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Sample records for healthy mood states

  1. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults

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    Elmira Ismaylova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN. A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  2. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults.

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    Ismaylova, Elmira; Di Sante, Jessica; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pomares, Florence B; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN). A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years) regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  3. Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls.

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    Salomon, Kristen; Bylsma, Lauren M; White, Kristi E; Panaite, Vanessa; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Prior work has repeatedly demonstrated that people who have current major depression exhibit blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors (e.g., Salomon et al., 2009). A key question regards the psychobiological basis for these deficits, including whether such deficits are depressed mood-state dependent or whether these effects are trait-like and are observed outside of depression episodes in vulnerable individuals. To examine this issue, we assessed cardiovascular reactivity to a speech stressor task and a forehead cold pressor in 50 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD), 25 with remitted major depression (RMD), and 45 healthy controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and impedance cardiography were assessed and analyses controlled for BMI and sex. Significant group effects were found for SBP, HR, and PEP for the speech preparation period and HR, CO, and PEP during the speech. For each of these parameters, only the MDD group exhibited attenuated reactivity as well as impaired SBP recovery. Reactivity and recovery in the RMD group more closely resembled the healthy controls. Speeches given by the MDD group were rated as less persuasive than the RMD or healthy controls' speeches. No significant differences were found for the cold pressor. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery in current major depression may be mood-state dependent phenomena and may be more reflective of motivational deficits than deficits in the physiological integrity of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise Improves Mood State in Normobaric Hypoxia.

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    Seo, Yongsuk; Fennell, Curtis; Burns, Keith; Pollock, Brandon S; Gunstad, John; McDaniel, John; Glickman, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of using exercise to alleviate the impairments in mood state associated with hypoxic exposure. Nineteen young, healthy men completed Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4(th) Edition (ANAM4) versions of the mood state test before hypoxia exposure, after 60 min of hypoxia exposure (12.5% O(2)), and during and after two intensities of cycling exercise (40% and 60% adjusted Vo(2max)) under the same hypoxic conditions. Peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSo(2)) were continuously monitored. At rest in hypoxia, Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) was significantly increased compared to baseline in both the 40% and 60% groups. TMD was significantly decreased during exercise compared to rest in hypoxia. TMD was also significantly decreased during recovery compared to rest in hypoxia. Spo(2) significantly decreased at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation was also reduced at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. The current study demonstrated that exercise at 40% and 60% of adjusted Vo(2max) attenuated the adverse effects of hypoxia on mood. These findings may have significant applied value, as negative mood states are known to impair performance in hypoxia. Further studies are needed to replicate the current finding and to clarify the possible mechanisms associated with the potential benefits of exercise on mood state in normobaric hypoxia.

  5. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

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    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  6. Exercise performed at hypoxia influences mood state and anxiety symptoms

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    Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.

  7. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks

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    Hill, E. M.; Griffiths, F. E.; House, T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depr...

  8. Cytokines and mood in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A link between chronic inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been demonstrated previously. For example, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have shown to impact neurocircuits relevant to mood regulation. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with the

  9. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

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    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on emotional processing and mood in healthy humans

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    Michael A. Nitsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no major effect, and the effects of tDCS are mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of prefrontal tDCS on mood and mood-related cognitive processing in healthy humans. In a first study, we administered excitability-enhancing anodal, excitability-diminishing cathodal and placebo tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, combined with antagonistic stimulation of the right frontopolar cortex, and tested acute mood changes by an adjective checklist. Subjective mood was not influenced by tDCS. Emotional face identification, however, which was explored in a second experiment, was subtly improved by a tDCS-driven excitability modulation of the prefrontal cortex, markedly by anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for positive emotional content. We conclude that tDCS of the prefrontal cortex improves mood processing in healthy subjects, but does not influence subjective mood state.

  11. A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Four-Arm Parallel Study Investigating the Effect of a Broad-Spectrum Wellness Beverage on Mood State in Healthy, Moderately Stressed Adults.

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    Evans, Malkanthi; Antony, Joseph; Guthrie, Najla; Landes, Bernie; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a broad-spectrum wellness beverage (Zeal Wellness [ZW]) on standardized measures of mood states, including overall feelings of vitality, in healthy, moderately stressed adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 99 eligible participants prescreened for moderate stress. Participants were randomized to one of four groups and received ZW once daily (1-dose-ZW; 14 g), ZW twice daily (2-dose-ZW; 28 g), placebo once daily (1-dose-placebo), or placebo twice daily (2-dose-placebo) for 4 weeks. A stress/vitality questionnaire assessed stress and the Profile of Moods (POMS) Questionnaire assessed vigor via mental/physical energy and global mood state. Safety was assessed by clinical chemistry, liver, kidney function, and anthropometric measures and adverse event reporting. Participants receiving 2-dose-ZW reported a 6.6% decrease in scores on POMS-Total Mood Disturbance (TMD; p < 0.05) and a 6.8% decrease in the anger-hostility mood state (p < 0.022) compared to the combined placebo group at day 29. The 2-dose-ZW provided a 12.8% greater improvement in POMS-TMD scores when compared to participants receiving 1-dose-ZW after 28 days of supplementation (p = 0.014). Within groups, there was a 22.4% and a 9.6% decrease in POMS-TMD scores in participants with 2-dose-ZW and 1-dose-ZW, respectively. In addition, participants receiving 2-dose-ZW showed significant improvements (p = 0.001) in the POMS t-score iceberg profile, which represented a shift to a more healthy profile. These data show that daily supplementation with 2-dose-ZW significantly decreased POMS-TMD scores and anger-hostility mood state and shifted the POMS iceberg profile to a healthy profile compared to the combined placebo, reflecting the functional benefit of rice-bran-fruit-vegetable extracts based beverage on health.

  12. Peripheral inflammation during abnormal mood states in bipolar I disorder.

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    Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Prossin, Alan R; Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2015-11-15

    Bipolar disorder carries a substantive morbidity and mortality burden, particularly related to cardiovascular disease. Abnormalities in peripheral inflammatory markers, which have been commonly reported in case-control studies, potentially link these co-morbidities. However, it is not clear whether inflammatory markers change episodically in response to mood states or are indicative of chronic pro-inflammatory activity, regardless of mood, in bipolar disorder. Investigations focused on comparing concentrations of specific inflammatory cytokines associated with immune activation status (primary outcome=tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in 37 participants with bipolar disorder across 3 mood states (mania N=15, depression N=9, normal mood N=13) and 29 controls without a psychiatric disorder (total N=66). Cytokine levels were also compared to T1ρ, a potential neuroimaging marker for inflammation, in select brain regions in a subsample (N=39). Participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls did not differ significantly in inflammatory cytokine concentrations. However, compared to cases with normal mood, cases with abnormal mood states (mania and depression) had significantly elevated levels of TNF-α, its soluble receptors (sTNFR1/sTNFR2), other macrophage-derived cytokines (interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) in addition to IL-4, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, fibroblast growth factor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Cytokine levels were not correlated with signals from T1ρ imaging in selected structures (amygdalae, hippocampi, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus). Participants were not followed prospectively across mood states. Activation of inflammatory markers was found in abnormal mood states of bipolar disorder. Longitudinal study of individuals with mood disorders is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the time course of any such changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  13. Mood state effects of chocolate.

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    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  14. Psilocybin-Induced Decrease in Amygdala Reactivity Correlates with Enhanced Positive Mood in Healthy Volunteers.

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    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Preller, Katrin H; Scheidegger, Milan; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2015-10-15

    The amygdala is a key structure in serotonergic emotion-processing circuits. In healthy volunteers, acute administration of the serotonin 1A/2A/2C receptor agonist psilocybin reduces neural responses to negative stimuli and induces mood changes toward positive states. However, it is little-known whether psilocybin reduces amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli and whether any change in amygdala reactivity is related to mood change. This study assessed the effects of acute administration of the hallucinogen psilocybin (.16 mg/kg) versus placebo on amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli in 25 healthy volunteers using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mood changes were assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used with volunteers counterbalanced to receive psilocybin and placebo in two separate sessions at least 14 days apart. Amygdala reactivity to negative and neutral stimuli was lower after psilocybin administration than after placebo administration. The psilocybin-induced attenuation of right amygdala reactivity in response to negative stimuli was related to the psilocybin-induced increase in positive mood state. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with psilocybin decreased amygdala reactivity during emotion processing and that this was associated with an increase of positive mood in healthy volunteers. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of amygdala hyperactivity and negative mood states in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

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    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Cytomegalovirus Antibody Elevation in Bipolar Disorder: Relation to Elevated Mood States

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    A. R. Prossin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of mood states is complicated by exposure to everyday stressors (e.g., psychosocial, ubiquitous environmental infections like CMV, each fluctuating between latency and reactivation. CMV reactivation induces proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α associated with induction of neurotoxic metabolites and the presence of mood states in bipolar disorder (BD. Whether CMV reactivation is associated with bipolar diagnoses (trait or specific mood states is unclear. We investigated 139 BD type I and 99 healthy controls to determine if concentrations of IgG antibodies to Herpesviridae (e.g., CMV, HSV-1, and HSV-2 were associated with BD-I diagnosis and specific mood states. We found higher CMV antibody concentration in BD-I than in healthy controls (T234=3.1, Puncorr=0.002; Pcorr=0.006 but no difference in HSV-1 (P>0.10 or HSV-2 (P>0.10. Compared to euthymic BD-I volunteers, CMV IgG was higher in BD-I volunteers with elevated moods (P0.10. While relationships presented between BD-I diagnosis, mood states, and CMV antibodies are encouraging, they are limited by the study’s cross sectional nature. Nevertheless, further testing is warranted to replicate findings and determine whether reactivation of CMV infection exacerbates elevated mood states in BD-I.

  17. Mean diffusivity of basal ganglia and thalamus specifically associated with motivational states among mood states.

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    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-03-01

    Previously, we proposed that the mean diffusivity (MD), a measure of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in areas of the dopaminergic system (MDDS), is associated with motivation. In this study, we tested if and how the motivational state is associated with MD in comparison with other mood states. We also tested the associations of these mood states with multiple cognitive functions. We examined these issues in 766 right-handed healthy young adults. We employed analyses of MD and a psychological measure of the profile of mood states (POMS) as well as multiple cognitive functions. We detected associations between the higher Vigor subscale of POMS and lower MD in the right globus pallidum, right putamen to right posterior insula, right caudate body, and right thalamus, and these associations were highly specific to the Vigor subscale. Similarly, the association of the motivational state with creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) was rather specific and prominent compared with that of the other mood states and cognitive functions. In conclusion, when affective states are finely divided, only the motivational state is associated with MD in the areas related to the dopaminergic system, and psychological mechanisms that had been associated with dopaminergic system (CMDT). These results suggest that these mechanisms specifically contribute to the motivational state and not to the other states, such as depression and anxiety.

  18. The relationship between burnout and mood state among student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mood state changes are widely regarded as a symptom of athlete burnout and show potential to be used as a marker for this condition. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in burnout scores would be accompanied by similar changes in mood state scores, and to determine the strength of the relationship ...

  19. Incidental mood state before dissonance induction affects attitude change.

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    Marie-Amélie Martinie

    Full Text Available The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive, participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.

  20. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

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    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

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    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  2. The effects of experimentally-induced sad and happy mood on sexual arousal in sexually healthy women.

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    ter Kuile, Moniek M; Both, Stephanie; van Uden, Janneke

    2010-03-01

    In depressed women, common sexual difficulties include decreased sexual desire, sexual arousal and orgasmic difficulties, reduced sexual satisfaction, and reduced sexual pleasure. Experimental research on the influence of depressed mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in women is scarce. To investigate the effects of sad mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in sexually healthy women, using a mood induction procedure. Thirty-two subjects received a sad mood and a happy mood induction, on two different days, using a within subjects design. The mood induction procedure was a combination of the Velten procedure and music. In the Velten procedure, the subject is asked to read sad or happy self-referent sentences and to experience the mood suggested by these sentences. Immediately following mood induction, the subjects were exposed to an erotic film clip. Genital arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-report ratings of sad and happy mood, subjective sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected before and after the erotic clip. The sad and happy mood ratings indicated that the mood inductions affected mood as intended. No difference in genital sexual arousal was found between the sad and happy mood conditions. Subjects reported significantly less subjective sexual arousal and positive affect and marginally significant fewer genital sensations and more negative affect in the sad mood condition than in the happy mood condition. The results provide empirical support for the idea that mood can impact on subjective sexual arousal in women.

  3. Dose-response investigation into glucose facilitation of memory performance and mood in healthy young adults.

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    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.

  4. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

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    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    : In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn......RHa on daily mood. RESULTS: GnRHa induced an increase in simple reaction time (p=0.03) and more pronounced fluctuations in daily self-reported mood in a manner dependent on baseline mood (p=0.003). Verbal affective memory recall, overall self-perceived mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding were...

  6. The Effects of Four-Week Multivitamin Supplementation on Mood in Healthy Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Helen Macpherson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Nutritional deficiencies have been associated with cognitive decline and mood disturbances. Vitamin intake can influence mood and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that multivitamin supplements are capable of reducing mild symptoms of mood dysfunction. However, few studies have focussed on healthy older women. Methods. This study investigated the effects of four weeks’ multivitamin supplementation on mood in 76 healthy women aged 50–75 years. Mood was assessed before and after intervention in the laboratory using measures of current mood and retrospective experiences of mood over the past week or longer. Mobile phones were used to assess changes in real-time mood ratings, twice weekly in the home. Results. There were no multivitamin-related benefits identified for measures of current mood or reflections of recent mood when measured in the laboratory. In-home assessments, where mood was rated several hours after dose, revealed multivitamin supplementation improved ratings of stress, with a trend to reduce mental fatigue. Conclusions. Over four weeks, subtle changes to stress produced by multivitamin supplementation in healthy older women may not be detected when only pre- and posttreatment mood is captured. In-home mobile phone-based assessments may be more sensitive to the effects of nutritional interventions compared to traditional in-laboratory assessments.

  7. Relationship between sleep and mood states among student-athlete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep and mood states on student-athlete. The respondent consists of 89 student-athletes from MajlisSukanNegeri, Perak. There were 53 male respondent (59.3%) and 36 female respondent (40.4%). These respondent were range from age 13 to 21 years old are chosen ...

  8. Yerba Mat? (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Yerba Mat? (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measu...

  9. Effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood, sleep, and depression in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Rentero-Blanco, Manuel; Laredo-Aguilera, Jose Alberto; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood state, sleep, and depression in older adults. In this study, 52 elderly adults from different areas of Spain participated in a social hydrotherapy programme created by the government's Institute for Elderly and Social Services, known as IMSERSO; participants included 23 men (age, 69.74 ± 5.19 years) and 29 women (age, 70.31 ± 6.76 years). Pain was analyzed using the visual analogue scale. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood Status. Sleep was assessed using the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The balneotherapy programme was undertaken at Balneario San Andrés (Jaén, Spain). The water at Balneario San Andrés, according to the Handbook of Spanish Mineral Water, is a hypothermic (≥20°C) hard water of medium mineralization, with bicarbonate, sulfate, sodium, and magnesium as the dominant ions. Balneotherapy produced significant improvements (P balneotherapy programme has a positive effect on pain, mood, sleep quality, and depression in healthy older people. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Vestibular stimulation on a motion-simulator impacts on mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta eWinter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We are familiar with both pleasant and unpleasant psychotropic effects of movements associated with vestibular stimulation. However, there has been no attempt to scientifically explore the impact of different kinds of vestibular stimulation on mood states and biomarkers.A sample of 23 healthy volunteers were subjected to a random sequence of three different passive rotational (yaw, pitch, roll and translational (heave, sway, surge vestibular stimulation paradigms using a motion-simulator (hexapod. Mood states were measured by means of questionnaires and visual analogue scales. In addition, saliva cortisol and α-amylase samples were taken.Compared to a subliminal control paradigm all rotational and two translational stimulations produced significant changes in mood states: Yaw rotation was associated with feeling more comfortable, pitch rotation with feeling more alert and energetic, and roll rotation with feeling less comfortable. Heave translation was associated with feeling more alert, less relaxed, and less comfortable and surge translation with feeling more alert. Biomarkers were not affected.In conclusion, we provide first experimental evidence that passive rotational and translational movements may influence mood states on a short term basis and that the quality of these psychotropic effects may depend on the plane and axis of the respective movements.

  11. Interaction between emotional state and learning underlies mood instability

    OpenAIRE

    Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotion...

  12. Acute and medium term effects of a ten-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eWalter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants´ physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined.The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks.To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on three days a week at five times of measurement within twelve weeks. Participants´ physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p=.07; η2=.27. However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training.Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the

  13. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  14. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  15. Alterations of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in bipolar disorder mood states detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Mani, Merry; Shaffer, Joseph J; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2018-01-07

    Quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique sensitive to pH and other cellular and microstructural factors, and is a potentially valuable tool for identifying brain alterations in bipolar disorder. Recently, this technique identified differences in the cerebellum and cerebral white matter of euthymic patients vs healthy controls that were consistent with reduced pH in these regions, suggesting an underlying metabolic abnormality. The current study built upon this prior work to investigate brain T1ρ differences across euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states of bipolar disorder. Forty participants with bipolar I disorder and 29 healthy control participants matched for age and gender were enrolled. Participants with bipolar disorder were imaged in one or more mood states, yielding 27, 12, and 13 imaging sessions in euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states, respectively. Three-dimensional, whole-brain anatomical images and T1ρ maps were acquired for all participants, enabling voxel-wise evaluation of T1ρ differences between bipolar mood state and healthy control groups. All three mood state groups had increased T1ρ relaxation times in the cerebellum compared to the healthy control group. Additionally, the depressed and manic groups had reduced T1ρ relaxation times in and around the basal ganglia compared to the control and euthymic groups. The study implicated the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and its mood states, the roles of which are relatively unexplored. These findings motivate further investigation of the underlying cause of the abnormalities, and the potential role of altered metabolic activity in these regions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Combined Effect of Caffeine and Ornithine on the Mood of Healthy Office Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaizu, Akane; Kokubo, Takeshi; Tazumi, Kyoko; Kanayama, Masaya; Miura, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed and well known for stimulating the central nervous system. When developing new foods and beverages that contain caffeine, it is important to explore the potential synergistic effects of consuming amino acids and other food ingredients with caffeine on humans. Given the physiological pathways affected by the amino acid ornithine, consumption of ornithine with caffeine may have synergistic effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of consuming caffeine with ornithine in humans. The study used a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover design. The subjects were all healthy office workers who ingested the placebo, 100 mg caffeine, or 100 mg caffeine plus 200 mg ornithine in the morning and completed questionnaires about their mood. Office workers who consumed the combination of caffeine and ornithine had higher mood ratings 8 h after consumption than office workers who consumed caffeine alone. The results of the present study suggest that there is a unique synergistic effect between caffeine and ornithine on the mood of healthy office workers and that ornithine may potentiate the effects of caffeine. PMID:25580405

  17. Low levels of maximal aerobic power impair the profile of mood state in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Vancini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation between cardiorespiratory fitness and mood state in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method Individuals with TLE (n = 20 and healthy control subjects (C, n = 20 were evaluated. Self-rating questionnaires were used to assess mood (POMS and habitual physical activity (BAECKE. Cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by a maximal incremental test. Results People with TLE presented lower cardiorespiratory fitness; higher levels of mood disorders; and lower levels of vigor when compared to control health subjects. A significant negative correlation was observed between the levels of tension-anxiety and maximal aerobic power. Conclusion Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness may modify the health status of individuals with TLE and it may be considered a risk factor for the development of mood disorders.

  18. Sad mood induction has an opposite effect on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Jiri; Mikolas, Pavol; Tintera, Jaroslav; Novak, Tomas; Palenicek, Tomas; Brunovsky, Martin; Höschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Aberrant amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli represents a candidate factor predisposing patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to relapse, but it is unclear to what extent amygdala reactivity is state-dependent. We evaluated the modulatory influence of mood on amygdala reactivity and functional connectivity in patients with remitted BD and healthy controls. Amygdala response to sad versus neutral faces was investigated using fMRI during periods of normal and sad mood induced by autobiographical scripts. We assessed the functional connectivity of the amygdala to characterize the influence of mood state on the network responsible for the amygdala response. We included 20 patients with remitted BD and 20 controls in our study. The sad and normal mood exerted opposite effects on the amygdala response to emotional faces in patients compared with controls (F1,38 = 5.85, p = 0.020). Sad mood amplified the amygdala response to sad facial stimuli in controls but attenuated the amygdala response in patients. The groups differed in functional connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior prefrontal gyrus (p ≤ 0.05, family-wise error-corrected) of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) corresponding to Brodmann area 47. The sad mood challenge increased connectivity during the period of processing sad faces in patients but decreased connectivity in controls. Limitations to our study included long-term medication use in the patient group and the fact that we mapped only depressive (not manic) reactivity. Our results support the role of the amygdala-vlPFC as the system of dysfunctional contextual affective processing in patients with BD. Opposite amygdala reactivity unmasked by the mood challenge paradigm could represent a trait marker of altered mood regulation in patients with BD.

  19. Oral contraceptives positively affect mood in healthy PMS-free women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; de Rover, Mischa; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-12-01

    Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives (OC) use influence mood and cognition and these effects may be moderated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) genotype. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on mood may be increased if participants know that this is the focus of study. We assessed aspects associated with reproductive depression such as mood, interpersonal sensitivity, affect lability and depressive cognitions in MR-genotyped OC-users and naturally cycling (NC) women in a carefully masked design. A homogenous sample of healthy, PMS-free, pre-menopausal MR-genotyped women (n=92) completed online questionnaires eight times during two consecutive cycles. The masking of the research question was successful. OC-users did not differ significantly from NC women in positive and negative affect at the time of assessment, personality characteristics (e.g. neuroticism) or mental and physical health. Both groups reported more shifts in anger in the first cycle week (pemotional blunting effect, which is in line with previous reports on affect-stabilizing effects of OC. Limitations were loss of cases due to irregularities in the menstrual cycle length and possible confounding by the 'survivor effect', since almost all OC-users took OC for more than a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Mark; Cook, Jenny; Wesnes, Keith; Duckett, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and rosemary (Rosmarlnus officinalis) on cognitive performance and mood in healthy volunteers. One hundred and forty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three independent groups, and subsequently performed the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery in a cubicle containing either one of the two odors or no odor (control). Visual analogue mood questionnaires were completed prior to exposure to the odor, and subsequently after completion of the test battery. The participants were deceived as to the genuine aim of the study until the completion of testing to prevent expectancy effects from possibly influencing the data. The outcome variables from the nine tasks that constitute the CDR core battery feed into six factors that represent different aspects of cognitive functioning. Analysis of performance revealed that lavender produced a significant decrement in performance of working memory, and impaired reaction times for both memory and attention based tasks compared to controls. In contrast, rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to controls. With regard to mood, comparisons of the change in ratings from baseline to post-test revealed that following the completion of the cognitive assessment battery, both the control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary condition; however, the control group was significantly less content than both rosemary and lavender conditions. These findings indicate that the olfactory properties of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance, as well as subjective effects on mood.

  1. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  2. The relationship between mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Margaret A; Andrewes, David G

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood induction on mood state, interpersonal attitudes, psychological distress and related cognitive and emotional processing deficits. Compared with the neutral mood induction condition, the positive mood induction significantly improved mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress, irrespective of cognitive and emotional processing deficits. The nonverbal material was effective for all patients but was more marked for the left hemisphere stroke group. There was no obvious influence of humour appreciation despite reduced understanding in the right hemisphere stroke group. Although the effect is likely to be short-lived, these results support the trial of positive mood induction within therapy programmes to relieve depression.

  3. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  4. Two Days' Sleep Debt Causes Mood Decline During Resting State Via Diminished Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Yuki; Katsunuma, Ruri; Yoshimura, Michitaka; Mishima, Kazuo

    2017-10-01

    Sleep debt (SD) has been suggested to evoke emotional instability by diminishing the suppression of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Here, we investigated how short-term SD affects resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC, self-reported mood, and sleep parameters. Eighteen healthy adult men aged 29 ± 8.24 years participated in a 2-day sleep control session (SC; time in bed [TIB], 9 hours) and 2-day SD session (TIB, 3 hours). On day 2 of each session, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed, followed immediately by measuring self-reported mood on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale (STAI-S). STAI-S score was significantly increased, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC was significantly decreased in SD compared with SC. Significant correlations were observed between reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced left amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity (FCL_amg-MPFC) and between reduced FCL_amg-MPFC and increased STAI-S score in SD compared with SC. These findings suggest that reduced MPFC functional connectivity of amygdala activity is involved in mood deterioration under SD, and that REM sleep reduction is involved in functional changes in the corresponding brain regions. Having adequate REM sleep may be important for mental health maintenance. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Contextual Variations in Negative Mood and State Self-Esteem: What Role Do Peers Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the link between peer problems in school and contextual variations in negative mood and state self-esteem over a 5-day period. Fifth-grade children completed measures of mood and state self-esteem while they were at home in the morning and while they were at school each day, allowing for an examination of whether psychological…

  6. Bipolar mood state reflected in cortico-amygdala resting state connectivity: A cohort and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Roscoe O; Margolis, Allison; Masters, Grace A; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-08-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states. We measured differences in amygdala connectivity between the mania and euthymia cohorts. We then used these regions of altered connectivity to examine connectivity in the longitudinal bipolar group using a within-subjects design. Our findings in the mania vs euthymia cohort comparison were replicated in the longitudinal analysis. Bipolar mania was differentiated from euthymia by decreased connectivity between the amygdala and pre-genual anterior cingulate cortex. Mania was also characterized by increased connectivity between amygdala and the supplemental motor area, a region normally anti-correlated to the amygdala in emotion regulation tasks. Stringent controls for movement effects limited the number of subjects in the longitudinal sample. In this first report of rsfMRI conducted longitudinally across mood states, we find that previously observed between-group differences in amygdala connectivity are also found longitudinally within subjects. These results suggest resting state cortico-amygdala connectivity is a biomarker of mood state in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  8. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  9. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  10. The relationship between burnout and mood state among student rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Grobbelaar, H.W.; Malan, D.D.J.; Steyn, B.J.M.; Ellis, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mood state changes are widely regarded as a symptom of athlete burnout and show potential to be used as a marker for this condition. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in burnout scores would be accompanied by similar changes in mood state scores, and to determine the strength of the relationship between burnout and mood state scores at different test points. Forty-one male student rugby union players (mean age: 22.26 ± 1.39 years) completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnai...

  11. Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Darancó, Stefaniá; Moshagen, Morten

    2016-10-30

    Pathological buying is characterized by irrepressible buying behaviour and its negative consequences. A possible mechanism contributing to its development and maintenance is that buying episodes act as a maladaptive strategy to cope with negative emotions. Accordingly, pathological buying has been repeatedly associated with impulsivity, in particular with the tendency to experience strong reactions under negative affect. Relying on an experimental mood induction procedure, the present study tested in a sample of 100 individuals (a) whether individuals with pathological buying symptoms respond more impulsively in the Go/No-Go Task (as a measure of the behavioural inhibition aspect of impulsivity) and (b) whether this association is more pronounced in a negative mood. While controlling for comorbidities, the results show that pathological buying is associated with faster responses and a larger number of commission errors. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that the association between pathological buying and performance the Go/No-Go Task was stronger in the negative mood condition. The present study thus shows that pathological buying is associated with deficits in the behavioural inhibition component of impulsivity. These deficits are most pronounced when mood is negative; in turn, this provides an explanation for the occurrence of excessive buying episodes following negative affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    R. Martins; F. Rosado; M.R. Cunha; M. Martins; A.M. Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after...

  13. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Almudena Ramírez Balas; Rafael Timón Andrada; Guillermo J. Olcina Camacho; Diego Muñoz Marín; María Concepción Robles Gil; Marcos Maynar Mariño

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10) and over 35 years (n = 10). The experimental subjects under...

  14. Bipolar disorder and related mood states are not associated with endothelial function of small arteries in adults without heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Brian; Abosi, Oluchi; Schmitz, Samantha; Myers, Janie; Pierce, Gary L; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    Individuals with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This study aimed to assess endothelial function and wave reflection, a risk factor for CVD, as measured by finger plethysmography in bipolar disorder to investigate whether CVD risk was higher in bipolar disorder and altered during acute mood episodes. We hypothesized that EndoPAT would detect a lower reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and higher augmentation index (AIX) in individuals with bipolar disorder compared with controls. Second, we predicted lower RHI and higher AIX during acute mood episodes. Reactive hyperemia index and augmentation index, measures of microvascular endothelial function and arterial pressure wave reflection respectively, were assessed using the EndoPAT 2000 device in a sample of 56 participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder with 82 measures spanning different mood states (mania, depression, euthymia) and cross-sectionally in 26 healthy controls. RHI and AIX were not different between adults with and without bipolar disorder (mean age 40.3 vs. 41.2years; RHI: 2.04±0.67 vs. 2.05±0.51; AIX@75 (AIX adjusted for heart rate of 75): 1.4±19.7 vs. 0.8±22.4). When modeled in linear mixed models with a random intercept (to account for repeated observations of persons with bipolar disorder) and adjusting for age and sex, there were no significant differences between those with bipolar disorder and controls (p=0.89 for RHI; p=0.85 for AIX@75). Microvascular endothelial function and wave reflection estimated by finger plethysmography were unable to detect differences between adults with and without bipolar disorder or changes with mood states. Future research is necessary to identify more proximal and sensitive, yet relevant, biomarkers of abnormal mood-related influences on CVD risk or must target higher risk samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Competitive athletes: preinjury and postinjury mood state and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Stuart, M J; Wiese-Bjornstal, D M; Milliner, E K; O'Fallon, W M; Crowson, C S

    1993-10-01

    In a prospective study, we determined whether preinjury and postinjury differences existed in the mood state and self-esteem of competitive athletes. The influence of severity of injury, gender, level of participation in sports, and type of sport on these dependent variables was also measured. Among 238 male and 38 female athletes from hockey, basketball, baseball, and volleyball teams, 36 sustained 43 injuries. Significant postinjury increases were noted for depression (P self-esteem--only level of participation (P < 0.0001) and type of sport (P = 0.0004) were predictors of injury. The significant preinjury and postinjury differences in mood state suggest that postinjury mood disturbances reported in previous studies are likely attributable to the occurrence of injury, are related to the severity of injury, and do not merely reflect a disturbed preinjury mood.

  16. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation affects mood state but not levels of peripheral neurotrophic factors or hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee-Tae; So, Wi-Young

    2017-01-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is reported to aid in relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety, though the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and levels of neurotrophic factors, as well as changes in mood state, in patients undergoing CES therapy. Fifty healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to either a Sham CES group (n = 25) or an Active CES group (n = 25). CES treatment was conducted in 20-minute sessions, three times per week for 8 weeks, using a micro current cranial electrotherapy stimulator. Blood samples were collected prior to and following the 8-week treatment period for measurement of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. Changes in mood state were also examined at the time of blood collection using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). No significant differences in cortisol, ACTH, BDNF, or NGF were observed between the two participant groups (p > 0.05) following the treatment period. However, those in the Active CES group exhibited significantly decreased Tension-Anxiety and Depression-Dejection scores on the POMS relative to pre-treatment scores (p 0.05). These results suggest that 8 weeks of CES treatment does not induce changes in blood levels of neurotrophic factors or HPA-axis-related hormones, though such treatment may be effective in treating symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: effects on memory, mood, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Keri; Mowszowski, Loren; Cockayne, Nicole; Norrie, Louisa; Paradise, Matthew; Hermens, Daniel F; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in the ageing population and absence of a cure for dementia, cost-effective prevention strategies for those 'at risk' of dementia including those with depression and/or mild cognitive impairment are urgently required. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multifaceted Healthy Brain Ageing Cognitive Training (HBA-CT) program for older adults 'at risk' of dementia. Using a single-blinded design, 64 participants (mean age = 66.5 years, SD = 8.6) were randomized to an immediate treatment (HBA-CT) or treatment-as-usual control arm. The HBA-CT intervention was conducted twice-weekly for seven weeks and comprised group-based psychoeducation about cognitive strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors pertaining to healthy brain ageing, and computerized cognitive training. In comparison to the treatment-as-usual control arm, the HBA-CT program was associated with improvements in verbal memory (p = 0.03), self-reported memory (p = 0.03), mood (p = 0.01), and sleep (p = 0.01). While the improvements in memory (p = 0.03) and sleep (p = 0.02) remained after controlling for improvements in mood, only a trend in verbal memory improvement was apparent after controlling for sleep. The HBA-CT program improves cognitive, mood, and sleep functions in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, and therefore offers promise as a secondary prevention strategy.

  18. Dinâmicas sociais e estados de humor Social dynamics and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rebustini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as relações das dinâmicas sociais (família, amigos e escola; i.e., três fatores sociais sobre os estados de humor. A pesquisa foi realizada com uma equipe feminina de voleibol (14/15 anos. Aplicou-se o teste POMS (Profile of Mood States para mensurar os estados de humor. Foi utilizada uma escala de 1 (muito mal a 5 (muito bem para que as atletas avaliassem cada um dos três fatores. Os resultados apontaram correlações significativas entre as escalas e os estados de humor; e diferenças significativas entre os níveis de intensidade apontados na escala dos três fatores e os estados de humor. Os resultados indicam clara interferência das dinâmicas sociais sobre os estados de humor, portanto, as interferências sociais não podem ser descartadas na preparação do atleta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social dynamics (family, friends and school; i.e., three social factors on mood states. The survey was conducted with a women's volleyball team (14/15 years. The POMS test (Profile of Mood States was employed to measure the team's mood states. The athletes assessed the three factors by the use of a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good. Results showed significant correlations between scales and mood states, and significant differences between the intensity levels representing their moods for each of the three factors. The results show clear interference of social dynamics on the mood states. Therefore, social interference cannot be ignored during an athlete's training program.

  19. Effects of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Sartini Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness at the beginning and end of the shift. METHOD Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study.It was conducted with 70 neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS, and a socio-demographic profile questionnaire were administered. RESULTS When the KSS and BRUMS scores were compared at the beginning of the shift associations were found with previous sleep quality (p ≤ 0.01, and quality of life (p ≤ 0.05. Statistical significant effects on BRUMS scores were also associated with previous sleep quality, quality of life, liquid ingestion, healthy diet, marital status, and shift work stress. When the beginning and end of the shift were compared, different KSS scores were seen in the group of all nurses and in the night shift one. Significant vigor and fatigue scores were observed within shift groups. CONCLUSION A good night’s sleep has positive effects on the individual`s mood states both at the beginning and the end of the shift. The self-perception of a good quality of life also positively influenced KSS and BRUMS scores at the beginning and end of the shift. Proper liquid ingestion led to better KSS and BRUMS scores.

  20. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  1. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Kras, Marni; Nolidin, Karen; Gibbs, Amy; Wesnes, Keith; Stough, Con

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa polyphenols on cognition and mood. In a randomized, double-blind study, healthy middle-aged participants received a dark chocolate drink mix standardized to contain 500 mg, 250 mg or 0 mg of polyphenols (placebo) in a parallel-groups design. Participants consumed their assigned treatment once daily for 30 days. Cognition was measured with the Cognitive Drug Research system and self-rated mood with the Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Scale. Participants were tested at baseline, at 1, 2.5 and 4 h after a single acute dose and again after receiving 30 days of treatment. In total, 72 participants completed the trial. After 30 days, the high dose of treatment significantly increased self-rated calmness and contentedness relative to placebo. Mood was unchanged by treatment acutely while cognition was unaffected by treatment at all time points. This randomized controlled trial is perhaps the first to demonstrate the positive effects of cocoa polyphenols on mood in healthy participants. This provides a rationale for exploring whether cocoa polyphenols can ameliorate the symptoms associated with clinical anxiety or depression.

  2. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after a physical exercise program. 28 subjects aged between 65 and 95 years old participated in this study. The experimental group exercised during 16 weeks, 3 times per week. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the data. The results showed positive changes on the functional fitness that reinforce the trainability principle of the older person. The data shows also an improvement in mood states and chronic positive effects on salivary IgA after the exercise program.

  3. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  4. Gestational diabetes: women's concerns, mood state, quality of life and treatment satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Panzitt, Thomas; Magnet, Eva; Stern, Christina; Lang, Uwe; Dorfer, Martha

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this observational cohort study was to explore concerns, mood state, quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction of women treated for gestational diabetes (GDM). Twenty-seven diet-treated and 18 insulin-treated women participated in a semi-structured interview and completed a series of three different questionnaires. Qualitative analysis identified "the baby's health" as dominant concern, but also as main motivational treatment factor. Treatment satisfaction was generally high and further increased, whereas QoL and mood state significantly dropped over time. Acknowledgment of women's concerns and precise information may improve treatment compliance and outcome.

  5. Mood states determine the degree of task shielding in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwosta, Katharina; Hommel, Bernhard; Goschke, Thomas; Fischer, Rico

    2013-01-01

    Current models of multitasking assume that dual-task performance and the degree of multitasking are affected by cognitive control strategies. In particular, cognitive control is assumed to regulate the amount of shielding of the prioritised task from crosstalk from the secondary task. We investigated whether and how task shielding is influenced by mood states. Participants were exposed to two short film clips, one inducing high and one inducing low arousal, of either negative or positive content. Negative mood led to stronger shielding of the prioritised task (i.e., less crosstalk) than positive mood, irrespective of arousal. These findings support the assumption that emotional states determine the parameters of cognitive control and play an important role in regulating dual-task performance.

  6. Altruism as hedonism: a social development perspective on the relationship of negative mood state and helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdini, R B; Kenrick, D T

    1976-11-01

    A study was conducted to provide a means for reconciliation of the conflicting data on the relationship of negative mood state to altruism. Whereas some studies have shown that negative mood leads to increases in altruistic action, others have shown the reverse. It was hypothesized that the inconsistency of these results was due to differences in the ages and consequent levels of socialization of the subjects employed in the earlier studies. In order to test the hypothesis, subjects from three age groups (6-8, 10-12, and 15-18 years old) were asked to think of either depressing or neutral events and were subsequently given the opportunity to be privately generous. Consistent with predictions from the negative state relief model of altruism, the youngest, least socialized subjects were somewhat less generous in the negative mood condition, but this relationship progressively reversed itself until in the oldest, most socialized group, the negative mood subjects were significantly more generous than neutral mood controls. The data were taken as support for a hedonistic conception of altruism that views adult benevolence as self-gratification. It is suggested that the reward character of benevolence derives from the socialization experience.

  7. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  8. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  9. Mood states and motor performance: a study with high performance voleybol athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p62 The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between the sporting performance and mood states of high performance volleyball athletes. Twenty-three adult athletes of both sexes were assessed. The measurement instrument adopted was the POMS questionnaire. Data collection was carried out individually during the state championships. Dada were analyzed using descriptive statistics; the Friedman test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test for differences between means. The results demonstrated that both teams exhibited the mood state profi le corresponding to the “iceberg” profile. In the male team, vigor remained constant throughout all phases of the competition, while in the female team this element was unstable. The male team’s fatigue began low, during the training phase, with rates that rose as the competition progressed, with statistically significant differences between the fi rst and last matches the team played. In the female team, the confusion factor, which was at a high level during training, reduced progressively throughout the competition, with a difference that was signifi cant to p ≤ 0.05. With relation to performance and mood profi le, the female team exhibited statistically significant differences between the mean vigor and fatigue factors of high and low performance athletes. It is therefore concluded that the mood state profi le is a factor that impacts on the motor performance of these high performance teams.

  10. Brief Report: The Factor Structure of Mood States in an Early Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Christopher J.; Cunningham, Everarda G.; Moore, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of negative mood states among young adolescents. Students (N=216) aged 11-15 years from a secondary school in Melbourne, Australia, completed the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) [Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1996). "Depression anxiety stress scales." Sydney: The…

  11. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire as an indicator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overtraining syndrome (OTS) is largely a diagnosis of exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the compact Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire as an early and accurate indicator for the diagnosis of OTS and the reliability of such findings in a group of athletes diagnosed with OTS, in comparison with a ...

