lean body mass, muscle fiber size, muscle strength, and/or physical function following prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Design/Setting/Participants A retrospective analysis of the adaptive

  14. Therapeutic Factors Experienced by Members of an Out-Patient Therapy Group for Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, John

    1993-01-01

    The Yalom curative factors Q-sort was administered to eight members of an outpatient therapy group for older women, who were also interviewed on the group experiences they had viewed as helpful. Results indicated that Existential Awareness was seen as the most helpful mechanism, in contrast to other studies in which interpersonal factors have been…

  15. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Cognitive Function, and Cognitive Decline in American Older Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.M.; Kang, Jae H.; Rest, van de O.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesTo examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingThe Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US

  16. Living arrangements, social networks and depressive symptoms among older men and women in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angelique; Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls

    2011-06-01

    To examine the association of living arrangements and social networks outside the household with depressive symptoms among older men and women, ascertain if these relationships differ between older men and women, and investigate whether the association of living arrangements with depressive symptoms varies by strength of social networks. Data for 4489 community-dwelling Singaporeans, aged 60 years and older, from a recent nationally representative survey were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 11-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies) scale, social networks through Lubben's revised social network scale, and living arrangements through household composition. Analysis was stratified by gender, and descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the risk of depressive symptoms by living arrangements and social networks, adjusting for age, ethnic group, education, housing type, functional status, number of chronic diseases and involvement in social activities. Women had higher depressive symptom scores than men. Living alone and living with at least 1 child (no spouse) (relative to living with spouse and children), and weak social networks outside the household were associated with higher depressive symptom scores among both men and women. Men living alone with weak social networks outside the household had higher depressive symptom scores than those with strong networks. The findings have implications regarding the importance of strengthening non-familial social networks of older adults, particularly for those living alone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Breaking the cycle of loneliness? Psychological effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, C.M.S.; Stevens, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines effects of participation in the friendship enrichment program, an intervention that is designed to stimulate improvement in friendship, self-esteem and subjective well-being, as well as reduction in loneliness among older women. The intervention group was compared to a

  18. Impact of urinary incontinence on sexual functioning in community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Els; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Dekker, Janny H.

    Introduction. Knowledge on the sexual health of patients with urinary incontinence in primary care is scarce; therefore, the impact of urinary incontinence on sexual functioning was examined in community-dwelling older women. Aim. The aim of this study was to provide primary health care

  19. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Lim, Myong Cheol; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Kibyung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang Yoon

    2015-04-01

    compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed.

  20. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  2. Urinary Incontinence: Its Assessment and Relationship to Depression among Community-Dwelling Multiethnic Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laganà

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman’s perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%, discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.

  3. What's loneliness got to do with it? Older women who use benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L

    2015-03-01

    We examined qualitative data from a larger study of benzodiazepine-using women older than 65 years, living in the United States, for subjective experiences of loneliness and social isolation. Data from semistructured interviews with seven participants discussed aspects of social isolation or loneliness. Following a phenomenological design, data were coded and analysed for experiences. Three themes emerged: 'Dislike being alone'; 'Loneliness and isolation'; and 'Social isolation causes negative feelings'. Social isolation and loneliness are negative aspects of the lived experience for older benzodiazepine-using women and the loss of companions and transportation is important to this experience. Being isolated can cause depression, fear and insecurity. Future research should consider the role psychotropic medications have in coping with social isolation and loneliness among older adults. Clinicians should be aware of social isolation and loneliness in late life and discuss non-pharmacologic treatment options with their ageing patients. © 2014 ACOTA.

  4. Urinary incontinence: its assessment and relationship to depression among community-dwelling multiethnic older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, Luciana; Bloom, David William; Ainsworth, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Urinary Incontinence (UI) affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman's perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%), discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.

  5. [IMPORTANCE OF SHEAR WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY OF LIVERS IN PRACTICALLY HEALTHY PREGNANT WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyeva, E; Salahova, S; Bayramov, N

    2017-01-01

    Pulse-wave elastography (SWE) that is one of the mostly used methods in the recent years holds important place in assessment of liver fibrosis. However there is no exact information on the results of liver elastography in healthy pregnant women in the world literature. The aim of the study was to investigate theSWE parameters of liver elastography in practically healthy pregnant women. The subject of the research was 50 practically healthy pregnant women within 18-45 years old (mean age 27.7±0.7). The pregnant women with genital and extragenital diseases were not included to the research. The research work was executed in the II Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Azerbaijan Medical University. SWE of liver in pregnant women was conducted in the I Department of Surgical Diseases of Azerbaijan Medical University through Supersonic Aixplorer Multi Wave device presented by the Scientific Development Foundation under the President of the Azerbaijan Republic. The obtained tissue hardness indicators are assessed under METAVIR scale. The results of the research showed that the measures of liver in practically healthy pregnant women are normal, edges flat, its echogenicity mainly normal, echostructure of its parenchyma homogenous, hardness was F0-F1 (normal) under METAVIR scale, fibrosis not observed. The obtained results were processed by variational (power average, percentile distribution) and correlation (ρ-Spearman) analyzes using the statistical package SPSS-20. A statistical study of the distribution of liver density in healthy women showed that the average density was 4,43±0,01 with 95% confidence interval (4,23 - 4,63). The histogram of distribution of liver density in practically healthy women belongs to the family of normal distributions with coefficients of variation coefficient (16.3%), asymmetry (-0.861±0.337) and excess (-0.068±0.662). Correlation analysis in healthy women did not reveal a reliable relationship between age and liver density (ρ=0

  6. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    requis pour une infection de la vessie peut être facilitée par les rapports sexuels, ce qui a été démontré pour comme étant un facteur de risque important et un indice .... A diagnosis of acute UTI was made. A urine test showed leucocyte count of .... Urinary Tract Infection in Post-Menopausal Women. J. Gen Intern Med 2008; ...

