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Sample records for healthy males impact

  1. Evaluation of Acute Exogenous Hypoxia Impact on the Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Healthy Males

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    Dimov Peter K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exogenous hypoxia increases ventilation and contracts the pulmonary vessels. Whether those factors change the values of nitric oxide in exhaled air has not yet been evaluated. Objective: To examine the effect of exogenous normobaric hypoxia on the values of the fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO. Subjects аnd Methods: Twenty healthy non-smoker males at mean age of 25.4 (SD = 3.7 were tested. The basal FeNO values were compared with those at 7 min. and 15 min. after introducing into the hypoxic environment (hypoxic tent, imitating atmospheric air with oxygen concentration corresponding to 3200 m above sea level. Exhaled breath temperature was measured at baseline and at 10-12 min. of the hypoxic exposition. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were registered by pulse-oximetry. Results: All the subjects had FeNO values in the reference range. The mean baseline value was 14.0 ± 3.2 ppb, and in hypoxic conditions - 15.5 ± 3.8 ppb (7 min. and 15.3 ± 3.6 ppb (15 min., respectively, as the elevation is statistically significant (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008. The values of exhaled breath temperature were 33.79 ± 1.55°С and 33.87 ± 1.83°С (p = 0.70 at baseline and in hypoxic conditions, respectively. Baseline oxygen saturation in all subjects was higher than that, measured in hypoxia (96.93 ± 1.29% vs. 94.27 ± 2.53%; p < 0.001. Conclusions: Exogenous hypoxia leads to an increase of FeNO values, but does not affect the exhaled breath temperature.

  2. The impact of dopamine on aggression: an [18F]-FDOPA PET Study in healthy males.

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    Schlüter, Thorben; Winz, Oliver; Henkel, Karsten; Prinz, Susanne; Rademacher, Lena; Schmaljohann, Jörn; Dautzenberg, Kai; Cumming, Paul; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Rex, Steffen; Mottaghy, Felix M; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2013-10-23

    Cerebral dopamine (DA) transmission is thought to be an important modulator for the development and occurrence of aggressive behavior. However, the link between aggression and DA transmission in humans has not been investigated using molecular imaging and standardized behavioral tasks. We investigated aggression as a function of DA transmission in a group of (N = 21) healthy male volunteers undergoing 6-[18F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA)-positron emission tomography (PET) and a modified version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). This task measures aggressive behavior during a monetary reward-related paradigm, where a putative adversary habitually tries to cheat. The participant can react in three ways (i.e., money substraction of the putative opponent [aggressive punishment], pressing a defense button, or continuing his money-making behavior). FDOPA-PET was analyzed using a steady-state model yielding estimates of the DA-synthesis capacity (K), the turnover of tracer DA formed in living brain (kloss), and the tracer distribution volume (Vd), which is an index of DA storage capacity. Significant negative correlations between PSAP aggressive responses and the DA-synthesis capacity were present in several regions, most prominently in the midbrain (r = -0.640; p = 0.002). Lower degrees of aggressive responses were associated with higher DA storage capacity in the striatum and midbrain. Additionally, there was a significant positive correlation between the investment into monetary incentive responses on the PSAP and DA-synthesis capacity, notably in the midbrain (r = +0.618, p = 0.003). The results suggest that individuals with low DA transmission capacity are more vulnerable to reactive/impulsive aggression in response to provocation.

  3. Cardiac repolarization during hypoglycaemia and hypoxaemia in healthy males: impact of renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Andersen, Rikke; Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Activity in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may influence the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. To study the effect of basal RAS activity on cardiac repolarization during myocardial stress induced by hypoglycaemia or hypoxaemia in healthy humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten subjects...

  4. Single whole-body cryostimulation procedure versus single dry sauna bath: comparison of oxidative impact on healthy male volunteers.

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    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Rajewski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS) and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC) environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n = 10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years) and a single WBC procedure (n = 15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years). In the subjects' blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer) and blood plasma (TBARSpl) were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  5. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  6. Impact of oral iron challenges on circulating non-transferrin-bound iron in healthy Guatemalan males.