  12. Seasonal variation of mood and behaviour in a healthy middle-aged population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, M; Shirakawa, S; Uchiyama, M; Oguri, M; Kohsaka, M; Mishima, K; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, H; Kamei, K; Takahashi, K

    1996-10-01

    A population survey of seasonality in six representative cities in Japan was conducted using the Japanese version of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). The questionnaires were given to 951 parents (male: female ratio 1:1 age range 34-59 years) of high-school students. Significant regional differences in seasonal variations of mood, length of sleep, and weight were observed; the proportion of individuals reporting high seasonality in the two northern cities was significantly higher than that in the other areas. These results provide evidence for a northern predominance in the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in Japan.

  13. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10 and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of mood before and after an aerobic training. A physical activity program was performed during 5 months, 3 days a week. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and with an intensity between 60 to 70 % of reserve maximum heart rate. Results indicate improves the vigor and reduces the anxiety levels in over 35 years premenopausal women; in contrast, younger than 35 years caused no significant change. The conclusion of this study is that an aerobic exercise program based in aerobics, step and toning classes, improves the mood states in over 35 years premenopausal women.

  14. Structural laterality is associated with cognitive and mood outcomes: An assessment of 105 healthy aged volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, M; Marques, P; Magalhães, R; Castanho, T C; Soares, J M; Almeida, A; Santos, N C; Sousa, N; Leite-Almeida, H

    2017-06-01

    The human brain presents multiple asymmetries that dynamically change throughout life. These phenomena have been associated with cognitive impairments and psychiatric disorders although possible associations with specific patterns of cognitive aging are yet to be determined. We have therefore mapped and quantified morphological asymmetries in a heterogeneous and aged population (65.2±8.0 years old, 52 male and 53 female) to explore potential associations between the asymmetries in specific brain regions and cognitive performance. The sample was characterized in a battery of neuropsychological tests and in terms of brain structural asymmetries using a ROI-based approach. A substantial number of brain areas presented some degree of asymmetry. Such biases survived a stringent statistical correction and were largely confirmed in a voxel-based analysis. In specific brain areas, like the thalamus and insula, asymmetry was correlated with cognition and mood descriptors as the Stroop words/colors test or depressive mood scale, respectively. Curiously in the latter, the association was independent of its left/right direction. Altogether, results reveal that asymmetry is widespread in the aged brain and that area-specific biases (degree and direction) associate with the functional profile of the individual. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth with bipolar disorder (BD and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N = 20, SMD (N = 18, and HV (N = 22 during “Aware” and “Non-aware” priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval appeared (187 ms before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms, followed by a mask (170 ms, and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders.

  16. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Bones, Brian L; Chen, Gang; Rosen, Brooke H; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV) in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N=20), SMD (N=18), and HV (N=22) during "Aware" and "Non-aware" priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval) appeared (187 ms) before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms), followed by a mask (170 ms), and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining techniques for measuring the effects of nutrients on mental performance and mood state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Dye, Louise; Siobhan Mitchell, E; Layé, Sophie; Saunders, Caroline; Boyle, Neil; Schuermans, Jeroen; Sijben, John

    2016-09-01

    Intake of specific nutrients has been linked to mental states and various indices of cognitive performance although the effects are often subtle and difficult to interpret. Measurement of so-called objective variables (e.g. reaction times) is often considered to be the gold standard for assessing outcomes in this field of research. It can, however, be argued that data on subjective experience (e.g. mood) are also important and may enrich existing objective data. The aim of this review is to evaluate methods for measuring mental performance and mood, considering the definition of subjective mood and the validity of measures of subjective experience. A multi-stakeholder expert group was invited by ILSI Europe to come to a consensus around the utility of objective and subjective measurement in this field, which forms the basis of the paper. Therefore, the present review reflects a succinct overview of the science but is not intended to be a systematic review. The proposed approach extends the traditional methodology using standard 'objective' measurements to also include the consumers' subjective experiences in relation to food. Specific recommendations include 1) using contemporary methods to capture transient mood states; 2) using sufficiently sensitive measures to capture effects of nutritional intervention; 3) considering the possibility that subjective and objective responses will occur over different time frames; and 4) recognition of the importance of expectancy and placebo effects for subjective measures. The consensus reached was that the most informative approach should involve collection and consideration of both objective and subjective data.

  18. Cortisol, testosterone and mood state variation during an official female football competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Natalina; Palmeira-DE-Oliveira, Ana; Pereira, Ana; Crisóstomo, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Costa, Aldo M

    2016-06-01

    Endogenous hormones are essential on the control of physiological reactions and adaptations during sport performance. This study aims to compare the mood state and the salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone during an official female association football tournament. Twenty female football players (22.85±4.2 years) from the Portuguese women's national team were included in the study. Mood, salivary cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five moments over the championship (M1, neutral measures; M2-M5, on every match day). Saliva samples were collected before breakfast and immediately after each match. Mood was measured by the profile of mood states questionnaire (POMS); hormone levels were measure by immunoassay methods. Iceberg Profiles of POMS were observed during all the moments of evaluation (M2-M5), showing a decrease in vigor and an increase in tension and depression in both team defeats (M2 and M5). There is no relationship between the hormones levels and the outcome of the competition, once cortisol and testosterone decrease from pre-match to post-match in both wins (M2 and M5) and defeats (M3 and M4). For testosterone the observed decrease is significantly different (Pfootball players training systematically and regularly seem to be very well adapted to competition stress effect.

  19. Emotional Mood States and the Recall of Childhood Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Kenneth P.; Haviland, Jeannette M.

    Recently some psychologists have shown a renewed interest in the relationship between cognition and emotion and have begun to examine the relationship between the representation and processing of factual and emotional information. To investigate the role of emotional state in personal memory retrieval, a study was undertaken to replicate and…

  20. Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-08-15

    Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP). FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the 30-min exercise in YM vs. PLC (0.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.06 g/min, p exercise at targeted "fat-loss"' intensities augments FAO and improves measures of satiety and mood state. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions.

  1. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G

    1995-04-04

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays.

  2. Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood states

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    Leila eChaieb

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood-states. Here we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation. We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to auditory beat stimulation and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural and binaural beat frequencies in cognition and mood-states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of auditory beat stimulation.

  3. Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood States.

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    Chaieb, Leila; Wilpert, Elke Caroline; Reber, Thomas P; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood states. Here, we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation (ABS). We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to ABS and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural-beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural- and binaural-beat frequencies in cognition and mood states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of ABS.

  4. Food and mood.

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    Ottley, C

    A number of specific nutrients and other active substances in foods are thought to have a direct impact on mood. Carol Ottley explores the evidence linking food with aspects of mood and behaviour. Areas covered include premenstrual syndrome, chocolate craving, mood swings, and how we eat in relation to specific mood states such as fear, happiness and anxiety.

  5. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

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    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  6. Altered Amygdala Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Maintenance Hemodialysis End-Stage Renal Disease Patients with Depressive Mood.

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    Chen, Hui Juan; Wang, Yun Fei; Qi, Rongfeng; Schoepf, U Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Ball, B Devon; Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiang; Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns in the amygdala-based emotional processing circuit of hemodialysis patients using resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI). Fifty hemodialysis patients (25 with depressed mood and 25 without depressed mood) and 26 healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent neuropsychological tests and rs-fMRI, and patients also underwent laboratory tests. Functional connectivity of the bilateral amygdala was compared among the three groups. The relationship between functional connectivity and clinical markers was investigated. Depressed patients showed increased positive functional connectivity of the left amygdala with the left superior temporal gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) but decreased amygdala functional connectivity with the left precuneus, angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left inferior parietal lobule compared with non-depressed patients (P amygdala with bilateral supplementary motor areas and PHG but decreased amygdala functional connectivity with the right superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, bilateral precuneus, and PCC (P amygdala (P amygdala-prefrontal-PCC-limbic circuits was impaired in depressive hemodialysis patients, with a gradual decrease in ACC between controls, non-depressed, and depressed patients for the right amygdala. This indicates that ACC plays a role in amygdala-based emotional regulatory circuits in these patients.

  7. Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

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    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions.

  8. [Adolescent daily smoking, negative mood-states and the role of family communication].

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    Martínez-Hernáez, Ángel; Marí-Klose, Marga; Julià, Albert; Escapa, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Pau; DiGiacomo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether negative mood states constitute a risk factor for daily smoking during adolescence, and to specify the role of familial factors in the association between the two variables. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample (second wave, Panel of Families and Childhood) of Catalan adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. Six logistic regression models were used for girls (n = 1,442) and six for boys (n =1,100) in order to determine whether negative mood states constitute a risk factor for daily cigarette consumption, and to what extent this effect is attributable to familial factors. The prevalence of daily smoking at ages 17-18 is 3.8% for girls and 3.6 for boys. Feelings of sadness constitute a risk factor for daily cigarette consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 1.633), and communication with the father cancels out this effect. Parental pressure is a risk factor for daily smoking in both sexes (girls, OR = 2.064; boys, OR = 1.784). When parental communication is controlled for, this effect is reduced but not canceled out. Living in a reconstituted family is a risk factor for daily cigarette consumption among boys (OR = 2.988). Intergenerational communication decreases the risk of daily tobacco use among adolescents independently of their mood state. Anti-smoking interventions designed in accordance with these findings may be more effective. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Verification of the profile of mood states-brief: cross-cultural analysis.

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    Yeun, Eun Ja; Shin-Park, Kay KongBum

    2006-09-01

    This international study investigated whether the mood states of adults can be compared between different settings and cultures using the same instrument, namely, by comparing the psychometric properties of the Profile of Mood States-Brief (POMS-B) using data gathered in the United States and Korea. The Korean research instrument was a translation of the original POMS-B, and was evaluated psychometrically for each country separately as well as for the two countries combined, based on a convenience sample of 184 adults: The POMS-B was administered to 69 native English speakers and the Korean version (K-POMS-B) was administered to 115 native Korean speakers. The mean total mood disturbance (TMD) score was 23.59 (SD = 16.7): 26.11 (SD = 15.9) for the Americans and 21.06 (SD = 17.5) for the Koreans. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high for both versions. The content validity index was 96% in the K-POMS-B. The Korean version of the POMS-B seems to be ready for use in research. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Parametric modulation of neural activity by emotion in youth with bipolar disorder, youth with severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

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    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Muhrer, Eli J; Rosen, Brooke H; Bones, Brian L; Reynolds, Richard C; Deveney, Christen M; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-12-01

    CONTEXT Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, nonepisodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation [SMD]) exhibit amygdala dysfunction during facial emotion processing. However, studies have not compared such patients with each other and with comparison individuals in neural responsiveness to subtle changes in facial emotion; the ability to process such changes is important for social cognition. To evaluate this, we used a novel, parametrically designed faces paradigm. OBJECTIVE To compare activation in the amygdala and across the brain in BD patients, SMD patients, and healthy volunteers (HVs). DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Government research institute. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-seven youths (19 BD, 15 SMD, and 23 HVs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Blood oxygenation level-dependent data. Neutral faces were morphed with angry and happy faces in 25% intervals; static facial stimuli appeared for 3000 milliseconds. Participants performed hostility or nonemotional facial feature (ie, nose width) ratings. The slope of blood oxygenation level-dependent activity was calculated across neutral-to-angry and neutral-to-happy facial stimuli. RESULTS In HVs, but not BD or SMD participants, there was a positive association between left amygdala activity and anger on the face. In the neutral-to-happy whole-brain analysis, BD and SMD participants modulated parietal, temporal, and medial-frontal areas differently from each other and from that in HVs; with increasing facial happiness, SMD patients demonstrated increased, and BD patients decreased, activity in the parietal, temporal, and frontal regions. CONCLUSIONS Youth with BD or SMD differ from HVs in modulation of amygdala activity in response to small changes in facial anger displays. In contrast, individuals with BD or SMD show distinct perturbations in regions mediating attention and face processing in association with changes in the emotional intensity of facial happiness displays. These findings demonstrate

  11. Recreational music-making modulates immunological responses and mood states in older adults.

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    Koyama, Masahiro; Wachi, Masatada; Utsuyama, Masanori; Bittman, Barry; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Kitagawa, Masanobu

    2009-06-01

    Given that previous studies have shown that recreational music-making has benefits for younger individuals, we explored two questions. (1) Could a recreational music-making protocol improve mood and modulate immunological responses in a direction opposite to that associated with chronic stress in older adults? (2) Would the protocol affect older and younger participants differently? Two groups of volunteers demarcated at age 65 years underwent identical one-hour recreational music-making interventions. Pre-and post-intervention data were collected using blood samples and mood state questionnaires. Data from 27 older and 27 younger volunteers were analyzed for cytokine production levels, natural killer cell activity, plasma catecholamines, and numbers of T cells, T cell subsets, B cells, and natural killer cells. Exercise expenditure was also recorded. In the older group, we found significant increases in the number of lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, memory T cells, and production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-6. In the younger group, modulation was non-significant. Worthy of note was the specific immunological changes in the direction opposite to that expected with chronic stress in the older group. The increase in Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma and unchanged Th2 cytokine IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the older group suggests a shift to a Th1-dominant status, a shift opposite to that expected with stress. However, the immunological changes were not statistically different between the two groups. Mood states improved in both groups, but were also not statistically different between groups. Although no statistically significant difference was found between the two age groups, the improvement in immunological profile and mood states in the older group and the low level of energy required for participation suggest this music-making protocol has potential as a health improvement strategy for older individuals.

  12. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

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    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of age, gender, mood states and exercise frequency on exercise dependence.

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    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to explore the prevalence, and the role of mood, exercise frequency, age, and gender differences of exercise dependence. Regular exercisers (N = 409) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Exercise Dependence Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. For data analyses, the participants were stratified for sex and age (age ranges = young adults: 18-24 years, adults: 25-44 years, and middle-aged adults: 45-64 years). We found that: (a) 4.4% of the participants were classified as at-risk for exercise dependence; (b) the men and the two younger groups (i.e., young adults and adults) had higher exercise dependence scores; and (c) age, gender, exercise frequency, and mood state were related to exercise dependence. Our results support previous research on the prevalence of exercise dependence and reveal that adulthood may be the critical age for developing exercise dependence. These findings have practical implication for identifying individuals at-risk for exercise dependence symptoms, and may aid in targeting and guiding the implementation of prevention program for adults.

  14. Effects of noise on a computational model for disease states of mood disorders

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    Tobias Huber, Martin; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Braun, Hans Albert; Moss, Frank

    2000-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamics are currently proposed to explain the progressive course of recurrent mood disorders starting with isolated episodes and ending with accelerated irregular (``chaotic") mood fluctuations. Such a low-dimensional disease model is attractive because of its principal accordance with biological disease models, i.e. the kindling and biological rhythms model. However, most natural systems are nonlinear and noisy and several studies in the neuro- and physical sciences have demonstrated interesting cooperative behaviors arising from interacting random and deterministic dynamics. Here, we consider the effects of noise on a recent neurodynamical model for the timecourse of affective disorders (Huber et al.: Biological Psychiatry 1999;46:256-262). We describe noise effects on temporal patterns and mean episode frequencies of various in computo disease states. Our simulations demonstrate that noise can cause unstructured randomness or can maximize periodic order. The frequency of episode occurence can increase with noise but it can also remain unaffected or even can decrease. We show further that noise can make visible bifurcations before they would normally occur under deterministic conditions and we quantify this behavior with a recently developed statistical method. All these effects depend critically on both, the dynamic state and the noise intensity. Implications for neurobiology and course of mood disorders are discussed.

  15. Parenting stress as a mediator of parents' negative mood state and behavior problems in children with newly diagnosed cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, pparenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, pparents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Perceived Sleep Quality, Mood States, and Their Relationship With Performance Among Brazilian Elite Athletes During a Competitive Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ricardo; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G; Andrade, Alexandro

    2017-04-01

    Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, and Andrade, A. Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1033-1039, 2017-We described the perceived sleep quality and mood states of elite athletes during a competitive period, and clarified their relationship to athletes' sport performance. Participants were 576 Brazilian elite athletes (404 men and 172 women) of individual and team sports. Mood states were evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, whereas perceived sleep quality was evaluated using a single question ("How would you evaluate the quality of your sleep in the last few days?"). Evaluations of mood state and sleep quality were performed up to 60 minutes before national and international sports competitions began. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including logistic regression) were used to evaluate the relationship of sleep quality and mood states with performance (i.e., winning or losing). Athletes typically had good sleep quality and mood states similar to the Iceberg profile (i.e., high vigor and low tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and mental confusion). The Wald test revealed that sleep, anger, tension, and vigor predicted athletes' performance. Specifically, poor sleep quality and low vigor and anger decreased the odds of winning, whereas higher tension increased these odds. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated that the results were sufficiently generalizable. Overall, we observed a significant relationship between sleep and mood states, which in turn both significantly influenced athletes' sports performance. Thus, coaching staff and athletes should monitor athletes' sleep quality before competitions to ensure athletes are in the optimal condition for performance.

  17. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n = 5,363) and second-generation (n = 4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n = 24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. PMID:25223256

  18. The Effects of Emotional Target and Mood State of Participants on Attentional Blink

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    Wai-Shan Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that attentional blink (AB, a failure to report targets temporally close to each other, can be attenuated separately by (1 emotionally significant test stimuli (T2 and (2 the emotional state of the observer. In the present study, we asked whether and how the (1 and (2 interact. Participants were induced with either positive or negative music and asked to complete an AB task which consisted of low-arousal positive, neutral and negative words as T2. We found low arousal negative words significantly reduced AB more than did other words, while no main nor interaction effect for mood was observed. However, on repeating the experiment and replacing low arousal words with high-arousal ones we not only were able to replicate the finding of an advantage of negative words over others, but detected an effect for the mood of the observer: participants who were induced to become happier using music performed better in detecting T2 across lags and word categories than did participants who became sadder. Our findings suggest an interaction of arousal level of emotional target with the induced mood of participants although the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect need further investigation.

  19. Causal Attributions of Success and Failure and Mood States in Football Players

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    Szczepaniak Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to determine the causal attributions of success and failure in a football match in a group of football players, as well as to investigate the association of the players’ attributions with their level of achievement and the relationships between their causal attributions and affective states. Material and methods. The study involved 75 football players, including 44 players from the first league and 31 players from the third league. The research was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS by D.M. McNair, M. Lorr, and L.F. Droppleman and a specially designed questionnaire concerning the causal attributions of success and failure. Results. It was found that the football players who participated in the study tended to attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes. More frequent use of external attributions most likely had an adverse impact on the mood state of the players. Conclusion. Information concerning the attributions that a given player makes can be useful for coaches, as it can help them develop the athlete’s mental abilities more effectively. Beliefs related to attributions can be modified. It is worth considering the benefits of encouraging internal attributions in the case of success and external attributions in situations of failure.

  20. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  1. Change in drawing placement: A measure of change in mood state reflective of hemispheric lateralization of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; O'Mara, Erin M; Wilson, Josephine F

    2018-04-26

    The Valence Hypothesis of cerebral lateralization of emotion suggests greater right hemisphere activation during negative mood and greater left hemisphere activation during positive mood. This can manifest as visual field attentional bias. Here, study participants completed an assessment of current mood state (PANAS) and made a drawing (Drawing 1). To induce positive or negative mood, participants played a game; then, the winner read a script depicting a positive interpersonal interaction and the loser read a script depicting a negative interpersonal interaction. Participants then drew a second picture (Drawing 2) and completed the PANAS. We hypothesized that the game outcome would change current mood state and hemispheric activation, which would be reflected in drawing placement. The placement of Drawing 2 moved right for winners and left for losers. Winners experienced a greater increase in positive affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than losers and had decreased negative affect from Time 1. Losers had decreased positive affect from Time 1 and had a greater increase in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than winners. Our results suggest that change in current mood state may be objectively observed by evaluating hemispatial bias reflective of brain hemispheric activation with drawings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  3. Does Testosterone Modulate Mood States and Physical Performance in Young Basketball Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.

  4. Mood states of soccer players in the english leagues: reflections of an increasing workload

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    R Thatcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.

  5. Treating insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning in bipolar disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Soehner, Adriane M; Kaplan, Kate A; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Li, Descartes; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Ketter, Terence A; Neylan, Thomas C; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder-specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder-specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The association between mood state and chronobiological characteristics in bipolar I disorder: a naturalistic, variable cluster analysis-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Robert; Suppes, Trisha; Zeitzer, Jamie; McClung, Colleen; Tamminga, Carol; Tohen, Mauricio; Forero, Angelica; Dwivedi, Alok; Alvarado, Andres

    2018-02-19

    Multiple types of chronobiological disturbances have been reported in bipolar disorder, including characteristics associated with general activity levels, sleep, and rhythmicity. Previous studies have focused on examining the individual relationships between affective state and chronobiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to conduct a variable cluster analysis in order to ascertain how mood states are associated with chronobiological traits in bipolar I disorder (BDI). We hypothesized that manic symptomatology would be associated with disturbances of rhythm. Variable cluster analysis identified five chronobiological clusters in 105 BDI subjects. Cluster 1, comprising subjective sleep quality was associated with both mania and depression. Cluster 2, which comprised variables describing the degree of rhythmicity, was associated with mania. Significant associations between mood state and cluster analysis-identified chronobiological variables were noted. Disturbances of mood were associated with subjectively assessed sleep disturbances as opposed to objectively determined, actigraphy-based sleep variables. No associations with general activity variables were noted. Relationships between gender and medication classes in use and cluster analysis-identified chronobiological characteristics were noted. Exploratory analyses noted that medication class had a larger impact on these relationships than the number of psychiatric medications in use. In a BDI sample, variable cluster analysis was able to group related chronobiological variables. The results support our primary hypothesis that mood state, particularly mania, is associated with chronobiological disturbances. Further research is required in order to define these relationships and to determine the directionality of the associations between mood state and chronobiological characteristics.

  7. Bulimia nervosa: mood changes do have an impact on body width estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbartz-Klatt, Y J; Florin, I; Pook, M

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of mood changes on body width estimation in women with bulimia nervosa. A pre-post controlled experimental design was chosen. Mood changes were induced in 40 women with bulimia nervosa, 20 women with panic disorder and 40 women with no diagnosis of a psychological disorder. A combination of autobiographical memory method and music induction method was used to induce positive and negative mood, respectively. Before and after mood induction a video distorting technique was used for body width estimation. Induction of negative mood increased and induction of positive mood decreased the body width estimations of women with bulimia. Patients with panic disorder and 'healthy' controls did not show these changes after mood induction. The findings suggest that change in mood state rather than the more habitual mood quality are relevant for bulimic women's body perception.

  8. A survey study comparing young adults with MS and healthy controls on self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer Uccelli, Michele; Traversa, Silvia; Ponzio, Michela

    2016-09-15

    Studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) report low levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem, high levels of anxiety and depression and reduced quality of life. The study aims to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life in young adults with MS and to compare them to a healthy control group. The age range for inclusion in the study was between 18 and 35years of age for both groups. Subjects with MS were recruited through the Italian MS Society. Healthy controls were recruited through social media and from a university undergraduate program. Subjects completed an anonymous online questionnaire combining various scales. Group differences on demographic data were assessed using parametric and non-parametric tests. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to evaluate differences between the two groups on scales of self-perception, mood and quality of life, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Eighty-nine subjects with MS and 109 HC were included in the analysis. ANCOVA failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences between groups on self-esteem (F=0.11, p=0.743), self-efficacy (F=2.22, p=0.138), mood (anxiety F=0.03, p=0.855; depression F=0.06, p=0.812) and quality of life (F=0.08, p=0.772). This study demonstrated that young adults with MS and healthy controls have similar levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy and that they do not differ significantly on measures of mood and quality of life, as previously reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Imposition of a delay prior to beginning radiotherapy: impact on mood states for cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Waiting lists for radiotherapy are a recent phenomenon in highly populated areas and, coupled with the public's awareness of the nature of cancer and the need for immediate treatment, a psychological dilemma has emerged. Since virtually all patients are now assigned to the radiotherapy waiting list, a random sample of patients who would begin radiotherapy immediately following their initial consultation was created. Quality of life, in terms of self-reported mood indices, was assessed at five points in time for each patient using the Profile of Mood States. Approximately 25% of the delayed patients chose to leave the waiting list and seek treatment elsewhere. The most striking finding was that patients who began radiotherapy immediately experienced improved quality of life during the course of treatment as per Forester, et al., (1985). In contrast, the patients who spent time (1-8 weeks) on a treatment waiting list experienced a decrease in quality of life over their course of radiotherapy and even more so at a month following the end of treatment

  10. Aerobic and resistance training improves mood state among adults living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, J R; Hand, G A; Dudgeon, W D; Burgess, S; Phillips, K D; Durstine, J L; Blair, S N

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV+ adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50 min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p=0.03) and total POMS (p=0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Visual analog rating of mood by people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Womack, Jennifer L; Harmon, Tyson G; Williams, Sharon W

    2015-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the identification of depression in stroke survivors with aphasia, but there is more limited information about other mood states. Visual analog scales are often used to collect subjective information from people with aphasia. However, the validity of these methods for communicating about mood has not been established in people with moderately to severely impaired language. The dual purposes of this study were to characterize the relative endorsement of negative and positive mood states in people with chronic aphasia after stroke and to examine congruent validity for visual analog rating methods for people with a range of aphasia severity. Twenty-three left-hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia were asked to indicate their present mood by using two published visual analog rating methods. The congruence between the methods was estimated through correlation analysis, and scores for different moods were compared. Endorsement was significantly stronger for "happy" than for mood states with negative valence. At the same time, several participants displayed pronounced negative mood compared to previously published norms for neurologically healthy adults. Results from the two rating methods were moderately and positively correlated. Positive mood is prominent in people with aphasia who are in the chronic stage of recovery after stroke, but negative moods can also be salient and individual presentations are diverse. Visual analog rating methods are valid methods for discussing mood with people with aphasia; however, design optimization should be explored.

  12. "I love you forever (more or less)" - stability and change in adolescents' romantic love status and associations with mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Farnia, Vahid; Joshaghani, Narges; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months. Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including symptoms of depression, anxiety (state and trait), and hypomania. They also completed a sleep and activity log. Of 64 participants formerly in love, 45 were still in love; of 86 participants not in love at baseline, 69 were still not in love (overall stability, 76%); 17 had fallen in love recently while 19 were no longer in love. Significant and important changes in mood and anxiety were observed in that experiencing romantic love was associated with higher anxiety scores. Hypomania scores increased in those newly in love, and decreased in those in a longer-lasting romantic relationship. Sleep and sleep-related variables were not associated with romantic love status. These findings suggest that, among Iranian adolescents, the state of love is fairly stable, and that love status seems to be associated with specific states of mood and anxiety.

  13. The neural basis of attaining conscious awareness of sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Braden, B Blair; Chen, Kewei; Ponce, Francisco A; Lane, Richard D; Baxter, Leslie C

    2015-09-01

    The neural processes associated with becoming aware of sad mood are not fully understood. We examined the dynamic process of becoming aware of sad mood and recovery from sad mood. Sixteen healthy subjects underwent fMRI while participating in a sadness induction task designed to allow for variable mood induction times. Individualized regressors linearly modeled the time periods during the attainment of self-reported sad and baseline "neutral" mood states, and the validity of the linearity assumption was further tested using independent component analysis. During sadness induction the dorsomedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, and anterior insula exhibited a linear increase in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal until subjects became aware of a sad mood and then a subsequent linear decrease as subjects transitioned from sadness back to the non-sadness baseline condition. These findings extend understanding of the neural basis of conscious emotional experience.

  14. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34+/-6 y; BMI 23.4+/-2.2 kg m(-2)).

  15. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34±6y; BMI 23.4±2.2 kg m-2).

  16. Effects of assisted training with neurofeedback on EEG measures, executive function and mood in a healthy sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The training in neurofeedback (NF consists of teaching individuals to modify, adjust and enhance their brain activity pattern. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effect of training on cognitive processes, specifically executive function, and mood in a non-clinical sample. A sample of 30 female college students were assigned to three groups: RH: right hemisphere (n = 10, LH: left hemisphere (n = 10 and control (n = 10. The dominance pattern of beta and the inhibition of the theta pattern were trained in a single session. Measures of executive function (Iowa Gambling Test and questionnaires of mood were taken pre and post training. We found that NF training produced significant positive changes in executive performance in the RH group. In the EEG a tendency to improve beta rhythm after the training emerged too. Additionally, significant correlations were found between executive performance and negative mood in relation to theta frequency band. We conclude that the protocol seems effective to enhance some aspects of executive function as well as to decrease theta power improves the negative mood.

  17. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of levetiracetam on cognition, mood, and balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Rum, Ruba S; Osborn, Katie E; Werz, Mary Ann

    2017-09-01

    The cognitive and mood effects of levetiracetam (LEV) in older adults are not known. This study compared the cognitive and mood effects of LEV to placebo in healthy older adults. Cognitive, mood, and balance variables were compared between LEV and placebo using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with two 5-week treatment periods. Healthy volunteers (n = 20) aged 65-80 (mean age 72.4) received either LEV or placebo in which the LEV target dose was 1,000 mg/day. Volunteers, aged 65-80, were without epilepsy to limit potentially confounding the impact of seizures and/or underlying neuropathology on outcomes. LEV was initiated at 250 mg twice a day for 2 weeks, then increased to 500 mg twice a day for 2 weeks, and then tapered to 250 mg twice a day for 1 week. This was randomized with placebo for the two treatment arms. Measures included standardized neuropsychological, mood, and balance tests yielding 32 variables. Balance was assessed using subjective report (e.g., A-B neurotoxicity scale) and objective data (e.g., Berg Balance Scale). Average LEV serum concentration was 16.9 (standard deviation [SD} 7.7). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no differences between LEV and placebo phases for 29 (90.6%) of 32 variables including no change in balance. Performance on LEV was better than placebo on a visual memory (MCG Complex Figure Recall; p = 0.007) and two attention tests (Trail Making Test, Part A, p = 0.009; Stroop Interference, p = 0.004). There was a trend for greater irritability and fatigue (POMS Anger and Fatigue) during the LEV phase (p = 0.029, p = 0.035). Effect-size changes were generally small (Cohen d < 0.5). LEV was well tolerated in this elderly population in terms of cognition, mood, and balance. When anticonvulsant medication is indicated for older adults, LEV has pharmacokinetic advantages, and these data indicate no adverse impact on cognition or balance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International

  18. Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tildesley, N T J; Kennedy, D O; Perry, E K; Ballard, C G; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2005-01-17

    Members of the Sage family, such as Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have a long history of use as memory-enhancing agents coupled with cholinergic properties that may potentially be relevant to the amelioration of the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The current study utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design in order to comprehensively assess any mood and cognition modulation by S. lavandulaefolia. Twenty-four participants received single doses of placebo, 25 microl and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil of S. lavandulaefolia in an order dictated by a Latin square. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period. Cognitive performance was assessed prior to the day's treatment and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery. Subjective mood ratings were measured using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. The primary outcome measures were scores on the five cognitive factors that can be derived by factor analysis of the task outcomes from the CDR battery. The results showed that administration of S. lavandulaefolia resulted in a consistent improvement for both the 25- and 50-microl dose on the 'Speed of Memory' factor. There was also an improvement on the 'Secondary Memory' factor for the 25-microl dose. Mood was consistently enhanced, with increases in self-rated 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' following the 50-microl dose and elevated 'calmness' following 25 microl. These results represent further evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of mood and cognition in healthy young adults. The data also suggest that previous reports of memory enhancement by Salvia may be due to more efficient retrieval of target material.

  19. Proximal predictors of depressive symptomatology: perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal domains and introjective and anaclitic mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C

    2010-01-01

    Although much research has demonstrated a relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms, relatively little research has examined the mechanisms that may mediate this relationship. The theories of Blatt (1974), Bowlby (1980), and Gilbert (1992) each propose proximal predictors of depression. In accordance with these theories, this study examined the relationships among perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal relationships, anaclitic (dependent) and introjective (self-critical) mood states, and depressive symptoms following a significant negative life event. A sample of 172 undergraduate students completed measures of depressive symptoms and depressive vulnerability factors and retrospectively described the worst period of their lives. They also rated the extent to which the events surrounding this worst period affected their self-worth and their relationships with close others. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the effect of a perceived loss of self-worth on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by both introjective and anaclitic mood states, whereas the effect of a perceived loss of interpersonal relationships on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by an anaclitic mood state. Additionally, perceived losses of self-worth showed a stronger effect on introjective mood in highly self-critical individuals. Findings highlight the importance of perceived losses in both self-worth and interpersonal domains in response to adverse life events and suggest pathways through which perceived losses may affect depressive symptoms.

  20. Effects of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tadeu Sartini; Moreira, Clarice Zinato; Guo, James; Noce, Franco

    2017-03-09

    To assess the effect of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness at the beginning and end of the shift. Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study.It was conducted with 70 neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and a socio-demographic profile questionnaire were administered. When the KSS and BRUMS scores were compared at the beginning of the shift associations were found with previous sleep quality (p ≤ 0.01), and quality of life (p ≤ 0.05). Statistical significant effects on BRUMS scores were also associated with previous sleep quality, quality of life, liquid ingestion, healthy diet, marital status, and shift work stress. When the beginning and end of the shift were compared, different KSS scores were seen in the group of all nurses and in the night shift one. Significant vigor and fatigue scores were observed within shift groups. A good night's sleep has positive effects on the individual`s mood states both at the beginning and the end of the shift. The self-perception of a good quality of life also positively influenced KSS and BRUMS scores at the beginning and end of the shift. Proper liquid ingestion led to better KSS and BRUMS scores. Evaluar el efecto de un turno de 12 horas en estados de ánimo y somnolencia al principio y al final del turno. Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo.Se realizó con 70 enfermeras de unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Se administró la Escala de Humor Brunel (BRUMS), la Escala de Somnolencia de Karolinska (KSS) y un cuestionario de perfil sociodemográfico. Cuando se compararon las puntuaciones de KSS y BRUMS al comienzo del turno se encontraron asociaciones con calidad de sueño previa (p ≤ 0,01) y calidad de vida (p ≤ 0,05). Los efectos estadísticos significativos en las puntuaciones de BRUMS también se asociaron con la calidad previa del sueño, la calidad de vida, la ingestión de líquidos, la dieta saludable, el

  1. Work and family role juggling and mood states of Hong Kong public health nurses with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, A T

    1998-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the daily mood states of public health nurses (PHNs) in managerial roles with children in Hong Kong, as a result of multiple role juggling (i.e. simultaneously attending to demands of different roles) using the experience sampling method. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 20 subjects. A watch was worn that beeped at six random times each day for 7 days as a signal to complete an experience sampling diary. PHNs on average responded to 34 signals (80%) to complete the experience sampling diaries. Two major findings provide the focus of this paper. First, results show that PHNs had minimal inter-role juggling between work and family as compared with previous studies in the United States. Cultural factors, sequentially dealing with family and work issues, having a domestic maid or a relative to see to household chores as well as strong spouse support are suggested as the reasons. These results have implications for nursing management and nursing practice. Second, the results also reveal PHNs as having an overall flat affect. It is suggested that PHNs may be using a 'calm and detached' coping style for occupational stress. This coping style has implications on the PHNs' emotional health as well as nurse-client relationships.

  2. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  3. An investigation into the relationship between pre-competition mood states, age, gender and a national ranking in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldizsár, Dóra; Soós, István; Whyte, Ian; Hamar, Pál

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pre-competition mood state factors in gymnastics by gender, age and a national ranking. Participant-gymnasts (total n=116, male n=49, female n=67) completed a Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) one day prior to their main competition of the year. Information was also gathered from gymnasts of gender, age and a national ranking. Consistent with theoretical predictions, results confirmed that a number of pre-competition mood states differed by age with both juniors and seniors having a higher level of anger than children (p<.05 respectively). Also, seniors demonstrated higher tension than children (p<.001). However, only anger showed significant differences by gender with male gymnasts demonstrating higher levels of anger than female gymnasts (p<.05), and with international gymnasts registering higher levels of anger compared with second class gymnasts (p<.05). Authors suggest that future research should investigate relationships between the pre-competition mood in other gymnastics-related disciplines and sports, as well as competitive performances.

  4. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J B; Rauch, S L; Drevets, W C

    2013-05-01

    In response to queries about whether brain imaging technology has reached the point where it is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping to guide treatment selection, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recently written a position paper on the Clinical Application of Brain Imaging in Psychiatry. The following perspective piece is based on our contribution to this APA position paper, which specifically emphasized the application of neuroimaging in mood disorders. We present an introductory overview of the challenges faced by researchers in developing valid and reliable biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, followed by a synopsis of the extant neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, and an evidence-based review of the current research on brain imaging biomarkers in adult mood disorders. Although there are a number of promising results, by the standards proposed below, we argue that there are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are clinically useful for establishing diagnosis or predicting treatment outcome in mood disorders.

  5. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J B; Rauch, S L; Drevets, W C

    2013-01-01

    In response to queries about whether brain imaging technology has reached the point where it is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping to guide treatment selection, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recently written a position paper on the Clinical Application of Brain Imaging in Psychiatry. The following perspective piece is based on our contribution to this APA position paper, which specifically emphasized the application of neuroimaging in mood disorders. We present an introductory overview of the challenges faced by researchers in developing valid and reliable biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, followed by a synopsis of the extant neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, and an evidence-based review of the current research on brain imaging biomarkers in adult mood disorders. Although there are a number of promising results, by the standards proposed below, we argue that there are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are clinically useful for establishing diagnosis or predicting treatment outcome in mood disorders. PMID:23546169

  6. Gut microbes in correlation with mood: case study in a closed experimental human life support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Su, Q; Xie, B; Duan, L; Zhao, W; Hu, D; Wu, R; Liu, H

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbial community, which may influence our mood, can be shaped by modulating the gut ecosystem through dietary strategies. Understanding the gut-brain correlationship in healthy people is important for maintenance of mental health and prevention of mental illnesses. A case study on the correlation between gut microbial alternation and mood swing of healthy adults was conducted in a closed human life support system during a 105-day experiment. Gut microbial community structures were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing every 2 weeks. A profile of mood states questionnaire was used to record the mood swings. Correlation between gut microbes and mood were identified with partial least squares discrimination analysis. Microbial community structures in the three healthy adults were strongly correlated with mood states. Bacterial genera Roseburia, Phascolarctobacterium, Lachnospira, and Prevotella had potential positive correlation with positive mood, while genera Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Anaerostipes were correlated with negative mood. Among which, Faecalibacterium spp. had the highest abundance, and showed a significant negative correlation with mood. Our results indicated that the composition of microbial community could play a role in emotional change in mentally physically healthy adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tell me your apps and I will tell you your mood: Correlation of apps usage with Bipolar Disorder State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez-Lozano, Jorge; Frost, Mads; Osmani, Venet

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar Disorder is a disease that is manifested with cycling periods of polar episodes, namely mania and depression. Depressive episodes are manifested through disturbed mood, psychomotor retardation, behaviour change, decrease in energy levels and length of sleep. Manic episodes are manifested...... be captured through the analysis of smartphone usage. We have analysed changes in smartphone usage, specifically app usage and how these changes correlate with the self-reported patient state. We also used psychiatric evaluation scores provided by the clinic to understand correlation of the patient smartphone...... behaviour before the psychiatric evaluation and after the psychiatric evaluation. The results show that patients have strong correlation of patterns of app usage with different aspects of their self-reported state including mood, sleep and irritability. While, on the other hand, the patients’ application...