  7. Raloxifene for older women: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Hansdóttir

    2008-01-01

    Helga HansdóttirDepartment of Geriatrics, Landspitali University Hospital, Landakoti, Reykjavik, IcelandAbstract: Raloxifene is a non-steroidal selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) which is used for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Raloxifene decreases the incidence of vertebral fractures by 30%–50% in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis but has not been shown to decrease the incidence of hip fractures or other non-vertebral fractures. A...

  8. The effect of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Vakili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups. Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc., were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week. The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. Results: The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. More women in the intervention group consumed fish after intervention (P = 0.02. The consumption of green leafy vegetables showed a nonsignificant increase in the intervention group. Conclusion: Using mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.

  9. Global Quality of Life Among WHI Women Aged 80 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Michelle J; Brunner, Robert L; Hogan, Patricia E; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Brenes, Gretchen A; Bowen, Deborah J; Snively, Beverly M; Goveas, Joseph S; Saquib, Nazmus; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Shumaker, Sally A

    2016-03-01

    The number of older adults living to age 80 and older is increasing rapidly, particularly among women. Correlates of quality of life (QOL) in very advanced ages are not known. We examined the association of demographic, social-psychological, lifestyle, and physical health variables with global QOL in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort of women aged 80 and older. 26,299 WHI participants, who had completed a recent psychosocial and medical update, were included in these analyses. Global QOL was assessed by a single item, asking the women to rate their overall QOL on a scale from 0 to 10. Characteristics of the women were examined by the level of their transformed global QOL scores (≤50, 50-70, ≥70), and multiple regression was used to examine which demographic, social-psychological, lifestyle and health variables were independently associated with higher global QOL. Social-psychological and current health variables were more strongly associated with global QOL than a history of selected comorbid conditions. In particular, higher self-rated health and fewer depressive symptoms were the most strongly associated with better global QOL in WHI women ≥80 years. Interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and improve health may lead to better self-reported health and global QOL among older women. Physical and mental health screenings followed by evidence-based interventions are imperative in geriatric care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Association between Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women and Men Aged 50 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Meyer, Haakon E; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

    2018-02-01

    Although a number of studies showed a lower risk of hip fractures with high-quality diets, few of them were conducted in the United States. This prospective analysis examined the association between several diet quality indexes and risk of hip fractures in US men and women. This is a prospective cohort study. The participants were 74,446 postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study and 36,602 men aged 50 years and older from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study in the United States. Hip fractures were self-reported on biennial questionnaires between 1980-2012 in women, and between 1986-2012 in men. Diet was assessed every 4 years with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks were computed for hip fracture by quintiles of the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMed), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Two thousand one hundred forty-three incident hip fractures in women and 603 in men were reported during follow-up. A significant inverse trend was observed with the cumulative AHEI-2010 score in women (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles 0.87, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.00; P for trend=0.02). There was also a suggestion of an inverse association with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (P for trend=0.03). In addition, significant inverse trends were observed between all three diet quality scores and hip fractures in women younger than age 75 years but not older women. There was no clear association between diet quality indexes and hip fracture in men. Higher AHEI-2010 scores were associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in US women. The inverse associations with diet quality may be more apparent among those younger than age 75 years. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional fitness in older women from southern brazil: normative scores and comparison with different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional fitness loss during aging may compromise the quality of life and independence of older subjects. It is important to evaluate and diagnose the functional fitness of the elderly population. This study proposed normative functional fitness scores for a sample of elderly women from southern Brazil and compared values to their counterparts in the US, Extremadura (Spain, Taiwan (China and Spain. The study sample consisted of 1,783 older women aged 60.0 to 84.9 years (mean 68.7 years; standard deviation 6.3 years who performed the proposed motor tests of the “Senior Fitness Test” for functional fitness in older women. The percentile values specific to each age group were calculated based on the seven functional fitness components: body mass index, 6-minute walk, arm curl, 30-s chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, backscratch, and 8-feet up-and-go. The non-parametric binomial test compared the 50th percentile value of Brazilian older women with those from other countries. Older women´s performance in the functional capacity tests decreased across age groups. The mean BMI varied among age groups from 29.11 to 26.76 kg/m2, 6-minute walk from 572.94 to 486.95 m, arm curl from 17.51 to 15.11 repetitions, 30-schair stand from 15.62 to 14.30 repetitions, chair sit-and-reach from 1.01 to – 0.47 cm, back scratch from -4.92 to -10.52 cm and 8-feet up-and-go from 5.96 to 6.83 sec. Functional fitness scores among older women in different countries differed significantly. However, the direction and magnitude of differences were specific to the functional fitness component. Significant differences were observed in the normative scores, suggesting that the use of international normative scores in Brazilian older women may underestimate or overestimate potential functional limitations.

  12. Functional fitness in older women from southern brazil: normative scores and comparison with different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Cristina Vagetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n4p472   Functional fitness loss during aging may compromise the quality of life and independence of older subjects. It is important to evaluate and diagnose the functional fitness of the elderly population. This study proposed normative functional fitness scores for a sample of elderly women from southern Brazil and compared values to their counterparts in the US, Extremadura (Spain, Taiwan (China and Spain. The study sample consisted of 1,783 older women aged 60.0 to 84.9 years (mean 68.7 years; standard deviation 6.3 years who performed the proposed motor tests of the “Senior Fitness Test” for functional fitness in older women. The percentile values specific to each age group were calculated based on the seven functional fitness components: body mass index, 6-minute walk, arm curl, 30-s chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, backscratch, and 8-feet up-and-go. The non-parametric binomial test compared the 50th percentile value of Brazilian older women with those from other countries. Older women´s performance in the functional capacity tests decreased across age groups. The mean BMI varied among age groups from 29.11 to 26.76 kg/m2, 6-minute walk from 572.94 to 486.95 m, arm curl from 17.51 to 15.11 repetitions, 30-schair stand from 15.62 to 14.30 repetitions, chair sit-and-reach from 1.01 to – 0.47 cm, back scratch from -4.92 to -10.52 cm and 8-feet up-and-go from 5.96 to 6.83 sec. Functional fitness scores among older women in different countries differed significantly. However, the direction and magnitude of differences were specific to the functional fitness component. Significant differences were observed in the normative scores, suggesting that the use of international normative scores in Brazilian older women may underestimate or overestimate potential functional limitations.