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    Schümann, Klaus; Kroll, Sylvia; Romero-Abal, Maria-Eugenia; Georgiou, Niki A; Marx, Jo J M; Weiss, Günter; Solomons, Noel W

    2012-01-01

    Oral iron as a supplement has been associated with adverse health consequences, especially in the context of young children with active malaria. A potential aggravating role of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) has been proposed. NTBI responses in both a fasting and post-oral iron dosing situation were related to serum iron concentration and ferritin status. Fasting and 1, 2, and 3 h postdose serum samples were obtained in conjunction with oral ferrous sulfate supplementation in aqueous solution of 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg Fe in a cohort of 8 healthy Guatemalan men over a 9-week metabolic protocol. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent transferrin saturation, serum iron and NTBI were all measured. Circulating levels of serum iron and NTBI increased in a graded fashion in response to oral iron, with the relative increment for NTBI slightly greater than that of iron. Detectable NTBI was occasionally measured in fasting specimens, more frequently in subjects with high ferritin status. Post-iron NTBI responses, by contrast, were higher in normal-ferritin subjects in absolute terms, and rose with increasing postabsorptive serum iron responses. The appearance and response of circulating NTBI were consistent with recognized principles of iron regulation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first...

  8. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  9. Exsanguination of lower limbs in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lars; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2002-01-01

    Gamma camera technique was used to assess the effectiveness of various exsanguination methods in 12 healthy male volunteers given an autologous injection of 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes. The methods used included elevation alone, Esmarch bandage, gauze bandage, and the Pomidor roll-cuff. The median...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects.

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    Liu, Man; Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yanan; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects. After a single oral dose of 2-mg terazosin, the plasma concentrations of terazosin enantiomers were measured over the course of 48 h in 12 healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of (+)-(R)-terazosin at all time points were higher than those of (-)-(S)-terazosin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞) ) and maximum plasma concentration of (+)-(R)-terazosin were significantly greater than those of the (-)-(S)-terazosin (P < 0.01, respectively). The R/S ratio of AUC(0-∞) of terazosin was 1.68. For the first time, it was proven that the pharmacokinetics of terazosin was stereoselective in healthy Chinese male subjects.

  11. Exsanguination of lower limbs in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lars; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2002-01-01

    Gamma camera technique was used to assess the effectiveness of various exsanguination methods in 12 healthy male volunteers given an autologous injection of 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes. The methods used included elevation alone, Esmarch bandage, gauze bandage, and the Pomidor roll-cuff. The median......%, 10 minutes 44%, Esmarch bandage 64%, gauze bandage 62%, and Pomidor roll-cuff 61%. No statistically significant differences were found between the elevation procedures. The external methods were more effective than elevation alone (p

  12. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  13. Bioequivalence Study of Donepezil Hydrochloride Tablets in Healthy Male Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean; Sukit Roongapinun; Nutthiya Hanprasertpong; Siriluk Aunmuang; Noppamas Rojanasthien

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bioequivalence of two formulations of 5 mg donepezil HCL tablets: Tonizep as the test and Aricept as the reference. The two products were administered as a single oral dose according to a randomized two-phase crossover with a 3-week washout period in 20 healthy Thai Male volunteers. After drug administration, serial blood samples were collected over a period of 216 hours. Plasma donepezil concentrations were measured by high performance liqui...

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

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    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  15. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  16. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

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    Mark L. Niebylski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed.

  17. Safety of a New Compact Male Intermittent Catheter: Randomized, Cross-Over, Single-Blind Study in Healthy Male Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Hannibalsen, Jane; Permild, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A new compact male intermittent catheter was compared with a regular intermittent male catheter in terms of safety and acceptability. Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, cross-over study, healthy male volunteers were catheterized twice with a compact catheter and twice with a...