  9. Effect of Ramadan fasting on fatigue, mood, sleepiness, and health-related quality of life of healthy young men in summer time in Germany: A prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Boya; Ghashang, Samaneh Khoshandam; Hamdan, Imad; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Muslims around the world fast during the lunar month of Ramadan. The month consists of 29 or 30 days, which vary in length depending on geographic location and the time of year. During this month, Muslims abstain from food, drink, smoking, and sex from dawn until sunset. In 2015, Ramadan fell during the summer. As a result, Muslims in Germany fasted 19 h a day. Previous research has shown associations between fasting and mood enhancement. This study aimed to determine the effect of fasting on young, healthy males who fasted in Germany during Ramadan 2015. In particular, this study examined the impact of fasting on mood, fatigue, and health-related Quality of Life (QoL). This study had 2 groups: fasting group (FG; n = 25), and non-fasting group (NFG; n = 25). In FG, participants were assessed at four different points: one week before Ramadan (T1), mid Ramadan (T2), the last days of Ramadan (T3), and one week after Ramadan (T4). In NFG, participants were assessed only at T1 and T3. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the participants in the FG and the NFG at T1 or T3 for any of the outcomes. However, participants in the FG demonstrated significant improvement from T2 to T4 in fatigue (visual analogue scale p fasting did not significantly influence mood, fatigue and QoL, when compared to NFG. Even, it gives benefit to fasting group with regard to these parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pattern recognition and functional neuroimaging help to discriminate healthy adolescents at risk for mood disorders from low risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Oliveira, Leticia; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Marquand, Andre; Brammer, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    There are no known biological measures that accurately predict future development of psychiatric disorders in individual at-risk adolescents. We investigated whether machine learning and fMRI could help to: 1. differentiate healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I psychiatric disorders from healthy adolescents at low risk of developing these disorders; 2. identify those healthy genetically at-risk adolescents who were most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. 16 healthy offspring genetically at risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I disorders by virtue of having a parent with bipolar disorder and 16 healthy, age- and gender-matched low-risk offspring of healthy parents with no history of psychiatric disorders (12-17 year-olds) performed two emotional face gender-labeling tasks (happy/neutral; fearful/neutral) during fMRI. We used Gaussian Process Classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach that assigns a predictive probability of group membership to an individual person, to differentiate groups and to identify those at-risk adolescents most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. Using GPC, activity to neutral faces presented during the happy experiment accurately and significantly differentiated groups, achieving 75% accuracy (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 75%). Furthermore, predictive probabilities were significantly higher for those at-risk adolescents who subsequently developed an Axis I disorder than for those at-risk adolescents remaining healthy at follow-up. We show that a combination of two promising techniques, machine learning and neuroimaging, not only discriminates healthy low-risk from healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for Axis I disorders, but may ultimately help to predict which at-risk adolescents subsequently develop these disorders.

  11. The effect of ramadan fasting on physical performances, mood state and perceived exertion in young footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Souissi, Hichem; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on the profile of mood state and perceived exertion in young soccer players and aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Wingate tests. Twenty junior male soccer players completed the Yo-Yo, the RSA, and the Wingate tests on three different occasions: one-week before Ramadan (BR), the second week (SWR) and the fourth week (ER) of Ramadan. The total distance (TD) covered and the estimated maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) during the Yo-Yo test were recorded. During the RSA test, peak power (PP) during each sprint, the percentage of decrement of PP (PD) and total work (Wtotal) were calculated. During the Wingate test, peak (P(peak)) and mean (P(mean)) powers and fatigue index (FI) were recorded. TD and MAV (P=0.01) during the Yo-Yo test and PP (P=0.01, P=0.004, P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.03 for sprints 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) and Wtotal (P=0.02) during the RSA test were significantly higher during BR than ER. Furthermore, muscle fatigue during the RSA test increased significantly from BR to ER (P=0.01). P(peak) and P(mean) during the Wingate test decreased significantly from BR to SWR and ER (PRamadan in comparison with BR. The present study suggests that both aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, the RSA and the Wingate tests were affected by Ramadan fasting in young soccer players.

  12. Stress Biomarkers, Mood States, and Sleep during a Major Competition: "Success" and "Failure" Athlete's Profile of High-Level Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Bougard, Clément; Drogou, Catherine; Langrume, Christophe; Miller, Christian; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vergnoux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the "failure" group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p failure group." In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores, and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the "success" group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the "failure" group only (r = 0.89). sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r = -0.90). In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA.

  13. Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C R; Bayon, C; Svrakic, D M

    1998-10-01

    Personality assessment may allow reliable measurement of risk of mood disorders. A group of adults (804) representative of the general population were assessed by questionnaire. Personality types were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Specific TCI configurations define personality types that can be described as hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and depressive. Each type had a unique profile of emotions, suicide attempts, and hospitalization. TCI traits are associated with mood disorders. Different ways of measuring Kraepelinean subtypes may disagree. Whether differences in personality cause psychopathology, or vice versa, remains uncertain. Personality profiles help in assessing suicidality and planning treatment.

  14. Self-medication of mood and anxiety disorders with marijuana: Higher in states with medical marijuana laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Olfson, Mark; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    Self-medication with drugs or alcohol is commonly reported among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, and increases the risk of developing substance use disorders. Medical marijuana laws (MML) may be associated with greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of marijuana, leading individuals to self-medicate. The study utilized data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Participants were sampled from households in the general population and included adults with a mood or anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 7418), and the subset of those who used marijuana and no other drug (n = 314). Weighted logistic regression models predicted the prevalence of self-medication with drugs in U.S. states with and without MML, adjusting for individual and state-level covariates. As a negative control, analyses were repeated for self-medication with alcohol. Overall, self-medication with drugs was 3.73 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-6.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.01). For the subpopulation that only used marijuana, self-medication with drugs was 21.22 percentage points higher (95% CI: 3.91-38.53) among those living in MML states (p = 0.02). In contrast, self-medication with alcohol had nearly identical prevalence in MML and non-MML states, overall and for drinkers. Among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, living in a medical marijuana law state is associated with self-medication with marijuana. While additional research is needed to determine the reasons for this association, clinical screening for self-medication with marijuana may be particularly important in states with medical marijuana laws. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep Continuity and Slow Wave Sleep as Predictors of Cognition, Mood, and Subjective Sleep Quality in Healthy Men and Women, Aged 20–84 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro della Monica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its sub-states are assumed to be important for brain function across the lifespan but which aspects of sleep associate with various aspects of cognition, mood and self-reported sleep quality has not yet been established in detail. Sleep was quantified by polysomnography, quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG analysis and self-report in 206 healthy men and women, aged 20–84 years, without sleep complaints. Waking brain function was quantified by five assessments scheduled across the day covering objectively assessed performance across cognitive domains including sustained attention and arousal, decision and response time, motor and sequence control, working memory, and executive function as well as self-reports of alertness, mood and affect. Controlled for age and sex, self-reported sleep quality was negatively associated with number of awakenings and positively associated with the duration of Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep, but no significant associations with Slow Wave Sleep (SWS measures were observed. Controlling only for age showed that associations between objective and subjective sleep quality were much stronger in women than in men. Analysis of 51 performance measures demonstrated that, after controlling for age and sex, fewer awakenings and more REM sleep were associated significantly with better performance on the Goal Neglect task, which is a test of executive function. Factor analysis of the individual performance measures identified four latent variables labeled Mood/Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Visual Perceptual Sensitivity. Whereas Mood/Arousal improved with age, Response Times became slower, while Accuracy and Visual perceptual sensitivity showed little change with age. After controlling for sex and age, nominally significant association between sleep and factor scores were observed such that Response Times were faster with more SWS, and Accuracy was reduced where individuals woke more often or had less REM

  16. Dimensions of Sexual Orientation and the Prevalence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used data from a nationally representative sample to examine the associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior), lifetime and past-year mood and anxiety disorders, and sex. Methods. We analyzed data from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results. Mental health outcomes differed by sex, dimension of sexual orientation, and sexual minority group. Whereas a lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity was associated with higher odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both men and women, women reporting only same-sex sexual partners in their lifetime had the lowest rates of most disorders. Higher odds of any lifetime mood or anxiety disorder were more consistent and pronounced among sexual minority men than among sexual minority women. Finally, bisexual behavior conferred the highest odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both males and females. Conclusions. Findings point to mental health disparities among some, but not all, sexual minority groups and emphasize the importance of including multiple measures of sexual orientation in population-based health studies. PMID:19696380

  17. “I love you forever (more or less)” – stability and change in adolescents’ romantic love status and associations with mood states

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Farnia, Vahid; Joshaghani, Narges; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months. Method: Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including ...

  18. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: effects of individualist and collectivist values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Kornbrot, Diana E; Matute, Helena; Murphy, Robin A

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not) values relevant to control-individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N 1 = 127, N 2 = 324, N 3 = 272) were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance.

  19. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: Effects of individualist and collectivist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Msetfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not values relevant to control - individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N1 = 127, N2 = 324, N3 = 272 were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance.

  20. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: effects of individualist and collectivist values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M.; Kornbrot, Diana E.; Matute, Helena; Murphy, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not) values relevant to control—individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N1 = 127, N2 = 324, N3 = 272) were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance. PMID:26483707

  1. Mood, motivation, and misinformation: aging and affective state influences on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Emery, Lisa; Elliott, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Normative age differences in memory have typically been attributed to declines in basic cognitive and cortical mechanisms. The present study examined the degree to which dominant everyday affect might also be associated with age-related memory errors using the misinformation paradigm. Younger and older adults viewed a positive and a negative event, and then were exposed to misinformation about each event. Older adults exhibited a higher likelihood than young adults of falsely identifying misinformation as having occurred in the events. Consistent with expectations, strength of the misinformation effect was positively associated with dominant mood, and controlling for mood eliminated any age effects. Also, motivation to engage in complex cognitive activity was negatively associated with susceptibility to misinformation, and susceptibility was stronger for negative than for positive events. We argue that motivational processes underlie all of the observed effects, and that such processes are useful in understanding age differences in memory performance.

  2. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  3. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Adolescent Problems, Coping Efficacy, and Mood States Using a Mobile Phone App: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2016-11-29

    Mobile technologies have the potential to be used as innovative tools for conducting research on the mental health and well-being of young people. In particular, they have utility for carrying out ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research by capturing data from participants in real time as they go about their daily lives. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of a mobile phone app as a means of collecting EMA data pertaining to mood, problems, and coping efficacy in a school-based sample of Irish young people. The study included a total of 208 participants who were aged 15-18 years, 64% female (113/208), recruited from second-level schools in Ireland, and who downloaded the CopeSmart mobile phone app as part of a randomized controlled trial. On the app, participants initially responded to 5 single-item measures of key protective factors in youth mental health (formal help-seeking, informal help-seeking, sleep, exercise, and sense of belonging). They were then encouraged to use the app daily to input data relating to mood states (happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and worry), daily problems, and coping self-efficacy. The app automatically collected data pertaining to user engagement over the course of the 28-day intervention period. Students also completed pen and paper questionnaires containing standardized measures of emotional distress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; DASS-21), well-being (World Health Organization Well-Being Index; WHO-5), and coping (Coping Strategies Inventory; CSI). On average the participants completed 18% (5/28) of daily ratings, and engagement levels did not differ across gender, age, school, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or nationality. On a scale of 1 to 10, happiness was consistently the highest rated mood state (overall mean 6.56), and anger was consistently the lowest (overall mean 2.11). Pearson correlations revealed that average daily ratings of emotional states were associated with standardized measures of

  4. Effects of mood state on divided attention in patients with bipolar disorder: evidence for beneficial effects of subclinical manic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, Manja A; Spijker, Annet T; Hoencamp, Erik; Haffmans, Judith P M; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2014-12-15

    A relatively small number of studies have been dedicated to the differential effects of the current mood state on cognition in patients with a bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of current mood state on divided attention (DA) performance, and specifically examine possible beneficial effects of the (hypo-) manic state. Over a maximum period of 24 months, medication use, divided attention test (a subtest of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP)) was assessed every 6 months in 189 outpatients with BD. Data were analyzed with multilevel regression analysis (i.e. linear mixed models). DA performance varied considerable over time within patients. Corrected for psychotropic medication a significant quadratic relationship between manic symptoms and DA performance was found, with mild hypomanic symptoms having a positive influence on divided attention scores and moderate to severe manic symptoms having a negative influence. No association between depressive symptoms and DA performance was found. In future research on mania and cognition as well as in the clinical practice both the beneficial and negative effects of mania should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estados de humor de velejadores durante o Pré-Panamericano Mood states sail athletes during the Pre-Panamerican

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Brandt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar os estados de humor de velejadores após regatas do Pré-Panamericana de Vela, bem como fatores associados. A amostra foi composta por 18 atletas de ambos os sexos, que foram avaliados por meio da Escala de Humor de Brunel. Os atletas apresentaram elevada tensão e fadiga, associadas a altos níveis de vigor. Homens apresentaram maior vigor e fadiga, e menor tensão, depressão e raiva do que as mulheres, porém sem diferenças estatísticamente significativas. Quanto à classe, velejadores de classes individuais apresentaram maior tensão, depressão e confusão do que os de classes com dois tripulantes, porém sem diferenças estatísticamente significativas. Os estados de humor apresentados pelos atletas após regatas do Pré-Panamericano de Vela podem ser considerados diferente do ideal para o rendimento esportivo, porém ainda existe pouco domínio teórico dos estados de humor de velejadores para análises mais aprofundadas.The purpose of this research was to evaluate de mood states after regattas of sail during Pre-Panamerican, as well associated factors. Sample was composed by 18 athletes of both sexes that were evaluated by the Brunel Mood Scale. The athletes presented high tension and fatigue, associated with high levels of vigor. The men present higher vigor and fatigue, and low tension, depression and angry than the women, but the differences were no significant. About the class, the athletes of individual classes showed high tension, depression and confusion than the ones of the classes with two athletes, but there were no significant differences. The mood states presented by the athletes after the regattas of sail of the Pre-Panamerican can be considered different from the ideal to sporting performance, but already there is a little bit theory about the mood states of sail athletes to do a deep analysis.

  6. Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-08-01

    Acute aerobic exercise improves mood and activates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in physically active individuals; however, both mood and eCB responses to exercise may vary based on habitual levels of physical activity. This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150-299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%-75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after exercise conditions. Both preferred and prescribed exercise resulted in significant increases (P exercise elicited positive mood improvements compared with preexercise values, but changes in state anxiety, total mood disturbance, and confusion were greater in the preferred condition (P mood disturbance in the preferred condition (P mood or eCB outcomes. These results indicate that eCB and mood responses to exercise do not differ significantly between samples with varying physical activity levels. This study also demonstrates that in addition to prescribed exercise, preferred exercise activates the eCB system, and this activation may contribute to positive mood outcomes with exercise.

  7. Phenomenological Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories: Responsiveness to an Induced Negative Mood State in Those With and Without a Previous History of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design. Self-reported mood was measured as a manipulation check, before and after Mood Induction Procedure. Typicality, rumination and personal importance showed significant interaction effects in those with a history of depression. Ordinal regression supported the finding that those with a history of depression had a higher chance of typicality and personal importance than those without a history of depression. The results indicate that recall of autobiographical characteristics is in part dependent on induced negative mood state and on previous history of depression. The findings may prompt future research into targeted interventions that reduce individual tendencies for heightened cognitive reactivity in negative mood states for those with a history of depression.

  8. Cognitive and Mood Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Breakfast Bar in Healthy Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Groups Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kennedy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. Methods: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day of the intervention period. Results: The results demonstrated acute effects of treatment across post-dose assessments on both assessment days in terms of alertness, and on tasks assessing attention, working and episodic memory and executive function, including cognitively demanding Serial subtraction and Rapid Visual Information Processing tasks. There were no evident chronic effects independent of the breakfast bars’ acute effects. Discussion: These results demonstrate that a nutrient enriched breakfast bar with low caffeine content can exert striking beneficial effects on acute cognitive function and alertness.

  9. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: A randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amy Massee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa’s effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n=40, age M= 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks 250mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-minute cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens, a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerised Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763. Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN126130006 26763&ddlSearch=Registered

  10. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massee, Laura A; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered.

  11. Exercise but not metformin improves health-related quality of life and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Liliana C; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Martins, Raul A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this cohort study is to analyse the effect of three types of treatment: (i) exercise training with multicomponent exercise (E); (ii) pharmacologic treatment with oral hypoglycaemic drug - metformin (M); and (iii) a combined therapy - exercise and metformin (E + M) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with comorbidity in an early stage of the disease. Participants (n = 284) underwent 1 of the following 3 conditions: (i) E (n = 59) trained three times/week; (ii) M (n = 30) used 850 mg of metformin twice daily; and (iii) E + M (n = 195) combined exercise and metformin. Furthermore, participants completed baseline and 2-year follow-up evaluations including a Shortform Health Survey 36, Profile of Mood States - Short-form, the health history questionnaires, anthropometric, and blood biochemistry. E and E + M revealed improved mood states, with large effect size on the vigour domain, and moderate effect size in the anger and total mood disturbance (TMD) domains (P  0.05). Metformin had no significant effect on the self-referred HRQoL in T2D participants aged above 60 years, in an early stage of the disease. The E and E + M were the most effective long-term therapies to improve mood states and HRQoL in older adults with T2D.

  12. Recreational music-making: a cost-effective group interdisciplinary strategy for reducing burnout and improving mood states in long-term care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Barry; Bruhn, Karl T; Stevens, Christine; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2003-01-01

    This controlled, prospective, randomized study examined the clinical and potential economic impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions, as well as on Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in an interdisciplinary group of long-term care workers. A total of 112 employees participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on building support, communication, and interdisciplinary respect utilizing group drumming and keyboard accompaniment. Changes in burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Cost savings were projected by an independent consulting firm, which developed an economic impact model. Statistically-significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions, as well as TMD scores, were noted. Economic-impact analysis projected cost savings of $89,100 for a single typical 100-bed facility, with total annual potential savings to the long-term care industry of $1.46 billion. A cost-effective, 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions, as well as TMD, in long-term care workers.

  13. Recalling happy memories in remitted depression: a neuroimaging investigation of the repair of sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Cooney, Rebecca E; Joormann, Jutta; Henry, Melissa L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mood disorder. The high rate of recurrence of MDD suggests the presence of stable vulnerability factors that place individuals with a history of major depression at an increased risk for the onset of another episode. Previous research has linked the remitted state, and therefore increased vulnerability for depressive relapse, with difficulties in the use of pleasant autobiographical memories to repair sad mood. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of these difficulties. Groups of 16 currently euthymic, remitted depressed individuals and 16 healthy (control) women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sad mood induction and during recovery from a sad mood state through recall of mood-incongruent positive autobiographical memories. Sad mood was induced in participants by using film clips; participants then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure previously shown to repair negative affect. During both the sad mood induction and automatic mood regulation, control participants exhibited activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and cuneus; in contrast, remitted participants exhibited a decrease in activation in these regions. Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that reduced activation levels during mood regulation predicted a worsening of depressive symptoms at a 20-month follow-up assessment. These findings highlight a dynamic role of the vlPFC and cuneus in the experience and modulation of emotional states and suggest that functional anomalies of these brain regions are associated with a history of, and vulnerability to, depression.

  14. Dysphoric mood states are related to sensitivity to temporal changes in contingency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. eMsetfi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy & Abramson, 1979. The strongest evidence for this depressive realism (DR effect is derived from data collected with experimental procedures in which the dependent variables are verbal or written ratings of contingency or cause, and, perhaps more importantly, the independent variable in these procedures may be ambiguous and difficult to define. In order to address these possible confounds, we used a two-response free-operant causal learning task in which the dependent measures were performance based. Participants were required to respond to maximise the occurrence of a temporally contiguous outcome that was programmed with different probabilities, which also varied temporally across two responses. Dysphoric participants were more sensitive to the changing outcome contingencies than controls even though they responded at a similar rate. During probe trials, in which the outcome was masked, their performance recovered more quickly than that of the control group. These data provide unexpected support for the depressive realism hypothesis suggesting that dysphoria is associated with heightened sensitivity to temporal shifts in contingency.

  15. Dysphoric Mood States are Related to Sensitivity to Temporal Changes in Contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Murphy, Robin A; Kornbrot, Diana E

    2012-01-01

    A controversial finding in the field of causal learning is that mood contributes to the accuracy of perceptions of uncorrelated relationships. When asked to report the degree of control between an action and its outcome, people with dysphoria or depression are claimed to be more realistic in reporting non-contingency (e.g., Alloy and Abramson, 1979). The strongest evidence for this depressive realism (DR) effect is derived from data collected with experimental procedures in which the dependent variables are verbal or written ratings of contingency or cause, and, perhaps more importantly, the independent variable in these procedures may be ambiguous and difficult to define. In order to address these possible confounds, we used a two-response free-operant causal learning task in which the dependent measures were performance based. Participants were required to respond to maximize the occurrence of a temporally contiguous outcome that was programmed with different probabilities, which also varied temporally across two responses. Dysphoric participants were more sensitive to the changing outcome contingencies than controls even though they responded at a similar rate. During probe trials, in which the outcome was masked, their performance recovered more quickly than that of the control group. These data provide unexpected support for the DR hypothesis suggesting that dysphoria is associated with heightened sensitivity to temporal shifts in contingency.

  16. The effects of laughter therapy on mood state and self-esteem in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hee; Kook, Jeong Ran; Kwon, Moonjung; Son, Myeong Ha; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Yeon Hee

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether laughter therapy lowers total mood disturbance scores and improves self-esteem scores in patients with cancer. Randomized controlled trial in a radio-oncology outpatient setting. Sixty-two patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=33) or the wait list control group (n=29). Three laughter therapy sessions lasting 60 minutes each. Mood state and self-esteem. The intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significant main effect of group: Experimental group participants reported a 14.12-point reduction in total mood disturbance, while the wait list control group showed a 1.21-point reduction (p=0.001). The per-protocol analysis showed a significant main effect of group: The experimental group reported a 18.86-point decrease in total mood disturbance, while controls showed a 0.19-point reduction (plaughter therapy can improve mood state and self-esteem and can be a beneficial, noninvasive intervention for patients with cancer in clinical settings.

  17. Design for mood : Twenty activity-based opportunities to design for mood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory-based approach to design for mood regulation. The main proposition is that design can best influence mood by enabling and stimulating people to engage in a broad range of mood-regulating activities. The first part of the manuscript reviews state-of-the art mood-focused

  18. “I love you forever (more or less” – stability and change in adolescents’ romantic love status and associations with mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Bajoghli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months. Method: Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including symptoms of depression, anxiety (state and trait, and hypomania. They also completed a sleep and activity log. Results: Of 64 participants formerly in love, 45 were still in love; of 86 participants not in love at baseline, 69 were still not in love (overall stability, 76%; 17 had fallen in love recently while 19 were no longer in love. Significant and important changes in mood and anxiety were observed in that experiencing romantic love was associated with higher anxiety scores. Hypomania scores increased in those newly in love, and decreased in those in a longer-lasting romantic relationship. Sleep and sleep-related variables were not associated with romantic love status. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, among Iranian adolescents, the state of love is fairly stable, and that love status seems to be associated with specific states of mood and anxiety.

  19. Surgery of the mind, mood, and conscious state: an idea in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, R Aaron; Taghva, Alexander; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have sought a physical means of altering disordered behavior and consciousness. This quest has spawned numerous innovations in neurosurgery and the neurosciences, from the earliest prehistoric attempts at trepanation to the electrocortical and anatomic localization of cerebral function that emerged in the 19th century. At the start of the 20th century, the overwhelming social impact of psychiatric illness intersected with the novel but imperfect understanding of frontal lobe function, establishing a decades-long venture into the modern origin of psychosurgery, the prefrontal lobotomy. The subsequent social and ethical ramifications of the widespread overuse of transorbital lobotomies drove psychosurgery to near extinction. However, as the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric illness was established, numerous concomitant technical and neuroscientific innovations permitted the incremental development of a new paradigm of treating the disordered mind. In this article, we retrospectively examine these early origins of psychosurgery and then look to the recent past, present, and future for emerging trends in surgery of the psyche. Recent decades have seen a revolution in minimalism, noninvasive imaging, and functional manipulation of the human cerebrum that have created new opportunities and treatment modalities for disorders of the human mind and mood. Early contemporary efforts were directed at focal lesioning of abnormal pathways, but deep-brain stimulation now aims to reversibly alter and modulate those neurologic activities responsible for not only psychiatric disorders, but also to modulate and even to augment consciousness, memory, and other elements of cerebral function. As new tools become available, the social and medical impact of psychosurgery promises to revolutionize not only neurosurgery, but also humans' capability for positively impacting life and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Acute effectiveness of a "fat-loss" product on substrate utilization, perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Seijo, Marcos; Larumbe, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise. Following institutional ethical approval, twelve healthy recreationally active participants, five females and seven males, were randomized to perform two separate experimental ergometry cycling trials, and to ingest 1.5 g (3 × capsules) of either a multi-ingredient supplement (SHRED) or placebo (PL). Participants rested for 3 h, before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to their individually-determined intensity based on their maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was determined at rest, 3 h before exercise (Pre1), immediately before exercise (Pre2) and during exercise (Post), using expired gasses and indirect calorimetry. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 3 min during the 30-min exercise. Additionally both mood state and perception of hunger were assessed at Pre1, Pre2 and Post exercise. A repeated measures ANOVA design and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze potential differences between times and treatment conditions. FAO increased in SHRED from Pre1 to Pre2 [0.56 ± 0.26 to 0.96 ± 0.37, (p = 0.003, d =1.34)] but not in PL [0.67 ± 0.25 to 0.74 ± 0.19, (p = 0.334) d = 0.49], with no differences were found between conditions (p = 0.12, d = 0.49). However, Cohen's d = 0.77 revealed moderate effect size in favor of SHRED from Pre to Post exercise. RPE values were lower in SHRED compared to Pl (phunger were not different between conditions, with no interaction effects

  1. Tracking Potentiating States of Dissociation: An Intensive Clinical Case Study of Sleep, Daydreaming, Mood, and Depersonalization/Derealization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L.; Kellett, Stephen; Totterdell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which “dream-like” mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N = 1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days) current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful) in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed. PMID:27582722

  2. Tracking potentiating states of dissociation: An intensive clinical case study of sleep, daydreaming, mood, and depersonalization/derealization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD. Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which ‘dream-like’ mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N=1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed.

  3. The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Beck, Anne Marie; Astrup, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Our dietary habits affect both cognitive performance and mood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of increased availability of healthy meals and water at work on healthcare staff. The study used an 8-week randomised cross-over design. A total of sixty physicians, nurses and nursing...... assistants, including sixteen working on shifts, were recruited. The participants received a self-selected keyhole-labelled (Nordic nutrition label) lunch, snack and bottled water during each shift throughout the intervention period. Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary....... The intervention had no effect on reaction time or any of the mood-related scores in the group as a whole. In shift-working participants, the intervention period resulted in a 31·1 % lower Fatigue-Inertia Score (P=0·003), a 15·3 % higher Vigour-Activity Score (P=0·041) and a 42·7 % lower Total Mood Disturbance...

  4. Time to talk about work-hour impact on anesthesiologists: The effects of sleep deprivation on Profile of Mood States and cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Haleh; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tumin, Dmitry; Thung, Arlyne; Rice, Julie; Barry, N'Diris; Tobias, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A physician's fatigue raises significant concerns regarding personal and patient safety. Effects of sleep deprivation on clinical performance and the quality of patient care are major considerations of today's health care environment. To evaluate the impact of partial sleep deprivation after a 17-h overnight call (3 pm-7 am) on the mood status and cognitive skills of anesthesiologists in an academic clinical hospital setting, as compared to these parameters during regular working hours. Taking circadian rhythm into account, the following measures were assessed in 21 pediatric anesthesiologists at two time points over the course of the study; (i) between 7 and 8 am on a regular non call day, and (ii) between 7 and 8 am after a 17-h in-house call (3 pm-7 am). Six mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States. A Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score was obtained as the sum of all mood scores minus vigor. The total score provides a global estimate of affective state. Simple cognitive tests were similarly administered to assess cognitive skills. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to compare data between regular and post call days. A P sleep deprivation affects the total mood status of anesthesiologists and impacts their cognitive skills. These findings are particularly relevant in a context of increased work expectation, particularly on clinical performance in our modern medical system. Such observations suggest that there may be changes that impact the safety of our patients and the quality of health care that is provided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mood induction in depressive patients: a comparative multidimensional approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falkenberg

    Full Text Available Anhedonia, reduced positive affect and enhanced negative affect are integral characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD. Emotion dysregulation, e.g. in terms of different emotion processing deficits, has consistently been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate mood changes in depressive patients using a multidimensional approach for the measurement of emotional reactivity to mood induction procedures. Experimentally, mood states can be altered using various mood induction procedures. The present study aimed at validating two different positive mood induction procedures in patients with MDD and investigating which procedure is more effective and applicable in detecting dysfunctions in MDD. The first procedure relied on the presentation of happy vs. neutral faces, while the second used funny vs. neutral cartoons. Emotional reactivity was assessed in 16 depressed and 16 healthy subjects using self-report measures, measurements of electrodermal activity and standardized analyses of facial responses. Positive mood induction was successful in both procedures according to subjective ratings in patients and controls. In the cartoon condition, however, a discrepancy between reduced facial activity and concurrently enhanced autonomous reactivity was found in patients. Relying on a multidimensional assessment technique, a more comprehensive estimate of dysfunctions in emotional reactivity in MDD was available than by self-report measures alone and this was unsheathed especially by the mood induction procedure relying on cartoons. The divergent facial and autonomic responses in the presence of unaffected subjective reactivity suggest an underlying deficit in the patients' ability to express the felt arousal to funny cartoons. Our results encourage the application of both procedures in functional imaging studies for investigating the neural substrates of emotion dysregulation in MDD patients. Mood induction via cartoons appears to

  6. Seated T'ai Chi in Older Taiwanese People Using Wheelchairs: A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating Mood States and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chen-Yuan; Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie; Jones, Cindy

    2016-12-01

    There is growing interest in t'ai chi, but little research has addressed whether t'ai chi is effective in older people using wheelchairs for mobilization. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of seated t'ai chi exercise and usual standard activities on mood states and self-efficacy in older people living in a long-term care facility and using wheelchairs for mobilization. Randomized controlled trial (trial registration no. ACTRN12613000029796). One long-term-care facility in Taiwan. Sixty participants were randomly assigned by a computer-generated random sequence to a t'ai chi group (n = 30) or a usual exercise and entertainment activities group (n = 30). Seated t'ai chi exercise for 40 minutes three times a week for 26 weeks was provided. Mood states (Profile of Mood States Short Form [POMS-SF]) and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy for Exercise [SEE]). At week 26, participants in the t'ai chi group reported significantly lower mood states on the fatigue-inertia dimension of the POMS-SF (mean score ± standard deviation, 3.56 ± 3.71) than did the control group (mean score, 7.16 ± 6.36) (F [1, 58] = 7.15; p self-efficacy for older people using wheelchairs.

  7. Association between lithium serum level, mood state, and patient-reported adverse drug reactions during long-term lithium treatment : a naturalistic follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Mersch, Peter-Paul A.; den Boer, Johannes A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Nolen, Willem A.

    To assess the association between mood state and the prevalence and the severity of lithium adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A 26-year follow-up study was conducted among patients >= 18 years treated at the outpatient lithium clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands, between

  8. Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O 2max : 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p Sleep efficiency decreased during intensified training (83.1 ± 5.3 to 77.8 ± 8.6%; p sleep time was significantly higher in CON than HCHO throughout intensified training. Mood disturbance increased during intensified training and was higher in CON than HCHO (p sleep quality, mood state and maximal exercise performance.

  9. Non-response to sad mood induction: implications for emotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2018-05-01

    Experimental induction of sad mood states is a mainstay of laboratory research on affect and cognition, mood regulation, and mood disorders. Typically, the success of such mood manipulations is reported as a statistically significant pre- to post-induction change in the self-rated intensity of the target affect. The present commentary was motivated by an unexpected finding in one of our studies concerning the response rate to a well-validated sad mood induction. Using the customary statistical approach, we found a significant mean increase in self-rated sadness intensity with a moderate effect size, verifying the "success" of the mood induction. However, that "success" masked that, between one-fifth and about one-third of our samples (adolescents who had histories of childhood-onset major depressive disorder and healthy controls) reported absolutely no sadness in response to the mood induction procedure. We consider implications of our experience for emotion research by (1) commenting upon the typically overlooked phenomenon of nonresponse, (2) suggesting changes in reporting practices regarding mood induction success, and (3) outlining future directions to help scientists determine why some subjects do not respond to experimental mood induction.

  10. Fatigue states after cancer treatment occur both in association with, and independent of, mood disorder: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Tracey

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent fatigue is recognised as one of the most common, ongoing symptoms reported by patients following cancer treatment and may have profound effects on the quality of life. However, recent cross-sectional studies also highlight the close relationship between cancer related fatigue (CRF and diagnoses of depression or anxiety disorder. There is currently limited information about the relationships between these conditions over time. We sought to examine the longitudinal relationships between fatigue and mood disorder in women treated with adjuvant therapy for early stage breast cancer. Methods Women who had recently completed adjuvant therapy for Stage I or II breast cancer (n = 212 were sent a questionnaire with established case thresholds for clinically-significant fatigue and psychological disorder, as well as a questionnaire assessing disability. Potentially relevant variables linked to fatigue states, including age, treatment modality, menopausal status, and hematological indices were recorded. The illness outcomes were assessed over 48 months of follow-up. Results The 176 women who responded to the questionnaire (84% had a mean age of 55 (range 24–83 years and had completed adjuvant treatment on average 10 (range 4.7 – 16.3 months previously. Radiotherapy had been administered, either alone (50% of women or in combination with chemotherapy (36%. Responses from 87 women (48% indicated a significant fatigue state (termed here post-cancer fatigue; PCF, and from 59 women (33% responses indicated significant psychological distress. Thirty-four women (19% were cases of fatigue alone (i.e. unaccompanied by psychological disorder, whereas 52 (30% were cases of both disorders. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any association between demographic, clinical or laboratory variables, and caseness for PCF. Self-reported functional disability was significantly associated with fatigue. Follow-up at 24, 36 and 48 months

  11. Sniffing the mood for cooperation: Personality and odor induced affective states effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchlewska Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores situational and dispositional underpinnings of cooperative behavior. According to psychological research, cooperation is strongly related to affective states (Forgas, 1998 and personality dimensions (Volk, Thöni, & Ruigrok, 2011. In an experimental study we examined the conditions under which people cooperate with each other. The dispositional traits of co-workers (personality, the contribution to a collaborative effort, and a situational factor – ambient odor condition were taken into consideration. A one-way ANOVA revealed that compared to a malodorous condition, both the pleasant odor condition and the natural odor condition showed higher rates of cooperation. Further analysis indicated that only malodors influenced affective states which in turn determined social decisions. Although we found effects for the participants’ agreeableness and the coworker’s contribution to a joint work, they appeared to play a less critical role than affective states induced by the experimental odor conditions tested here.

  12. Prospective Validation of the Decalogue, a Set of Doctor-Patient Communication Recommendations to Improve Patient Illness Experience and Mood States within a Hospital Cardiologic Ambulatory Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piercarlo Ballo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to improve doctor-patient communication may have a beneficial impact on patient’s illness experience and mood, with potential favorable clinical effects. We prospectively tested the psychometric and clinical validity of the Decalogue, a tool utilizing 10 communication recommendations for patients and physicians. The Decalogue was administered to 100 consecutive patients referred for a cardiologic consultation, whereas 49 patients served as controls. The POMS-2 questionnaire was used to measure the total mood disturbance at the end of the consultation. Structural equation modeling showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.93, good test-retest reproducibility, and high validity of the psychometric construct (all > 0.80, suggesting a positive effect on patients’ illness experience. The total mood disturbance was lower in the patients exposed to the Decalogue as compared to the controls (1.4±12.1 versus 14.8±27.6, p=0.0010. In an additional questionnaire, patients in the Decalogue group showed a trend towards a better understanding of their state of health (p=0.07. In a cardiologic ambulatory setting, the Decalogue shows good validity and reliability as a tool to improve patients’ illness experience and could have a favorable impact on mood states. These effects might potentially improve patient engagement in care and adherence to therapy, as well as clinical outcome.

  13. Quantitative EEG and its Correlation with Cardiovascular, Cognition and mood State: an Integrated Study in Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyuan; Hu, Bin; Chen, Wenjuan; Moore, Philip; Xu, Tingting; Dong, Qunxi; Liu, Zhenyu; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the study is the estimation of the effects of microgravity on the central nervous activity and its underlying influencing mechanisms. To validate the microgravity-induced physiological and psychological effects on EEG, quantitative EEG features, cardiovascular indicators, mood state, and cognitive performances data collection was achieved during a 45 day period using a -6°head-down bed rest (HDBR) integrated approach. The results demonstrated significant differences in EEG data, as an increased Theta wave, a decreased Beta wave and a reduced complexity of brain, accompanied with an increased heart rate and pulse rate, decreased positive emotion, and degraded emotion conflict monitoring performance. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) based cardiovascular and cognitive related EEG model showed the cardiovascular effect on EEG mainly affected bilateral temporal region and the cognitive effect impacted parietal-occipital and frontal regions. The results obtained in the study support the use of an approach which combines a multi-factor influential mechanism hypothesis. The changes in the EEG data may be influenced by both cardiovascular and cognitive effects.

  14. The Association Between Trait Gratitude and Self-Reported Sleep Quality Is Mediated by Depressive Mood State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Kotzin, Megan D; Waugaman, Debby L; Killgore, William D S

    2017-01-27

    It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. The BDI-II assessed self-reported depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous work, GRAT scores were positively associated with higher daytime energy and greater number of hours of sleep per night. Importantly, however, we further observed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationships between gratitude scores and sleep metrics. Depressive mood state appears to mediate the association between gratitude and self-reported sleep quality metrics. We suggest, as one plausible model of these phenomena, that highly grateful individuals have lower symptoms of depression, which in turn leads to fewer presleep worries, resulting in better perceived sleep quality. Future work should aim to disentangle the causal nature of these relationships in order to better understand how these important variables interact.

  15. Effect of biofeedback-assisted autogenic training on headache activity and mood states in Korean female migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Park, Joo-Eon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2009-10-01

    Biofeedback with or without combined autogenic training is known to be effective for the treatment of migraine. This study aimed to examine the effect of biofeedback treatment on headache activity, anxiety, and depression in Korean female patients with migraine headache. Patients were randomized into the treatment group (n=17) and monitoring group (n=15). Mood states including anxiety and depression, and psychophysiological variables such as mean skin temperature of the patients were compared with those of the normal controls (n=21). We found greater treatment response rate (defined as > or =50% reduction in headache index) in patients with biofeedback-assisted autogenic training than in monitoring group. The scores on the anxiety and depression scales in the patients receiving biofeedback-assisted autogenic training decreased after the biofeedback treatment. Moreover, the decrease in their anxiety levels was significantly related to the treatment outcome. This result suggests that the biofeedback-assisted autogenic training is effective for the treatment of migraine and its therapeutic effect is closely related to the improvement of the anxiety level.