  13. The relation of salivary cortisol to patterns of performance on a word list learning task in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie; Demireva, Petya; Heffner, Kathi

    2008-10-01

    A pattern of performance on a word list learning task known as a reduced primacy effect has been shown to be characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can distinguish AD from depression. Deficits in memory and hippocampal atrophy seen in AD have been associated with hypercortisolism. The present study evaluated whether the reduced primacy effect is associated with elevated salivary cortisol in a sample of 40 healthy older community-dwelling adults participating in a study of memory and stress. We found that primacy, but not recency, was associated with higher salivary cortisol levels. In addition, participants who showed a reduced primacy had higher salivary cortisol levels than those with a normal serial position curve. Results suggest that there may be value to examining both serial position curves and changes to cortisol patterns over time as potential predictors of cognitive decline in healthy older adults.

  14. Dual tasking affects lateral trunk control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Takehiko; Hirata, Soichiro; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Assessing the effects of attention-demanding tasks on trunk movement provides useful insights into postural control while walking in an attention-split situation, such as occurs in daily life. The coefficient of attenuation of acceleration (CoA) at the trunk is a useful gait index to assess whole trunk movements. We investigated the effect of attention-demanding tasks on CoA to assess the role of attention on trunk control during walking. Thirty healthy, community-dwelling older adults (70.1±5.6 years) and 38 younger adults (22.1±3.4 years) participated in this study. Participants walked 20 m at a self-selected speed (slow, normal, fast) and while performing an attention-demanding cognitive task. Trunk acceleration was measured using triaxial accelerometers attached to the lower (L3 spinous process) and upper (C7 spinous process) trunk and used to compute CoA (the reduction in acceleration from the lower to upper trunk). Results showed that an attention-demanding task significantly decreased CoA in the medio-lateral (ML) direction in both age groups (p<0.001), whereas it did not affect CoA in the vertical (VT) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Our findings suggest that the priority of whole trunk control in the ML direction may be higher than in other directions and be strongly associated with attention, whereas whole trunk control in the VT and AP directions may be passively regulated and require minimal attentional control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The benefits and costs of repeated testing on the learning of face-name pairs in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A; Roediger, Henry L

    2010-12-01

    We compared the benefits of repeated testing and repeated study on cued recall of unfamiliar face-name pairs in healthy middle-aged and older adults. We extended Karpicke and Roediger's (2008) paradigm to compare the effects of repeated study versus repeated testing after each face-name pair was correctly recalled once. The results from Experiment 1, which provided no feedback during the acquisition phase, yielded a crossover interaction: Middle-aged adults showed the expected benefit of repeated testing, whereas older adults produced a benefit of repeated study. When participants were given feedback in Experiment 2, both middle-aged and older adults benefited from repeated testing. We suggest that for face-name pairs, feedback may be particularly important for individuals who have relatively poor memory to produce benefits from repeated testing. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  17. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum and black seeds (Nigella sativa in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa M Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  18. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds' consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  19. Gender-based violence and HIV across the life course: adopting a sexual rights framework to include older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bergen; Crockett, Cailin

    2015-11-01

    It is widely known that older women are at lesser risk for sexual violence than younger women, but current inattention to older women in the gender-based violence (GBV) field has minimized the experiences of older women survivors at great detriment to their health and rights. For example, health providers seldom ask older women about their sexual activity and relationships, a neglect that leads to older women being excluded from necessary HIV testing and care as well as support services for abuse. This oversight is increasingly worrisome given the rise in new HIV infections among adults age 50 and older in recent years, with the majority of transmissions stemming from individuals unaware of their HIV-positive status. Building on sexual rights scholarship, this paper argues for an approach to public health interventions for GBV and HIV that acknowledges older women--their sexuality, sexual agency, and activity-- so that health providers and advocates acknowledge and serve older survivors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Dynamic postural stability is not impaired by moderate-intensity physical activity in healthy or balance-impaired older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Thorlene; Brauer, Sandra G; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2010-12-01

    Older people are increasingly being encouraged to be more physically active but this may lead to physiological fatigue, tiredness and other effects, which, at high levels, can adversely alter postural stability. However, older adults rarely perform physical activity at high intensities. This study aimed to determine whether a single bout of moderate-intensity physical activity, similar to that experienced during daily living, alters dynamic postural stability, particularly among those at risk of falling. Thirty-one healthy young, 33 healthy older and 21 balance-impaired older, adults performed a rapid, voluntary step-up task before and immediately after a 14 min, self-paced, moderate-intensity physical activity protocol. Timing of step components from vertical ground reaction forces, mediolateral displacement of center of pressure, and onset and amplitude of hip abductor muscle activity were recorded during the step task. All groups demonstrated the same changes after the activity, with slightly shorter weight-shift phase duration, smaller displacement of the center of pressure towards the stance leg during weight shifting, and earlier onset of stance leg gluteus medius activity. These changes indicate improved coordination of the step task after activity. Thus this study showed that dynamic postural stability is not adversely affected immediately following moderate-intensity physical activity, even among balance-impaired elderly. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The study of subjective feelings of loneliness older women in terms of suicide risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov E.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subjective feeling lonely older women and their actual social status in terms of the propensity to suicidal behavior. Hypothesized that the level of suicide risk in older women reveals a closer connection with the severity of subjective feelings of loneliness than with the degree of objective social isolation. The study involved 52 women aged 55 to 75 years old who do not have mental disorders and debilitating physical illness. The main methods of study was the analysis of medical records, interview and psychological testing formalized. Data used for U-Mann-Whitney test, H-Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson criterion 2 Spearman rank correlation method. It is shown that the severity of suicidal risk in the studied sample is really linked to the level of subjective feelings of loneliness (p≤0,05, in respect of the same objective social isolation test found no such relationship.