  18. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  19. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male

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    Jason D. Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  20. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D; Eng, Katisha D; Bialowas, Todd A; Devita, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  1. Polysomnographic correlates of inflammatory complement components in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Ejaz; Golam Sarwar, Abu Hasnath M; Alam, Mohd Shoeb; Noohu, Majumi M; Zannat, Wassilatul; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Manzar, Md Dilshad

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has delineated the predominant role of humoral mediators of inflammation in linking sleep with immunity. Nonetheless, characterization of the relationship between complement components with inflammatory functions and objective sleep measures has not been performed. In this study we investigated the relationships between objective measures of sleep and complement components with inflammatory functions. Thirty-six healthy male university students (age, 23.94±4.23 years; BMI, 23.44±2.67 kg/m(2)) completed the study. An RMS Quest 32 polysomnograph (PSG) was used for sleep recording. Non-fasting blood was collected before subjects went to bed on the second night in the sleep laboratory to estimate complement component 3 (C-3), complement component 4 (C-4), complement factor-H (Factor-H), C1-inhibitor (C1INH), complement factor I (CFI) and other inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and sICAM-1. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between PSG sleep measures and inflammatory mediators. Higher values of C-3 and lower values of sICAM-1, C1INH, and CFI (adjusted model, R2=0.211, ppro-inflammatory complement components and decreased anti-inflammatory complement components.

  2. BIOAVAILABILITY AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF ANASTROZOLE IN HEALTHY MALE VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安富荣; 崔岚; 刘晓琰; 王平全; 祝德秋; 曹惠明

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of domestic and imported anastrozole tablets. Methods Twenty Chinese healthy male volunteers were enrolled in a randomized crossover study with a single oral dose of 2mg of the two formulations respectively. The anastrozole in plasma was measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. The linear range was 1. 325 ~ 106ng /ml plasma. The extraction recovery rates for plasma concentration of 5.3, 21.2 and 53. Ong/ml were 76.8% ,87.0% and 78.7%, respectively. Inter-day and intra-day precisions of the method were < 9%. Area under concentration-time curve ( AUCo t) , maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and reach peak time (Tmax) were evaluated by variance analysis and two one-side t-test . Results A two-compartment model was adopted in anastrozole plasma concentration-time data analysis. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of domestic and imported anastrozloe tablets such as Cmax , Tmax, AUCo - t and T1/2β were (36.5 ± 6.9)ng/ml and (35.6 ± 9.4)ng/ml, (1.56-±0.41)hand(1.53 ±0.49)h, (1403.6 ± 321.2)ng'h/mland (1371.6±329.4)ng'h/mi, (42.57 ± 10.15)h and (43.41 ± 8.59)h, respectively, and there were no significant differences between the two formulations. Conclusion Domestic and imported anastrozole tablets were of bioequivalence.The relative bioavailability of the domestic tablet was (102.7 ± 5.6)%.

  3. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

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    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior.

  4. Higher platelet P-selectin in male patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Patrik F(a)gerstam; Per A Whiss

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe if the total amount of platelet P-selectin (tP-selectin) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was related to disease entity or activity, 5-ami-nosalicylic acid (5-ASA) medication or gender.METHODS: tP-selectin was measured by immunoassay in seventeen IBD patients and twelve healthy controls.RESULTS: Compared to controls, there was no difference of tP-selectin in patients related to disease entity or activity and 5-ASA medication. When the groups were split according to gender the male patient group showed higher levels of tP-selectin compared to male controls (153 ng/mL vs 94 ng/mL, P< 0.05).CONCLUSION: Increased tP-selectin levels may alter the inflammatory response and susceptibility to throm-boembolic disease. As previously shown with soluble P-selectin, tP-selectin shows gender dependent differences important to consider in future studies.

  5. A randomised phase 1 study to investigate safety, pharmacokinetics and impact on gut microbiota following single and multiple oral doses in healthy male subjects of SMT19969, a novel agent for Clostridium difficile infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Richard; Robinson, Neil; Best, Emma; Echols, Roger; Tillotson, Glenn; Wilcox, Mark