  16. Mood Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  17. Looking at food in sad mood: do attention biases lead emotional eaters into overeating after a negative mood induction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Renner, Fritz; Roefs, Anne; Huibers, Marcus J H; Plumanns, Lana; Krott, Nora; Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Emotional eating is associated with overeating and the development of obesity. Yet, empirical evidence for individual (trait) differences in emotional eating and cognitive mechanisms that contribute to eating during sad mood remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to test if attention bias for food moderates the effect of self-reported emotional eating during sad mood (vs neutral mood) on actual food intake. It was expected that emotional eating is predictive of elevated attention for food and higher food intake after an experimentally induced sad mood and that attentional maintenance on food predicts food intake during a sad versus a neutral mood. Participants (N = 85) were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental mood induction conditions (sad/neutral). Attentional biases for high caloric foods were measured by eye tracking during a visual probe task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli. Self-reported emotional eating was assessed with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and ad libitum food intake was tested by a disguised food offer. Hierarchical multivariate regression modeling showed that self-reported emotional eating did not account for changes in attention allocation for food or food intake in either condition. Yet, attention maintenance on food cues was significantly related to increased intake specifically in the neutral condition, but not in the sad mood condition. The current findings show that self-reported emotional eating (based on the DEBQ) might not validly predict who overeats when sad, at least not in a laboratory setting with healthy women. Results further suggest that attention maintenance on food relates to eating motivation when in a neutral affective state, and might therefore be a cognitive mechanism contributing to increased food intake in general, but maybe not during sad mood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Next-day effects of ramelteon (8 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), and placebo on highway driving performance, memory functioning, psychomotor performance, and mood in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, Monique A J; de Vries, Juna M; de Senerpont Domis, Lieke M; Volkerts, Edmund R; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the next-morning residual effects of ramelteon (8 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), and placebo on driving performance, memory functioning, psychomotor performance, and mood in healthy adult subjects following bedtime dosing and a middle of the night awakening. Single-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Utrecht University, The Netherlands. 30 healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females). a single dose of ramelteon (8 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), and placebo, administered at bedtime. A balance test was performed at night. Other tests were performed the following morning, 8.5 h after administration. Subjects performed a 100-km highway driving test in normal traffic. Primary outcome measure was the standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car. After driving, cognitive, memory, and psychomotor tests were performed and mood was assessed. SDLP was significantly increased after the intake of ramelteon (+2.2 cm) and zopiclone (+2.9 cm). Ramelteon and zopiclone produced significant impairment on reaction time (PDivided Attention Test, and delayed recall (Pdriving performance, cognitive, memory, and psychomotor performance the morning following bedtime administration. In contrast to zopiclone, ramelteon produced no balance impairments. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: NCT00319215 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  19. Stress Biomarkers, Mood States, and Sleep during a Major Competition: “Success” and “Failure” Athlete's Profile of High-Level Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Bougard, Clément; Drogou, Catherine; Langrume, Christophe; Miller, Christian; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vergnoux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the “failure” group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p failure group.” In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores, and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the “success” group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the “failure” group only (r = 0.89). sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r = −0.90). In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA. PMID:27014092

  20. Effects of Short Forest Bathing Program on Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Mood States in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Pin; Lin, Chia-Min; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated changes in autonomic nervous system activity and emotions after a short (2 h) forest bathing program in the Xitou Nature Education Area (XNEA), Taiwan. One hundred and twenty-eight (60.0 ± 7.44 years) middle-aged and elderly participants were recruited. Physiological responses, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), and psychological indices were measured before and after the program. We observed that pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower after the program, which indicated physiological benefits from stress recovery. The Profile of Mood States negative mood subscale scores of “tension-anxiety”, “anger-hostility”, “fatigue-inertia”, “depression-dejection”, and “confusion-bewilderment” were significantly lower, whereas the positive mood subscale score of “vigor-activity” was higher. Furthermore, participants exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity were nonsignificant. Our study determined that the short forest bathing program is a promising therapeutic method for enhancing heart rate and blood pressure functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals. PMID:28792445

  1. Effects of Short Forest Bathing Program on Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Mood States in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Pin; Lin, Chia-Min; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-08-09

    The present study investigated changes in autonomic nervous system activity and emotions after a short (2 h) forest bathing program in the Xitou Nature Education Area (XNEA), Taiwan. One hundred and twenty-eight (60.0 ± 7.44 years) middle-aged and elderly participants were recruited. Physiological responses, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), and psychological indices were measured before and after the program. We observed that pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower after the program, which indicated physiological benefits from stress recovery. The Profile of Mood States negative mood subscale scores of "tension-anxiety", "anger-hostility", "fatigue-inertia", "depression-dejection", and "confusion-bewilderment" were significantly lower, whereas the positive mood subscale score of "vigor-activity" was higher. Furthermore, participants exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity were nonsignificant. Our study determined that the short forest bathing program is a promising therapeutic method for enhancing heart rate and blood pressure functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals.

  2. Effects of Short Forest Bathing Program on Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Mood States in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in autonomic nervous system activity and emotions after a short (2 h forest bathing program in the Xitou Nature Education Area (XNEA, Taiwan. One hundred and twenty-eight (60.0 ± 7.44 years middle-aged and elderly participants were recruited. Physiological responses, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV, and psychological indices were measured before and after the program. We observed that pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower after the program, which indicated physiological benefits from stress recovery. The Profile of Mood States negative mood subscale scores of “tension-anxiety”, “anger-hostility”, “fatigue-inertia”, “depression-dejection”, and “confusion-bewilderment” were significantly lower, whereas the positive mood subscale score of “vigor-activity” was higher. Furthermore, participants exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity were nonsignificant. Our study determined that the short forest bathing program is a promising therapeutic method for enhancing heart rate and blood pressure functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals.

  3. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  4. UEffect of acute sleep deprivation on concentration and mood states with a controlled effect of experienced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2011-05-01

    Conclusions: As previous studies have shown, mood changes rather than decreased concentration occur after acute sleep deprivation – cognitive abilities seem to be more resistant to sleep deprivation. Further studies with longer sleep deprivation should show how long it takes to disrupt our concentration and higher cognitive abilities.

  5. Coping strategies and mood profiles in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Milanlioglu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies, mood characteristics and the association between these aspects in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. Method: Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to McDonald criteria and thirty-one healthy subjects were included in the study. In addition to the sociodemographic form, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE, and Profile of Mood States (POMS tests were applied to the participants. Results: Non-functional coping strategies were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p≤0.05. Depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia and total POMS scores were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p≤0.05. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the importance of rehabilitation programs that encourage exercise among patients with multiple sclerosis to increase vigor-activity levels.

  6. Demand characteristics, pre-test attitudes and time-on-task trends in the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported mood in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A P; Smith, A P

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that chewing gum enhances reported alertness, but has variable effects on attention. Demand characteristics may explain these effects. The current study investigated the effects of gum and demand characteristics on attention and reported mood over time. Participants completed measures of mood and attention, with and without chewing gum. To manipulate demand characteristics, they were told that the hypothesised effect of gum was either positive or negative, or no hypothesis was mentioned. Attitudes towards gum were assessed pre- and post-manipulation. Gum increased reported alertness; this effect was only significant for positive and neutral demand characteristics. Vigilance accuracy was reduced for chewing gum, but only in the fourth minute of the task, and gum reduced focussed attention accuracy, but only for the first 64 trials. Demand characteristics did not moderate time-on-task effects. Gum improved selective attention. A positive effect on response organisation was observed; this was significant when demand characteristics and pre-test attitudes to gum were both negative. The results suggest that demand characteristics moderate effects on self-reported alertness and response organisation, but cannot explain time-on-task effects or variable main effects on other aspects of attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A decline in physiological functioning and mental wellbeing is common with advancing age. However, these changes may vary among elderly individuals. Physical activity and the response of the elderly to exercise during recreational activities, i.e., recreational alpine skiing, may serve as a catalyst for the improvement of wellbeing and general health. Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the heart rate (HR response modulations in a group of elderly recreational alpine skiers during 3.5h of skiing. In addition, each group's perceived responses of mood state (MS and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were collected to determine possible contributions to changes in wellbeing as a result of recreational skiing. Methods: Forty-nine healthy elderly participants (mean age: 63±6 yrs, weight: 75.4+13.1 kg, height: 170.5+9.1 cm, BMI: 26+3.2 with at least basic alpine skiing ability participated in a 3.5h ski test. GPS data (GPS Garmin Forerunner 301 were used to monitor altitude and HR and were recorded continuously during the 3.5h of skiing. During skiing, participants were asked at three different times to report RPE and MS. Results: The time spent on the lift during the 3.5h skiing ranged from 21-58% followed by recovery breaks of 17-53% and time spent in downhill skiing ranged from 12-40%. Participants completed 9-23 downhill runs in 3.5h. Average intensities during 3.5 h downhill runs for over 80% of the group were between 50-80% of maximal heart rate (HRmax (220-age. Peak heart rate (HRpeak values during downhill runs for 35% of the group were between 60-70% of HRmax. Statistical analysis revealed numerous significant differences between RPE and MS values for the three different sampling times. The MS in general remained positive and even increased in the categories of happiness and sociability despite an increase in fatigue. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the duration and intensity of skiing was appropriate and yielded

  8. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  9. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Mood, music, and caffeine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2014-01-01

    What we see is affected by how we feel: in positive moods, we are more sensitive to positive stimuli, such as happy faces, but in negative moods we are more sensitive to negative stimuli, such as sad faces. Caffeine is known to affect mood - a cup of coffee results in a more positive mood, but also

  11. Testing an mHealth momentary assessment Routine Outcome Monitoring application: a focus on restoration of daily life positive mood states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim van Os

    Full Text Available Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM is used as a means to enrich the process of treatment with feedback on patient outcomes, facilitating patient involvement and shared decision making. While traditional ROM measures focus on retrospective accounts of symptoms, novel mHealth technology makes it possible to collect real life, in-the-moment ambulatory data that allow for an ecologically valid assessment of personalized and contextualized emotional and behavioural adjustment in the flow daily life (mROM.In a sample of 34 patients with major depressive disorder, treated with antidepressants, the combined effect of treatment and natural course was examined over a period of 18 weeks with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA. EMA consisted of repeated, within-subject, mini-measurements of experience (eg positive affect, negative affect, medication side effects and context (eg stressors, situations, activities at 10 unselected semi-random moments per day, for a period of six days, repeated three times over the 18-week period (baseline, week 6 and week 18.EMA measures of emotional and behavioural adjustment were sensitive to the effects of treatment and natural course over the 18-week period, particularly EMA measures focussing on positive mood states and the ability to use natural rewards (impact of positive events on positive mood states, with standardized effect sizes of 0.4-0.5. EMA measures of activities, social interaction, stress-sensitivity and negative mood states were also sensitive to change over time.This study supports the use of mROM as a means to involve the patient in the process of needs assessment and treatment. EMA data are meaningful to the patient, as they reflect daily life circumstances. Assessment of treatment response with mROM data allows for an interpretation of the effect of treatment at the level of daily life emotional and social adjustment--as an index of health, obviating the need for an exclusive focus on traditional measures

  12. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed. PMID:28009983

  13. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-24

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed.

  14. Effects of Guided Written Disclosure Protocol on mood states and psychological symptoms among parents of off-therapy acute lymphoblastic leukemia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Luisa; Freda, Maria Francesca; Camera, Flavia

    2013-06-01

    This study assesses the effects of Guided Written Disclosure Protocol on psychological distress in mothers and fathers of off-therapy acute lymphoblastic leukemia children. An experimental group participated in the writing intervention with a control group subject only to test-taking standards. The Symptom Questionnaire and Profile of Mood States were administered at baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up. Guided Written Disclosure Protocol had significant effects on the progressive reduction of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, hostility, tension-anxiety, and fatigue-inertia within the experimental group. However, the control group distress levels tended to worsen over time. The mediating role of emotional processing was highlighted.

  15. Healthy lifestyle as contemporary dominant of state youth policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Khozhylo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with actual issue of healthy lifestyle promotion as component of native state youth policy. The review of main legislative and regulatory legal acts on healthy lifestyle promotion of Ukraine is conducted. The main focus is on analysis of perspective regulatory legal acts that regulate activities on healthy lifestyle promotion and realization at the context of execution of international liabilities of Ukraine. Structure of program provision of international liabilities execution on healthy lifestyle promotion and realization in youth environment by Ukrainian state at the context of legal, organizational, financial and social mechanisms of public administration is thoroughly analyzed.

  16. Acute effects of beta blockade and exercise on mood and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, A; Kendall, M J; Ferner, R; Eagles, C

    1996-09-01

    To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. Compared to placebo, resting "tension", "depression", and "total mood disturbance" were significantly higher on propranolol 80 mg, but all were reduced with exercise. "Fatigue" and "confusion" were also higher on propranolol, and were unaffected by exercise. "Fatigue" was also higher than placebo after exercise on metoprolol 100 mg. "Anxiety" was unaffected by drug treatment or exercise. The evidence that beta blockers, and particularly propranolol, have adverse effects on mood was confirmed. It would be preferable to prescribe a beta blocker which does not adversely alter mood states. However, exercise significantly reduced the measures of "tension" and "depression" which were adversely increased by propranolol. Exercise prescription may therefore not only be compatible with beta blockade, but a highly desirable adjuvant therapy.

  17. Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Self-reported Mood State in Response to High Intensity Interval Training. A Crossover Study on the Effect of Chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS, before (PRE, after 12 (POST12 and 24 h (POST24 the completion of both morning (08.00 am and evening (08.00 p.m. training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107 while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008. Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002 and after 30 min (P = 0.042 the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times

  18. State anxiety and emotional face recognition in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, Angela S.; Easey, Kayleigh E.; Dalili, Michael N.; Skinner, Andrew L.; Woods, Andy; Crick, Lana; Ilett, Elizabeth; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    High trait anxiety has been associated with detriments in emotional face processing. By contrast, relatively little is known about the effects of state anxiety on emotional face processing. We investigated the effects of state anxiety on recognition of emotional expressions (anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear and happiness) experimentally, using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) model to induce state anxiety, and in a large observational study. The experimental studies indicated reduced glob...

  19. Longitudinal functional connectivity changes correlate with mood improvement after regular exercise in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Leonardo; Carballedo, Angela; Lavelle, Grace; Doolin, Kelly; Doyle, Myles; Amico, Francesco; McCarthy, Hazel; Gormley, John; Lord, Anton; O'Keane, Veronica; Frodl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Exercise increases wellbeing and improves mood. It is however unclear how these mood changes relate to brain function. We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating resting-state modifications in healthy adults after an extended period of aerobic physical exercise and their relationship with mood improvements. We aimed to identify novel functional networks whose activity could provide a physiological counterpart to the mood-related benefits of exercise. Thirty-eight healthy sedentary volunteers were randomised to either the aerobic exercise group of the study or a control group. Participants in the exercise group attended aerobic sessions with a physiotherapist twice a week for 16 weeks. Resting-state modifications using magnetic resonance imaging were assessed before and after the programme and related to mood changes. An unbiased approach using graph metrics and network-based statistics was adopted. Exercise reduced mood disturbance and improved emotional wellbeing. It also induced a decrease in local efficiency in the parahippocampal lobe through strengthening of the functional connections from this structure to the supramarginal gyrus, precentral area, superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole. Changes in mood disturbance following exercise were correlated with those in connectivity between parahippocampal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus as well as with the amount of training. No changes were detected in the control group. In conclusion, connectivity from the parahippocampal gyrus to motor, sensory integration and mood regulation areas was strengthened through exercise. These functional changes might be related to the benefits of regular physical activity on mood. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. State, Local and Tribal Resources for Creating Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page will be a combination of three current pages on resources - ‘Resources for Healthier Schools’, ‘Schools: Student Curricula for Healthier School’ and ‘Schools: Regional, Tribal, State and Local Resources for Healthier Schools’ pages

  1. The effect of mood state on visual search times for detecting a target in noise: An application of smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Toru; Anderson, Stephen J; de Brecht, Matthew; Yamagishi, Noriko

    2018-01-01

    The study of visual perception has largely been completed without regard to the influence that an individual's emotional status may have on their performance in visual tasks. However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that mood may affect not only creative abilities and interpersonal skills but also the capacity to perform low-level cognitive tasks. Here, we sought to determine whether rudimentary visual search processes are similarly affected by emotion. Specifically, we examined whether an individual's perceived happiness level affects their ability to detect a target in noise. To do so, we employed pop-out and serial visual search paradigms, implemented using a novel smartphone application that allowed search times and self-rated levels of happiness to be recorded throughout each twenty-four-hour period for two weeks. This experience sampling protocol circumvented the need to alter mood artificially with laboratory-based induction methods. Using our smartphone application, we were able to replicate the classic visual search findings, whereby pop-out search times remained largely unaffected by the number of distractors whereas serial search times increased with increasing number of distractors. While pop-out search times were unaffected by happiness level, serial search times with the maximum numbers of distractors (n = 30) were significantly faster for high happiness levels than low happiness levels (p = 0.02). Our results demonstrate the utility of smartphone applications in assessing ecologically valid measures of human visual performance. We discuss the significance of our findings for the assessment of basic visual functions using search time measures, and for our ability to search effectively for targets in real world settings.

  2. Allopregnanolone and mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäckström, T.; Bixo, M.; Johansson, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ossewaarde, L.; Ragagnin, G.; Savic, I.; Strömberg, J.; Timby, E.; van Broekhoven, F.; van Wingen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain women experience negative mood symptoms during the menstrual cycle and progesterone addition in estrogen treatments. In women with PMDD increased negative mood symptoms related to allopregnanolone increase during the luteal phase of ovulatory menstrual cycles. In anovulatory cycles no

  3. Chocolate: food for moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S Y; Lua, P L

    2011-08-01

    Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related. We reviewed chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its mood altering propensities. The relationship between chocolate and mood are highly complex, combining psychopharmacological components, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the food. Individual and situational differences on chocolate consumption may also exert influence on mood and the mixed results in previous research indicate that the direction of the association remains unclear. The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity.

  4. How you ask matters: an experimental investigation of the influence of mood on memory self-perceptions and their relationship with objective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Brolsma, Jessica W

    2014-01-01

    Stronger relationships often emerge between mood and memory self-efficacy (MSE) than between MSE and memory abilities. We examined how social desirability, mood congruency and framing influence the mood-MSE relationship. Social desirability correlated with all self-report measures, and covarying social desirability diminished the mood-MSE relationship while enhancing the relationship between MSE and objective memory. Participants rated their memory more harshly on positively than neutrally or negatively worded MSE items. Current mood state did not affect MSE overall or when items were worded positively or neutrally. However, on negatively worded items, participants in a negative mood exhibited lower MSE than participants in a positive mood. Thus, both MSE and the mood-MSE relationship depended upon question wording. These results indicate that controlling social desirability and item framing on MSE questionnaires may reduce their confounding influence on memory self-perceptions and the influence of mood on self-reported abilities, allowing subjective memory to more accurately reflect objective memory in healthy and clinical populations.

  5. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  6. Effects of SuperUlam on Supporting Concentration and Mood: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K Udani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. SuperUlam is a proprietary blend of natural ingredients aimed at supporting brain health. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SuperUlam on attention and mood in healthy adults. Methods. Twenty healthy individuals aged 35–65 were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Study duration was 3 weeks and consisted of 3 visits. Measurement of cognitive function included computer-based testing of reaction time, complex attention, working memory, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Mood testing was performed via the profile of mood states (POMS survey and the Chalder fatigue scale. Results. Cognitive function testing demonstrated a significant improvement from baseline in executive functioning, cognitive flexibility, reaction time, and working memory in the product group only (P<0.05. When comparing the study product to placebo, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in tension, depression, and anger (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the product and placebo in the other measures of mood, including vigor, fatigue, confusion, and total mood disturbance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Supplementation with SuperUlam is safe to consume with potential benefits to cognitive function and mood.

  7. Effects of SuperUlam on Supporting Concentration and Mood: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    Background. SuperUlam is a proprietary blend of natural ingredients aimed at supporting brain health. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SuperUlam on attention and mood in healthy adults. Methods. Twenty healthy individuals aged 35-65 were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Study duration was 3 weeks and consisted of 3 visits. Measurement of cognitive function included computer-based testing of reaction time, complex attention, working memory, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Mood testing was performed via the profile of mood states (POMS) survey and the Chalder fatigue scale. Results. Cognitive function testing demonstrated a significant improvement from baseline in executive functioning, cognitive flexibility, reaction time, and working memory in the product group only (P < 0.05). When comparing the study product to placebo, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in tension, depression, and anger (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the product and placebo in the other measures of mood, including vigor, fatigue, confusion, and total mood disturbance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Supplementation with SuperUlam is safe to consume with potential benefits to cognitive function and mood.

  8. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: effects of individualist and collectivist values

    OpenAIRE

    Msetfi, Rachel M.; Kornbrot, Diana E.; Matute, Helena; Murphy, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relation...

  9. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: Effects of individualist and collectivist values

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel M. Msetfi; Rachel M. Msetfi; Diana eKornbrot; Helena eMatute; Robin A. Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relation...

  10. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  11. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric-onset major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in refocusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Contrary to expectations, attention refocusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen's d = .48) or remitted (Cohen's d = .32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities that subserve affect regulation have been

  12. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric onset major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J.; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Methods Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in re-focusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Results Contrary to expectations, attention re-focusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen’s d=.48) or remitted (Cohen’s d=.32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Conclusions Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities

  13. Influence of 2-Weeks Ingestion of High Chlorogenic Acid Coffee on Mood State, Performance, and Postexercise Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Goodman, Courtney L; Capps, Christopher R; Shue, Zack L; Arnot, Robert

    2018-01-01

    This study measured the influence of 2-weeks ingestion of high chlorogenic acid (CQA) coffee on postexercise inflammation and oxidative stress, with secondary outcomes including performance and mood state. Cyclists (N = 15) were randomized to CQA coffee or placebo (300 ml/day) for 2 weeks, participated in a 50-km cycling time trial, and then crossed over to the opposite condition with a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected pre- and postsupplementation, and immediately postexercise. CQA coffee was prepared using the Turkish method with 30 g lightly roasted, highly ground Hambela coffee beans in 300 ml boiling water, and provided 1,066 mg CQA and 474 mg caffeine versus 187 mg CQA and 33 mg caffeine for placebo. Plasma caffeine was higher with CQA coffee versus placebo after 2-weeks (3.3-fold) and postexercise (21.0-fold) (interaction effect, p coffee versus placebo (p = .01). No differences between CQA coffee and placebo were found for postexercise increases in plasma IL-6 (p = .74) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9 + 13 HODEs) (p = .99). Total mood disturbance (TMD) scores were lower with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .04). 50-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials, with heart rate and ventilation higher with CQA coffee, especially after 30 min. In summary, despite more favorable TMD scores with CQA coffee, these data do not support the chronic use of coffee highly concentrated with chlorogenic acids and caffeine in mitigating postexercise inflammation or oxidative stress or improving 50-km cycling performance.

  14. Mood and Performance in Young Malaysian Karateka

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Rebecca S. K.; Thung, Jin Seng; Pieter, Willy

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to t...

  15. Negative mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescent secondary-school students in Barcelona (Spain Estados de ánimo negativos y los factores relacionados en una muestra de adolescentes de enseñanza secundaria de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Q. Ahonen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor mental health is a common problem in adolescence. Little information is available, however, about the factors influencing negative mood states in otherwise healthy adolescents. We aimed to describe the mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescents in the city of Barcelona (Spain. Methods: We administered a health survey to a sample of 2,727 students from public, subsidized, and private schools in Barcelona, aged approximately 14, 16, and 18 years old. To analyze the associations among moods and related factors, we used bivariate logistic regression, and fitted multivariate logistic regressions using the statistically significant variables from the bivariate analysis. To examine the possible group effects of the school on individual students, we employed multilevel analysis. Results: The frequencies of negative mood states increased with age, with girls consistently reporting more frequent negative mood states than boys. The factors associated with negative mood states were problematic alcohol use, perceived mistreatment or abuse, antisocial behavior, intention to use or current use of illegal drugs (not including cannabis, lower perceived academic performance, and feeling isolated. Conclusions: Mood states are influenced by lifestyle and social factors, about which there is little local information. To plan and implement appropriate public health interventions, more complete information about the possible areas of influence is required. To complement the information obtained from studies such as the present study, longitudinal and qualitative studies would be desirable.Introducción: El deterioro de la salud mental es un problema frecuente en la adolescencia. Sin embargo, se sabe poco de los factores influyentes en los estados de ánimo negativos en adolescentes saludables. Pretendemos describir los estados de ánimo negativos y los factores relacionados en una muestra de adolescentes de la ciudad de Barcelona. M

  16. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component

  17. Healthy Families America state systems development: an emerging practice to ensure program growth and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lori; Schreiber, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    In an era of fiscal constraints and increased accountability for social service programs, having a centralized and efficient infrastructure is critical. A well-functioning infrastructure helps a state reduce duplication of services, creates economies of scale, coordinates resources, supports high-quality site development and promotes the self-sufficiency and growth of community-based programs. Throughout the Healthy Families America home visitation network, both program growth and contraction have been managed by in-state collaborations, referred to as "state systems." This article explores the research base that supports the rationale for implementing state systems, describes the evolution of state systems for Healthy Families America, and discusses the benefits, challenges and lessons learned of utilizing a systems approach.

  18. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Miyamoto, Yuri; Markus, Hazel Rose; Rigotti, Attilio; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Coe, Christopher L; Love, Gayle D; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-10-01

    Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the United States and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the United States, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using nonmeat food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Furthermore, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the United States and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  20. Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dean; Hayssen, Gail; Walsh, James

    2007-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment investigated whether chocolate exposed to "good intentions" would enhance mood more than unexposed chocolate. Individuals were assigned to one of four groups and asked to record their mood each day for a week by using the Profile of Mood States. For days three, four and five, each person consumed a half ounce of dark chocolate twice a day at prescribed times. Three groups blindly received chocolate that had been intentionally treated by three different techniques. The intention in each case was that people who ate the chocolate would experience an enhanced sense of energy, vigor, and well-being. The fourth group blindly received untreated chocolate as a placebo control. The hypothesis was that mood reported during the three days of eating chocolate would improve more in the intentional groups than in the control group. Stratified random sampling was used to distribute 62 participants among the four groups, matched for age, gender, and amount of chocolate consumed on average per week. Most participants lived in the same geographic region to reduce mood variations due to changes in weather, and the experiment was conducted during one week to reduce effects of current events on mood fluctuations. On the third day of eating chocolate, mood had improved significantly more in the intention conditions than in the control condition (P = .04). Analysis of a planned subset of individuals who habitually consumed less than the grand mean of 3.2 ounces of chocolate per week showed a stronger improvement in mood (P = .0001). Primary contributors to the mood changes were the factors of declining fatigue (P = .01) and increasing vigor (P = .002). All three intentional techniques contributed to the observed results. The mood-elevating properties of chocolate can be enhanced with intention.

  1. The impact of caffeine consumption during 50 hr of extended wakefulness on glucose metabolism, self-reported hunger and mood state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Crystal L; Coates, Alison M; Dorrian, Jillian; Paech, Gemma M; Pajcin, Maja; Della Vedova, Chris; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Fidock, Justin; Aidman, Eugene; Banks, Siobhan

    2018-03-27

    Caffeine is known for its capacity to mitigate performance decrements. The metabolic side-effects are less well understood. This study examined the impact of cumulative caffeine doses on glucose metabolism, self-reported hunger and mood state during 50 hr of wakefulness. In a double-blind laboratory study, participants were assigned to caffeine (n = 9, 6M, age 21.3 ± 2.1 years; body mass index 21.9 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 ) or placebo conditions (n = 8, 4M, age 23.0 ± 2.8 years; body mass index 21.8 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 ). Following a baseline sleep (22:00 hours-08:00 hours), participants commenced 50 hr of sleep deprivation. Meal timing and composition were controlled throughout the study. Caffeine (200 mg) or placebo gum was chewed for 5 min at 01:00 hours, 03:00 hours, 05:00 hours and 07:00 hours during each night of sleep deprivation. Continual glucose monitors captured interstitial glucose 2 hr post-breakfast, at 5-min intervals. Hunger and mood state were assessed at 10:00 hours, 16:30 hours, 22:30 hours and 04:30 hours. Caffeine did not affect glucose area under the curve (p = 0.680); however, glucose response to breakfast significantly increased after 2 nights of extended wakefulness compared with baseline (p = 0.001). There was a significant main effect of day, with increased tiredness (p performance under conditions of sleep deprivation by reducing feelings of tiredness, mental exhaustion and irritability without exacerbating glucose metabolism and feelings of hunger. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni L. Vlahou; Franka Thurm; Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Winfried Schlee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18–89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show tha...

  3. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  4. Implications of Circadian Rhythm in Dopamine and Mood Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongah; Jang, Sangwon; Choe, Han Kyoung; Chung, Sooyoung; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2017-07-31

    Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Specifically, genetic deletion of the circadian nuclear receptor Rev-erbα induces mania-like behavior caused by increased midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) tone at dusk. The association between circadian rhythm and emotion-related behaviors can be applied to pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), DAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta progressively degenerate leading to motor dysfunction. Patients with PD also exhibit non-motor symptoms, including sleep disorder and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that link the molecular circadian clock and brain machinery in the regulation of emotional behaviors and related midbrain DAergic neuronal circuits in healthy and pathological states. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the association between circadian rhythm and mood regulation from a chronobiological perspective, and may provide insight into therapeutic approaches to target psychiatric symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases involving circadian rhythm dysfunction.

  5. Mood disorders: neurocognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Baune, Bernhard T; Porter, Richard J; Outhred, Tim

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a number of neurocognitive models stemming from psychiatry and psychology schools of thought have conceptualized the pathophysiology of mood disorders in terms of dysfunctional neural mechanisms that underpin and drive neurocognitive processes. Though these models have been useful for advancing our theoretical understanding and facilitating important lines of research, translation of these models and their application within the clinical arena have been limited-partly because of lack of integration and synthesis. Cognitive neuroscience provides a novel perspective for understanding and modeling mood disorders. This selective review of influential neurocognitive models develops an integrative approach that can serve as a template for future research and the development of a clinically meaningful framework for investigating, diagnosing, and treating mood disorders. A selective literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsychINFO to identify prominent neurobiological and neurocognitive models of mood disorders. Most models identify similar neural networks and brain regions and neuropsychological processes in the neurocognition of mood, however, they differ in terms of specific functions attached to neural processes and how these interact. Furthermore, cognitive biases, reward processing and motivation, rumination, and mood stability, which play significant roles in the manner in which attention, appraisal, and response processes are deployed in mood disorders, are not sufficiently integrated. The inclusion of interactions between these additional components enhances our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders. Through integration of key cognitive functions and understanding of how these interface with neural functioning within neurocognitive models of mood disorders, a framework for research can be created for translation to diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  6. Classification and Extraction of Resting State Networks Using Healthy and Epilepsy fMRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav Vergun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have significantly expanded the field’s understanding of functional brain activity of healthy and patient populations. Resting state (rs- fMRI, which does not require subjects to perform a task, eliminating confounds of task difficulty, allows examination of neural activity and offers valuable functional mapping information. The purpose of this work was to develop an automatic resting state network (RNS labeling method which offers value in clinical workflow during rs-fMRI mapping by organizing and quickly labeling spatial maps into functional networks. Here independent component analysis (ICA and machine learning were applied to rs-fMRI data with the goal of developing a method for the clinically oriented task of extracting and classifying spatial maps into auditory, visual, default-mode, sensorimotor and executive control resting state networks from 23 epilepsy patients (and for general comparison, separately for 30 healthy subjects. ICA revealed distinct and consistent functional network components across patients and healthy subjects. Network classification was successful, achieving 88% accuracy for epilepsy patients with a naïve Bayes algorithm (and 90% accuracy for healthy subjects with a perceptron. The method’s utility to researchers and clinicians is the provided RSN spatial maps and their functional labeling which offer complementary functional information to clinicians’ expert interpretation.

  7. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  8. Perceived impact and feasibility of strategies to improve access to healthy foods in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Quinn, Emilee L; Podrabsky, Mary; Beckwith-Stanley, Nadia; Chan, Nadine; Ellings, Amy; Kovacs, Tricia; Lane, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of each policy on a five-point scale using online surveys. Washington State policy process. Forty-nine content experts (national researchers and subject experts), forty policy experts (state elected officials or their staff, gubernatorial or legislative policy analysts) and forty-five other stakeholders (state-level advocates, programme administrators, food producers). In aggregate, respondents rated policy impact and implementation feasibility higher than political feasibility. Policy experts rated policy strategies as less politically feasible compared with content experts (P political and implementation feasibility. These included policies related to nutrition standards in schools and child-care facilities, food distribution systems, urban planning projects, water availability, joint use agreements and breast-feeding supports. Although they may be perceived as potentially impactful, some policies will be more difficult to enact than others. Information about the potential feasibility of policies to improve access to healthy foods can be used to focus limited policy process resources on strategies with the highest potential for enactment, implementation and impact.

  9. Effects of a yoga program on mood states, quality of life, and toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving conventional treatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy counseling on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, toxicity, and quality of life in Stage II and III breast cancer patients on conventional treatment. Methods: Ninety-eight Stage II and III breast cancer patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT or chemotherapy (CT or both at a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45 and supportive therapy counseling (n = 53 over a 24-week period. Intervention consisted of 60-min yoga sessions, daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Assessments included state-trait anxiety inventory, Beck's depression inventory, symptom checklist, common toxicity criteria, and functional living index-cancer. Assessments were done at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. Results: Both groups had similar baseline scores. There were 29 dropouts 12 (yoga and 17 (controls following surgery. Sixty-nine participants contributed data to the current analysis (33 in yoga, and 36 in controls. An ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline differences, showed a significant decrease for the yoga intervention as compared to the control group during RT ( first result and CT (second result, in (i anxiety state by 4.72 and 7.7 points, (ii depression by 5.74 and 7.25 points, (iii treatment-related symptoms by 2.34 and 2.97 points, (iv severity of symptoms by 6.43 and 8.83 points, (v distress by 7.19 and 13.11 points, and (vi and improved overall quality of life by 23.9 and 31.2 points as compared to controls. Toxicity was significantly less in the yoga group (P = 0.01 during CT. Conclusion: The results suggest a possible use for yoga as a psychotherapeutic intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.

  10. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369

  11. The liberal state and the rogue agency: FDA’s regulation of drugs for mood disorders, 1950s–1970s☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The theory of the liberal state does not generally contemplate the possibility that regulatory agencies will turn into “rogues,” regulating against the interests of their clients and, indeed, the public interest. In the years between circa 1955 and 1975 this seems to have happened to one of the prime regulatory agencies of the US federal government: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Intent upon transforming itself from a traditional “cop” agency to a regulatory giant, the FDA campaigned systematically to bring down some safe and effective drugs. This article concentrates on hearings in the area of psychopharmacology regarding several antianxiety drugs, namely meprobamate (Miltown), chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and diazepam (Valium). In addition, from 1967 to 1973 this regulatory vengefulness occurred on a broad scale in the Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI), an administrative exercise that removed from the market almost half of the psychopharmacopoeia. The article explores possible bureaucratic motives for these actions. PMID:18343498

  12. The liberal state and the rogue agency: FDA's regulation of drugs for mood disorders, 1950s-1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the liberal state does not generally contemplate the possibility that regulatory agencies will turn into "rogues," regulating against the interests of their clients and, indeed, the public interest. In the years between circa 1955 and 1975 this seems to have happened to one of the prime regulatory agencies of the US federal government: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Intent upon transforming itself from a traditional "cop" agency to a regulatory giant, the FDA campaigned systematically to bring down some safe and effective drugs. This article concentrates on hearings in the area of psychopharmacology regarding several antianxiety drugs, namely meprobamate (Miltown), chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and diazepam (Valium). In addition, from 1967 to 1973 this regulatory vengefulness occurred on a broad scale in the Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI), an administrative exercise that removed from the market almost half of the psychopharmacopoeia. The article explores possible bureaucratic motives for these actions.

  13. There is an app for that! The current state of mobile applications (apps) for DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Turna, Jasmine; Khalesi, Zahra; Pullia, Katrina; Patterson, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Mental health apps are viewed as a promising modality to extend the reach of mental health care beyond the clinic. They do so by providing a means of assessment, tracking, and treatment through a smartphone. Given that nearly 2/3 of the American population owns a smartphone, mental health apps offer the possibility of overcoming treatment barriers such as geographic location or financial barriers. Unfortunately, the excitement surrounding mental health apps may be premature as the current supporting literature regarding their efficacy is limited. The app marketplace is littered with apps claiming to treat or assess symptoms, but even those created by reputable organizations or those incorporating components of evidence-based treatments have not yet been validated in terms of their efficacy. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current state of the mental health app literature by examining published reports of apps designed for DSM-5 anxiety and mood disorders, OCD, and PTSD. The breadth of apps reviewed includes those oriented around assessment, symptom tracking, and treatment as well as "multipurpose" apps, which incorporate several of these components. This review will also present some of the most popular mental health apps which may have clinical utility and could be prescribed to clients. While we discuss many potential benefits of mental health apps, we focus on a number of issues that the current state of the app literature presents. Overall there is a significant disconnect between app developers, the scientific community and health care, leaving the utility of existing apps questionable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. How School Healthy Is Your State? a State-by-State Comparison of School Health Practices Related to a Healthy School Environment and Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell; McManus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background: School Health Profiles (Profiles) results help states understand how they compare to each other on specific school health policies and practices. The purpose of this study was to develop composite measures of critical Profiles results and use them to rate each state on their overall performance. Methods: Using data from state Profiles…

  15. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  16. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  17. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  18. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  19. Mood, media experiences and advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the

  20. Amygdala functional disconnection with the prefrontal-cingulate-temporal circuit in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Bo, Fan; Xia, Wenqing; Liu, Shenghua; Wang, Peng; Su, Wen; Xu, Jin-Jing; Xiong, Zhenyu; Yin, Xindao

    2017-10-03

    Chronic tinnitus is often accompanied with depressive symptom, which may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the amygdala and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the disrupted amygdala-cortical functional connectivity (FC) in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood. Chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood (n=20), without depressive mood (n=20), and well-matched healthy controls (n=23) underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. Amygdala-cortical FC was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The bilateral amygdala FC was compared among the three groups. Compared to non-depressed patients, depressive tinnitus patients showed decreased amygdala FC with the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex as well as increased amygdala FC with the postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. Relative to healthy controls, depressive tinnitus patients revealed decreased amygdala FC with the superior and middle temporal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and prefrontal cortex, as well as increased amygdala FC with the postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. The current study identified for the first time abnormal resting-state amygdala-cortical FC with the prefrontal-cingulate-temporal circuit in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood, which will provide novel insight into the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of tinnitus-induced depressive disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Frequency of healthy eating habits measured by the 10 Steps to Healthy Eating score proposed by the Ministry of Health: Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Neutzling, Marilda Borges

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to measure frequency of healthy eating habits and associated factors using the 10 Steps to Healthy Eating score proposed by the Ministry of Health in the adult population in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted on a cluster sample of 3,136 adult residents in Pelotas. The frequency of each step to healthy eating was collected with a pre-coded questionnaire. Data analysis consisted of descriptive analysis, followed by bivariate analysis using the chi-square test. Only 1.1% of the population followed all the recommended steps. The average number of steps was six. Step four, salt intake, showed the highest frequency, while step nine, physical activity, showed the lowest. Knowledge of the population's eating habits and their distribution according to demographic and socioeconomic variables is important to guide local and national strategies to promote healthy eating habits and thus improve quality of life.

  2. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin is independent of the OCT1 genotype in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin in healthy volunteers with different numbers of reduced-function alleles in the organic cation transporter 1 gene (OCT1). METHODS: The study was conducted as part of a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty......-four healthy volunteers with known OCT1 genotypes (12 with two wild-type alleles, 13 with one and 9 with two reduced-function alleles) were included. In one of the study periods, they were titrated to steady-state with 1 g metformin twice daily. RESULTS: Neither AUC(0-12), C(max) nor Cl(renal) were...... statistically significantly affected by the number of reduced-function alleles (0, 1 or 2) in OCT1: (AUC(0-12): 0, 1, 2: 14, 13 and 14 h ng/L (P = 0.61)); (C(max): 0, 1, 2: 2192, 1934 and 2233 ng/mL, (P = 0.26)) and (Cl(renal): 0, 1, 2: 31, 28 and 30 L/h (P = 0.57)) CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of healthy...

  3. Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta

    2010-09-01

    To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.