  2. Types of anemia and mortality among older disabled women living in the community: the Women's Health and Aging Study I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; Ricks, Michelle O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Xue, Qian-Li; Chaves, Paulo; Fried, Linda P; Guralnik, Jack M

    2007-08-01

    To classify the different types of anemia among moderately to severely disabled women living in the community and examine the relationship between types of anemia and mortality. We studied anemia in 688 women, >or=65 years, in the Women's Health and Aging Study I, a population based study of moderately to severely disabled older women living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland. Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria. Causes of anemia were classified as due to nutritional deficiencies (iron, folate, and B12 deficiencies), anemia of chronic inflammation, anemia with renal disease, and unexplained anemia. 147 of 688 (21.4%) women were anemic (hemoglobin anemia due to nutritional causes, 45 (30.6%) had anemia due to chronic inflammation, 29 (19.7%) had anemia and renal disease, and 51 (34.7%) had unexplained anemia. The proportions of those who died over five years among non-anemic women and women with anemia due to nutritional causes, chronic inflammation, renal disease, and unexplained anemia were 26.1%, 18.2%, 38.6%, 64.3%, and 33.3%, respectively (panemia and renal disease (HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.18-3.35, p=0.009) and anemia of chronic inflammation (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.84, p=0.05) had higher risk of death. Anemia is common among moderately to severely disabled older women living in the community, and about one-third of the anemia is unexplained. Anemia with renal disease and anemia of chronic inflammation are associated with a higher mortality.

  3. Impact of novelty and type of material on recognition in healthy older adults and persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Ménard, Marie-Claude; Lepage, Emilie

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of novelty on correct recognition (hit minus false alarms) and on recollection and familiarity processes in normal aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recognition tasks compared well-known and novel stimuli in the verbal domain (words vs. pseudowords) and in the musical domain (well-known vs. novel melodies). Results indicated that novel materials associated with lower correct recognition and lower recollection, an effect that can be related to its lower amenability to elaborative encoding in comparison with well-known items. Results also indicated that normal aging impairs recognition of well-known items, whereas MCI impairs recognition of novel items only. Healthy older adults showed impaired recollection and familiarity relative to younger controls and individuals with MCI showed impaired recollection relative to healthy older adults. The recollection deficit in healthy older adults and persons with MCI and their impaired recognition of well-known items is compatible with the difficulty both groups have in encoding information in an elaborate manner. In turn, familiarity deficit could be related to impaired frontal functioning. Therefore, novelty of material has a differential impact on recognition in persons with age-related memory disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Passive urethral resistance to dilation in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Nordsten, M

    1995-01-01

    at equilibrium, P alpha and P beta express the decline in pressure, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants. The size of the pressure response proved highly dependent on velocity and size of dilation as well as urethral site of measurement, with the maximum values in the high pressure zone. The time......The dynamic urethral pressure response to a simulated urine ingression was studied at the bladder neck, in the high pressure zone, and in the distal urethra in 10 healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was characterised by a steep pressure increase simulataneous with the urethral dilation......, followed by a decay during the next seconds until a new equilibrium pressure was reached. The pressure decay could be described by a double exponential function in the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P beta e-t/tau beta, where Pt represents the pressure at the time t, Pequ represents the pressure...

  5. Performance of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Among Women Age 75 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A; Li, Vicky W; Eliassen, A Heather; Davis, Roger B; LaCroix, Andrea Z; McCarthy, Ellen P; Rosner, Bernard A; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Rohan, Thomas E; Hankinson, Susan E; Marcantonio, Edward R; Ngo, Long H

    2016-03-01

    The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT, "Gail model") is commonly used for breast cancer prediction; however, it has not been validated for women age 75 years and older. We used Nurses' Health Study (NHS) data beginning in 2004 and Women's Health Initiative (WHI) data beginning in 2005 to compare BCRAT's performance among women age 75 years and older with that in women age 55 to 74 years in predicting five-year breast cancer incidence. BCRAT risk factors include: age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, age at first birth, family history, history of benign breast biopsy, and atypia. We examined BCRAT's calibration by age by comparing expected/observed (E/O) ratios of breast cancer incidence. We examined discrimination by computing c-statistics for the model by age. All statistical tests were two-sided. Seventy-three thousand seventy-two NHS and 97 081 WHI women participated. NHS participants were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (96.2% vs 84.7% in WHI, P breast cancer (1.8% vs 2.0%, P = .02). E/O ratios by age in NHS were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.23, age 57-74 years) and 1.31 (95% CI = 1.18 to 1.45, age ≥ 75 years, P = .02), and in WHI 1.03 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.09, age 55-74 years) and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.21, age ≥ 75 years, P = .21). E/O ratio 95% confidence intervals crossed one among women age 75 years and older when samples were limited to women who underwent mammography and were without significant illness. C-statistics ranged between 0.56 and 0.58 in both cohorts regardless of age. BCRAT accurately predicted breast cancer for women age 75 years and older who underwent mammography and were without significant illness but had modest discrimination. Models that consider individual competing risks of non-breast cancer death may improve breast cancer risk prediction for older women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older Adults in a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial: The MedLey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Knight

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from a limited number of randomised controlled intervention trials (RCTs have shown that a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and enhance cognitive function among healthy older adults. However, there are currently no data in non-Mediterranean older adult populations. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining the effect of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet for six months on aspects of cognitive function in a randomised controlled intervention trial (the MedLey study that extended for a duration of 18 months. In the final analysed cohort, a total of 137 men and women (mean age of 72.1 ± 5.0 years randomly assigned to either a MedDiet or control diet (HabDiet (i.e., habitual dietary intake, were assessed on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, including 11 individual tests. In multivariable-adjusted models, the MedDiet group did not perform significantly better than the HabDiet control group for executive functioning (adjusted mean differences: +2.53, 95% CI −2.59 to 7.65, p = 0.33; speed of processing (adjusted mean differences: +3.24, 95% CI −1.21 to 7.70, p = 0.15; memory (adjusted mean differences: +2.00, 95% CI −3.88 to 7.88, p = 0.50; visual-spatial ability (adjusted mean differences: +0.21, 95% CI −0.38 to 0.81, 0.48; and overall age-related cognitive performance (adjusted mean differences: +7.99, 95% CI −4.00 to 19.9, p = 0.19. In conclusion, this study did not find evidence of a beneficial effect of a MedDiet intervention on cognitive function among healthy older adults.