  4. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a State-Funded Healthy Homes Program for Residents With Asthma: Findings From the New York State Healthy Neighborhoods Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marta; Reddy, Amanda L; Dixon, Sherry L; Wilson, Jonathan; Jacobs, David E

    Despite considerable evidence that the economic and other benefits of asthma home visits far exceed their cost, few health care payers reimburse or provide coverage for these services. To evaluate the cost and savings of the asthma intervention of a state-funded healthy homes program. Pre- versus postintervention comparisons of asthma outcomes for visits conducted during 2008-2012. The New York State Healthy Neighborhoods Program operates in select communities with a higher burden of housing-related illness and associated risk factors. One thousand households with 550 children and 731 adults with active asthma; 791 households with 448 children and 551 adults with asthma events in the previous year. The program provides home environmental assessments and low-cost interventions to address asthma trigger-promoting conditions and asthma self-management. Conditions are reassessed 3 to 6 months after the initial visit. Program costs and estimated benefits from changes in asthma medication use, visits to the doctor for asthma, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations over a 12-month follow-up period. For the asthma event group, the per person savings for all medical encounters and medications filled was $1083 per in-home asthma visit, and the average cost of the visit was $302, for a benefit to program cost ratio of 3.58 and net benefit of $781 per asthma visit. For the active asthma group, per person savings was $613 per asthma visit, with a benefit to program cost ratio of 2.03 and net benefit of $311. Low-intensity, home-based, environmental interventions for people with asthma decrease the cost of health care utilization. Greater reductions are realized when services are targeted toward people with more poorly controlled asthma. While low-intensity approaches may produce more modest benefits, they may also be more feasible to implement on a large scale. Health care payers, and public payers in particular, should consider expanding coverage, at least for

  5. The CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin Reduces Default Mode Network and Increases Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepa, Ewelina; Tudge, Luke; McCabe, Ciara

    2015-09-10

    The cannabinoid cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) neutral antagonist tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCv) has been suggested as a possible treatment for obesity, but without the depressogenic side-effects of inverse antagonists such as Rimonabant. However, how THCv might affect the resting state functional connectivity of the human brain is as yet unknown. We examined the effects of a single 10mg oral dose of THCv and placebo in 20 healthy volunteers in a randomized, within-subject, double-blind design. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed-based connectivity analyses, we selected the amygdala, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) as regions of interest. Mood and subjective experience were also measured before and after drug administration using self-report scales. Our results revealed, as expected, no significant differences in the subjective experience with a single dose of THCv. However, we found reduced resting state functional connectivity between the amygdala seed region and the default mode network and increased resting state functional connectivity between the amygdala seed region and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and between the dmPFC seed region and the inferior frontal gyrus/medial frontal gyrus. We also found a positive correlation under placebo for the amygdala-precuneus connectivity with the body mass index, although this correlation was not apparent under THCv. Our findings are the first to show that treatment with the CB1 neutral antagonist THCv decreases resting state functional connectivity in the default mode network and increases connectivity in the cognitive control network and dorsal visual stream network. This effect profile suggests possible therapeutic activity of THCv for obesity, where functional connectivity has been found to be altered in these regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Pulmonary function studies in healthy Filipino adults residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F L; Kelso, J M

    1999-08-01

    Differences in lung volumes among various ethnic groups are known to occur; however, this has not been studied in Filipinos. We sought to assess pulmonary function in healthy, nonsmoking Filipinos residing in the United States compared with standards for white subjects. Healthy adult Filipinos, age 18 years or greater, were recruited. All subjects were screened with health questionnaires to exclude those with cardiopulmonary disease. Pulmonary function tests were performed by using forced expiratory maneuvers. Values for FEV(1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1 )/FVC, forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, and peak expiratory flow rate were compared with predicted values for white subjects (ie, without a racial adjustment). Two hundred twenty-four healthy subjects (121 men and 103 women) completed the study. The group means (as a percentage of the predicted standard for white subjects) were as follows: FEV(1 ), 86%; FVC, 84%; FEV(1 )/FVC, 103%; forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, 96%; and peak expiratory flow rate, 107%. These findings are very similar to those for African Americans and other Asians. We conclude that it is appropriate to use an 85% racial adjustment for FEV(1 ) and FVC when interpreting pulmonary function test results in Filipinos.

  7. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  8. Resinosis Inhibits Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Colonization of Healthy Shortleaf Pines in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Matthew W; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M

    2018-05-14

    The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) in recently harvested stands without coincident abiotic or biotic stressors, such as lightning strikes or bark beetle attacks. We attached commercially available semiochemical lures, including monochamol, ethanol, and ipsenol, to healthy shortleaf pine trees and observed Monochamus spp. oviposition response. Egg development was monitored following oviposition by harvesting attacked trees and dissecting oviposition pits. High numbers of oviposition pits were observed on trees treated with lures containing the bark beetle pheromone ipsenol and pits were highly concentrated on the tree bole near lures. Although egg deposition occurred, pit dissection revealed large amounts of resin present in almost all dissected pits and that egg hatch and subsequent larval development were rare. Our results demonstrate that southeastern Monochamus spp. are unlikely to be primary pests of healthy shortleaf pines due to resinosis. To better understand the host finding behavior of these two Monochamus species, we also conducted trapping trials with several semiochemical combinations. Both species and sexes demonstrated similar attraction to compounds, and the most attractive lure combined host volatiles, pheromone, and sympatric insect kairomone.

  9. [Negative bias on self-referent processing in depression: focused on mood congruent effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Kyoko

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate negative bias on self-referent processing in depression, focused on the mood congruent effects in a natural depressed state and an experimentally induced transient depressed mood state. In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories and self-relevant ratings of personality trait words were examined in a natural depressed state or non-depressed state, which were measured by Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed the mood congruent effects on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the same tasks as Experiment 1 were conducted in a transient depressed mood state or non-depressed mood state, which were induced through listening music. Unlike Experiment 1, there were no effects in both tasks, and a positive bias was observed in both mood states. It was suggested that transient mood state did not bias self-referent processing in depression, and Beck's schema hypothesis was supported.

  10. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaac, L.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally

  12. Negative self-schema: the effects of induced depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, L J; Teasdale, J D; Broadbent, D E

    1988-05-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall paradigm, previously used as a measure of negative self-schema in depressed patients (Derry & Kuiper, 1981), was administered to normal subjects in whom depressed or neutral mood had been induced. Subjects in whom depressed mood was induced showed a pattern of recall similar to that previously found for depressed patients, suggesting (1) that at least some of the effects observed in depressed patients were a function of transient mood state, rather than persistent characteristics, and (2) that these effects of depressed mood also occur in individuals who have not been selected for vulnerability to clinical depression.

  13. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-08-12

    Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants' demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN

  14. Caffeine effects on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to assess whether a psychoactive dose of caffeine would have differential affects on the mood dimensions of arousal versus feelings of pleasantness and whether these mood alterations would influence memory either by (1) the experience of arousal at learning and/or (2) altered and congruent mood states at learning and recall. To address these questions, the administration of 5 mg/kg caffeine or placebo at learning and retrieval sessions was manipulated and subjects' mood was evaluated by several different self-report measures. Sixteen words were incidentally studied during the learning session and memory was evaluated by the number of words correctly recalled at the retrieval session two days later. Results revealed that caffeine reliably increased arousal, but did not affect any emotion dimensions related to feelings of pleasure. Subjects who received caffeine at learning and retrieval were also in equivalent mood states at both sessions. Moreover, caffeine did not produce any effects on memory; thus, neither hypothesis concerning the influence of arousal on memory was supported. These data show that caffeine is a useful method for manipulating arousal in the laboratory without influencing feelings of pleasantness or learning and memory performance.

  15. Athletes' precompetitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, Michele; Lovell, Geoff Peter; Sargent, Charli

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined precompetitive sleep behaviour of 103 athletes and how it relates to precompetitive mood and subsequent performance. Results revealed that on the night before competition athletes slept well under the recommended target of eight hours of sleep for healthy adults, with almost 70% of athletes experiencing poorer sleep than usual. It was found that anxiety, noise, the need to use the bathroom and early event times were amongst the most commonly reported causes of disrupted sleep in athletes on the night prior to competition. The negative moods of fatigue and tension were both significantly negatively correlated with precompetitive relative sleep quality (r = -0.28, P = 0.004, r = -0.21, P = 0.030, respectively) and total sleep time (r = -0.23, P = 0.023, r = -0.20, P = 0.044, respectively). Additionally, tension was positively correlated with number of awakenings (r = -0.20, P = 0.045). Vigour was seen to be significantly positively associated with relative sleep quality (r = 0.24, P=0.013). The relationships between relative sleep quality and fatigue, tension and vigour accounted for approximately 4 - 5% of the variance in mood scores. Disrupted sleep did not demonstrate any significant relationship with relative sporting performance. Conclusions from the present investigation are that athletes may be at particular risk of disrupted sleep on the night prior to competition, and this disruption can negatively relate to an athlete's precompetitive mood states.

  16. Brain structure across the lifespan: the influence of stress and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Soares

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal brain aging is an inevitable and heterogeneous process characterized by a selective pattern of structural changes. Such heterogeneity arises as a consequence of cumulative effects over the lifespan, including stress and mood effects, which drive different micro- and macro-structural alterations in the brain. Investigating these differences in healthy age-related changes is a major challenge for the comprehension of the cognitive status. Herein we addressed the impact of normal aging, stress, mood and their interplay in the brain gray and white matter structure. We showed the critical impact of age in the white matter volume and how stress and mood influence brain volumetry across the lifespan. Moreover, we found a more profound effect of the interaction of aging/stress/mood on structures located in the left hemisphere. These findings help to clarify some divergent results associated with the aging decline and to enlighten the association between abnormal volumetric alterations and several states that may lead to psychiatric disorders.

  17. MOOD AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALAYSIAN KARATEKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. K. Wong

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1 to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2 to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years. The athletes were divided into winners (medalists and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133, as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199. Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215, as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076. The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57, and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55 in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109. The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85 and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85. Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry

  18. Mood-Congruent Memory and Natural Mood: New Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents new evidence that everyday mood does bring about a hypothesized effect on memory, termed mood-congruent memory (MCM). Results of three studies provided evidence for MCM among normal individuals (n=614). Findings support prior studies and bolster notions that mood and memory constantly covary in everyday experience. (RJM)

  19. Reproducibility of resting state spinal cord networks in healthy volunteers at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert L; Rogers, Baxter P; Conrad, Benjamin N; Smith, Seth A; Gore, John C

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported our findings of resting state functional connectivity in the human spinal cord: in a cohort of healthy volunteers we observed robust functional connectivity between left and right ventral (motor) horns and between left and right dorsal (sensory) horns (Barry et al., 2014). Building upon these results, we now quantify the within-subject reproducibility of bilateral motor and sensory networks (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.54-0.56) and explore the impact of including frequencies up to 0.13Hz. Our results suggest that frequencies above 0.08Hz may enhance the detectability of these resting state networks, which would be beneficial for practical studies of spinal cord functional connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  2. Stigma and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F

    2007-01-01

    To update the reader on current research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from mood disorders and to describe recent interventions in this area. The public generally feels their own attitudes are more favourable to people with depression than 'most other people's' attitudes are. Among those with depressive symptoms, self-stigma in relation to depression is higher than perceived stigma from others, including professionals, thus hindering help seeking. The main factor that seems to improve the attitudes towards people with any mental illness is personal contact. Moderate improvements in attitudes have been achieved with an online intervention. Caution must be taken when ensuring that improvements in knowledge about mental disorders do not lead to increased social distance. There exists little research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mood disorders. Most of the literature on the stigma towards people with mental illness relates to people with more severe disorders such as schizophrenia. When research has been done on mood disorders, the focus has been on perceived stigma and self-stigma. No up-to-date research exists on discrimination experienced by people with mood disorders, and very little research exists on interventions designed to decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards them.

  3. Mood Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Mood Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Trastornos del estado de ánimo: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - English PDF Bipolar Disorder (An ...

  4. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati eSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  5. Mood, food, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  6. Mood, food, and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  7. Music mood induction and maintenance while driving : A simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; van der Zwaag, Marjolein; de Waard, Dick; Westerink, Joyce; Brookhuis, Karel; Mulder, Ben L. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    It is common knowledge that mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a common activity. However, the actual impact of music listening while driving on physical state and

  8. The associations between body dissatisfaction, body figure, self-esteem, and depressed mood in adolescents in the United States and Korea: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Choi, Injae

    2016-12-01

    The perception of one's body image becomes particularly important in adolescence. Body dissatisfaction has been associated with negative psychological functioning, such as self-esteem and depression. Previous findings showed that the decreased self-esteem due to body dissatisfaction explained the association between negative attitude toward body and psychological well-being in different cultural contexts. The present study examined adolescents from the US (N = 1002) and Korea (N = 3993) and replicated and extended the previous findings regarding body dissatisfaction and associated psychological outcomes. The results showed that body dissatisfaction predicted higher depressed mood and that self-esteem mediated this association for both American and Korean adolescents. Notably, the indirect effect of body dissatisfaction and perceived body image on depressed mood via self-esteem was greater for American adolescents than for Korean adolescents. The implications of the cultural difference in the significance of self-esteem in mediating the body dissatisfaction and depressed mood are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Voices for Healthy Kids and State Legislation to Prevent Childhood Obesity: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jesse C; Walters, Hannah J; Rutkow, Lainie

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study is to examine general time trends in childhood obesity legislative activity in all 50 states (overall and by health equity focus) and whether the Voices for Healthy Kids Campaign (Voices) was associated with increased legislative activity. LexisNexis State Capital was used to identify bills related to childhood obesity from 2012 to 2016. Linear and linear probability models were used to assess general time trends and regression-based difference-in-difference models to assess whether time trends differed for states that received a Voices grant. The data were analyzed in 2017. A total of 989 bills were introduced (Year 1=304, Year 2=364; Year 3=321), and a total of 93 bills were enacted (Year 1=34, Year 2=24, Year 3=35) after baseline. The mean number of bills introduced (baseline=4.3, Year 1=6.6, Year 2=7.3, Year 3=7.0, p=0.007), and the average state enactment rate (baseline=11%, Year 1=16%, Year 2=8%, Year 3=27%, p-trend=0.02) increased significantly. States with Voices grantees introduced 2.1 more bills than non-grantee states (p=0.04). The estimated difference over time in bill enactment and health equity focus did not differ by Voices grantee status. Childhood obesity bill introduction and enactment increased between 2013 and 2016. The evidence-based advocacy supported by Voices appears to be significantly associated with greater increases in state-level bill introduction, but not enactment of legislation to address childhood obesity. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  11. Sensory Over-Responsiveness among Healthy Subjects is Associated with a Pronociceptive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Granovsky, Yelena; Bar-Shalita, Tami

    2018-04-01

    Chronic pain patients show hypersensitivity to sensory nonpainful stimuli. Sensory over-responsiveness (SOR) to innocuous daily stimuli, experienced as painful, is prevalent in 10% of the healthy population. This altered sensory processing may be an expression of overfacilitation, or a less efficient pain-inhibitory process in the pain pathways. We therefore aimed to investigate specifically the pain-inhibitory system of subjects with SOR who are otherwise healthy, not studied as of yet. Thirty healthy subjects, divided into an SOR group (n = 14) and a non-SOR group (n = 16) based on responses to the Sensory Responsiveness Questionnaire, were psychophysically tested in order to evaluate (1) hyperalgesic responses; (2) adaptation/sensitization to 14 phasic heat stimuli; (3) habituation; (4) 6-minute after-sensations; and (5) conditioned pain modulation (CPM) (ie, phasic heat stimuli applied with and without hand immersion in a hot water bath). The SOR group differed from the non-SOR group in (1) a steeper escalation in NPS ratings to temperature increase (P = 0.003), indicating hyperalgesia; (2) increased sensitization (P < 0.001); (3) habituation responses (P < 0.001); (4) enhanced pain ratings during the after-sensation (P = 0.006); and (5) no group difference was found in CPM. SOR is associated with a pronociceptive state, expressed by amplification of experimental pain, yet with sufficient inhibitory processes. Our results support previous findings of enhanced facilitation of pain-transmitting pathways but also reveal preserved inhibitory mechanisms, although they were slower to react. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  12. Approximate time to steady state resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Popp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect calorimetry (IC measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE necessitate a stable measurement period, or steady state (SS. There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2 completed IC measurement for approximately 30-minutes while the volume of oxygen (VO2 and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2 were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV over a period of 5- consecutive minutes. The 30-minute IC measurement was divided into six 5-minute segments, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%, and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3= 8.07 ± 4.4%; S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%; S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%; S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%. The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 minutes. The first 5-minute segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-minute segment.

  13. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  14. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination reliable change indices in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Sulc, Zdenek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Stepankova, Hana

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive tests are used repeatedly to assess the treatment response or progression of cognitive disorders. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a valid screening test for mild cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to establish 90% reliable change indices (RCI) for the MoCA together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in cognitively healthy older adults. We analyzed 197 cognitively healthy and functional independent volunteers aged 60-94 years, who met strict inclusion criteria for four consecutive years. The RCI methods by Chelune and Hsu were used. For 1, 2, and 3 years, the 90% RCI for MoCA using Chelune's formula were -4 ≤, ≥4; -4 ≤, ≥4 and -5 ≤, ≥4 points, respectively, and -3 ≤, ≥3 for the MMSE each year. Ninety percent RCI for MoCA using Hsu's formula ranged from -6 to 0, respectively, and +3 to +8 dependent on the baseline MoCA. Our study demonstrated RCI for the MoCA and MMSE in a 3-year time period that can be used for the estimation of cognitive decline or improvement in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. On the interaction between sad mood and cognitive control: the effect of induced sadness on electrophysiological modulations underlying Stroop conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Elena; Liddle, Peter F; Nixon, Neil L; Liotti, Mario

    2013-03-01

    The present study employed high-density ERPs to examine the effect of induced sad mood on the spatiotemporal correlates of conflict monitoring and resolution in a colour-word Stroop interference task. Neuroimaging evidence and dipole modelling implicates the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions in conflict-laden interference control. On the basis that these structures have been found to mediate emotion-cognition interactions in negative mood states, it was predicted that Stroop-related cognitive control, which relies heavily on anterior neural sources, would be affected by effective sad mood provocation. Healthy participants (N=14) were induced into transient sadness via use of autobiographical sad scripts, a well-validated mood induction technique (Liotti et al., 2000a, 2002). In accord with previous research, interference effects were shown at both baseline and sad states while Stroop conflict was associated with early (N450) and late (Late Positive Component; LPC) electrophysiological modulations at both states. Sad mood induction attenuated the N450 effect in line with our expectation that it would be susceptible to modulation by mood, given its purported anterior limbic source. The LPC effect was displayed at the typical posterior lateral sites but, as predicted, was not affected by sad mood. However, frontocentral LPC activity-presumably generated from an additional anterior limbic source-was affected at sad state, hinting a role in conflict monitoring. Although the neurophysiological underpinnings of interference control are yet to be clarified, this study provided further insight into emotion-cognition interactions as indexed by Stroop conflict-laden processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mood-dependent integration in discourse comprehension: happy and sad moods affect consistency processing via different brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthy Migrant Effect on Smoking Behavior Among Asian Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerban, Aliya

    2016-02-01

    Healthy migrant effect (HME) of immigrants has been evidenced in various heath aspects. However, few studies have explored the applicability of HME on Asian immigrants' health risk behavior-smoking. This study used three waves of Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement data, 1998-1999, 2005-2006, and 2010-2011, to compare the rates of being a current smoker among Asian immigrants and United States born citizens. Further, the odds ratios of gender, age, marital status, socioeconomic status, years of migration, and citizenship status on the likelihood of being a current smoker were examined. Across the three waves, Asian immigrants smoked at a much lower rate than their native-born counterparts. The gender gap of being a current smoker was much wider among Asian immigrants. The longer the Asian immigrants stayed in the United States, the more likely they were to become current smokers. These data confirmed the association of HME and Asian immigrants' smoking behavior, and also provided strong evidence of the importance of smoking prevention among Asian immigrants. This study also implied the possibility of a decline in the effectiveness of HME on Asian immigrants as the time they spent in the United States increased.

  19. The effects of alcohol on mood induced by an emotional film. A study among women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.A.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol on women's reactions to a negative mood-inducing stimulus. It is hypothesized that, like in men, alcohol also reduces tension or induces positive mood in women. In addition, we explored whether different mood states were

  20. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M.; Bracken, Richard M.; Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T.; Cook, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of…

  1. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  2. Sexual dysfunction, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan F

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatih Kayhan,1 Adem Küçük,2 Yılmaz Satan,3 Erdem İlgün,4 Şevket Arslan,5 Faik İlik6 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Selçuk University, 2Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Konya Numune State Hospital, 4Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 6Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Başkent University, Konya, Turkey Background: We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM.  Methods: This case–control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders.  Results: Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1% suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5% and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%. Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9% had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5% had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%, generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%, and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%.  Conclusion: SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM. Keywords: anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia, sexual dysfunction

  3. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Ketamine decreases resting state functional network connectivity in healthy subjects: implications for antidepressant drug action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Scheidegger

    Full Text Available Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, the "dorsal nexus "(DN was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN, the default mode network (DMN, and a rostral affective network (AN. Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010 proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.

  5. Mood and narrative entwinement: some implications for educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Sherrill A; Dobson, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Moods are one way of existentially reading the authenticity of people and are entwined within any narrative. Attunement between narrative and its mood is crucial for understanding the implicit message of the narrator. Sometimes, a master narrative is interrupted by counternarratives, so that narrative recognition becomes problematic. People can disguise their existential state when narrating, but the mood discloses it nonetheless. The authors explore the relationship between mood and narrative, and how the two are connected with how a person acts authentically or inauthentically. They provide selected empirical examples of narratives from medical students to support their argument. The educational relevance of their discussion comprises the final section. Educators in any educational program must first reflect on, then make explicit the manner in which narrative and mood are used to communicate knowledge.

  6. Dimensional psychiatry: reward dysfunction and depressive mood across psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Rapp, Michael; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Dolan, Raymond J; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A dimensional approach in psychiatry aims to identify core mechanisms of mental disorders across nosological boundaries. We compared anticipation of reward between major psychiatric disorders, and investigated whether reward anticipation is impaired in several mental disorders and whether there is a common psychopathological correlate (negative mood) of such an impairment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task to study the functional correlates of reward anticipation across major psychiatric disorders in 184 subjects, with the diagnoses of alcohol dependence (n = 26), schizophrenia (n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 24), bipolar disorder (acute manic episode, n = 13), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 54). Subjects' individual Beck Depression Inventory-and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-scores were correlated with clusters showing significant activation during reward anticipation. During reward anticipation, we observed significant group differences in ventral striatal (VS) activation: patients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and major depression showed significantly less ventral striatal activation compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms correlated with dysfunction in reward anticipation regardless of diagnostic entity. There was no significant correlation between anxiety symptoms and VS functional activation. Our findings demonstrate a neurobiological dysfunction related to reward prediction that transcended disorder categories and was related to measures of depressed mood. The findings underline the potential of a dimensional approach in psychiatry and strengthen the hypothesis that neurobiological research in psychiatric disorders can be targeted at core mechanisms that are likely to be implicated in a range of clinical entities.

  7. Effects of dietary caffeine on mood when rested and sleep restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E; Gregg, M Elizabeth

    2004-07-01

    Prolonged use of caffeine can lead to physical dependence evidenced by characteristic withdrawal symptoms during abstinence. Debate exists as to whether mood enhancement by caffeine represents a net effect or merely the restoration of abstinence-induced mood decrements. One aim of this study was to determine the net effects on mood of dietary caffeine compared with prolonged abstinence. In addition, the study aimed to determine whether caffeine restores mood degraded by a non-caffeine source, namely, sleep restriction. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design was employed in which 48 male and female volunteers alternated weekly between ingesting placebo and caffeine (1.75 mg/kg) three times daily for 4 consecutive weeks, while being either rested or sleep restricted. Mood was assessed using a computerized version of the profile of mood states (POMS), giving scores for overall mood and six mood dimensions. Gender had small effects on mood, whereas all mood dimensions were markedly adversely affected by sleep restriction. Caffeine had no significant net enhancing effects on mood when participants were rested, and produced no net restorative effects when mood was degraded by sleep restriction. On the contrary, caffeine-induced decrements in mood were observed during both conditions of rest and sleep restriction. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, L; Zhimin, H; Chase, HW; Wills, AJ; Troisi II, J; Leventhal, M; Mathew, AR; Hitsman, B

    2015-01-01

    Background Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus?response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to ...

  9. Effects of mood inductions by meal ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in humans: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Schrieks

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on plasma ECs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, anandamide (AEA, and some N-acylethanolamine (NAE congeners in humans.Healthy women (n = 28 participated in a randomized cross-over study. They consumed sparkling white wine (340 mL; 30 g alcohol or alcohol-free sparkling white wine (340 mL; <2 g alcohol as part of a standard evening meal in a room with either a pleasant or an unpleasant ambiance.Plasma concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and stearoylethanolamide (SEA increased after 30 min in the unpleasant ambiance, while they decreased in the pleasant ambiance. Changes in ECs and their NAE congeners correlated with mood states, such as happiness and fatigue, but in the pleasant ambiance without alcohol only. ECs and their NAE congeners were correlated with serum free fatty acids and cortisol.This is the first human study to demonstrate that plasma NAEs are responsive to an unpleasant meal ambiance. Furthermore, associations between mood states and ECs and their NAE congeners were observed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  10. Emotions, Mood and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Virlics

    2014-01-01

    Decisions are made according to a complex cognitive and emotional evaluation of the situation. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect of mood on risky investment decision making by using a mood induction procedure. The paper investigates how happy and sad mood affects risky investment decision making and whether there is a difference between the perception of fix investments and monetary investments. The analysis has been conducted focusing on individual investment decisions. Data for ...

  11. Effects of acute systemic inflammation on the interplay between sad mood and affective cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sven; Brinkhoff, Alexandra; Lueg, Larissa; Roderigo, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2017-12-11

    Experimental endotoxemia is a translational model to study inflammatory mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression. Disturbed affective cognition constitutes a core aspect in depression, but has never been studied in the context of inflammation. We combined experimental endotoxemia with an established experimental mood induction procedure to assess the interaction between acute inflammation and sad mood and their effects on affective cognition. In this randomized cross-over study, N = 15 healthy males received endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide iv) on one study day and placebo an otherwise identical study day. The affective Go/Nogo task was conducted after experimental induction of neutral and sad mood. Inflammatory markers were assessed hourly. Endotoxin application induced a transient systemic inflammation, characterized by increased leukocyte counts, TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 plasma concentrations (all p sadness ratings, with highest ratings when sad mood was induced during inflammation (p sad vs. neutral mood) × 2 (sad vs. happy Go/Nogo target words) factorial design, we observed a significant target × endotoxin condition interaction (p sad targets during endotoxemia. Additionally, we found a valence × mood interaction (p sad targets in sad mood. In summary, acute inflammation and sad mood are risk factors for disturbed affective cognition. The results may reflect a mood-congruency effect, with prolonged and sustained processing of mood-congruent information during acute inflammation, which may contribute to depression risk.

  12. Music-induced Mood Biases Decision Strategies during the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwanjun; Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, You Jin; Kim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4) in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange. PMID:27065921

  13. Music-induced mood biases decision strategies during the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanjun eChung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange.

  14. Alterations in neural systems mediating cognitive flexibility and inhibition in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piguet, Camille; Cojan, Yann; Sterpenich, Virginie; Desseilles, Martin; Bertschy, Gilles; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-04-01

    Impairment in mental flexibility may be a key component contributing to cardinal cognitive symptoms among mood disorders patients, particularly thought control disorders. Impaired ability to switch from one thought to another might reflect difficulties in either generating new mental states, inhibiting previous states, or both. However, the neural underpinnings of impaired cognitive flexibility in mood disorders remain largely unresolved. We compared a group of mood disorders patients (n = 29) and a group of matched healthy subjects (n = 32) on a novel task-switching paradigm involving happy and sad faces, that allowed us to separate generation of a new mental set (Switch Cost) and inhibition of the previous set during switching (Inhibition Cost), using fMRI. Behavioral data showed a larger Switch Cost in patients relative to controls, but the average Inhibition Cost did not differ between groups. At the neural level, a main effect of group was found with stronger activation of the subgenual cingulate cortex in patients. The larger Switch Cost in patients was reflected by a stronger recruitment of brain regions involved in attention and executive control, including the left intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, left inferior fontal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate. Critically, activity in the subgenual cingulate cortex was not downregulated by inhibition in patients relative to controls. In conclusion, mood disorder patients have exaggerated Switch Cost relative to controls, and this deficit in cognitive flexibility is associated with increased activation of the fronto-parietal attention networks, combined with impaired modulation of the subgenual cingulate cortex when inhibition of previous mental states is needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Level of implementation of best practice policies for creating healthy food environments: assessment by state and non-state actors in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phulkerd, Sirinya; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lawrence, Mark; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sacks, Gary

    2017-02-01

    To determine and compare the level of implementation of policies for healthy food environments in Thailand with reference to international best practice by state and non-state actors. Data on the current level of implementation of food environment policies were assessed independently using the adapted Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) by two groups of actors. Concrete actions were proposed for Thai Government. A joint meeting between both groups was subsequently held to reach consensus on priority actions. Thailand. Thirty state actors and twenty-seven non-state actors. Level of policy implementation varied across different domains and actor groups. State actors rated implementation levels higher than non-state actors. Both state and non-state actors rated level of implementation of monitoring of BMI highest. Level of implementation of policies promoting in-store availability of healthy foods and policies increasing tax on unhealthy foods were rated lowest by state and non-state actors, respectively. Both groups reached consensus on eleven priority actions for implementation, focusing on food provision in public-sector settings, food composition, food promotion, leadership, monitoring and intelligence, and food trade. Although the implementation gaps identified and priority actions proposed varied between state and non-state actors, both groups achieved consensus on a comprehensive food policy package to be implemented by the Thai Government to improve the healthiness of food environments. This consensus is a platform for continued policy dialogue towards cross-sectoral policy coherence and effective actions to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases and obesity in Thailand.

  16. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baweja R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raman Baweja, Susan D Mayes, Usman Hameed, James G Waxmonsky Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. Keywords: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent irritability, temper outbursts 

  17. How robust is the language architecture? The case of mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkum, Jos J A; De Goede, Dieuwke; Van Alphen, Petra M; Mulder, Emma R; Kerstholt, José H

    2013-01-01

    In neurocognitive research on language, the processing principles of the system at hand are usually assumed to be relatively invariant. However, research on attention, memory, decision-making, and social judgment has shown that mood can substantially modulate how the brain processes information. For example, in a bad mood, people typically have a narrower focus of attention and rely less on heuristics. In the face of such pervasive mood effects elsewhere in the brain, it seems unlikely that language processing would remain untouched. In an EEG experiment, we manipulated the mood of participants just before they read texts that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based expectations about who would be talked about next (e.g., that "David praised Linda because … " would continue about Linda, not David), or that respected or violated a syntactic agreement rule (e.g., "The boys turns"). ERPs showed that mood had little effect on syntactic parsing, but did substantially affect referential anticipation: whereas readers anticipated information about a specific person when they were in a good mood, a bad mood completely abolished such anticipation. A behavioral follow-up experiment suggested that a bad mood did not interfere with verb-based expectations per se, but prevented readers from using that information rapidly enough to predict upcoming reference on the fly, as the sentence unfolds. In all, our results reveal that background mood, a rather unobtrusive affective state, selectively changes a crucial aspect of real-time language processing. This observation fits well with other observed interactions between language processing and affect (emotions, preferences, attitudes, mood), and more generally testifies to the importance of studying "cold" cognitive functions in relation to "hot" aspects of the brain.

  18. How robust is the language architecture? The case of mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J.A. Van Berkum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In neurocognitive research on language, the processing principles of the system at hand are usually assumed to be relatively invariant. However, research on attention, memory, decision-making, and social judgment has shown that mood can substantially modulate how the brain processes information. For example, in a bad mood, people typically have a narrower focus of attention and rely less on heuristics. In the face of such pervasive mood effects elsewhere in the brain, it seems unlikely that language processing would remain untouched. In an EEG experiment, we manipulated the mood of participants just before they read texts that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based expectations about who would be talked about next (e.g., that "David praised Linda because..." would continue about Linda, not David, or that respected or violated a syntactic agreement rule (e.g., "The boys turns". ERPs showed that mood had little effect on syntactic parsing, but did substantially affect referential anticipation: whereas readers anticipated information about a specific person when they were in a good mood, a bad mood completely abolished such anticipation. A behavioral follow-up experiment suggested that a bad mood did not interfere with verb-based expectations per se, but prevented readers from using that information rapidly enough to predict upcoming reference on the fly, as the sentence unfolds. In all, our results reveal that background mood, a rather unobtrusive affective state, selectively changes a crucial aspect of real-time language processing. This observation fits well with other observed interactions between language processing and affect (emotions, preferences, attitudes, mood, and more generally testifies to the importance of studying ‘cold’ cognitive functions in relation to ‘hot’ aspects of the brain.

  19. Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for screening children and adolescents for plastic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucupira, Eduardo; Sabino, Miguel; Lima, Edson Luiz de; Dini, Gal Moreira; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively). The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.

  20. Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for screening children and adolescents for plastic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sucupira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. METHODS: A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. RESULTS: The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach’s alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.

  1. Effects of reward and punishment on task performance, mood and autonomic nervous function, and the interaction with personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sokichi; Sugiyama, Yoshiki

    2009-06-01

    The effects of reward and punishment are different, and there are individual differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reward and punishment on task performance, mood, and autonomic nervous function, along with the interaction with personality. Twenty-one healthy female subjects volunteered for the experiment. The task performance was evaluated by required time and total errors while performing a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. We assessed their personalities using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire, and mood states by a profile of mood states. Autonomic nervous function was estimated by a spectral analysis of heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, and blood pressure. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant interaction of condition x time course on mood and autonomic nervous activity, which would indicate a less stressed state under the rewarding condition, but revealed no significant interaction of condition x time course on the task performance. The interactions with personality were further analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA applying the clinical scales of MMPI as independent variables, and significant interactions of condition x time course x Pt (psychasthenia) on task performance, mood, and blood pressure, were revealed. That is, the high Pt group, whose members tend to be sensitive and prone to worry, showed gradual improvement of task performance under the punishing situation with slight increase in systolic blood pressure, while showed no improvement under the rewarding situation with fatigue sense attenuation. In contrast, the low Pt group, whose members tend to be adaptive and self-confident, showed gradual improvement under the rewarding situation. Therefore, we should carefully choose the strategy of reward or punishment, considering the interaction with personality as well as the context in which it is given.

  2. Dimensions in Expressed Music Mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, A.C. den; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mood is an important aspect of music and knowledge on mood can be used as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems.A music experiment was carried out establishing ratings for variousmoods and a number of attributes like valence and arousal. The analysis of these data is

  3. Mood disorders and season ofpresentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Srarisrical Manual of Menral Disorders (DSM-III-R)), were looked at, and no attempt was made to delineate the occurrence of specific mood disorders. Reviewing publications on the association between season and its impact on mood, the findings are generally inconsistent but highly suggestive of an association.' However ...

  4. Overnight changes of immune parameters and catecholamines are associated with mood and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Mills, Paul J; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ziegler, Michael G; Pung, Meredith A; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2010-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that a nocturnal decrease of secretion of inflammation markers and catecholamines would be associated with mood and stress variables even after controlling for objective sleep variables. A total of 130 healthy volunteers participated in this study, spending 2 nights in the Gillin Laboratory of Sleep and Chronobiology at the University of California, San Diego, General Clinical Research Center. Blood samples were obtained before sleep (10:30 PM) and after awakening (6:30 AM) on the first day, and these samples were assayed for inflammatory biomarkers and catecholamines. On the second night, polysomnographic records were scored for objective sleep variables, e.g., total sleep time and wake after sleep onset. Self-rating scales for mood, stress, depression, and daily hassles were administered the second day. The nocturnal decrease in interleukin-6 was smaller in people who reported more negative mood or fatigue and greater in those who reported more uplift events (e.g., with Profile of Mood States fatigue r(p) = -.25 to -.30). People with high stress or high depression levels had smaller nocturnal decreases of epinephrine. That relationship was even stronger when partial correlations were used to control for morning level and sleep variables. The associations between nocturnal changes of C-reactive protein, soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I, and norepinephrine with psychological states were nonremarkable. The analyses of nocturnal change scores (difference scores) add substantial information compared with the traditional analyses of morning levels of immune variables and catecholamines alone. Subjective well-being is significantly associated with a greater nocturnal decrease of interleukin-6 and epinephrine. More research on nocturnal adaptation processes is warranted.

  5. Affect and person specificity in mood regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Corby, Emma Kate

    2007-01-01

    489 university students in three countries completed questionnaires in a study investigating affect and person specificity in the use of mood regulation strategies. The major aims of the study were to (1) describe the relationship between specific affective states and the strategies utilised, (2) explore the role that individual differences variables played in the tendency to use particular strategies, and (3) measure the impact that the use of different strategies had upon subjective well-b...

  6. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potentials in glaucomatous and healthy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekera, Dilru C; Resende, Arthur F; Waisbourd, Michael; Puri, Sanjeev; Moster, Marlene R; Hark, Lisa A; Katz, L Jay; Fudemberg, Scott J; Mantravadi, Anand V

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates two rapid electrophysiological glaucoma diagnostic tests that may add a functional perspective to glaucoma diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the ability of two office-based electrophysiological diagnostic tests, steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potentials, to discern between glaucomatous and healthy eyes. This is a cross-sectional study in a hospital setting. Forty-one patients with glaucoma and 41 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potential testing was conducted in glaucomatous and healthy eyes. A 64-bar-size stimulus with both a low-contrast and high-contrast setting was used to compare steady-state pattern electroretinogram parameters in both groups. A low-contrast and high-contrast checkerboard stimulus was used to measure short-duration transient visual evoked potential parameters in both groups. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram parameters compared were MagnitudeD, MagnitudeD/Magnitude ratio, and the signal-to-noise ratio. Short-duration transient visual evoked potential parameters compared were amplitude and latency. MagnitudeD was significantly lower in glaucoma patients when using a low-contrast (P = 0.001) and high-contrast (P state pattern electroretinogram stimulus. MagnitudeD/Magnitude ratio and SNR were significantly lower in the glaucoma group when using a high-contrast 64-bar-size stimulus (P state pattern electroretinogram was effectively able to discern between glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram may thus have a role as a clinically useful electrophysiological diagnostic tool. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Mood Dependent Music Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer......'s and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can...... actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research....

  8. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  9. Dynamic connectivity states estimated from resting fMRI Identify differences among Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Damaraju, Eswar; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and age matched SZ and BP patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between HCs and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average) and dynamic (windowed) connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Notably, results suggest that patients make fewer transitions to some states (states 1, 2, and 4) compared to HCs, with most such differences confined to a single state. SZ patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3). Also group differences between SZ and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states) of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1) and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3). Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  10. The Dynamic Association between Healthy Leisure and Substance Use in South African Adolescents: A State and Trait Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Edward; Jacobs, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has an increasing adolescent substance use problem, lack of leisure opportunities and resources, and high adolescent discretionary time. How aspects of leisure relate to adolescent substance use is not well understood. Little research has been conducted on the leisure behaviors and experiences of South African adolescents, if and how those behaviors are associated with substance use, and ecological influences on those associations. By applying multi-level models to longitudinal data obtained from youth living in high-risk contexts, this research examines the association between state and trait healthy leisure and adolescent substance use and how perceived parental over-control moderates those associations. Results indicate healthy leisure protects against substance use at state and trait levels, provides empirical support that risk behavior can be addressed through leisure-based interventions, and emphasizes the importance of both short- and long-term processes when considering the context-dependent nature of adolescents’ leisure experiences. PMID:24948905

  11. The interplay between mood and language comprehension: evidence from P600 to semantic reversal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Constance Th W M; Chwilla, Uli G; Egger, Jos I M; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between language and emotion. Vissers et al. (2010) investigated the effects of mood on the processing of syntactic violations, as indexed by P600. An interaction was observed between mood and syntactic correctness for which three explanations were offered: one in terms of syntactic processing, one in terms of heuristic processing, and one in terms of more general factors like attention and/or motivation. In this experiment, we further determined the locus of the effects of emotional state on language comprehension by investigating the effects of mood on the processing of semantic reversal anomalies (e.g., "the cat that fled from the mice"), in which heuristics play a key role. The main findings were as follows. The mood induction was effective: participants were happier after watching happy film clips and sadder after watching sad film clips compared to baseline. For P600, a mood by semantic plausibility interaction was obtained reflecting a broadly distributed P600 effect for the happy mood vs. absence of a P600 for the sad mood condition. Correlation analyses confirmed that changes in P600 in happy mood were accompanied by changes in emotional state. Given that semantic reversal anomalies are syntactically unambiguous, the P600 modulation by mood cannot be explained by syntactic factors. The semantic plausibility by mood interaction can be accounted for in terms of (1) heuristic processing (stronger reliance on a good enough representation of the input in happy mood than sad mood), and/or (2) more general factors like attention (e.g., more attention to semantic reversals in happy mood than sad mood). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M; Thorley, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and administered with both immediate and delayed recognition tests. Results showed that a negative mood state increased remember judgments for negative-emotion critical lures, in comparison to neutral-emotion critical lures, on both immediate and delayed testing. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of spreading activation and emotion-enhanced memory, with consideration of the applied forensic implications of such findings.