  7. Healthy lifestyle in the primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Eliassen, A Heather; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-01-06

    Overall mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States have declined in recent decades, but the rate has plateaued among younger women. The potential for further reductions in mortality rates among young women through changes in lifestyle is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of CHD cases and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young women that might be attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. A prospective analysis was conducted among 88,940 women ages 27 to 44 years at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study II who were followed from 1991 to 2011. Lifestyle factors were updated repeatedly by questionnaire. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity ≥ 2.5 h/week, television viewing ≤ 7 h/week, diet in the top 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and 0.1 to 14.9 g/day of alcohol. To estimate the proportion of CHD and clinical CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) that could be attributed to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle, we calculated the population-attributable risk percent. During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 456 incident CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, nonsmoking, a healthy body mass index, exercise, and a healthy diet were independently and significantly associated with lower CHD risk. Compared with women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio for CHD for women with 6 lifestyle factors was 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.22). Approximately 73% (95% confidence interval: 39% to 89%) of CHD cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Similarly, 46% (95% confidence interval: 43% to 49%) of clinical CVD risk factor cases were attributable to a poor lifestyle. Primordial prevention through maintenance of a healthy lifestyle among young women may substantially lower the burden of CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College

  8. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  9. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Randa M. Mostafa; Moustafa, Yasser M.; Zien Mirghani; Ghader M AlKusayer; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds? consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ? 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) ...

  10. Women's Facial Redness Increases Their Perceived Attractiveness: Mediation Through Perceived Healthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazda, Adam D; Thorstenson, Christopher A; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I

    2016-07-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether the red-attraction relation that has been observed for men viewing women may also be observed with regard to women's facial redness. We manipulated facial redness by slightly increasing or decreasing the redness on the faces of baseline pictures of target women, and then had men judge the attractiveness of the women. We also examined healthiness perceptions as a mediator of the redness-attraction relation, along with several other candidate mediator variables. A series of experiments showed that increased redness led to increased ratings of attractiveness, and decreased redness led to decreased ratings of attractiveness. Perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of the influence of female facial redness on male perceptions of attractiveness, and this mediation was independent of other candidate mediator variables. The findings highlight the importance of attending to facial coloration as an attraction-relevant cue and point to interesting areas for subsequent research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Cytomegalovirus Kinetics Following Primary Infection in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael S; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Diener-West, Marie; Pass, Robert F; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2017-05-15

    The kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in infected asymptomatic hosts are largely unknown. We measured viral load (VL) in 124 fluid samples (oral, urine, vaginal, blood) collected from 21 women who acquired CMV. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of US17, which correlated with clinical assays, was used. VL decreased following primary infection in all fluids. The geometric mean VL of vaginal fluid was significantly higher than that of other sources: oral (3.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-10.57), urine (6.36; 95% CI, 2.48-16.32), and whole blood (11.88; 95% CI, 4.12-34.20). Vaginal CMV shedding may provide a route for sexual and possibly perinatal transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Living alone with dementia: an interpretive phenomenological study with older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Lorna; Ploeg, Jenny; Black, Margaret

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the meaning of living alone from the perspective of older people with dementia. Risks and problems experienced by older women living alone have been investigated mostly through quantitative research. Balancing their safety and autonomy is a serious international community care dilemma. Older people's perspectives have been muted in qualitative research on living alone with dementia. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach and van Manen's method, 14 interviews were conducted in Ontario, Canada from January 2004 to April 2005 with eight older women diagnosed with Alzheimer disease or a related dementia. The theme holding back time expressed the temporal meaning of living alone. Pharmacological treatments represented stored time, offering the opportunity to hold back future dreaded time. Past experience with others with dementia was a context for holding on to now and facing some risks of living alone with memory loss. The women acknowledged the limited time remaining for, and identified endpoints to, living alone. Insight into the impact of past experience with others with dementia could inform nursing assessment and advocacy for health/social services that are sensitive to the potential emotional impact of mixing people with varied levels of dementia in the same programme.

  13. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, M.; Van der Schans, C. P.; Hobbelen, J. S. M.

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being

  14. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. C.P. van der Schans; MSc Willemke Nijholt; M. Visser; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; dr. Hans Hobbelen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  15. The Effect of Tibolone on Climacteric Symptoms of Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    S Moghassemi; S Ziaei

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Menopause is related to many symptoms that have an effect on women’s life quality. HRT and its alternatives such as Tibolone are some of the routes for enhancement of different aspects of QoL in menopause. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effects of Tibolone and placebo on climacteric symptoms of healthy menopausal women. Materials & Methods: This is a randomized, prospective clinical study. A total of 96 women with no absolute con...

  16. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Anne; Juul, A A; Andersson, Annica

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  17. Plasma norepinephrine is an independent predictor of vascular endothelial function with aging in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Walker, Ashley E; Seals, Douglas R

    2011-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that reductions in vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation, EDD) with age are related to increases in sympathetic activity. Among 314 healthy men and women, age was inversely related to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (r = -0.30, P women (n = 127, r = -0.37, P women (r = -0.16, P = 0.06). Consistent with this, brachial FMD remained significantly related to PNE when controlling for age (r = -0.24, P women. Indeed, PNE was the strongest independent correlate of brachial FMD in women after controlling for conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors (r = -0.22, P = 0.01). This relation persisted in a subset of women (n = 113) after further accounting for the effects of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (P independent dilation was not related to age in either men or women (P > 0.05). These results provide the first evidence that EDD is inversely related to sympathetic activity, as assessed by PNE, among healthy adults varying in age. In particular, our findings suggest that sympathetic nervous system activity may be a key factor involved in the modulation of vascular endothelial function with aging in women.