  13. Temperament traits in suicidal and non-suicidal mood disorder patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen-Ing; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Hui; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Sun, Fang-Ju; Huang, Chiu-Ron; Sung, Ming-Ru; Huang, Yo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Suicide is a major social and clinical problem in Asia. Although studies have suggested that personality traits are possible risk factors for suicide, no study has been conducted among Chinese to compare the temperament traits of suicidal and non-suicidal mood disorder patients with those of healthy controls. This study compared temperament traits of two patient groups, those with a mood disorder who have attempted suicide (n=204), and those with a mood disorder who have not attempted suicide (n=160), and compared the traits of these patients to those of healthy controls (n=178), assessed by Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. Patients with suicidal attempts had significantly higher novelty seeking and aggression scores than healthy controls and patients without suicidal attempts. Two groups of patients with mood disorder had significantly higher harm avoidance scores than the healthy controls. However, patients with suicidal attempts did not have higher harm avoidance scores than patients without suicidal attempts. This study confirms findings that harm avoidance and mood disorder are related, and extends them by suggesting that those with a mood disorder and suicide attempts have higher novelty seeking and lifetime aggression scores than those without suicidal attempt, either patients or healthy controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  15. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  16. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  17. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Linda; Vrijsen, Janna N; Eling, Paul; van Oostrom, Iris; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally relevant stimuli (mood-congruence), and to determine whether this interference occurred for both valenced words and valenced faces. A mood induction procedure was administered to 116 undergraduate females divided into two equal groups for the sad and happy mood condition. This study employed three versions of the Stroop task: color, verbal-emotional, and a facial-emotional Stroop. The two mood groups did not differ on the color Stroop. Significant group differences were found on the verbal-emotional Stroop for sad words with longer latencies for sad-induced participants. Main findings for the facial-emotional Stroop were that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for angry-threatening faces as well as longer latencies for neutral faces. Group differences were not found for positive stimuli. These findings confirm that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for mood-congruent stimuli in the verbal domain (sad words), but this mood-congruent effect does not necessarily apply to the visual domain (sad faces). Attentional interference for neutral faces suggests sad mood participants did not necessarily see valence-free faces. Attentional interference for threatening stimuli is often associated with anxiety; however, the current results show that threat is not an attentional interference observed exclusively in states of anxiety but also in sad mood.

  18. In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Ming; Lee, Byeong-Yeul; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    NAD is an essential metabolite that exists in NAD+ or NADH form in all living cells. Despite its critical roles in regulating mitochondrial energy production through the NAD+/NADH redox state and modulating cellular signaling processes through the activity of the NAD+-dependent enzymes, the method for quantifying intracellular NAD contents and redox state is limited to a few in vitro or ex vivo assays, which are not suitable for studying a living brain or organ. Here, we present a magnetic resonance (MR) -based in vivo NAD assay that uses the high-field MR scanner and is capable of noninvasively assessing NAD+ and NADH contents and the NAD+/NADH redox state in intact human brain. The results of this study provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the cellular NAD concentrations and redox state in the brains of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, an age-dependent increase of intracellular NADH and age-dependent reductions in NAD+, total NAD contents, and NAD+/NADH redox potential of the healthy human brain were revealed in this study. The overall findings not only provide direct evidence of declined mitochondrial functions and altered NAD homeostasis that accompany the normal aging process but also, elucidate the merits and potentials of this new NAD assay for noninvasively studying the intracellular NAD metabolism and redox state in normal and diseased human brain or other organs in situ. PMID:25730862

  19. Gender Differences in Cerebral Regional Homogeneity of Adult Healthy Volunteers: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to use the regional homogeneity (ReHo approach as an index in the resting-state functional MRI to investigate the gender differences of spontaneous brain activity within cerebral cortex and resting-state networks (RSNs in young adult healthy volunteers. Methods. One hundred and twelve healthy volunteers (56 males, 56 females participated in the resting-state fMRI scan. The ReHo mappings in the cerebral cortex and twelve RSNs of the male and female groups were compared. Results. We found statistically significant gender differences in the primary visual network (PVN (P<0.004, with Bonferroni correction and left attention network (LAtN, default mode network (DMN, sensorimotor network (SMN, executive network (EN, and dorsal medial prefrontal network (DMPFC as well (P<0.05, uncorrected. The male group showed higher ReHo in the left precuneus, while the female group showed higher ReHo in the right middle cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. Conclusions. Our results suggested that men and women had regional specific differences during the resting-state. The findings may improve our understanding of the gender differences in behavior and cognition from the perspective of resting-state brain function.

  20. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  1. Mood Predicts Response to Placebo CPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Stepnowsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy is efficacious for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, but recent studies with placebo CPAP (CPAP administered at subtherapeutic pressure have revealed nonspecific (or placebo responses to CPAP treatment. This study examined baseline psychological factors associated with beneficial effects from placebo CPAP treatment. Participants. Twenty-five participants were studied with polysomnography at baseline and after treatment with placebo CPAP. Design. Participants were randomized to either CPAP treatment or placebo CPAP. Baseline mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Total mood disturbance (POMS-Total was obtained by summing the six POMS subscale scores, with Vigor weighted negatively. The dependent variable was changed in apnea-hypopnea index (ΔAHI, calculated by subtracting pre- from post-CPAP AHI. Negative values implied improvement. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed, with pre-CPAP AHI added as a covariate to control for baseline OSA severity. Results. Baseline emotional distress predicted the drop in AHI in response to placebo CPAP. Highly distressed patients showed greater placebo response, with a 34% drop (i.e., improvement in AHI. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of placebo-controlled studies of CPAP treatment. Whereas such trials are routinely included in drug trials, this paper argues for their importance even in mechanical-oriented sleep interventions.

  2. Effects of blue light and caffeine on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Johan G; Beaven, C Martyn

    2014-09-01

    Both short wavelength (blue) light and caffeine have been studied for their mood enhancing effects on humans. The ability of blue light to increase alertness, mood and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways has been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for depression across a range of occupational settings. This experimental study compared blue light and caffeine and aimed to test the effects of blue light/placebo (BLU), white light/240-mg caffeine (CAF), blue light/240-mg caffeine (BCAF) and white light/placebo (PLA), on mood. A randomised, controlled, crossover design study was used, in a convenience population of 20 healthy volunteers. The participants rated their mood on the Swedish Core Affect Scales (SCAS) prior to and after each experimental condition to assess the dimensions of valence and activation. There was a significant main effect of light (p = 0.009), and the combination of blue light and caffeine had clear positive effects on core effects (ES, ranging from 0.41 to 1.20) and global mood (ES, 0.61 ± 0.53). The benefits of the combination of blue light and caffeine should be further investigated across a range of applications due to the observed effects on the dimensions of arousal, valence and pleasant activation.

  3. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  4. Consumo diario de tabaco en la adolescencia, estados de ánimo negativos y rol de la comunicación familiar Adolescent daily smoking, negative mood-states and the role of family communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez-Hernáez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si los estados de ánimo negativos son un factor de riesgo de consumo diario de tabaco en la adolescencia y el papel de los factores familiares en esta asociación. Método: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa de adolescentes (edad 14-18 años de Cataluña (Segunda Oleada del Panel de Familias e Infancia. Se realizan seis modelos de regresión logística para mujeres (n = 1442 y hombres (n = 1100, con el fin de estimar si los estados de ánimo negativos son un factor de riesgo de consumo diario de cigarrillos. Se estima en qué medida esos efectos son atribuibles a factores familiares. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores diarios a los 17/18 años es del 3,8% para las mujeres y del 3,6% para los hombres. El sentimiento de tristeza entre las adolescentes es un factor de riesgo de consumo diario de cigarrillos (odds ratio [OR] = 1,663 y la comunicación con el padre anula este efecto. Sentirse presionados por los progenitores es un factor de riesgo de consumo diario para ambos sexos (mujeres, OR = 2,064; hombres, OR = 1,784, pero al controlar por la variable «comunicación parental» comprobamos que el efecto se reduce, aunque no se anula. Vivir en una familia reconstituida es un factor de riesgo de consumo diario entre los chicos (OR = 2,988. Conclusiones: A igualdad de estados de ánimo, la comunicación intergeneracional atenúa el riesgo de consumo diario de tabaco entre los/las adolescentes. Las intervenciones de prevención y deshabituación tabáquica que incluyan este tipo de factores pueden ser más efectivas.Objective: To determine whether negative mood states constitute a risk factor for daily smoking during adolescence, and to specify the role of familial factors in the association between the two variables. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample (second wave, Panel of Families and Childhood of Catalan adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. Six logistic regression models

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of Healthy Military Service Members in the United States and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    different based on deployment status and exposure to an austere environment where antimalarial agents with MRSA/MSSA activity are used. However, the...adequate hygiene practices. Further, these deployments are often to geo- graphic regions that require antimalarial chemoprophy- laxis. The use of...genes. Methods Participants Two populations of healthy active duty service members (101 non-deployed personnel in San Antonio, Texas, USA and 100

  6. Winning isn't everything: mood and testosterone regulate the cortisol response in competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Zilioli

    Full Text Available Dominance contests are recurrent and widespread causes of stress among mammals. Studies of activation of the stress axis in social defeat - as reflected in levels of adrenal glucocorticoid, cortisol - have generated scattered and sometimes contradictory results, suggesting that biopsychological individual differences might play an important mediating role, at least in humans. In the context of a larger study of the regulation of endocrine responses to competition, we evaluated the notion that mood states, such as self-assurance and hostility, may influence cortisol reactivity to dominance cues via an interplay with baseline testosterone, considered as a potential marker of individual differences in dominance. Seventy healthy male university students (mean age 20.02, range 18-26 provided saliva samples before and after competing for fifteen minutes on a rigged computer task. After a winner was determined, all participants were assessed on their mood states through a standardized psychometric instrument (PANAS-X. Among winners of a rigged videogame competition, we found a significant interaction between testosterone and self-assurance in relation to post-competition cortisol. Specifically, self-assurance was associated with lower post-competition cortisol in subjects with high baseline testosterone levels, but no such relationship was observed in subjects with lower baseline testosterone levels. In losers of the competition no interaction effect between basal testosterone and hostility was observed. However, in this subgroup a significant negative relationship between basal testosterone and post-competition cortisol was evident. Overall, these findings provide initial support for the novel hypothesis that biological motivational predispositions (i.e. basal testosterone and state (i.e. mood changes may interact in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation after a social contest.

  7. Mobile Phone-Based Mood Ratings Prospectively Predict Psychotherapy Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-09-01

    Psychotherapy nonattendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective "just-in-time" interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age=50.92years, SD=10.90years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients' daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Patients' self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients' prior attendance history and age (OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p=.02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Mood-Context on Visual Recognition and Recall Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Sarita Jane; Rollings, Lucy J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is widely known that memory is enhanced when encoding and retrieval occur in the same state, the impact of elevated stress/arousal is less understood. This study explores mood-dependent memory's effects on visual recognition and recall of material memorized either in a neutral mood or under higher stress/arousal levels. Participants’ (N = 60) recognition and recall were assessed while they experienced either the same or a mismatched mood at retrieval. The results suggested that bo...

  9. The illusion of the positive: the impact of natural and induced mood on older adults' false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lisa; Hess, Thomas M; Elliot, Tonya

    2012-11-01

    Recent research suggests that affective and motivational processes can influence age differences in memory. In the current study, we examine the impact of both natural and induced mood state on age differences in false recall. Older and younger adults performed a version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Roediger & McDermott, 1995 , Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803) false memory paradigm in either their natural mood state or after a positive or negative mood induction. Results indicated that, after accounting for age differences in basic cognitive function, age-related differences in positive mood during the testing session were related to increased false recall in older adults. Inducing older adults into a positive mood also exacerbated age differences in false memory. In contrast, veridical recall did not appear to be systematically influenced by mood. Together, these results suggest that positive mood states can impact older adults' information processing and potentially increase underlying cognitive age differences.

  10. The Differential Effects of Regular Shift Work and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Sleepiness, Mood and Neurocognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cori, Jennifer M; Jackson, Melinda L; Barnes, Maree; Westlake, Justine; Emerson, Paul; Lee, Jacen; Galante, Rosa; Hayley, Amie; Wilsmore, Nicholas; Kennedy, Gerard A; Howard, Mark

    2018-05-29

    To assess whether poor sleep quality experienced by regular shift workers and individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects neurobehavioral function similarly, or whether the different aetiologies have distinct patterns of impairment. 37 shift workers (> 24 hours after their last shift), 36 untreated patients with OSA and 39 healthy controls underwent assessment of sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Oxford Sleep Resistance Test), mood (Beck Depression Index, State Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], Profile of Mood States), vigilance (Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT], AusEd driving simulation), neurocognitive function (Logical Memory, Trails Making Task, Digit Span and Victoria Stroop Test) and polysomnography. There were no significant differences between the groups in respect to sleepiness (ESS score [median, IQR] = 10.5, 6.3-14 versus 7, 5-11.5 for OSA group and shift work group, respectively) or mood, with the exception of state anxiety which was elevated in the OSA group (STAI score [median, IQR] = 35, 29-43 versus 30, 24-33.5 for OSA group and shift work group, respectively). However, the OSA group performed significantly worse than the shift work group on the driving task (crash proportion = 46.9% versus 18.9% for OSA group and shift work group, respectively) and the PVT (lapses [median, IQR] = 3, 2-6 versus 2, 0-3.5 for OSA group and shift work group, respectively), as well as most of the neurocognitive measures. Participants with OSA had similar sleepiness and mood to the shift work group, but worse vigilance and neurocognitive function. These findings suggest that distinct causes of sleep disturbance likely result in different patterns of neurobehavioral dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  12. Effects of sad mood on facial emotion recognition in Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M C; Ng, Emily H H; Tang, S W; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2008-05-30

    This study examined the influence of sad mood on the judgment of ambiguous facial emotion expressions among 47 healthy volunteers who had been induced to feel sad (n=13), neutral (n=15), or happy (n=19) emotions by watching video clips. The findings suggest that when the targets were ambiguous, participants who were in a sad mood tended to classify them in the negative emotional categories rather than the positive emotional categories. Also, this observation indicates that emotion-specific negative bias in the judgment of facial expressions is associated with a sad mood. The finding argues against a general impairment in decoding facial expressions. Furthermore, the observed mood-congruent negative bias was best predicted by spatial perception. The findings of this study provide insights into the cognitive processes underlying the interpersonal difficulties experienced by people in a sad mood, which may be predisposing factors in the development of clinical depression.

  13. Investigating healthy life expectancy using a multi-state model in the presence of missing data and misclassification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardo van den Hout

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A continuous-time three-state model can be used to describe change in cognitive function in the older population. State 1 corresponds to normal cognitive function, state 2 to cognitive impairment, and state 3 to dead. For statistical inference, longitudinal data are available from the UK Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Objective: The aim is statistical analysis of longitudinal multi-state data taking into account missing data and potential misclassification of state. In addition, methods for long-term prediction of the transition process are of interest, specifically when applied to the study of healthy life expectancy. Methods: Cognitive function in the older population is assumed to be stable or declining. For this reason, observed improvement of cognitive function is assumed to be caused by misclassification of either state 1 or 2. Regression models for the transition intensities are formulated to incorporate covariate information. Maximum likelihood is used for statistical inference. Results: It is shown that missing values for the state at a pre-scheduled time can easily be taken into account. Long-term prediction is explained and illustrated by the estimation of statespecific life expectancies. In addition, it is shown how microsimulation can be used to further explore predictions based on a fitted multi-state model. Conclusions: Statistical analysis of longitudinal multi-state data can take into account missing data and potential misclassification of state. With respect to long-term prediction, microsimulation is a useful tool for summarising and displaying characteristics of cognitive decline and survival. Comments: ---

  14. Context-dependent memory and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Løhre, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examined the effects of affective state (mood) on context-dependent memory. In the so-called context-change paradigm, participants learn two lists of words, and their internal context is either changed or kept constant between the two lists. The usual finding in this paradigm is that participants remember fewer words from the first list, but more words from the second list when context is changed compared to when it is kept constant. To see whether these effects are influenced by ...

  15. High familial risk for mood disorder is associated with low dorsolateral prefrontal cortex serotonin transporter binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David

    2009-01-01

    at risk for developing depression. The aim of this study was to explore whether abnormalities in SERT might be present in healthy individuals with familial predisposition to mood disorder. Nine individuals at high familial risk (mean age 32.2+/-4.2 years) and 11 individuals at low risk (mean age 32......Mood disorders are elicited through a combination of genetic and environmental stress factors, and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ameliorates depressive symptoms. Changes in the serotonin transporter (SERT) binding may therefore occur in depressive patients and in subjects.......4+/-5.0 years) for developing mood disorder were included. The subjects were healthy twins with or without a co-twin history of mood disorder identified by linking information from the Danish Twin Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Regional in vivo brain serotonin transporter binding...

  16. Episode forecasting in bipolar disorder: Is energy better than mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abigail; Bradler, Kamil; Hintze, Arend

    2018-01-22

    Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of mania and depression. Several interventions have been developed to decrease high admission rates and high suicides rates associated with the illness, including psychoeducation and early episode detection, with mixed results. More recently, machine learning approaches have been used to aid clinical diagnosis or to detect a particular clinical state; however, contradictory results arise from confusion around which of the several automatically generated data are the most contributory and useful to detect a particular clinical state. Our aim for this study was to apply machine learning techniques and nonlinear analyses to a physiological time series dataset in order to find the best predictor for forecasting episodes in mood disorders. We employed three different techniques: entropy calculations and two different machine learning approaches (genetic programming and Markov Brains as classifiers) to determine whether mood, energy or sleep was the best predictor to forecast a mood episode in a physiological time series. Evening energy was the best predictor for both manic and depressive episodes in each of the three aforementioned techniques. This suggests that energy might be a better predictor than mood for forecasting mood episodes in bipolar disorder and that these particular machine learning approaches are valuable tools to be used clinically. Energy should be considered as an important factor for episode prediction. Machine learning approaches provide better tools to forecast episodes and to increase our understanding of the processes that underlie mood regulation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt in adults with full major depressive disorder versus sustained depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a well-known risk factor for suicidality, but depressed mood has been used non-specifically to describe the emotional state. We sought to compare influence of MDD versus sustained depressed mood on suicidality. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through the one-person-per-household method, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) and a questionnaire for lifetime suicidal ideation (LSI) and lifetime suicidal attempt (LSA). Of 12,361 adults, 565 were assessed as 'sustained depressed mood group' having depressed mood for more than two weeks without MDD (4.6%), and 810 adults were assessed as having full MDD (6.55%) which consisted of 'MDD with depressed mood group' (6.0%) and 'MDD without depressed mood group' (0.5%). The MDD with depressed mood group showed higher odds ratios for LSI and LSA than the sustained depressed mood group. Contrarily, no significant differences were found in LSI and LSA between the MDD group with and without depressed mood. MDD showed significant associations with LSI (AOR=2.83, 95%CI 2.12-3.78) and LSA (AOR=2.17, 95%CI 1.34-3.52), whereas sustained depressed mood showed significant associations with neither LSI nor LSA after adjusting for MDD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Interaction effect of sustained depressed mood with MDD was significant for LSI but not for LSA. Sustained depressed mood was not related to LSI and LSA after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, whereas MDD was significantly associated with both LSI and LSA regardless of the presence of sustained depressed mood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risky dieting amongst adolescent girls: Associations with family relationship problems and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Gemma L M; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of mood-context on visual recognition and recall memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarita J; Rollings, Lucy J L

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely known that memory is enhanced when encoding and retrieval occur in the same state, the impact of elevated stress/arousal is less understood. This study explores mood-dependent memory's effects on visual recognition and recall of material memorized either in a neutral mood or under higher stress/arousal levels. Participants' (N = 60) recognition and recall were assessed while they experienced either the same o a mismatched mood at retrieval. The results suggested that both visual recognition and recall memory were higher when participants experienced the same mood at encoding and retrieval compared with those who experienced a mismatch in mood context between encoding and retrieval. These findings offer support for a mood dependency effect on both the recognition and recall of visual information.

  20. Dietary caffeine, performance and mood: enhancing and restorative effects after controlling for withdrawal reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E; Gregg, M Elizabeth; Kane, Marian; Harte, Frances

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether sustained (i.e. dietary) use of caffeine has net effects on performance and mood compared with sustained abstinence, and whether dietary caffeine restores performance and mood adversely affected by sleep restriction. Participants (n = 96) alternated weekly between ingesting placebo and caffeine (1.75 mg/kg) three times daily for 4 consecutive weeks, while either rested or sleep restricted. Performance involved either a single task requiring sustained vigilance or a varied battery of brief psychomotor and cognitive tasks, and mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood States. Caffeine had no significant net enhancing effects for either performance or mood when participants were rested, and produced no net restorative effects when performance and mood were degraded by sleep restriction. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Dual regression physiological modeling of resting-state EPI power spectra: Effects of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viessmann, Olivia; Möller, Harald E; Jezzard, Peter

    2018-02-02

    Aging and disease-related changes in the arteriovasculature have been linked to elevated levels of cardiac cycle-induced pulsatility in the cerebral microcirculation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), acquired fast enough to unalias the cardiac frequency contributions, can be used to study these physiological signals in the brain. Here, we propose an iterative dual regression analysis in the frequency domain to model single voxel power spectra of echo planar imaging (EPI) data using external recordings of the cardiac and respiratory cycles as input. We further show that a data-driven variant, without external physiological traces, produces comparable results. We use this framework to map and quantify cardiac and respiratory contributions in healthy aging. We found a significant increase in the spatial extent of cardiac modulated white matter voxels with age, whereas the overall strength of cardiac-related EPI power did not show an age effect. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Effects of Acutely Administered 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Spontaneous Brain Function in Healthy Volunteers Measured with Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level–Dependent Resting State Functional Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Murphy, Kevin; Leech, Robert; Erritzoe, David; Wall, Matthew B.; Ferguson, Bart; Williams, Luke T.J.; Roseman, Leor; Brugger, Stefan; De Meer, Ineke; Tanner, Mark; Tyacke, Robin; Wolff, Kim; Sethi, Ajun; Bloomfield, Michael A.P.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Stewart, Lorna; Morgan, Celia; Newbould, Rexford D.; Feilding, Amanda; Curran, H. Val; Nutt, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine releaser that produces an acute euphoria in most individuals. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-order study, MDMA was orally administered to 25 physically and mentally healthy individuals. Arterial spin labeling and seed-based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) were used to produce spatial maps displaying changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and RSFC after MDMA administration. Participants underwent two arterial spin labeling and two blood oxygen level–dependent scans in a 90-minute scan session; MDMA and placebo study days were separated by 1 week. Results Marked increases in positive mood were produced by MDMA. Decreased CBF only was observed after MDMA, and this was localized to the right medial temporal lobe (MTL), thalamus, inferior visual cortex, and the somatosensory cortex. Decreased CBF in the right amygdala and hippocampus correlated with ratings of the intensity of global subjective effects of MDMA. The RSFC results complemented the CBF results, with decreases in RSFC between midline cortical regions, the medial prefrontal cortex, and MTL regions, and increases between the amygdala and hippocampus. There were trend-level correlations between these effects and ratings of intense and positive subjective effects. Conclusions The MTLs appear to be specifically implicated in the mechanism of action of MDMA, but further work is required to elucidate how the drug’s characteristic subjective effects arise from its modulation of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:24495461

  3. The Effects of Acutely Administered 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Spontaneous Brain Function in Healthy Volunteers Measured with Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Resting State Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Murphy, Kevin; Leech, Robert; Erritzoe, David; Wall, Matthew B; Ferguson, Bart; Williams, Luke T J; Roseman, Leor; Brugger, Stefan; De Meer, Ineke; Tanner, Mark; Tyacke, Robin; Wolff, Kim; Sethi, Ajun; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Stewart, Lorna; Morgan, Celia; Newbould, Rexford D; Feilding, Amanda; Curran, H Val; Nutt, David J

    2015-10-15

    The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine releaser that produces an acute euphoria in most individuals. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-order study, MDMA was orally administered to 25 physically and mentally healthy individuals. Arterial spin labeling and seed-based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) were used to produce spatial maps displaying changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and RSFC after MDMA administration. Participants underwent two arterial spin labeling and two blood oxygen level-dependent scans in a 90-minute scan session; MDMA and placebo study days were separated by 1 week. Marked increases in positive mood were produced by MDMA. Decreased CBF only was observed after MDMA, and this was localized to the right medial temporal lobe (MTL), thalamus, inferior visual cortex, and the somatosensory cortex. Decreased CBF in the right amygdala and hippocampus correlated with ratings of the intensity of global subjective effects of MDMA. The RSFC results complemented the CBF results, with decreases in RSFC between midline cortical regions, the medial prefrontal cortex, and MTL regions, and increases between the amygdala and hippocampus. There were trend-level correlations between these effects and ratings of intense and positive subjective effects. The MTLs appear to be specifically implicated in the mechanism of action of MDMA, but further work is required to elucidate how the drug's characteristic subjective effects arise from its modulation of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Affective and cognitive reactivity to mood induction in chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Anne; Sterzer, Philipp; Haack, Friderike H; Köhler, Stephan

    2018-03-15

    Chronic depression (CD) is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment, which has been proposed to lead to inefficient coping styles that are characterized by abnormal affective responsiveness and dysfunctional cognitive attitudes. However, while this notion forms an important basis for psychotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of CD, there is still little direct empirical evidence for a role of altered affective and cognitive reactivity in CD. The present study therefore experimentally investigated affective and cognitive reactivity to two forms of negative mood induction in CD patients versus a healthy control sample (HC). For the general mood induction procedure, a combination of sad pictures and sad music was used, while for individualized mood induction, negative mood was induced by individualized scripts with autobiographical content. Both experiments included n = 15 CD patients versus n = 15 HC, respectively. Interactions between affective or cognitive reactivity and group were analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVAs. General mood induction neither revealed affective nor cognitive reactivity in the patient group while the control group reported the expected decrease of positive affect [interaction (IA) affective reactivity x group: p = .011, cognitive reactivity x group: n.s.]. In contrast, individualized mood induction specifically increased affective reactivity (IA: p = .037) as well as the amount of dysfunctional cognitions in patients versus controls (IA: p = .014). The experiments were not balanced in a crossover design, causal conclusions are thus limited. Additionally, the differences to non-chronic forms of depression are still outstanding. The results suggest that in patients with CD, specific emotional activation through autobiographical memories is a key factor in dysfunctional coping styles. Psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at modifying affective and cognitive reactivity are thus of high relevance in the treatment of CD. Copyright

  5. Modulation of brain response to emotional conflict as a function of current mood in bipolar disorder: preliminary findings from a follow-up state-based fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gwladys; Desseilles, Martin; Favre, Sophie; Dayer, Alexandre; Piguet, Camille; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-08-30

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine affective control longitudinally in a group of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Participants comprised 12 BD patients who underwent repeated fMRI scans in euthymic (n=11), depressed (n=9), or hypomanic (n=9) states, and were compared with 12 age-matched healthy controls. During fMRI, participants performed an emotional face-word interference task with either low or high attentional demands. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed decreased activation of the cognitive control network normally associated with conflict processing, more severely during hypomania than during depression, but regardless of level of task demand in both cases. During euthymia, a decreased response to conflict was observed only during the high load condition. Additionally, unlike healthy participants, patients exhibited deactivation in several key areas in response to emotion-conflict trials - including the rostral anterior cingulate cortex during euthymia, the hippocampus during depression, and the posterior cingulate cortex during hypomania. Our results indicate that the ability of BD patients to recruit control networks when processing affective conflict, and the abnormal suppression of activity in distinct components of the default mode network, may depend on their current clinical state and attentional demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustained anxiety increases amygdala–dorsomedial prefrontal coupling: a mechanism for maintaining an anxious state in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytal, Katherine E.; Overstreet, Cassie; Charney, Danielle R.; Robinson, Oliver J.; Grillon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging research has traditionally explored fear and anxiety in response to discrete threat cues (e.g., during fear conditioning). However, anxiety is a sustained aversive state that can persist in the absence of discrete threats. Little is known about mechanisms that maintain anxiety states over a prolonged period. Here, we used a robust translational paradigm (threat of shock) to induce sustained anxiety. Recent translational work has implicated an amygdala–prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuit in the maintenance of anxiety in rodents. To explore the functional homologues of this circuitry in humans, we used a novel paradigm to examine the impact of sustained anticipatory anxiety on amygdala–PFC intrinsic connectivity. Methods Task-independent fMRI data were collected in healthy participants during long-duration periods of shock anticipation and safety. We examined intrinsic functional connectivity. Results Our study involved 20 healthy participants. During sustained anxiety, amygdala activity was positively coupled with dorsomedial PFC (DMPFC) activity. High trait anxiety was associated with increased amygdala–DMPFC coupling. In addition, induced anxiety was associated with positive coupling between regions involved in defensive responding, and decreased coupling between regions involved in emotional control and the default mode network. Limitations Inferences regarding anxious pathology should be made with caution because this study was conducted in healthy participants. Conclusion Findings suggest that anticipatory anxiety increases intrinsic amygdala–DMPFC coupling and that the DMPFC may serve as a functional homologue for the rodent prefrontal regions by sustaining anxiety. Future research may use this defensive neural context to identify bio-markers of risk for anxious pathology and target these circuits for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24886788

  7. Mood and implicit alcohol expectancy processes: predicting alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAE) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli-including mood states-and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, this study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. College students (N = 146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the laboratory, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the laboratory. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak blood alcohol concentration in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the laboratory for females. The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs-as indicated by longer RTs-predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores the need for

  8. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Fasted State Colonic Liquid Pockets in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Mudie, Deanna M; Wright, Jeff; Heissam, Khaled; Abrehart, Nichola; Pritchard, Susan E; Al Atwah, Salem; Gowland, Penny A; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Marciani, Luca

    2017-08-07

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or "pockets". Based on this previous pilot data, we hypothesized that (1) it is possible to quantify the time course of the volume and number of liquid pockets in the undisturbed colon of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of 240 mL, using noninvasive MRI methods; (2) the amount of freely mobile water in the fasted human colon is of the order of only a few milliliters. Twelve healthy volunteers fasted overnight and underwent fasted abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (∼8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water they were scanned at frequent intervals for 2 h. The images were processed to quantify freely mobile water in the total and regional colon: ascending, transverse, and descending. The fasted colon contained (mean ± SEM) 11 ± 5 pockets of resting liquid with a total volume of 2 ± 1 mL (average). The colonic fluid peaked at 7 ± 4 mL 30 min after the water drink. This peak fluid was distributed in 17 ± 7 separate liquid pockets in the colon. The regional analysis showed that pockets of free fluid were found primarily in the ascending colon. The interindividual variability was very high; the subjects showed a range of number of colonic fluid pockets from 0 to 89 and total colonic freely mobile fluid volume from 0 to 49 mL. This is the first study measuring the time course of the number, regional location, and volume of

  10. Your Morals are Your Moods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchsteiger, G.; Rigotti, L.; Rustichini, A.

    2000-01-01

    We test the effect of players' moods on their behavior in a gift-exchange game.In the first stage of the game, player 1 chooses a transfer to player 2.In the second stage, player 2 chooses an effort level.Higher effort is more costly for player 2, but it increases player 1's payoff.We say that

  11. Mood disorders in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Anne D

    2006-09-01

    This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

  12. Inglise mood ja foto Kunstihoones

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    5. nov.-st Tallinna Kunstihoones näitus "Look at me", Suurbritannia mood ja fotograafia 1960ndatest tänapäevani. Kuraatorid Val Willams, Brett Rogers. Osalejaid. 6. XI samas eesti moekunstnike britiaineline moeshow. Osalevad Anu Lensment, Eve Hanson, Marit Ahven, Jaanus Vahtra, Marju Tammik, Anu Samarüütel

  13. [The facets of creativity in the light of bipolar mood alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, Réka

    2018-01-30

    The link between creativity, as the highest expression form of human achievement, and bipolar disorder came into focus of scientific investigations and research. Accomplished writers, composers and visual artists show a substantially higher rate of affective disorders, prodominantly bipolar mood disorders, comparing to the general population. Then again, patients afflicted with bipolar II subtype (hypomania and depression), as well as persons presenting the mildest form of bipolar mood swings (cyclothymia) possess higher creative skills. It evokes therefore that certain forms and mood states of bipolar disorder, notably hypomania might convey cognitive, emotional/affective, and motivational benefits to creativity. The aim of this paper is to display expression forms of creativity (writing, visual art, scientific work) as well as productivity (literary and scientific work output, number of artworks and exhibitions, awards) in the light of clinically diagnosed mood states at an eminent creative individual, treated for bipolar II disorder. Analysing the affective states, we found a striking relation between hypomanic episodes and visual artistic creativity and achievement, as well as scientific performance, whereas mild-moderate depressed mood promoted literary work. Severe depression and mixed states were not associated with creative activities, and intriguingly, long-term stabilised euthymic mood, exempted from marked affective lability, is disadvantageous regarding creativity. It seems, thereby, that mood functions as a sluice of creativity. Nevertheless, it is likely that there is a complex interaction between bipolar mood disorder spectrum and psychological factors promoting creativity, influenced also by individual variability due to medication, comorbid conditions, and course of disorder.

  14. Predicting Mood Changes in Bipolar Disorder through Heartbeat Nonlinear Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Lanata', Antonio; Gentili, Claudio; Bertschy, Gilles; Kosel, Markus; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2016-04-20

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternation of mood states from depression to (hypo)mania. Mixed states, i.e., a combination of depression and mania symptoms at the same time, can also be present. The diagnosis of this disorder in the current clinical practice is based only on subjective interviews and questionnaires, while no reliable objective psychophysiological markers are available. Furthermore, there are no biological markers predicting BD outcomes, or providing information about the future clinical course of the phenomenon. To overcome this limitation, here we propose a methodology predicting mood changes in BD using heartbeat nonlinear dynamics exclusively, derived from the ECG. Mood changes are here intended as transitioning between two mental states: euthymic state (EUT), i.e., the good affective balance, and non-euthymic (non-EUT) states. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) series from 14 bipolar spectrum patients (age: 33.439.76, age range: 23-54; 6 females) involved in the European project PSYCHE, undergoing whole night ECG monitoring were analyzed. Data were gathered from a wearable system comprised of a comfortable t-shirt with integrated fabric electrodes and sensors able to acquire ECGs. Each patient was monitored twice a week, for 14 weeks, being able to perform normal (unstructured) activities. From each acquisition, the longest artifact-free segment of heartbeat dynamics was selected for further analyses. Sub-segments of 5 minutes of this segment were used to estimate trends of HRV linear and nonlinear dynamics. Considering data from a current observation at day t0, and past observations at days (t1, t2,...,), personalized prediction accuracies in forecasting a mood state (EUT/non-EUT) at day t+1 were 69% on average, reaching values as high as 83.3%. This approach opens to the possibility of predicting mood states in bipolar patients through heartbeat nonlinear dynamics exclusively.

  15. Mood and sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Berlo, R.; Rijs, L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a positive 'mood for sex' on genital and subjective sexual arousal in functional women, using a musical mood induction procedure. Fifty-one female Ss were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: erotic film preceded by mood induction;

  16. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of healthy military service members in the United States and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Todd J; Calvano, Tatjana P; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Rini, Elizabeth A; Tully, Charla C; Landrum, Michael L; Zera, Wendy; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Beckius, Miriam L; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Murray, Clinton K

    2013-07-16

    Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individuals while deployed. We conducted a pilot study to screen non-deployed and deployed healthy military service members for MRSA/MSSA colonization at various anatomic sites and assessed isolates for molecular differences. Colonization point-prevalence of 101 military personnel in the US and 100 in Afghanistan was determined by swabbing 7 anatomic sites. US-based individuals had received no antibiotics within 30 days, and Afghanistan-deployed personnel were taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Isolates underwent identification and testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type (PFT). 4 individuals in the US (4 isolates- 3 oropharynx, 1 perirectal) and 4 in Afghanistan (6 isolates- 2 oropharynx, 2 nare, 1 hand, 1 foot) were colonized with MRSA. Among US-based personnel, 3 had USA300 (1 PVL+) and 1 USA700. Among Afghanistan-based personnel, 1 had USA300 (PVL+), 1 USA800 and 2 USA1000. MSSA was present in 40 (71 isolates-25 oropharynx, 15 nare) of the US-based and 32 (65 isolates- 16 oropharynx, 24 nare) of the Afghanistan-based individuals. 56 (79%) US and 41(63%) Afghanistan-based individuals had MSSA isolates recovered from extra-nare sites. The most common MSSA PFTs were USA200 (9 isolates) in the US and USA800 (7 isolates) in Afghanistan. MRSA/MSSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline in all but 3 personnel (1 US, 2 Afghanistan; all were MSSA isolates that carried tetM). MRSA and MSSA colonization of military personnel was not associated with deployment status or doxycycline exposure. Higher S. aureus oropharynx colonization rates were observed and may warrant changes in decolonization practices.

  17. Modeling Avoidance in Mood and Anxiety Disorders Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchian, Anahit; Aylward, Jessica; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-10-01

    Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms. A total of 101 healthy participants and individuals with mood and anxiety disorders completed an approach-avoidance go/no-go task under stress induced by threat of unpredictable shock. We show an increased reliance in the mood and anxiety group on a parameter of our reinforcement learning model that characterizes a prepotent (pavlovian) bias to withhold responding in the face of negative outcomes. This was particularly the case when the mood and anxiety group was under stress. This formal description of avoidance within the reinforcement learning framework provides a new means of linking clinical symptoms with biophysically plausible models of neural circuitry and, as such, takes us closer to a mechanistic understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.R. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wu, B. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, H.Y. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xie, P. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-09-08

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes.

  19. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.R.; Wu, B.; Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J.; Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W.; Shi, H.Y.; Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X.; Xie, P.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes

  20. Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Daniel A; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kellogg, Mark D; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-08-01

    Like caffeine, theobromine crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to adenosine receptors, suggesting it might share caffeine's beneficial effects on mood and vigilance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of theobromine doses commonly found in foods on mood and vigilance parameters sensitive to caffeine. Caffeine was tested as a positive control. Twenty-four men (age, 23 [3] years) completed 6 double-blind trials during which they consumed experimental beverages, assessed their mood using standardized self-report questionnaires, and completed a 2-hour visual vigilance task. Three experimental doses (100, 200, and 400 mg theobromine) were delivered in a cocoa-based beverage; 3 matched control treatments (0 mg theobromine, 400 mg theobromine, and 100 mg caffeine) were delivered in a non-cocoa beverage. Mean salivary concentrations of theobromine exhibited significant dose-dependent differences (400 mg trials > 200 mg trial > 100 mg trial > 0 mg trials; P affect mood state or vigilance (P > 0.05), but 100-mg caffeine significantly decreased lethargy/fatigue and increased vigor (P = 0.006 and 0.011, respectively). These findings indicate theobromine does not influence mood and vigilance when administered in nutritionally relevant doses, despite sharing many of caffeine's structural characteristics.

  1. Interaction between Personality and Mood in Unipolar and Bipolar Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gene E.; And Others

    Much of the literature on affective disorders has been devoted to categorizing, assessing, and treating the mood and behavioral symptoms typically associated with depressive illness, and much research has studied how personality traits interact with these state symptoms. The personality scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) are…

  2. Conflict adaptation in positive and negative mood: Applying a success-failure manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Stefanie; Zweerings, Jana; Hirsch, Patricia; Koch, Iring

    2017-05-01

    Conflict adaptation is a cognitive mechanism denoting increased cognitive control upon detection of conflict. This mechanism can be measured by the congruency sequence effect, indicating the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Several studies have reported increased conflict adaptation under negative, as compared to positive, mood. In these studies, sustained mood states were induced by film clips or music combined with imagination techniques; these kinds of mood manipulations are highly obvious, possibly distorting the actual mood states experienced by the participants. Here, we report two experiments where mood states were induced in a less obvious way, and with higher ecological validity. Participants received success or failure feedback on their performance in a bogus intelligence test, and this mood manipulation proved highly effective. We largely replicated previous findings of larger conflict adaptation under negative mood than under positive mood, both with a Flanker interference paradigm (Experiment 1) and a Stroop-like interference paradigm (Experiment 2). Results are discussed with respect to current theories on affective influences on cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx) on sustained attention and on energy and fatigue mood states in young adults with low energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Jacob B; Loy, Bryan D; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to test whether a single dose of black pepper or rosemary produced short-term enhancements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue. Outcomes were measured in 40 young adults with below average feelings of energy before and twice after they orally consumed capsules containing either black pepper (2.0 g), rosemary (1.7 g), or a placebo (3.1 g rice flour). Sustained attention was measured using a 16-min dual task, in which, single-digit numbers were presented every second on a screen and the participant performed both a primary task [detection of three successive, different odd digits] and a secondary task [detection of the number 6]. Feelings of energy and fatigue were measured using the vigor and fatigue subscales of the Profile of Mood States and visual analog scales (VAS). Analysis of variance showed nonsignificant condition (spice versus placebo)×time (T1, T2, & T3) effects for motivation, measured with a VAS, and the intensity of energy and fatigue feelings. Unadjusted effect sizes revealed that rosemary induced small, transient reductions in false alarm errors (d=0.21) and mental fatigue (d=0.40) at isolated time periods. Time-varying analysis of covariance, controlling for motivation to perform cognitive tasks, showed no significant effects on the primary or secondary task outcomes of correct responses (hits), errors (false alarms, misses), speed of response (reaction time), and signal detection sensitivity. It is concluded that black pepper and rosemary, consumed in a capsule form, in the doses used and while wearing a nose clip to block olfactory effects, do not induce consistent short-term improvements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue in young adults with low energy.