  18. Bacterial populations in the vaginas of healthy adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ted; Zhou, Xia; Williams, Chris J; Hochwalt, Anne; Forney, Larry J

    2009-02-01

    Given that the microbiota of the healthy vagina plays an important role in the maintenance of health, it follows that an understanding of its composition and development may offer insights into the etiology and prevention of disease. In contrast to previous studies, this study exclusively investigated the structure and composition of adolescent vaginal bacterial communities. In this report, the vaginal bacterial communities of 90 menarcheal adolescents, ages 13-18y, were characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes. Further characterization involved cluster analysis of the T-RFLP data to identify the number of different kinds of microbial communities found among the adolescents sampled, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences cloned from samples representative of each cluster. We report the identification of four major clusters that accounted for 96.7% of the cohort. In general, these clusters could be divided into those dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and those dominated by a variety of lactic acid producing, anaerobic bacterial types such as Atopobium vaginae and Streptococcus spp. The compositional and structural similarity of the vaginal microbiota of menarcheal adolescents and adults suggests that the vaginal microbiota does not change significantly after the onset of menarche.

  19. Healthy life expectancy differences between older migrants and non-migrants in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus Pons, Matias; Kibele, Eva; Janssen, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Migration, ageing and health are on the political agenda in all European countries, but so far little attention has been devoted to the health among older migrants in Europe. At the same time, the share of older migrants in European countries is rising steadily and there are reasons to believe that

  20. Postural prioritization is differentially altered in healthy older compared to younger adults during visual and auditory coded spatial multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Matthew B; Bergmann, Jeroen H; Keating, Niamh; Green, David A; Pavlou, Marousa

    2014-01-01

    Many daily activities require appropriate allocation of attention between postural and cognitive tasks (i.e. dual-tasking) to be carried out effectively. Processing multiple streams of spatial information is important for everyday tasks such as road crossing. Fifteen community-dwelling healthy older (mean age=78.3, male=1) and twenty younger adults (mean age=25.3, male=6) completed a novel bimodal spatial multi-task test providing contextually similar spatial information via separate sensory modalities to investigate effects on postural prioritization. Two tasks, a temporally random visually coded spatial step navigation task (VS) and a regular auditory-coded spatial congruency task (AS) were performed independently (single task) and in combination (multi-task). Response time, accuracy and dual-task costs (% change in multi-task condition) were determined. Results showed a significant 3-way interaction between task type (VS vs. AS), complexity (single vs. multi) and age group for both response time (p ≤ 0.01) and response accuracy (p ≤ 0.05) with older adults performing significantly worse than younger adults. Dual-task costs were significantly greater for older compared to younger adults in the VS step task for both response time (p ≤ 0.01) and accuracy (p ≤ 0.05) indicating prioritization of the AS over the VS stepping task in older adults. Younger adults display greater AS task response time dual task costs compared to older adults (p ≤ 0.05) indicating VS task prioritization in agreement with the posture first strategy. Findings suggest that novel dual modality spatial testing may lead to adoption of postural strategies that deviate from posture first, particularly in older people. Adoption of previously unreported postural prioritization strategies may influence balance control in older people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. “Conviv\\^{e}ncia” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups.

  2. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-10-01

    Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, André; Kressig, Reto W; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gschwind, Yves J; Pfenninger, Barbara; Bruegger, Othmar; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Losses in lower extremity muscle strength/power, muscle mass and deficits in static and particularly dynamic balance due to aging are associated with impaired functional performance and an increased fall risk. It has been shown that the combination of balance and strength training (BST) mitigates these age-related deficits. However, it is unresolved whether supervised versus unsupervised BST is equally effective in improving muscle power and balance in older adults. This study examined the impact of a 12-week BST program followed by 12 weeks of detraining on measures of balance and muscle power in healthy older adults enrolled in supervised (SUP) or unsupervised (UNSUP) training. Sixty-six older adults (men: 25, women: 41; age 73 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to a SUP group (2/week supervised training, 1/week unsupervised training; n = 22), an UNSUP group (3/week unsupervised training; n = 22) or a passive control group (CON; n = 22). Static (i.e., Romberg Test) and dynamic (i.e., 10-meter walk test) steady-state, proactive (i.e., Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test), and reactive balance (e.g., Push and Release Test), as well as lower extremity muscle power (i.e., Chair Stand Test; Stair Ascent and Descent Test) were tested before and after the active training phase as well as after detraining. Adherence rates to training were 92% for SUP and 97% for UNSUP. BST resulted in significant group × time interactions. Post hoc analyses showed, among others, significant training-related improvements for the Romberg Test, stride velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, and Chair Stand Test in favor of the SUP group. Following detraining, significantly enhanced performances (compared to baseline) were still present in 13 variables for the SUP group and in 10 variables for the UNSUP group. Twelve weeks of BST proved to be safe (no training-related injuries) and feasible (high attendance rates of >90%). Deficits of balance and lower extremity muscle power can be

  4. Lower limb muscle coactivation levels in healthy younger and older adults during functional dual-task gait

    OpenAIRE

    Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Brunt, Denis; Spinoso, Deborah Hebling; Castro, Alex; Cardozo, Adalgiso Coscrato; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of daily cognitive task on stiffness of old and young female adults during the gait. The study included 17 physically active younger and 18 older women, with low risk of falls. The volunteers were asked to walk on the treadmill at two different gait conditions: normal gait and functional dual-task gait. The electromyographic signals were collected of the lower limb muscles. The percentage of coactivation for the tibialis anterior/gast...