  4. The effects of mood upon imaginal thought.t.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, G S; Green, M

    1978-06-01

    The effects of mood upon imaginal thought were explored with a highly trained undergraduate female hypnotic subject. She was hypnotically programmed to experience free-floating anxiety or pleasure in varying degrees just before the exposure of combinations of three Blacky Pictures, and to produce dreamlike imagery in response to the Blacky stimuli while under sway of the mood. Data from 98 dream trials, separated by amnesia, indicated that the affective states clearly influenced imaginal processes. Blind ratings by a psychoanalyst showed anxiety moods to be more closely associated with primary-process features characteristic of nocturnal dreams, whereas pleasure had a relatively higher incidence of daydreamlike ratings. Empirical analysis of themes yielded significant relationships of anxiety to physical injury to the self and verbal aggression toward others; pleasure was associated with circular movements and overt sex themes.

  5. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.

  6. Comparison of the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive symptoms between high cardiovascular risk and healthy community elderly groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Amanda Lucas; Varela, Juliana Santos; Mazetti, Osmar; Restelatto, Luciane; Costa, Andry Fitterman; Godinho, Claudia; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Picon, Paulo D.; Chaves, Márcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The aging of the population is a universal phenomenon with direct consequences upon the public health system. One of the main repercussions of the growth in this sector of the population is the increased prevalence of disorders such as dementia and depression which are very frequent among the elderly. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, dementia and depression have been addressed in many recent investigations. Objectives To evaluate the relationship of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Methods 94 high cardiovascular risk elderly patients and 160 healthy community elderly were evaluated cross-sectionally. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used as the main measures. The cutoff for presence of depression was 6 on the GDS. Results The high cardiovascular risk elderly group showed significantly lower scores on the MMSE (p<0.001) and was significantly associated to depression (p<0.001), independently of education. The logistic regression analysis for depression as the dependent variable, age and group (healthy community or high cardiovascular risk elderly) were kept in the final equation. Higher age (Odds Ratio=0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98) and high cardiovascular risk elderly (OR=2.99; 95% CI 1.36–6.59) were associated to depression. Conclusions The present findings corroborate the different cognitive performance of elderly with high cardiovascular risk factors and the association of depressive symptoms with this group. PMID:29213588

  7. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  8. Apium graveolens extract influences mood and cognition in healthy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruamkaew, Phetcharat; Sukketsiri, Wanida; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Kaewnam, Wijittra; Tanasawet, Supita; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Hutamekalin, Pilaiwanwadee; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2017-07-01

    Apium graveolens is a food flavoring which possesses various health promoting effects. This study investigates the effect of a sub-acute administration of A. graveolens on cognition and anti-depression behaviors via antioxidant and related neurotransmitter systems in mice brains. Cognition and depression was assessed by various models of behavior. The antioxidant system of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), % inhibition of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), and lipid peroxidation were studied. In addition, neurochemical parameters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase-type A (MAO-A) were also evaluated. Nine groups of male mice were fed for 30 days with different substances-a control, vehicle, A. graveolens extract (65-500 mg/kg), and reference drugs (donepezil and fluoxetine). The results indicated that the effect of the intake of A. graveolens extract (125-500 mg/kg) was similar to the reference drugs, as it improved both spatial and non-spatial memories. Moreover, there was a decrease in immobility time in both the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In addition, the A. graveolens extract reduced lipid peroxidation of the brain and increased GPx activity and the % inhibition of O 2 - , whereas the activities of AChE and MAO-A were decreased. Thus, our data have shown that the consumption of A. graveolens extract improved cognitive function and anti-depression activities as well as modulating the endogenous antioxidant and neurotransmitter systems in the brain, resulting in increased neuronal density. This result indicated an important role for A. graveolens extract in preventing age-associated decline in cognitive function associated with depression.

  9. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin in healthy subjects following a new extended release fluvastatin tablet, Lescol XL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilla, Denise; Prasad, Pratapa; Hubert, Martine; Gumbhir-Shah, Kavita

    2004-03-01

    This was an open-label, randomized, three-period, three-treatment, multiple dose, crossover study in 12 healthy male and female subjects. This study evaluated single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin following single and multiple dose administrations of a new extended release fluvastatin 8 h matrix tablet, Lescol XL 80 mg and 160 mg doses once a day. The study also included a twice a day administration of an immediate release (IR) form of fluvastatin capsule, Lescol, for comparative purposes. All doses were administered for 7 days. The safety and tolerability were also assessed. The pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin were evaluated on days 1 and 7 following each treatment. Fluvastatin systemic exposure was 50% less when administered as Lescol XL 80 mg qd compared with Lescol IR 40 mg bid. Conversely, fluvastatin systemic exposure was 22% higher when administered as Lescol XL 160 mg qd compared with Lescol IR 40 mg bid. Single doses of Lescol XL 80 mg and 160 mg were dose proportional but, deviation (30%) from dose proportionality was observed for the Lescol XL 160 mg at steady-state. There appeared to be moderate (20%-40%) accumulation of serum fluvastatin maximal concentrations and exposure after multiple doses of Lescol XL tablets. Both Lescol XL 80 mg and 160 mg showed delayed absorption and longer apparent elimination half-life compared with fluvastatin IR capsule. Single and multiple doses of fluvastatin were generally well tolerated in this healthy volunteer population. Adverse event profiles were consistent with the published safety profile of the marketed formulations. Aside from one incidence of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation (following Lescol XL 160 mg qd treatment), there were no safety concerns with any of the treatments when administered acutely (7 days). Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Local cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRGlc) in mood disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Baxter, L.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    PET studies (LCMRGlc units of μ moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P<0.001) supratentorial CMRGlc (16.7 +- 3.7) than normals (23.6 +- 1.9), hypomanic bipolars (24.7 + 44.6) or unipolars (24.5 +- 3.0). Bipolar mixed (16.4 +- 4.8) were not different from bipolar depressed but were different from all other states (P<0.02). Bipolar depressed and mixed showed increased (30%) supratentorial CMRGlc (P<0.05) with elevated mood (euthymic or hypomanic). Three rapid cycling bipolar patients (2 studies depressed and 1 hypomanic) also showed consistent increases (35%) in supratentorial CMRGlc from depressed to elevated mood state. Unipolar depressed patients had a low LCMRGlc ratio of caudate to hemispheric (c/Hem) (1.18 +- 0.09) compared to bipolar depression (1.30 +- 0.13) or normals (1.32 +- 0.07). Four unipolar patients studied after drug induced recovery showed corresponding return of Cd/Hem ratio to normal. Results of these studies show; delineation of bipolar depressed from unpolar depressed and normals. Separation of mixed biopolar from unipolar and correspondence of the former with bipolar rather than unipolar depression (controversial characterization by other diagnostic criteria), separation of unipolar from normal and bipolar by reduced LCMRGlc of caudate, and direct correspondence of changes in mood state with changes in LCMRGlc independent of whether changes in mood were drug induced or spontaneous

  11. Brunel mood scale: South African norm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Van Wijk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS has proved useful to assess mood states in a range of clinical settings. Its local utility is restricted by the lack of normative data from South Africa. This paper presents preliminary normative data for the use of the BRUMS in the South African health care setting. Method: Participants (N=2200, ranging from 18 to 59 years, employed in the public sector, and were recruited during routine occupational health surveillance, completed the 24-item self-report BRUMS. They came from all South African race and language groups, and from all nine provinces. Results: Significant differences were found between the scores of women and men, and their results are reported separately. Due to the language dependant nature of the BRUMS, results are also reported separately for respondents with English as first language, and those who have other South African languages as mother tongue. Norm tables with T-scores are presented for the full sample, and per gender X language groups. Conclusion: This study presents normative data for a sample of educated and employed South Africans from various backgrounds. Its brevity, and provisionally language friendly nature makes it a useful measure for screening psychological distress in the SA clinical health care context.

  12. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance : A Randomized Crossover Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Kallen, V.L.; Grootjen, M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown.

  13. Are resting state spectral power measures related to executive functions in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shirley; Todder, Doron; Deutsch, Inbal; Garbi, Dror; Getter, Nir; Meiran, Nachshon

    2018-01-08

    Resting-state electroencephalogram (rsEEG) has been found to be associated with psychopathology, intelligence, problem solving, academic performance and is sometimes used as a supportive physiological indicator of enhancement in cognitive training interventions (e.g. neurofeedback, working memory training). In the current study, we measured rsEEG spectral power measures (relative power, between-band ratios and asymmetry) in one hundred sixty five young adults who were also tested on a battery of executive function (EF). We specifically focused on upper Alpha, Theta and Beta frequency bands given their putative role in EF. Our indices enabled finding correlations since they had decent-to-excellent internal and retest reliability and very little range restriction relative to a nation-wide representative large sample. Nonetheless, Bayesian statistical inference indicated support for the null hypothesis concerning lack of monotonic correlation between EF and rsEEG spectral power measures. Therefore, we conclude that, contrary to the quite common interpretation, these rsEEG spectral power measures do not indicate individual differences in the measured EF abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low Motivational Incongruence Predicts Successful EEG Resting-state Neurofeedback Performance in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Koenig, Thomas

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback is becoming increasingly sophisticated and widespread, although predictors of successful performance still remain scarce. Here, we explored the possible predictive value of psychological factors and report the results obtained from a neurofeedback training study designed to enhance the self-regulation of spontaneous EEG microstates of a particular type (microstate class D). Specifically, we were interested in life satisfaction (including motivational incongruence), body awareness, personality and trait anxiety. These variables were quantified with questionnaires before neurofeedback. Individual neurofeedback success was established by means of linear mixed models that accounted for the amount of observed target state (microstate class D contribution) as a function of time and training condition: baseline, training and transfer (results shown in Diaz Hernandez et al.). We found a series of significant negative correlations between motivational incongruence and mean percentage increase of microstate D during the condition transfer, across-sessions (36% of common variance) and mean percentage increase of microstate D during the condition training, within-session (42% of common variance). There were no significant correlations related to other questionnaires, besides a trend in a sub-scale of the Life Satisfaction questionnaire. We conclude that motivational incongruence may be a potential predictor for neurofeedback success, at least in the current protocol. The finding may be explained by the interfering effect on neurofeedback performance produced by incompatible simultaneously active psychological processes, which are indirectly measured by the Motivational Incongruence questionnaire. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ironic processes in the mental control of mood and mood-related thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D M; Erber, R; Zanakos, S

    1993-12-01

    The mental control of mood and mood-related thought was investigated. In Experiment 1, Ss reminiscing about a happy or sad event were asked to make their mood positive, were given no instructions, or were asked to make their mood negative. Ss attempting mood control without an imposed cognitive load were successful, whereas those who attempted control while rehearsing a 9-digit number not only failed to control their moods but also showed self-reported mood change opposite the mood they intended to create. In Experiment 2, Ss attempting to control mood-related thoughts under cognitive load showed increased accessibility of those thoughts contrary to the direction of intended control in a Stroop-type color-naming task.

  16. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    studies are needed to better delineate the interactions that can occur in normal and diseased states. Therapeutic measures might be forthcoming especially for skin diseases such as eczema, which are regarded as being characterized by 'skin dryness'. Further research examining the interaction between different environmental exposures thought to impact the skin, and indeed the interplay between genetic, environmental and immunological influences, are required. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  18. Low Mood Leads to Increased Empathic Distress at Seeing Others’ Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown changes in empathy in patients with depression, including an elevated level of trait personal distress. This study examined if low mood causes changes in self-reported empathic distress when seeing others in pain. To test this, we conducted an initial (n = 26 and close replication study (n = 46 in which sad mood was induced in healthy participants (overall mean age M = 21, SD = 5, range = 18–41 years. Participants viewed and rated video stimuli inferring pain experienced by other people. Results showed that participants perceived the videos depicting others’ pain (versus no-pain to be more distressing under a sad mood compared to a neutral mood condition, implying that sadness enhances one’s emotional reactivity toward others’ distress. This supports previous depression literature suggesting an impaired emotional processing ability, and could contribute to some of the unhelpful behaviors seen in depression such as social withdrawal and avoidance.

  19. Shirodhara : A psycho-physiological profile in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana D Dhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shirodhara is a classical and a well-established ayurvedic procedure of slowly and steadily dripping medicated oil or other liquids on the forehead. This procedure induces a relaxed state of awareness that results in a dynamic psycho-somatic balance. Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate the psychological and physiological effects of Shirodhara in healthy volunteers by monitoring the rating of mood and levels of stress, electrocardiogram (ECG, electroencephalogram (EEG, and selected biochemical markers of stress. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the human pharmacology laboratory. The study design was open labeled, comparing the baseline variables with values after Shirodhara. The subjects (n = 16 chosen were healthy human volunteers who gave an informed consent. Shirodhara was preceded by Abhyanga - whole body massage. The Shirodhara method was standardized for rate of dripping with peristaltic pump and temperature was controlled with a thermostat. Mood and stress levels were assessed by validated rating scales. The pre- and post-Shirodhara ECG and EEG records were evaluated. Results: Student′s paired "t" test was applied to the means + SE of the variables to calculate statistical significance at P <0.05. There was a significant improvement in mood scores and the level of stress (P <0.001. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in rate of breathing and reduction in diastolic blood pressure along with reduction in heart rate. The relaxed alert state, after Shirodhara, was co-related with an increase in alfa rhythm in EEG. Conclusion : A standardized Shirodhara leads to a state of alert calmness similar to the relaxation response observed in meditation. The clinical benefits observed with Shirodhara in anxiety neurosis, hypertension, and stress aggravation due to chronic degenerative diseases could be mediated through these adaptive physiological effects.

  20. Happily distracted: mood and a benefit of attention dysregulation in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée K. Biss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive mood states are believed to broaden the focus of attention in younger adults, but it is unclear whether the same is true for older adults. Here we examined one consequence of broader attention that has been shown in young adults: that memory for distraction is greater for those in a positive mood. In the current study, positive and neutral moods were induced in older adults (mean age = 67.9 prior to a 1-back task in which participants were instructed to attend to relevant pictures and ignore distracting words. Following a 10-min filled interval, participants performed a word fragment completion task that tested implicit memory for the distracting words from the 1-back task. Older adults in the positive mood group showed greater implicit memory for previous distraction compared to those in the neutral mood group. These findings suggest that affect influences the ability to regulate attention in a similar manner for younger and older adults.

  1. Feeling sad makes us feel older: Effects of a sad-mood induction on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-08-01

    A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction. Effects were comparable across middle- and older aged participants. Results suggest that sad affective states might dampen subjective age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Resting and reactive frontal brain electrical activity (EEG among a non-clinical sample of socially anxious adults: Does concurrent depressive mood matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott A Beaton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elliott A Beaton1, Louis A Schmidt2, Andrea R Ashbaugh2,5, Diane L Santesso2, Martin M Antony1,3,4, Randi E McCabe1,31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: A number of studies have noted that the pattern of resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG is related to individual differences in affective style in healthy infants, children, and adults and some clinical populations when symptoms are reduced or in remission. We measured self-reported trait shyness and sociability, concurrent depressive mood, and frontal brain electrical activity (EEG at rest and in anticipation of a speech task in a non-clinical sample of healthy young adults selected for high and low social anxiety. Although the patterns of resting and reactive frontal EEG asymmetry did not distinguish among individual differences in social anxiety, the pattern of resting frontal EEG asymmetry was related to trait shyness after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. Individuals who reported a higher degree of shyness were likely to exhibit greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest. However, trait shyness was not related to frontal EEG asymmetry measured during the speech-preparation task, even after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. These findings replicate and extend prior work on resting frontal EEG asymmetry and individual differences in affective style in adults. Findings also highlight the importance of considering concurrent emotional states of participants when examining psychophysiological correlates of personality.Keywords: social anxiety, shyness, sociability

  3. Healthy kids out of school: using mixed methods to develop principles for promoting healthy eating and physical activity in out-of-school settings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Sharma, Shanti; Dietz, William H; Dolan, Peter R; Nelson, Miriam E; Newman, Molly B; Rockeymoore, Maya; Economos, Christina D

    2014-12-31

    Widespread practices supporting availability of healthful foods, beverages, and physical activity in out-of-school-time (OST) settings would further obesity prevention efforts. The objective of this article was to describe principles to guide policy development in support of healthy eating and physical activity practices in out-of-school settings to promote obesity prevention. The Institute of Medicine's L.E.A.D. framework (Locate Evidence, Evaluate it, Assemble it, and Inform Decisions) was used to identify practices relevant to children's healthful eating in most OST settings: 1) locate and evaluate information from a national survey of children's perceptions of healthful-food access; published research, reports, policies and guidelines; and roundtables with OST organizations' administrators; 2) assemble information to prioritize actionable practices; and 3) inform programmatic direction. Three evidence-informed guiding principles for short-duration OST resulted: 1) drink right: choose water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages; 2) move more: boost movement and physical activity in all programs; and 3) snack smart: fuel up on fruits and vegetables. Healthy Kids Out of School was launched to support the dissemination and implementation of these guiding principles in short-duration OST settings, complementing efforts in other OST settings to shift norms around eating and physical activity.

  4. Seroprevalences of anti-Sarcocystis neurona and anti-Neospora hughesi antibodies among healthy equids in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kaitlyn E; Smith, Woutrina A; Conrad, Patricia A; Packham, Andrea E; Guerrero, Leopoldo; Ng, Mitchell; Pusterla, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the general seroprevalence of anti-Sarcocystis neurona and anti-Neospora hughesi antibodies among healthy equids by use of indirect fluorescent antibody tests and determine potential risk factors for seropositivity. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Whole blood samples collected from 5,250 equids (1 sample/animal) across 18 states in the United States during October 2013. PROCEDURES Information regarding potential risk factors (geographic region, breed, primary use, sex, and age) was collected along with the blood samples. For each equid, an indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to determine serum titers of antibody against each of the 2 protozoal parasites. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were created to determine ORs for seropositivity. RESULTS The overall seroprevalence of anti-S neurona and anti-N hughesi antibodies in the tested equids was 78% and 34%, respectively. Of the equids, 31% were seropositive and 18% were seronegative for antibodies against both parasites. Factors associated with equids being seropositive for anti-S neurona antibodies were residence in the South, warmblood breed, and age > 5 years. Seroprevalence of anti-N hughesi antibodies did not differ among equids in different states across the country, but warmblood breed and age > 5 years were associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With regard to risk factors for S neurona and N hughesi exposure and antibody response among tested equids, older age was not unexpected; however, the influences of warmblood breed and geographic location on seropositivity for anti-S neurona antibody but not for anti-N hughesi antibody deserve further investigation.

  5. Soccer training: high-intensity interval training is mood disturbing while small sided games ensure mood balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Okba; Haddad, Monoem; Majed, Lina; Ben Khalifa, Wissam; Hamza, Marzougui; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-09

    BACKGROUNDː The aim of the study was to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) versus small-sided games (SSG) in soccer on both the physiological responses and the mood state of players. Sixteen professional soccer players took part in the study (age: 24.1±0.9 years). Testing of players was conducted on separate days in a randomized and counter-balanced order (each training session: 28-min: 4x4 minutes work with 3-min of passive recovery in-between). Effort: HIIT: intermittent 15-s runs at 110% maximal aerobic speed with 15-s of passive recovery in-between. SSG: 4 versus 4 players on a 25x35m pitch size with full-involvement play. Psychological responses before- and after- each training-session were assessed using the profile of mood-state (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion). The players' heart rate (HR) was continuously measured, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were collected ~3-min after each training-session. HIIT and SSG showed no significant difference in HR, RPE and [La] responses. The HIIT compared with SSG resulted in: an increased total mood disturbance (pmind the mood-related advantages of the SSG shown in the present study.

  6. Mood As Cumulative Expectation Mismatch: A Test of Theory Based on Data from Non-verbal Cognitive Bias Tests

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    Camille M. C. Raoult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective states are known to influence behavior and cognitive processes. To assess mood (moderately long-term affective states, the cognitive judgment bias test was developed and has been widely used in various animal species. However, little is known about how mood changes, how mood can be experimentally manipulated, and how mood then feeds back into cognitive judgment. A recent theory argues that mood reflects the cumulative impact of differences between obtained outcomes and expectations. Here expectations refer to an established context. Situations in which an established context fails to match an outcome are then perceived as mismatches of expectation and outcome. We take advantage of the large number of studies published on non-verbal cognitive bias tests in recent years (95 studies with a total of 162 independent tests to test whether cumulative mismatch could indeed have led to the observed mood changes. Based on a criteria list, we assessed whether mismatch had occurred with the experimental procedure used to induce mood (mood induction mismatch, or in the context of the non-verbal cognitive bias procedure (testing mismatch. For the mood induction mismatch, we scored the mismatch between the subjects’ potential expectations and the manipulations conducted for inducing mood whereas, for the testing mismatch, we scored mismatches that may have occurred during the actual testing. We then investigated whether these two types of mismatch can predict the actual outcome of the cognitive bias study. The present evaluation shows that mood induction mismatch cannot well predict the success of a cognitive bias test. On the other hand, testing mismatch can modulate or even inverse the expected outcome. We think, cognitive bias studies should more specifically aim at creating expectation mismatch while inducing mood states to test the cumulative mismatch theory more properly. Furthermore, testing mismatch should be avoided as much as possible

  7. Feeling and Time: The Phenomenology of Mood Disorders, Depressive Realism, and Existential Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2006-01-01

    Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitatio...

  8. White Matter Structural Connectivity Is Not Correlated to Cortical Resting-State Functional Connectivity over the Healthy Adult Lifespan

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    Adrian Tsang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural connectivity (SC of white matter (WM and functional connectivity (FC of cortical regions undergo changes in normal aging. As WM tracts form the underlying anatomical architecture that connects regions within resting state networks (RSNs, it is intuitive to expect that SC and FC changes with age are correlated. Studies that investigated the relationship between SC and FC in normal aging are rare, and have mainly compared between groups of elderly and younger subjects. The objectives of this work were to investigate linear SC and FC changes across the healthy adult lifespan, and to define relationships between SC and FC measures within seven whole-brain large scale RSNs. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data were acquired from 177 healthy participants (male/female = 69/108; aged 18–87 years. Forty cortical regions across both hemispheres belonging to seven template-defined RSNs were considered. Mean diffusivity (MD, fractional anisotropy (FA, mean tract length, and number of streamlines derived from DTI data were used as SC measures, delineated using deterministic tractography, within each RSN. Pearson correlation coefficients of rs-fMRI-obtained BOLD signal time courses between cortical regions were used as FC measure. SC demonstrated significant age-related changes in all RSNs (decreased FA, mean tract length, number of streamlines; and increased MD, and significant FC decrease was observed in five out of seven networks. Among the networks that showed both significant age related changes in SC and FC, however, SC was not in general significantly correlated with FC, whether controlling for age or not. The lack of observed relationship between SC and FC suggests that measures derived from DTI data that are commonly used to infer the integrity of WM microstructure are not related to the corresponding changes in FC within RSNs. The possible temporal lag between SC and FC will need to be addressed

  9. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2016-04-21

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety.

  10. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  11. Modular organization of functional network connectivity in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia during the resting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbao eYu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown that functional brain networks composed from select regions of interest (ROIs have a modular community structure. However, the organization of functional network connectivity (FNC, comprising a purely data-driven network built from spatially independent brain components, is not yet clear. The aim of this study is to explore the modular organization of FNC in both healthy controls (HCs and patients with schizophrenia (SZs. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI data of HCs and SZs were decomposed into independent components (ICs by group independent component analysis (ICA. Then weighted brain networks (in which nodes are brain components were built based on correlations among of ICA time courses. Clustering coefficients and connectivity strength of the networks were computed. A dynamic branch cutting algorithm was used to identify modules of the FNC in HCs and SZs. Results show stronger connectivity strength and higher clustering coefficient in HCs with more and smaller modules in SZs. In addition, HCs and SZs had some different hubs. Our findings demonstrate altered modular architecture of the FNC in schizophrenia and provide insights into abnormal topological organization of intrinsic brain networks in this mental illness.

  12. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

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    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  13. Comparing clinical attachment level and pocket depth for predicting periodontal disease progression in healthy sites of patients with chronic periodontitis using multi-state Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdala, Ibrahimu; Olsen, Ingar; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Thoresen, Magne; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2014-09-01

    To understand degeneration of healthy sites and identify factors associated with disease progression in patients with chronic periodontitis. Data on healthy sites from 163 American and Swedish subjects were analysed using two-three-state (health, gingivitis, chronic periodontitis) Markov models based on bleeding on probing (BOP), and either clinical attachment level (CAL) + BOP or pocket depth (PD) + BOP. In 2 years, 10% (CAL + BOP) and 3% (PD + BOP) of healthy sites developed chronic periodontitis. On average, healthy sites remained healthy for 32 months before transiting in both models. Most transitions (87-97%) from health were to the gingivitis state. The expected duration of the gingivitis lesion was 4-5 months and sites recovered with a high probability (96-98%). Disease severity as measured by number of sites with CAL/PD > 4 mm at baseline and smoking, were associated with fast progression from health to chronic periodontitis within 6 months as were gingival redness in the PD + BOP model only. With age, the rate of disease progression to gingivitis decreased. Transition probabilities for gingivitis and chronic periodontitis were higher with CAL + BOP than with PD + BOP. Smoking and disease severity were significant predictors for fast progression. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Periodontology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparing clinical attachment level and pocket depth for predicting periodontal disease progression in healthy sites of patients with chronic periodontitis using multi-state Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdala, Ibrahimu; Olsen, Ingar; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Thoresen, Magne; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2014-01-01

    Aim To understand degeneration of healthy sites and identify factors associated with disease progression in patients with chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods Data on healthy sites from 163 American and Swedish subjects were analysed using two-three-state (health, gingivitis, chronic periodontitis) Markov models based on bleeding on probing (BOP), and either clinical attachment level (CAL) + BOP or pocket depth (PD) + BOP. Results In 2 years, 10% (CAL + BOP) and 3% (PD + BOP) of healthy sites developed chronic periodontitis. On average, healthy sites remained healthy for 32 months before transiting in both models. Most transitions (87–97%) from health were to the gingivitis state. The expected duration of the gingivitis lesion was 4–5 months and sites recovered with a high probability (96–98%). Disease severity as measured by number of sites with CAL/PD > 4 mm at baseline and smoking, were associated with fast progression from health to chronic periodontitis within 6 months as were gingival redness in the PD + BOP model only. With age, the rate of disease progression to gingivitis decreased. Conclusion Transition probabilities for gingivitis and chronic periodontitis were higher with CAL + BOP than with PD + BOP. Smoking and disease severity were significant predictors for fast progression. PMID:24888705

  15. The Effect of Emotional State on the Processing of Morphosyntactic and Semantic Reversal Anomalies in Japanese: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masataka; Suzuki, Yui; Koizumi, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the locus responsible for the effect of emotional state on sentence processing in healthy native speakers of Japanese, using event-related brain potentials. The participants were induced into a happy, neutral, or sad mood and then subjected to electroencephalogram recording during which emotionally neutral sentences,…

  16. Mood-, Anxiety-, and Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Risk in a Military Population Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Michael D.; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D.; Tu, Xin M.; Knox, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 United States Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders (SUD) were based on treatment encounters. Risk for suicide associated with anxiety disorders were lower compared to mood disorders and similar to SUD. Moreover, the associations between mood and anxiety disorders with suicide were greatest within a year of treatment presentation. PMID:23094649

  17. Variations in the Circumplex Structure of Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers have emphasized the similarity of the semantic and self-report mood circumplexes. Study investigated systematic differences in theses structures. Demonstrated that when making judgments of their mood, people weigh the arousal dimension less than the valence dimension. Dimensions are weighed equally in semantic structure. (JBJ)

  18. Mood and the evaluation of leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Sanders, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Research on the evaluation of leaders has shown that evaluation ratings are prone to several biases. The present study deals with one possible bias, namely, the relationship between mood and the perception or evaluation of a leader. The affect-as-information framework, which indicates that mood

  19. [Mood disorders in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; Claes, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The DSM-5 was published in May, 2013. AIM: To discuss and comment on the important changes that appear in the sections of DSM-5 dealing with mood disorders. METHOD: The DSM-5 chapters on mood disorders are reviewed. RESULTS: Bipolar disorders and depressive disorders are now dealt with

  20. Association of seropositivity for influenza and coronaviruses with history of mood disorders and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Yolken, Robert H; Langenberg, Patricia; Lapidus, Manana; Arling, Timothy A; Dickerson, Faith B; Scrandis, Debra A; Severance, Emily; Cabassa, Johanna A; Balis, Theodora; Postolache, Teodor T

    2011-04-01

    Anecdotal reports of mood disorder following infection with common respiratory viruses with neurotropic potential have been in existence since the last century. Nevertheless, systematic studies on the association between these viruses and mood disorders are lacking. Influenza A, B and coronavirus antibody titers were measured in 257 subjects with recurrent unipolar and bipolar disorder and healthy controls, by SCID. Pearson's χ² tests and logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between seropositivity for coronaviruses, influenza A and B viruses and the following: a) history of recurrent mood disorders b) having attempted suicide in the past c) uni- vs. bi-polarity and d) presence of psychotic symptoms during mood episodes. Seropositivity for influenza A (p=0.004), B (pmood disorders but not with the specific diagnosis of unipolar or bipolar depression. Seropositivity for influenza B was significantly associated with a history of suicide attempt (p=0.001) and history of psychotic symptoms (p=0.005). The design was cross-sectional. Socioeconomic factors, inflammatory markers, and axis II psychopathology were not assessed. The association of seropositivity for influenza and coronaviruses with a history of mood disorders, and influenza B with suicidal behavior require replication in larger longitudinal samples. The need for these studies is additionally supported by the high incidence of these viral infections, the high prevalence of mood disorders, and resilience of suicide epidemics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction between DRD2 variation and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, T; Fasano, M C; Taurisano, P; Fazio, L; Antonucci, L A; Gelao, B; Romano, R; Mancini, M; Porcelli, A; Masellis, R; Pallesen, K J; Bertolino, A; Blasi, G; Brattico, E

    2017-01-26

    Sounds, like music and noise, are capable of reliably affecting individuals' mood and emotions. However, these effects are highly variable across individuals. A putative source of variability is genetic background. Here we explored the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2 rs1076560, G>T, previously associated with the relative expression of D2S/L isoforms) and sound environment on mood and emotion-related brain activity. Thirty-eight healthy subjects were genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 (G/G=26; G/T=12) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of an implicit emotion-processing task while listening to music or noise. Individual variation in mood induction was assessed before and after the task. Results showed mood improvement after music exposure in DRD2GG subjects and mood deterioration after noise exposure in GT subjects. Moreover, the music, as opposed to noise environment, decreased the striatal activity of GT subjects as well as the prefrontal activity of GG subjects while processing emotional faces. These findings suggest that genetic variability of dopamine receptors affects sound environment modulations of mood and emotion processing. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  3. The Therapeutic Potential of Exercise to Improve Mood, Cognition, and Sleep in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Otto, Michael W.; Ellis, Terry D.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the classic motor symptoms, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with a variety of non-motor symptoms that significantly reduce quality of life, even in the early stages of the disease. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based treatments for these symptoms, which include mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and sleep disruption. We focus here on exercise interventions, which have been used to improve mood, cognition, and sleep in healthy older adults and clinical populations, but to date have primarily targeted motor symptoms in PD. We synthesize the existing literature on the benefits of aerobic exercise and strength training on mood, sleep, and cognition as demonstrated in healthy older adults and adults with PD, and suggest that these types of exercise offer a feasible and promising adjunct treatment for mood, cognition, and sleep difficulties in PD. Across stages of the disease, exercise interventions represent a treatment strategy with the unique ability to improve a range of non-motor symptoms while also alleviating the classic motor symptoms of the disease. Future research in PD should include non-motor outcomes in exercise trials with the goal of developing evidence-based exercise interventions as a safe, broad-spectrum treatment approach to improve mood, cognition, and sleep for individuals with PD. PMID:26715466

  4. Motivated prediction of future feelings: effects of negative mood and mood orientation on affective forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Roger; McFarland, Cathy; Spyropoulos, Vassili; Lam, Kent C H

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the role of motivational factors in affective forecasting. The primary hypothesis was that people predict positive emotional reactions to future events when they are motivated to enhance their current feelings. Three experiments manipulated participants' moods (negative vs. neutral) and orientation toward their moods (reflective vs. ruminative) and then assessed the positivity of their affective predictions for future events. As hypothesized, when participants adopted a reflective orientation, and thus should have been motivated to engage in mood-regulation processes, they predicted more positive feelings in the negative than in the neutral mood condition. This pattern of mood-incongruent affective prediction was not exhibited when participants adopted a ruminative orientation. Additionally, within the negative mood condition, generating affective forecasts had a more positive emotional impact on reflectors than on ruminators. The findings suggest that affective predictions are sometimes driven by mood-regulatory motives.

  5. Sex differences in cognitive functioning in at-risk mental state for psychosis, first episode psychosis and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittig, S; Studerus, E; Papmeyer, M; Uttinger, M; Koranyi, S; Ramyead, A; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2015-02-01

    Several sex differences in schizophrenia have been reported including differences in cognitive functioning. Studies with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (HC) indicate that the sex advantage for women in verbal domains is also present in schizophrenia patients. However, findings have been inconsistent. No study focused on sex-related cognitive performance differences in at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) individuals yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in cognitive functioning in ARMS, first episode psychosis (FEP) and HC subjects. We expected a better verbal learning and memory performance of women in all groups. The neuropsychological data analysed in this study were collected within the prospective Früherkennung von Psychosen (FePsy) study. In total, 118 ARMS, 88 FEP individuals and 86 HC completed a cognitive test battery covering the domains of executive functions, attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, IQ and speed of processing. Women performed better in verbal learning and memory regardless of diagnostic group. By contrast, men as compared to women showed a shorter reaction time during the working memory task across all groups. The results provide evidence that women generally perform better in verbal learning and memory, independent of diagnostic group (ARMS, FEP, HC). The finding of a shorter reaction time for men in the working memory task could indicate that men have a superior working memory performance since they responded faster during the target trials, while maintaining a comparable overall working memory performance level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Exercise Intensity for Improving Depressed Mood in Depression: A Dose-Response Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-07-01

    Exercise effectively improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD), but the optimal exercise stimulus to improve depressed mood is unknown. To determine the dose-response relationship of acute exercise intensity with depressed mood responses to exercise in MDD. We hypothesized that the acute response to exercise would differ between light, moderate, and hard intensity exercise with higher intensities yielding more beneficial responses. Once weekly, 24 women (age: 38.6±14.0) diagnosed with MDD underwent a 30-minute session at one of three steady-state exercise intensities (light, moderate, hard; rating of perceived exertion 11, 13 or 15) or quiet rest on a stationary bicycle. Depressed mood was evaluated with the Profile of Mood States before, 10 and 30 minutes post-exercise. Exercise reduced depressed mood 10 and 30 minutes following exercise, but this effect was not influenced by exercise intensity. Participants not currently taking antidepressants (n=10) had higher baseline depression scores, but did not demonstrate a different antidepressant response to exercise compared to those taking antidepressants. To acutely improve depressed mood, exercise of any intensity significantly improved feelings of depression with no differential effect following light, moderate, or hard exercise. Pharmacological antidepressant usage did not limit the mood-enhancing effect of acute exercise. Acute exercise should be used as a symptom management tool to improve mood in depression, with even light exercise an effective recommendation. These results need to be replicated and extended to other components of exercise prescription (e.g., duration, frequency, mode) to optimize exercise guidelines for improving depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Linking Automatic Evaluation to Mood and Information Processing Style: Consequences for Experienced Affect, Impression Formation, and Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Tanya L.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Bargh, John A.

    2006-01-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment…

  8. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizophrenia; Mood disorders; Epidemiology; Africa. Received: 17-05-2011 .... performance, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, ...... mixed mania with mood-incongruent psychotic features. Eur.

  10. Mood-, Anxiety-, and Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Risk in a Military Population Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Michael D.; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D.; Tu, Xin M.; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 United States Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders (SUD) were based on treatment encounters. Risk for suicide associated with anxiety disorders were lower compared to mood disorder...

  11. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...

  12. Data-driven classification of bipolar I disorder from longitudinal course of mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, A L; McInnis, M G; Forger, D B

    2016-10-11

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) classification of bipolar disorder defines categories to reflect common understanding of mood symptoms rather than scientific evidence. This work aimed to determine whether bipolar I can be objectively classified from longitudinal mood data and whether resulting classes have clinical associations. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical models with latent classes and patient-specific models of mood are fit to data from Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluations (LIFE) of bipolar I patients (N=209). Classes are tested for clinical associations. No classes are justified using the time course of DSM-IV mood states. Three classes are justified using the course of subsyndromal mood symptoms. Classes differed in attempted suicides (P=0.017), disability status (P=0.012) and chronicity of affective symptoms (P=0.009). Thus, bipolar I disorder can be objectively classified from mood course, and individuals in the resulting classes share clinical features. Data-driven classification from mood course could be used to enrich sample populations for pharmacological and etiological studies.

  13. Effects of mood induction on consumers with vs. without compulsive buying propensity: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sinje; Hunger, Antje; Türpe, Tina; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mood and selective attention in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Gunstad, John; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-07-01

    Both mood and cognitive function are altered in cold environments. Body warming through exercise may improve Stroop interference score and lessen total negative mood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of equal caloric bouts of interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) exercise on mood and selective attention in the cold. Eleven young men underwent two experimental trials in 5°C air. Both trials consisted of 90 min acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min exercise (INT vs. CONT), and 60 min recovery (REC). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) were administered at four time points. Mean body temperature decreased during ACE, increased during exercise, and decreased during REC. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect for time for several of the POMS sub scores. In particular, negative mood was significantly decreased after exercise relative to ACE and then significantly increased during REC. Further, CONT appears to be more effective than INT at decreasing negative mood. Components of the SCWT supported both the arousal and distraction theories for simple perception, but no significant effects were shown for the interference score. In the cold, exercise decreases negative mood but does not appear to affect selective attention. Further mechanistic studies could determine the best mode and intensity of exercise for improving cognitive function in the cold.

  15. [Infant moods and the chronicity of depressive symptoms: the co-creation of unique ways of being together for good or ill. Paper 1: The normal process of development and the formation of moods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronick, Edward Z

    2003-01-01

    The ontogenesis of moods and the process that establishes them is addressed. Moods arise out of normal developmental processes at both a macro- and micro-developmental level. Moods are part of normal development as well as a component of pathological processes and they are a ubiquitous presence that gives meaning to experience in infant and adult during daily life and therapy. In this first part of a two-part paper I will address the normal development of moods; in the second part I will to address issues related to psychopathology and therapy, especially depression and the intergenerational transfer of mood. I argue that moods are dyadic phenomena--something that develops out of the chronic co-creative interactions of two individuals--rather than solely being an intrapsychic process. I will also argue, especially when one considers the development of moods in infants, that moods make sense of the world as components of states of consciousness that give unique meaning to the individual's engagement with the world and further that moods function to bring the past into the present.

  16. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; He, Zhimin; Chase, Henry W; Wills, Andy J; Troisi, Joseph; Leventhal, Adam M; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus-response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to produce that outcome. One differential prediction is that whereas the incentive learning account anticipates that negative mood induction could augment a novel tobacco-seeking response in an extinction test, the S-R account could not explain this effect because the extinction test prevents S-R learning by omitting experience of the reinforcer. To test this, overnight-deprived daily smokers (n = 44) acquired two instrumental responses for tobacco and chocolate points, respectively, before smoking to satiety. Half then received negative mood induction to raise the expected value of tobacco, opposing satiety, whilst the remainder received positive mood induction. Finally, a choice between tobacco and chocolate was measured in extinction to test whether negative mood could augment tobacco choice, opposing satiety, in the absence of direct experience of tobacco reinforcement. Negative mood induction not only abolished the devaluation of tobacco choice, but participants with a significant increase in negative mood increased their tobacco choice in extinction, despite satiety. These findings suggest that negative mood augments drug-seeking by raising the expected value of the drug through incentive learning, rather than through automatic S-R control.

  17. Does resting-state connectivity reflect depressive rumination? A tale of two analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G; Misic, Bratislav; Buschkuehl, Martin; Kross, Ethan; Deldin, Patricia J; Peltier, Scott; Churchill, Nathan W; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Vakorin, Vasily; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jonides, John

    2014-12-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by rumination. Prior research suggests that resting-state brain activation reflects rumination when depressed individuals are not task engaged. However, no study has directly tested this. Here we investigated whether resting-state epochs differ from induced ruminative states for healthy and depressed individuals. Most previous research on resting-state networks comes from seed-based analyses with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). By contrast, we examined resting state connectivity by using the complete multivariate connectivity profile (i.e., connections across all brain nodes) and by comparing these results to seeded analyses. We find that unconstrained resting-state intervals differ from active rumination states in strength of connectivity and that overall connectivity was higher for healthy vs. depressed individuals. Relationships between connectivity and subjective mood (i.e., behavior) were strongly observed during induced rumination epochs. Furthermore, connectivity patterns that related to subjective mood were strikingly different for MDD and healthy control (HC) groups suggesting different mood regulation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute changes in mood induced by subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease are modulated by psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Dewispelaere, William B; Campbell, Meghan C; Lugar, Heather M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) reduces Parkinson disease (PD) motor symptoms but has unexplained, variable effects on mood. The study tested the hypothesis that pre-existing mood and/or anxiety disorders or increased symptom severity negatively affects mood response to STN DBS. Thirty-eight PD participants with bilateral STN DBS and on PD medications were interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID) and completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI) self-reports. Subsequently, during OFF and optimal ON (clinical settings) STN DBS conditions and while off PD medications, motor function was assessed with the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III), and participants rated their mood with Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), and again completed SSAI. VAS mood variables included anxiety, apathy, valence and emotional arousal. STN DBS improved UPDRS scores and mood. Unexpectedly, PD participants diagnosed with current anxiety or mood disorders experienced greater STN DBS-induced improvement in mood than those diagnosed with remitted disorders or who were deemed as having never met threshold criteria for diagnosis. BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate mood response to STN DBS, indicating that clinical categorical diagnosis better differentiates mood response to STN DBS than self-rated symptom severity. SCID diagnosis, BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate motor response to STN DBS. PD participants diagnosed with current mood or anxiety disorders are more sensitive to STN DBS-induced effects on mood, possibly indicating altered basal ganglia circuitry in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Medium Chain Triglycerides on Time to Nutritional Ketosis and Symptoms of Keto-Induction in Healthy Adults: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff J. d C. Harvey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs are ketogenic and might reduce adverse effects of keto-induction and improve time to ketosis and the tolerability of very low carbohydrate diets. This study investigates whether MCT supplementation improves time to nutritional ketosis (NK, mood, and symptoms of keto-induction. We compared changes in beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB, blood glucose, symptoms of keto-induction, and mood disturbance, in 28 healthy adults prescribed a ketogenic diet, randomised to receive either 30 ml of MCT, or sunflower oil as a control, three times per day, for 20 days. The primary outcome measured was the achievement of NK (≥0.5 mmol·L−1 BOHB. Participants also completed a daily Profile of Mood States and keto-induction symptom questionnaire. MCT resulted in higher BOHB at all time points and faster time to NK, a result that failed to reach significance. Symptoms of keto-induction resulted from both diets, with a greater magnitude in the control group, except for abdominal pain, which occurred with greater frequency and severity in the MCT-supplemented diet. There was a possibly beneficial effect on symptoms by MCT, but the effect on mood was unclear. Based on these results, MCTs increase BOHB compared with LCT and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. It is unclear whether MCTs significantly improve mood or time to NK. The trial was registered by the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12616001099415.

  1. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady A. Putilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms.

  2. The effect of deep and slow breathing on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood processing--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Volker; Magerl, Walter; Kern, Uwe; Haas, Joachim; Hajak, Göran; Eichhammer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Deep and slow breathing (DSB) techniques, as a component of various relaxation techniques, have been reported as complementary approaches in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes, but the relevance of relaxation for alleviating pain during a breathing intervention was not evaluated so far. In order to disentangle the effects of relaxation and respiration, we investigated two different DSB techniques at the same respiration rates and depths on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood in 16 healthy subjects. In the attentive DSB intervention, subjects were asked to breathe guided by a respiratory feedback task requiring a high degree of concentration and constant attention. In the relaxing DSB intervention, the subjects relaxed during the breathing training. The skin conductance levels, indicating sympathetic tone, were measured during the breathing maneuvers. Thermal detection and pain thresholds for cold and hot stimuli and profile of mood states were examined before and after the breathing sessions. The mean detection and pain thresholds showed a significant increase resulting from the relaxing DSB, whereas no significant changes of these thresholds were found associated with the attentive DSB. The mean skin conductance levels indicating sympathetic activity decreased significantly during the relaxing DSB intervention but not during the attentive DSB. Both breathing interventions showed similar reductions in negative feelings (tension, anger, and depression). Our results suggest that the way of breathing decisively influences autonomic and pain processing, thereby identifying DSB in concert with relaxation as the essential feature in the modulation of sympathetic arousal and pain perception. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cognitive and mood effects of phenobarbital treatment in people with epilepsy in rural China: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Dong; Lin, Weihong; Wu, Qingsheng; Sun, Jixin; Zhao, Qianhua; Yu, Peimin; Wang, Wenzhi; Wu, Jianzhong; Bell, Gail S; Kwan, Patrick; de Boer, Hanneke M; Li, Shichuo; Thompson, Pamela J; Hong, Zhen; Sander, Josemir W

    2012-12-01

    Phenobarbital is an effective treatment for epilepsy but concerns remain over its potential neurocognitive toxicity. This prospective study evaluated the effects of phenobarbital treatment on cognition and mood in people with epilepsy in rural China. We recruited 144 adults with convulsive seizures and 144 healthy controls from six sites in rural China. People with epilepsy were treated with phenobarbital monotherapy for 12 months. At baseline, and at 3, 6 and 12 months, cases and controls were evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, a digit span test, a verbal fluency test, an auditory verbal learning test and a digit cancellation test. Efficacy of phenobarbital treatment was evaluated at the end of follow-up for those with epilepsy. Cognitive test scores and mood ratings were available for 136 (94%) people with epilepsy and 137 (95%) controls at the 12 month follow-up. Both groups showed slightly improved performance on a number of neuropsychological measures. The people with epilepsy showed greater performance gains (p=0.012) in verbal fluency. Nine people with epilepsy complained of memory problems during the treatment period. In this study, phenobarbital was not found to have a major negative impact on cognitive function of people with convulsive seizures and some cognitive gains were observed, possibly due to improved seizure control.

  4. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  5. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a "trait vs. state" objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  6. Sleep-wake cycle phenotypes in young people with familial and non-familial mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jan; Naismith, Sharon; Grierson, Ashlee; Carpenter, Joanne; Hermens, Daniel; Scott, Elizabeth; Hickie, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Converging evidence identifies that the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals at clinical high risk of BD, and young people with recent onset BD may differ from other clinical cases or healthy controls in terms of sleep-wake profiles. However, it is possible that these differences may reflect current mental state, subtype of mood disorder, or familial traits. This study aimed to determine objective and subjective sleep-wake profiles in individuals aged 15-25 years with a current major depressive episode, in relation to familial traits. Frequency matching was employed to ensure that each individual with a confirmed family history of BD (FH+) could be compared to four controls who did not have a familial mood disorder (FH-). Pre-selected objective actigraphy and subjective Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) ratings were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and applying the Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) correction for false discoveries. The sample comprised 60 individuals with a mean age of 19 years. The FH+ (n=12) and FH- groups (n=48) differed on three key sleep parameters: mean sleep duration on week nights (P=.049), variability in waking after sleep onset (P=.038), and daily disturbances (PSQI dimension of sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction; P=.01). The sleep profiles we identified in this study, especially the daily disturbances phenotype, provide support for research into endophenotypes for BD. Also, the findings may offer the opportunity for more tailored, personalized interventions that target specific components of the sleep-wake cycle in individuals with a family history of BD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Correlation between resting state fMRI total neuronal activity and PET metabolism in healthy controls and patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soddu, Andrea; Gómez, Francisco; Heine, Lizette; Di Perri, Carol; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Voss, Henning U; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Phillips, Christophe; Demertzi, Athena; Chatelle, Camille; Schrouff, Jessica; Thibaut, Aurore; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Noirhomme, Quentin; Salmon, Eric; Tshibanda, Jean-Flory Luaba; Schiff, Nicholas D; Laureys, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The mildly invasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging technique to measure 'resting state' cerebral metabolism. This technique made it possible to assess changes in metabolic activity in clinical applications, such as the study of severe brain injury and disorders of consciousness. We assessed the possibility of creating functional MRI activity maps, which could estimate the relative levels of activity in FDG-PET cerebral metabolic maps. If no metabolic absolute measures can be extracted, our approach may still be of clinical use in centers without access to FDG-PET. It also overcomes the problem of recognizing individual networks of independent component selection in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state analysis. We extracted resting state fMRI functional connectivity maps using independent component analysis and combined only components of neuronal origin. To assess neuronality of components a classification based on support vector machine (SVM) was used. We compared the generated maps with the FDG-PET maps in 16 healthy controls, 11 vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients and four locked-in patients. The results show a significant similarity with ρ = 0.75 ± 0.05 for healthy controls and ρ = 0.58 ± 0.09 for vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients between the FDG-PET and the fMRI based maps. FDG-PET, fMRI neuronal maps, and the conjunction analysis show decreases in frontoparietal and medial regions in vegetative patients with respect to controls. Subsequent analysis in locked-in syndrome patients produced also consistent maps with healthy controls. The constructed resting state fMRI functional connectivity map points toward the possibility for fMRI resting state to estimate relative levels of activity in a metabolic map.

  8. Depressed mood in the working population: associations with work schedules and working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesen, Karolien; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, Ijmert; Mohren, Danielle C L; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M

    2010-07-01

    study showed that different work schedules and working hours are associated with depressed mood. Shiftwork was related to a higher prevalence of depressed mood than day work. The association was more pronounced for male employees. Regarding the number of working h/wk, male and female employees showed an opposite trend in depressed mood. Because of the possibility of a healthy worker effect and the possibility of a reciprocal relationship between WTA and depressed mood, the reported relation might be underestimated. This study has illustrated that occupational physicians, who deal with depressed mood among workers, should carefully consider the impact of WTA.

  9. Mood and the Market: Can Press Reports of Investors' Mood Predict Stock Prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  10. Mood and the market: can press reports of investors' mood predict stock prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices.

  11. Cross cultural differences in mood regulation: An empirical comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine cross cultural differences in the ways people regulate their mood states with special emphasis put on the role of consumption. This issue is virtually unexplored in the extant literature. After briefly introducing the essence of mood regulation and culture we integrate...... these discussions in order to produce six research hypothesis for testing. These hypothesis concern the differences in the nature, perceived ease of initiating, and emotional outcomes of mood regulatory activities. The empirical evidence suggests that mood regulatory activities are less consumption oriented, have...... more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....

  12. Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, M V; Hammersley, J J; Hale, C R; Nuwer, P K; Meliska, C J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of smoking a cigarette or wearing a transdermal nicotine patch on mood and lexical decision-making were tested in eight smokers. Each participant was tested after 4 hours of smoking abstinence, under 4 conditions: placebo (very low nicotine) cigarette, nicotine cigarette, placebo patch, and nicotine patch. Relative to placebo, wearing the nicotine patch reduced Profile of Mood States (POMS) Total Mood Disturbance and Fatigue/Inertia scores, while increasing the speed of some types of lexical decisions. Smoking a nicotine cigarette did not affect reaction times, but unexpectedly decreased the accuracy of Word/ Nonword lexical decisions. Thus, transdermal nicotine may improve mood and facilitate longterm memory search and/or attentional processes in nicotine-deprived smokers.

  13. The implicit influence of a negative mood on the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki

    2012-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the mere exposure effect, it is still not clear why it occurs. The present study examined whether a negative mood would enhance or inhibit the effects. Fifty-two participants (30 men, 22 women; M age = 20.5 yr.) were assigned to one of two mood-induction groups (negative and neutral), and were exposed to a photograph 20 times after the mood induction. Thereafter, a single-category Implicit Association Test was conducted to measure their implicit attitudes toward the photograph. There was a significant interaction, with exposed stimuli evaluated more favorably than unexposed stimuli in the neutral condition, but not in the negative condition. This result suggests that a negative mood inhibited the mere exposure effect, implying that people could use their emotional states as cues to evaluate ambiguous objects that they have been repeatedly exposed to.

  14. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aches and pains Recurring thoughts of death or suicide Other resources: Symptom checklist Learn more about finding a mental health professional. Education Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring ...

  15. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  16. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin D administration on mood and distress in acutely hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Xing Jian; Robitaille, Line; Eintracht, Shaun; MacNamara, Elizabeth; Hoffer, L John

    2013-09-01

    Hypovitaminosis C and D are highly prevalent in acute-care hospitals. Malnutrition with regard to these vitamins has been linked to mood disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. The objective was to determine whether vitamin C or D supplementation improves mood state or reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. A randomized, double-blind, active-control clinical trial compared the effects of vitamin C (500 mg twice daily) with those of high-dose vitamin D (5000 IU/d) on mood (Profile of Mood States) and psychological distress (Distress Thermometer). Vitamin C provided for a mean of 8.2 d increased plasma vitamin C concentrations to normal (P vitamin D provided for a mean of 8.1 d increased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations (P vitamin C group were greater than those in the vitamin D group (P = 0.045 for mood; P = 0.009 for distress). Short-term therapy with vitamin C improves mood and reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. No conclusion is possible regarding the effects of vitamin D because the dose and duration of therapy were insufficient to raise 25(OH)D concentrations into the normal range. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01630720.

  17. Investor mood, herding and the Ramadan effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriilidis, Konstantinos; Kallinterakis, Vasileios; Tsalavoutas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In view of evidence linking herding and social mood, we examine whether the positive mood documented during Ramadan translates into higher herding compared to non-Ramadan days. Drawing on a sample of seven majority Muslim countries, we report significant herding during Ramadan in most of our sample markets. Additionally, we show that herding appears significantly stronger within rather than outside Ramadan for most tests whereby its significance is manifested on both Ramadan- and non-Ramadan-...

  18. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy on Attention and Mood in Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2015-05-01

    To explore the efficacy of mindfulness-
based music therapy (MBMT) to improve attention and decrease mood distress experienced by women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Quantitative, descriptive, longitudinal approach. A comprehensive cancer hospital and a university in southern Florida. 15 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, stages I-III, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants individually received MBMT for one hour per week for four weeks. The sessions consisted of varied music activities accompanied by mindfulness attitudes, or mental strategies that enhance moment-to-moment awareness, and weekly homework. Demographic information was collected at baseline. Attention was measured using Conners' Continuous Performance Test II. Mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States-Brief Form. Narrative comments collected from the homework assignments served to reinforce quantitative data. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that attention improved significantly over time. Although all mood states significantly improved from the beginning to the end of each MBMT session, the mood state of fatigue decreased significantly more than the other mood states. MBMT enhances attention and mood, particularly the mood state of fatigue, in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. 
. A preferred music listening and mindfulness exercise may be offered to women with breast cancer who experience attention problems and mood distress.

  19. Adverse mood symptoms with oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Segebladh, Birgitta

    2012-04-01

    In spite of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) having been available for more than 50 years, surprisingly little is known about the prevalence of truly COC-related adverse mood symptoms and about the underlying biological mechanisms of proposed changes in mood and affect. Precise estimates of COC-related adverse mood symptoms are not available due to the lack of placebo-controlled trials. In prospective trials the frequency of women who report deteriorated mood or deteriorated emotional well-being varies between 4 and 10%, but it can be assumed that the causal relation in these prevalence rates is overestimated. Adverse mood symptoms and somatic symptoms are most pronounced during the pill-free interval of the treatment cycles, but whether extended COC regimens would be more favorable in this respect is not known. COCs with anti-androgenic progestagens, such as drospirenone and desogestrel, appear more favorable in terms of mood symptoms than progestagens with a more androgenic profile. Available data suggest that lower doses of ethinylestradiol could be beneficial. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Effects of low to moderate acute doses of pramipexole on impulsivity and cognition in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Kang, Un Jung; de Wit, Harriet

    2008-02-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine is integrally involved in the rewarding effects of drugs, and it has also been thought to mediate impulsive behaviors in animal models. Most of the studies of drug effects on impulsive behaviors in humans have involved drugs with complex actions on different transmitter systems and different receptor subtypes. The present study was designed to characterize the effect of single doses of pramipexole, a D2/D3 agonist, on measures of cognitive and impulsive behavior, as well as on mood in healthy volunteers. Healthy men and women (N = 10) received placebo and 2 doses of pramipexole, 0.25 and 0.50 mg, in a within-subject, double-blinded study. Outcome measures included changes in cognitive performance, assessed by the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, several behavioral measures related to impulsive behavior, including the Balloon Analogue Risk Task, Delay Discounting Task, Go/No-Go Task, Card Perseveration Task, and subjective ratings of mood assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and Drug Effects Questionnaire. Pramipexole decreased positive ratings of mood (euphoria, intellectual efficiency, and energy) and increased both subjectively reported sedation and behavioral sedation indicated by impaired cognitive performance on several measures of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics. Single low to medium doses of this drug did not produce a decrease in impulsive responding on behavioral measures included in this study. The sedative-like effects observed in this study may reflect presynaptic actions of the drug. Higher doses with postsynaptic actions may be needed to produce either behavioral or subjective stimulant-like effects.

  1. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  2. Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Kasian, S J; Owens, J E; Marsh, G R

    1998-01-01

    When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.

  3. Sexual dysfunction, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Küçük, Adem; Satan, Yılmaz; İlgün, Erdem; Arslan, Şevket; İlik, Faik

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM). This case-control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1%) suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5%) and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%). Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9%) had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5%) had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%), and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%). SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM.

  4. Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S; Slettenaar, M; vd Meer, N; Transler, C; Jans, L; Quadt, F; Berry, M

    2011-10-24

    The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700 mg), caffeine (120 mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1 h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2 h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1 h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Suicidal Behaviour in Mood Disorders—Who, When, and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometsä, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: About one-half to two-thirds of all suicides are by people who suffer from mood disorders; preventing suicides among those who suffer from them is thus central for suicide prevention. Understanding factors underlying suicide risk is necessary for rational preventive decisions. Method: The literature on risk factors for completed and attempted suicide among subjects with depressive and bipolar disorders (BDs) was reviewed. Results: Lifetime risk of completed suicide among psychiatric patients with mood disorders is likely between 5% and 6%, with BDs, and possibly somewhat higher risk than patients with major depressive disorder. Longitudinal and psychological autopsy studies indicate suicidal acts usually take place during major depressive episodes (MDEs) or mixed illness episodes. Incidence of suicide attempts is about 20- to 40-fold, compared with euthymia, during these episodes, and duration of these high-risk states is therefore an important determinant of overall risk. Substance use and cluster B personality disorders also markedly increase risk of suicidal acts during mood episodes. Other major risk factors include hopelessness and presence of impulsive–aggressive traits. Both childhood adversity and recent adverse life events are likely to increase risk of suicide attempts, and suicidal acts are predicted by poor perceived social support. Understanding suicidal thinking and decision making is necessary for advancing treatment and prevention. Conclusion: Among subjects with mood disorders, suicidal acts usually occur during MDEs or mixed episodes concurrent with comorbid disorders. Nevertheless, illness factors can only in part explain suicidal behaviour. Illness factors, difficulty controlling impulsive and aggressive responses, plus predisposing early exposures and life situations result in a process of suicidal thinking, planning, and acts. PMID:24881160

  6. Prediction of psilocybin response in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.

  7. Prediction of psilocybin response in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus

    Full Text Available Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.

  8. The Potential Efficacy of Psychological First Aid on Self-Reported Anxiety and Mood: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M; Sherman, Martin F; Goncher, Ian

    2016-03-01

    The authors explored the efficacy of a randomized controlled trial to assess the potential benefits of psychological first aid (PFA) compared with a social acknowledgement condition in a sample of 42 participants who spoke about a stressful life event. Demographics and standardized questionnaires, including the state version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale and the Brief Profile of Mood States, assessed anxiety and mood state. Those in the PFA group evidenced significantly lower anxiety scores at 30-minute postdisclosure than at baseline and, although not significant, showed lowered distressed mood compared with baseline at 30-minute postdisclosure. Those in the social acknowledgment condition evidenced increases in anxiety and distressed mood scores, albeit not significantly, at 30 minutes post disclosure compared with their baseline scores. These results provide preliminary empirical evidence for the efficacy of PFA, and implications for intervention and additional assessment are suggested.

  9. Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: the hedonic contingency view of mood and message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, D T; Petty, R E; Smith, S M

    1995-07-01

    Currently dominant explanations of mood effects on persuasive message processing (i.e., cognitive capacity and feelings as information) predict that happy moods lead to less message scrutiny than neutral or sad moods. The hedonic contingency view (D. T. Wegener & R. E. Petty, 1994) predicts that happy moods can sometimes be associated with greater message processing activity because people in a happy mood are more attentive than neutral or sad people to the hedonic consequences of their actions. Consistent with this view, Experiment 1 finds that a happy mood can lead to greater message scrutiny than a neutral mood when the message is not mood threatening. Experiment 2 finds that a happy mood leads to greater message scrutiny than a sad mood when an uplifting message is encountered, but to less message scrutiny when a depressing message is encountered.

  10. Eating Habits and Food Additive Intakes Are Associated with Emotional States Based on EEG and HRV in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Hye Lim; Kim, Dae-Keun; Kang, Seung Wan; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals. The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11.8 ± 3.6 years). Analysis indicators were a dietary intake checklist for children's nutrition-related behavior score (NBS), consisting of 19 items; food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), consisting of 76 items; the Child Depression Inventory (CDI); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); electroencephalograph (EEG); and heart rate variability (HRV). Higher scores on the CDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T indicate negative emotions, and these scores were significantly decreased from the first to the fourth quartiles. The HRV results showed that the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals was significantly higher in the first quartile than in the fourth quartile (p healthy children and adolescents.

  11. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals En Español Publications, Data, & Statistics Healthy Swimming Resources Health Promotion Materials Find Your State Training & ... Announcements Outbreak Response Toolkits CDC at Work: Healthy Swimming Fast Facts Index of Water-Related Topics Model ...

  12. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  13. Mood and anxiety disorders in women with treated hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy caused by Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Robertas; Velickiene, Dzilda; Prange, Arthur J

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in women with treated hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease and to compare them with the prevalence of such findings in women without past or present thyroid disease. Thirty inpatient women with treated hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy caused by Graves' disease and 45 women hospitalized for treatment of gynecologic disorders such as abnormal vaginal bleeding, benign tumors or infertility were evaluated for the prevalence of mood and anxiety diagnoses using a standard Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and for mood and anxiety ratings using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). At the time of assessment, it was discovered that 14 of 30 women with treated hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease were still hyperthyroid, while 16 women were euthyroid. Significantly greater prevalence of social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and total mood and anxiety disorders, as well as higher symptom scores on the POMS, was found in hyperthyroid women with Graves' disease in comparison with the control group. A prevalence of total anxiety disorder, as well as history of mania or hypomania and lifetime bipolar disorder, but not lifetime unipolar depression, was more frequent in both the euthyroid and the hyperthyroid subgroups of study women in comparison with the control group. These results confirm a high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in women with treated hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy caused by Graves' disease. Hyperthyroidism plays a major role in psychiatric morbidity in Graves' disease.

  14. Mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Ihle, Andreas; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2015-01-01

    In the laboratory, studies have shown an inconsistent pattern of whether, and how, mood may affect cognitive functions indicating both mood-related enhancement as well as decline. Surprisingly, little is known about whether there are similar effects in everyday life. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate possible mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation. Mood effects were examined in the context of winning in a sports competition. Sixty-one male handball players were tested with an extensive cognitive test battery (comprising memory and executive control) both after winning a match and after training as neutral baseline. Mood differed significantly between the two testing situations, while physiological arousal and motivation were comparable. Results showed lowered performance after the win compared with training in selected cognitive measures. Specifically, short-term and episodic memory performance was poorer following a win, whereas executive control performance was unaffected by condition. Differences in memory disappeared when emotional states after the match were entered as covariates into the initial analyses. Thus, findings suggest mood-related impairments in memory, but not in executive control processes after a positive real-life event.

  15. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Kilduff, Liam P; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M; Bracken, Richard M; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of this study was to examine the BAM as a quick measure of mood in relation to recovery status in elite rugby players alongside established physiological markers of recovery. Using elite rugby union players (N = 12), this study examined the utility of BAM as an indicator of mental and physical recovery in elite athletes by exploring pattern change in mood disturbance, energy index, power output, cortisol, and testosterone 36 hr before and 12 hr, 36 hr, and 60 hr after a competitive rugby match. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant changes in all variables across the 4 time points (p < .05, η(2) range = .20-.48), concurrent with previous study findings. Although visual inspection of the graphs indicated that the pattern of change for mood disturbance and energy index mapped changes in all physiological variables, only a low correlation was observed for power output (r = - .34). Although BAM scores changed significantly over time in accordance with the hypotheses, further testing is required to confirm the utility of the BAM as a measure of recovery. The results indicate that the BAM could be used as 1 indicator of recovery status alongside other measures.

  16. The Effect of Dog-Assisted Intervention on Student Well-Being, Mood, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajfoner, Dasha; Harte, Emma; Potter, Lauren M; McGuigan, Nicola

    2017-05-05

    This novel, exploratory study investigated the effect of a short, 20 min, dog-assisted intervention on student well-being, mood, and anxiety. One hundred and thirty-two university students were allocated to either an experimental condition or one of two control conditions. Each participant completed the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMBS), the State Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI), and the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL) both before, and after, the intervention. The participants in the experimental condition interacted with both the dogs and their handlers, whereas the control groups interacted with either the dog only, or the handler only. The analyses revealed a significant difference across conditions for each measure, with those conditions in which a dog was present leading to significant improvements in mood and well-being, as well as a significant reduction in anxiety. Interestingly, the presence of a handler alongside the dog appeared to have a negative, and specific, effect on participant mood, with greater positive shifts in mood being witnessed when participants interacted with the dog alone, than when interacting with both the dog and the handler. These findings show that even a short 20 min session with a therapy dog can be an effective alternative intervention to improve student well-being, anxiety, and mood.

  17. The role of mood and personality in the perception of emotions represented by music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K; Eerola, Tuomas

    2011-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating the processing of emotions have traditionally considered variance between subjects as statistical noise. However, according to behavioural studies, individual differences in emotional processing appear to be an inherent part of the process itself. Temporary mood states as well as stable personality traits have been shown to influence the processing of emotions, causing trait- and mood-congruent biases. The primary aim of this study was to explore how listeners' personality and mood are reflected in their evaluations of discrete emotions represented by music. A related aim was to investigate the role of personality in music preferences. An experiment was carried out where 67 participants evaluated 50 music excerpts in terms of perceived emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and tenderness) and preference. Current mood was associated with mood-congruent biases in the evaluation of emotions represented by music, but extraversion moderated the degree of mood-congruence. Personality traits were strongly connected with preference ratings, and the correlations reflected the trait-congruent patterns obtained in prior studies investigating self-referential emotional processing. Implications for future behavioural and neuroimaging studies on music and emotions are raised. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  18. The path to presence in performance through movement, physiological response, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Preeshl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale, and physiology. Undergraduate theatre (n = 25 and non-theatre majors (n = 24 engaged in protocols of four movement qualities: vibratory, pendular, abrupt and sustained. Mood and heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and temperature were measured before and after four different movement protocols. The hypothesis that the sequence of vibratory, pendular, sustained, and abrupt increased the alert, relaxed state of Presence and Arousal was rejected. It was found that systolic blood pressure increased in men across protocols. A significant interaction was found between the participants’ major and “Tired.” Because Tired and Arousal indicate mental and/or physical energy, a relationship between MAJOR and “Tired,” combined with significant correlation between subjects and major, suggests that the protocols resulted in fatigue. Half of the mood variance is explained by the factor “major.” These two significant findings suggest a relationship between mood and major as well as blood pressure and gender.

  19. Pick-a-mood; development and application of a pictorial mood-reporting instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Van Bel, D.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ‘Pick-A-Mood’ (PAM), a cartoon-based pictorial instrument for reporting and expressing moods. The use of cartoon characters enables people to unambiguously and visually express or report their mood in a rich and easy-to-use way. PAM consists of three characters that each express

  20. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Wingen, G.A. van; Wittwer, J.; Mohajeri, M.H.; Kloek, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport

  1. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Marijn C. W.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M. Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, hyptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across

  2. Negative affect reduces team awareness: the effects of mood and stress on computer-mediated team communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    This article presents research on the effects of varying mood and stress states on within-team communication in a simulated crisis management environment, with a focus on the relationship between communication behaviors and team awareness. Communication plays a critical role in team cognition along with cognitive factors such as attention, memory, and decision-making speed. Mood and stress are known to have interrelated effects on cognition at the individual level, but there is relatively little joint exploration of these factors in team communication in technologically complex environments. Dyadic communication behaviors in a distributed six-person crisis management simulation were analyzed in a factorial design for effects of two levels of mood (happy, sad) and the presence or absence of a time pressure stressor. Time pressure and mood showed several specific impacts on communication behaviors. Communication quantity and efficiency increased under time pressure, though frequent requests for information were associated with poor performance. Teams in happy moods showed enhanced team awareness, as revealed by more anticipatory communication patterns and more detailed verbal responses to teammates than those in sad moods. Results show that the attention-narrowing effects of mood and stress associated with individual cognitive functions demonstrate analogous impacts on team awareness and information-sharing behaviors and reveal a richer understanding of how team dynamics change under adverse conditions. Disentangling stress from mood affords the opportunity to target more specific interventions that better support team awareness and task performance.

  3. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Kristina; Wieland, Mark L; Meiers, Sonja J; Mohamed, Ahmed A; Formea, Christine M; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Asiedu, Gladys B; Boyum, Ginny; Weis, Jennifer A; Nigon, Julie A; Patten, Christi A; Sia, Irene G

    2014-05-16

    Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., 'junk food is bad'). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating ('Meanings;' 'Motivations;' 'Knowledge Sources'), Eating Practices ('Family Practices;' 'Americanized Eating Practices' 'Eating What's Easy'), Barriers ('Taste and Cravings;' 'Easy Access to Junk Food;' 'Role of Family;' Cultural Foods and Traditions;' 'Time;' 'Finances'), and Preferences for Intervention ('Family Counseling;' Community Education;' and 'Healthier Traditional Meals.'). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Our study demonstrates how personal, structural, and societal/cultural factors influence meanings of food and dietary

  4. Mood disorder history and personality assessment in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D G; Bond, A J; Wingrove, J

    2001-09-01

    Menstrually related dysphoria is known to be associated with other affective disorders, notably major depressive disorder and puerperal depression. The relationship between premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and maladaptive personality disorders and traits, however, is less established, at least in part because of the methodological and nosologic difficulties in the diagnosis of both PMDD and personality disorders. This study seeks to address this problem to elucidate the relationship between PMDD, other affective disturbances commonly experienced by women, and maladaptive personality. Axis I and II disorders were examined using standardized instruments and stringent diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination) in 34 women with DSM-IV PMDD and 22 healthy women without severe premenstrual mood changes. Seventy-seven percent of the PMDD group had suffered from a past Axis I disorder in comparison with 17% of the control group. Two thirds of the parous women with PMDD had suffered from major depressive disorder in the puerperium. Personality disorder diagnoses were not highly represented in either group of women. The women with PMDD had significantly more obsessional personality traits (p personality disorder diagnoses. Obsessional symptoms are known to cluster with the affective disorders and may reflect underlying temperamental and biological vulnerability. This study provides further evidence of the link between serotonergic dysregulation, personality vulnerability, and mood changes related to the female reproductive cycle.

  5. Parkinson's disease motor subtypes and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, David J; Landau, Sabine; Hindle, John V; Samuel, Michael; Wilson, Kenneth C; Hurt, Catherine S; Brown, Richard G

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is heterogeneous, both in terms of motor symptoms and mood. Identifying associations between phenotypic variants of motor and mood subtypes may provide clues to understand mechanisms underlying mood disorder and symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A total of 513 patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and separately classified into anxious, depressed, and anxious-depressed mood classes based on latent class analysis of a semistructured interview. Motor subtypes assessed related to age-of-onset, rate of progression, presence of motor fluctuations, lateralization of motor symptoms, tremor dominance, and the presence of postural instability and gait symptoms and falls. The directions of observed associations tended to support previous findings with the exception of lateralization of symptoms, for which there were no consistent or significant results. Regression models examining a range of motor subtypes together indicated increased risk of anxiety in patients with younger age-of-onset and motor fluctuations. In contrast, depression was most strongly related to axial motor symptoms. Different risk factors were observed for depressed patients with and without anxiety, suggesting heterogeneity within Parkinson's disease depression. Such association data may suggest possible underlying common risk factors for motor subtype and mood. Combined with convergent evidence from other sources, possible mechanisms may include cholinergic system damage and white matter changes contributing to non-anxious depression in Parkinson's disease, while situational factors related to threat and unpredictability may contribute to the exacerbation and maintenance of anxiety in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. The effects of nutrients on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Donohoe, R T

    1999-09-01

    A recent major theory was that a meal high in carbohydrate increased the rate that tryptophan enters the brain, leading to an increase in the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin that modulates mood. Although such a mechanism may be important under laboratory conditions it is unlikely to be of significance following the eating of any typical meal. As little as 2-4% of the calories of a meal as protein will prevent an increased availability of tryptophan. Arguably the food with the greatest impact on mood is chocolate. Those who crave chocolate tend to do so when they feel emotionally low. There have been a series of suggestions that chocolate's mood elevating properties reflect 'drug-like' constituents including anandamines, caffeine, phenylethylamine and magnesium. However, the levels of these substances are so low as to preclude such influences. As all palatable foods stimulate endorphin release in the brain this is the most likely mechanism to account for the elevation of mood. A deficiency of many vitamins is associated with psychological symptoms. In some elderly patients folate deficiency is associated with depression. In four double-blind studies an improvement in thiamine status was associated with improved mood. Iron deficiency anaemia is common, particularly in women, and is associated with apathy, depression and rapid fatigue when exercising.

  7. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p mood disturbance (p 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss.

  8. Bad cholesterol and good mood: exploring the link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that high cholesterol increases the risks of heart disease. Hence, physicians actively encourage cholesterol-lowering interventions using medications and lifestyle modifications. However, there is considerable evidence that aggressive lowering of cholesterol is associated with depression, bipolar disorders, violent behaviour, and suicidal ideation. It has been hypothesised that low cholesterol leads to low levels of serotonin, a chemical that is responsible for maintaining mood balance. South Korea and India have highest number of suicides in Asia. It is a significant challenge for physicians to search an alternative that will not only maintain healthy level of cholesterol, but also contribute to psychological well-being of the patient. Generally, the role of diet and physical activity is considered secondary to medications. However, dietary supplements like coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, and physical activity like Yoga are extremely beneficial for improving lipid profile and symptoms of depression.

  9. ARRANGEMENT OF LAW BY STATE FINANCIAL AUTHORITY IN REALIZING NATIONAL BANKING INDUSTRY THAT’S HEALTHY AND DYNAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammar Arafat Yusmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available he development of national banking nowadays are growing fast, competitive and integrative. One problem of Indonesian banking system related with practicing law arrangement which is a harmonization process toward legislations. The focus problems are: law arrangement in banking governance, the procedure of the law arrangement in achieving national bank industry which are healthy and dynamic. As intermediary institutions, bank should be in a healthy condition in order to gain public confidence and deserve to increase national economic growth. Based on the conceptual discussion, obtained arguments are: (1 The law arrangement of national banking should be done coodinately between Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK and Bank Indonesia (BI; (2 Procedure of law arrangement according to the function and authority of OJK and BI which the urgent subjects are to avoid conflict of norm, overlapping policies and limited validity of norm of the law case which happen and will be happen; (3 banking law arrangement include bank arrangement and supervision system, strengthening internal condition of the bank, empowering and protecting consumer with complaints mechanism and follow-up which are clear and measurable.

  10. Validity of the Italian telephone version of the mini-mental state examination in the elderly healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, Nicola; De Carolis, Antonella; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Bomboi, Giuseppe; Stazi, Antonia; Bianchetti, Angelo; Giubilei, Franco

    2006-09-01

    The biggest challenge regarding cognitive prospective evaluations in the elderly is the identification of subjects that go on to develop cognitive impairment. In this study, we compared the Italian telephone version of the MMSE (Itel-MMSE) with both the MMSE and a battery of neuropsychological tests in a group of 107 healthy elderly subjects. The aim of the study was to identify a subset of subjects who, despite having an overall score within the normal range, performed poorly in the cognitive neuropsychological evaluation. The Itel-MMSE score showed a good internal consistency as well as a significant correlation with the MMSE score, age and education. A score of < or = 21 on the Itel-MMSE was the score which reflected the highest degree of sensitivity in the neuropsychological tests. There was a statistically significant difference between subjects with an Itel-MMSE score of < or = 21 and those with a score of 22 in age, education, Attentional Matrices and Copying Drawings. Despite some potential limitations, our results strongly suggest that the Itel-MMSE may be used as a screening test to identify healthy elderly subjects whose cognitive performance is poor.

  11. Modifications in resting state functional anticorrelation between default mode network and dorsal attention network: comparison among young adults, healthy elders and mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Roberto; Cieri, Filippo; Chiacchiaretta, Piero; Cera, Nicoletta; Lauriola, Mariella; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Tartaro, Armando; Ferretti, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Resting state brain activity incorporates different components, including the Default Mode Network and the Dorsal Attention Network, also known as task-negative network and task-positive network respectively. These two networks typically show an anticorrelated activity during both spontaneous oscillations and task execution. However modifications of this anticorrelated activity pattern with age and pathology are still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in resting state Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network functional anticorrelation among young adults, healthy elders and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients. We retrospectively enrolled in this study 27 healthy young adults (age range: 25-35 y.o.; mean age: 28,5), 26 healthy elders (age range: 61-72 y.o.; mean age: 65,1) and 17 MCI patients (age range 64-87 y.o.; mean age: 73,6). Mild Cognitive Impairment patients were selected following Petersen criteria. All participants underwent neuropsychological evaluation and resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spontaneous anticorrelated activity between Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network was observed in each group. This anticorrelation was significantly decreased with age in most Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network connections (p Default Mode Network and the right inferior parietal sulcus node of the Dorsal Attention Network was significantly decreased when comparing Mild Cognitive Impairment with normal elders (p Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network is part of the normal aging process and that Mild Cognitive Impairment status is associated with more evident inter-networks functional connectivity changes.

  12. Increased Set Shifting Costs in Fasted Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Heather M.; Burgess, Paul W.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Serpell, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of temporary food restriction on a set shifting task requiring participants to judge clusters of pictures against a frequently changing rule. 60 healthy female participants underwent two testing sessions: once after fasting for 16 hours and once in a satiated state. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]; Persistence, Perseveration and Perfectionism Questionnaire [PPPQ-22]; and Eating Disorders Examinatio