  5. The exercise prescription for enhancing overall health of midlife and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Miriam J; Lu, Chi Wei; Levandowski, Richard; Kostis, John; Bachmann, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    For midlife and older women, this period of their life is associated with an increase in risk factors for the development of chronic medical conditions. Data confirms the importance of regular exercise for both prevention and management of cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases, unwanted weight gain, worsening metabolic profile and osteoporosis. However, in most clinical practices, midlife and older women patients are not offered specific exercise guidance. This review assessed the current environment of what exercise advice is being offered to women at clinical encounters and suggests ways of incorporating an exercise prescription into clinical practice. A PubMed review of the literature from the past 20 years was conducted. A universal template for an exercise prescription for aging women does not exist. Globally, there are scant programs that offer exercise advice and interventions to patients at the end of clinical encounters. Although most aging women know the benefits of engaging in a regular exercise program, many do not establish a regular routine. By the clinician offering an exercise prescription, this not only reinforces the importance of exercise but also provides simple guidelines on how women can commence an exercise routine in their life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Impact of extending screening mammography to older women Information to support informed choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklyn, Gemma; Howard, Kirsten; Irwig, Les; Houssami, Nehmat; Hersch, Jolyn; Barratt, Alexandra

    2017-10-15

    From 2013 through 2017, the Australian national breast cancer screening programme is gradually inviting women aged 70-74 years to attend screening, following a policy decision to extend invitations to older women. We estimate the benefits and harms of the new package of biennial screening from age 50-74 compared with the previous programme of screening from age 50-69. Using a Markov model, we applied estimates of the relative risk reduction for breast cancer mortality and the risk of overdiagnosis from the Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening review to Australian breast cancer incidence and mortality data. We estimated screening specific outcomes (recalls for further imaging, biopsies, false positives, and interval cancer rates) from data published by BreastScreen Australia. When compared with stopping at age 69, screening 1,000 women to age 74 is likely to avert one more breast cancer death, with an additional 78 women receiving a false positive result and another 28 women diagnosed with breast cancer, of whom eight will be overdiagnosed and overtreated. The extra 5 years of screening results in approximately 7 more overdiagnosed cancers to avert one more breast cancer death. Thus extending screening mammography in Australia to older women results in a less favourable harm to benefit ratio than stopping at age 69. Supporting informed decision making for this age group should be a public health priority. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Strength training and older women: a cross-sectional study examining factors related to exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Economos, Christina D; Palombo, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recognized health benefits, few older women participate in strength-training exercises. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to older women's adherence to strength training after participation in the StrongWomen Program, a nationally disseminated community program. Adherence was defined as > or =4 months of twice-weekly strength training. Surveys were sent to 970 program participants from 23 states and to participants' corresponding program leaders. Five-hundred fifty-seven participants responded (57%). Of respondents who completed surveys (527), 79% (415) adhered to strength training; adherers reported a mean of 14.1 +/- 9.1 months of strength training. Logistic-regression analysis revealed that exercise adherence was positively associated with age (p = .001), higher lifetime physical activity levels (p = .045), better perceived health (p = .003), leader's sports participation (p = .028), and leader's prior experience leading programs (p = .006). These data lend insight to factors that may be related to exercise adherence among midlife and older women.

  8. Cortisol response patterns in depressed women and their healthy daughters at risk: Comparison with healthy women and their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Tunay, Sebnem; Polat, Irmak; Simsek, Fatma; Aksoy, Burcu; Kizilates, Gozde; Erdogan, Yigit; Coburn, Kerry L

    2017-02-01

    A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. This design allowed a comparison of HPA axis functional differences among daughter and mother groups. HPA axis function was evaluated with a modified dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, which was performed after obtaining the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values at 8:00, 16:00, and 23:00 h. We found that MDD mothers and their daughters had low morning cortisol and the MDD mothers additionally had low-morning ACTH compared with controls. Dexamethasone suppressed both cortisol and ACTH in all groups and subsequent HPA axis stimulation by CRH-evoked a lower cortisol response but a higher ACTH response among subjects with MDD mothers. Although high-risk daughters had comparable cortisol levels after CRH infusion, the AUC for ACTH was greater than those of controls. These patterns of results suggest that multiple level HPA dysfunctions are present in both MDD patients and their high-risk carrying daughters. However, insufficient cortisol secretion was only present in MDD mothers, while the daughters could compensate cortisol levels during CRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Elham; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Teimoori, Ali; Ataei, Angila; Ghafari, Shokouh; Najafian, Mahin; Ourang, Ziba; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    The lactobacilli are a part of the bacterial flora of the human vagina. Detection of normal Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in different geographical locations, and evaluation of their specific properties, can aid in the selection of the best species for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in the future. This study was performed to isolate and identify the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women and to evaluate the adherence of these lactobacilli to Vero and HeLa cell lines. The study included 100 women. Bacteria were isolated from healthy women and purified. Phenotypic and biochemical tests were performed to identify the lactobacilli. The Lactobacillus species were detected by molecular methods using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the full length of the 16S rDNA of the isolated bacteria. Several isolates of each species were then selected to study their adherence to Vero and HeLa cell lines. Among the 50 samples taken from healthy women meeting the inclusion criteria, Lactobacillus species were identified in 33 (66%) samples. Of these lactobacilli, 14 isolates were Lactobacillus crispatus, six (18.2%) were Lactobacillus gasseri, nine (27%) were Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and the rest were either Lactobacillus salivarius (6%) or Lactobacillus plantarum (6%). L. rhamnosus showed the greatest adhesion to the cells when compared to the other tested species. All the lactobacilli isolated in this study showed a smaller capacity for cell adherence when compared with control species. L. crispatus, L. rhamnosus, and L. gasseri were the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in Iran. L. rhamnosus attached more readily to the cells than did the other species; therefore, this isolate is a good candidate for further studies on the potential health benefits and application of lactobacilli as probiotics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  10. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  11. How life stressors influence modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, and physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-06-29

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women. Binary analysis and Structural Equation Modelling statistical analysis were used to examine the influences of life stressors on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women. Vietnamese older women in this study commonly reported the experience of losing a close person, including a baby/child, serious health or money problems, violence and disaster. Among the study participants, (1) exposure to more life stressors increased their depressive symptoms, and decreased their physical and mental health; (2) exposure to more life stressors also increased their physical health by increasing their physical activity levels. Life stressors influenced health among Vietnamese older women through different pathways. Interventions to manage stress and depressive symptoms are required for Vietnamese older women in the future.

  12. Endogenous sex hormones and cognitive function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Alain K; Tworoger, Shelley S; Eliassen, A Heather; Okereke, Olivia I; Weisskopf, Marc G; Rosner, Bernard; Yaffe, Kristine; Grodstein, Francine

    2016-07-01

    We examined the association between endogenous sex hormones and both objective and subjective measures of cognitive function. We followed 3044 women up to 23 years in a prospective cohort study. We measured plasma levels of estrone, estrone sulfate, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in 1989-1990, conducted neuropsychologic testing in 1999-2008, and inquired about subjective cognition in 2012. Overall, we observed little relation between plasma levels of hormones and either neuropsychologic test performance or subjective cognition. However, after adjustment for age and education, we observed a borderline significant association of higher levels of plasma estrone with higher scores for both overall cognition (P trend = .10) and verbal memory (P trend = .08). There were no clear associations of endogenous hormone levels at midlife and cognition in later life, although a suggested finding of higher levels of plasma estrone associated with better cognitive function merits further research. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sit-to-stand transfer mechanics in healthy older adults: a comprehensive investigation of a portable lifting-seat device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Derek James; Hurley, Sean Thomas; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl

    2014-05-22

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate lower extremity mechanics and muscle activation associated with the sit-to-stand transfer using a portable lifting-seat device and to compare these data to an unassisted transfer in healthy young and older adults. Methods: Bilateral lower extremity and low back musculature electromyography, three-dimensional leg and trunk motion, and ground reaction forces were recorded from 10 young (mean age = 25) and 10 older (mean age = 69) adults during five trials of (i) no assist and (ii) assisted transfers. Data were time normalized to represent the period of seat-off to standing. Peak sagittal plane joint angles, moments, and muscle activity profiles were calculated. Analysis of variance models was used to test for main effects and interactions (α = 0.05). Results: Trunk, hip, and knee angles were significantly reduced and dorsiflexion increased with assisted transfer (p  0.05). Peak muscle activity was lower during the assisted transfer (p Seat device effects were similar between age groups. Older adults used higher relative muscle activation. Conclusion: Variables indicative of sit-to-stand functional demand were reduced with lifting-seat device use. Data provide a framework for future recommendations on product prescription, use, and research pertaining to the advancement of adaptive seating. Implications for Rehabilitation Hip and trunk mechanical demands, and muscle activation were reduced with portable lifting seat device use. Greater ankle dorsiflexion was found with portable lifting seat device use, suggesting this range of motion should be considered when prescribing this device. Healthy older and younger adults used similar knee and trunk joint mechanics yet older adults completed the sit-to-stand trials with greater lower extremity and low back muscle activation.

  14. Maintaining a Healthy BMI: Data From a 16-Year Study of Young Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy J; Kabir, Enamul; Clark, Bronwyn K; Gomersall, Sjaan R

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this prospective cohort study were to examine 16-year trajectories of weight and BMI in young adult women who had a healthy BMI in 1996 and determinants of remaining in the healthy BMI category. A total of 4,881 women with healthy BMI at baseline and either healthy, overweight, or obese BMI at 16-year follow-up reported their weight, height, health, and health behaviors in six surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 1996 (aged 18-23 years) and 2012 (aged 34-39 years). Determinants of BMI maintenance were estimated using binary logistic regression and generalized estimating equations in 2015. Almost 60% remained in the healthy BMI category from 1996 to 2012, (mean weight gain, 0.19 kg/year), 29% transitioned to overweight BMI (0.83 kg/year), and 11.6% transitioned to obese (1.73 kg/year). The mean rates of annual weight gain in each group were consistent over time. Only three factors (low alcohol, moderate/high physical activity, having a university degree) were positively associated with maintaining a healthy BMI. Additional behavioral factors (smoking, high sitting time, energy intake, dieting, takeaway food, and use of oral contraceptives), as well as blue collar occupation, separation/divorce/widowhood, and major illness were negatively associated with BMI maintenance. To prevent the transition from healthy to overweight/obese BMI, weight gain must be limited to healthy BMI, but with higher rates of weight gain in their early 20s, could be identified by health professionals for assistance with prevention of becoming overweight/obese. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthy lifestyle and leukocyte telomere length in U.S. women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sun

    Full Text Available Whether a healthy lifestyle may be associated with longer telomere length is largely unknown.To examine healthy lifestyle practices, which are primary prevention measures against major age-related chronic diseases, in relation to leukocyte telomere length.Cross-sectional analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS.The population consisted of 5,862 women who participated in multiple prospective case-control studies within the NHS cohort. Z scores of leukocyte telomere length were derived within each case-control study. Based on prior work, we defined low-risk or healthy categories for five major modifiable factors assessed in 1988 or 1990: non-current smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight (body mass index in 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2, engaging in regular moderate or vigorous physical activities (≥150 minutes/week, drinking alcohol in moderation (1 drink/week to <2 drinks/day, and eating a healthy diet (Alternate Healthy Eating Index score in top 50%. We calculated difference (% of the z scores contrasting low-risk groups with reference groups to evaluate the association of interest.Although none of the individual low-risk factors was significantly associated with larger leukocyte telomere length z scores, we observed a significant, positive relationship between the number of low-risk factors and the z scores. In comparison with women who had zero low-risk factors (1.9% of the total population and were, therefore, considered the least healthy group, the leukocyte telomere length z scores were 16.4%, 22.1%, 28.7%, 22.6%, and 31.2% (P for trend = 0.015 higher for women who had 1 to 5 low-risk factors, respectively.Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, defined by major modifiable risk factors, was associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes.

  16. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  17. Healthy food consumption in young women: The influence of others’ eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  18. Possible consequences of applying guidelines to healthy women with a family history of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asperen, CJ; Tollenaar, RAEM; Krol-Warmerdam, EMM; Blom, Jannet; Hoogendoorn, WE; Seynaeve, CMJC; Brekelmans, CTM; Devilee, P; Cornelisse, CJ; Klijn, JGM; de Bock, GH

    Possible effects of consistently applying published guidelines on healthy women with breast cancer in their family history were analysed. We investigated 1060 unrelated breast cancer patients and calculated the numbers of first-degree relatives that would be referred to a familial cancer clinic if

  19. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mousavi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: L. crispatus, L. rhamnosus, and L. gasseri were the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in Iran. L. rhamnosus attached more readily to the cells than did the other species; therefore, this isolate is a good candidate for further studies on the potential health benefits and application of lactobacilli as probiotics.