    2015-02-25

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of diarrhoea in health care settings with symptoms ranging from mild and self-limiting to life threatening. SMT19969 is a novel, non-absorbable antibiotic currently under development for the treatment of CDI. Here we report the results from a Phase I study. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study assessing safety and tolerability of single and multiple oral doses of SMT19969 in healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetic assessments included blood and faecal sampling. The effect of food on systemic exposure and analysis of the gut microbiota were also included. Fifty-six healthy male subjects were enrolled. Following single oral doses of up to 2,000 mg in the fasted state, plasma concentrations of SMT19969 were generally below the lower limit of quantification. In the fed state levels ranged from 0.102 to 0.296 ng/mL after single dosing and after repeat dosing at Day 10 from 0.105 to 0.305 ng/mL. Following single and multiple oral doses of SMT19969, mean daily faecal concentrations increased with increasing dose level and were significantly above the typical MIC range for C. difficile (0.06-0.5 μg/mL). At 200 mg BID, mean (± SD) faecal concentrations of 1,466 (±547) μg/g and 1,364 (±446) μg/g were determined on days 5 and 10 of dosing respectively. No notable metabolites were detected in faeces. Overall, all doses of SMT19969 were well tolerated both as single oral doses or BID oral doses for 10 days. The majority (88%) of adverse events (AEs) were classified as gastrointestinal disorders and were mild in severity, resolving without treatment. The gut microbiota was analysed in the multiple dose groups with minimal changes observed in the bacterial groups analysed except for total clostridia which were reduced to below the limit of detection by day 4 of dosing. Oral administration of SMT19969 was considered safe and well tolerated and was associated with negligible plasma concentrations after

  6. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  7. [Primary psoas abscess in a young healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, D.; Galbo, H.; Skovsgaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    A young male saw his general practitioner because of lower back pain, limpness, nightly sweating, subfebrilia, and weight loss. Further diagnostics showed that he had a primary psoas abscess. Psoas abscesses are categorized as primary and secondary. Primary psoas abscess is a rare disease in Europe...

  8. Effects of chicken essence on recovery from mental fatigue in healthy males

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamano, Emi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Abe, Keiichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    .... In this placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive daily oral administration of essence of chicken or placebo drink provided by Cerebos Pacific Ltd...

  9. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes......BACKGROUND: To examine whether time of the day has an effect on the circulating levels of metabolism parameters. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained under standardized conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours. The metabolic markers and melatonin were examined...

  10. Markedly blunted metabolic effects of fructose in healthy young female subjects compared with male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchepin, Caroline; Lê, Kim-Anne; Bortolotti, Murielle; da Encarnaçao, Joana Amarante; Oboni, Jean-Baptiste; Tran, Christel; Schneiter, Philippe; Tappy, Luc

    2008-06-01

    To compare the metabolic effects of fructose in healthy male and female subjects. Fasting metabolic profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by means of a hyperglycemic clamp in 16 healthy young male and female subjects after a 6-day fructose overfeeding. Fructose overfeeding increased fasting triglyceride concentrations by 71 vs. 16% in male vs. female subjects, respectively (P glucose production was increased by 12%, alanine aminotransferase concentration was increased by 38%, and fasting insulin concentrations were increased by 14% after fructose overfeeding in male subjects (all P fructose in male but not in female subjects. Short-term fructose overfeeding produces hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic insulin resistance in men, but these effects are markedly blunted in healthy young women.

  11. Healthy public policy--is health impact assessment the cornerstone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, O; Higgins, C

    2009-04-01

    The 8th International Health Impact Assessment Conference, entitled 'Healthy public policy--is health impact assessment the cornerstone?', was hosted by the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH). At the event, IPH sponsored a keynote speech to set the context of the conference and outline the importance of healthy public policy. This article presents an overview of healthy public policy and the barriers to its adoption in policy-making. Health impact assessment is one such tool to overcome the barriers, and the authors recommend the methodology as the cornerstone to healthy public policy.

  12. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls.

  13. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  14. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  15. Impact of the China Healthy Cities Initiative on Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dahai; Ruan, Shiman; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Weiming; Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Meng, Qingyue

    2016-12-28

    The China Healthy Cities initiative, a nationwide public health campaign, has been implemented for 25 years. As "Healthy China 2030" becomes the key national strategy for improving population health, this initiative is an important component. However, the effects of the initiative have not been well studied. This paper aims to explore its impact on urban environment using a multiple time series design. We adopted a stratified and systematic sampling method to choose 15 China healthy cities across the country. For the selected healthy cities, 1:1 matched non-healthy cities were selected as the comparison group. We collected longitudinal data from 5 years before cities achieved the healthy city title up to 2012. We used hierarchical models to calculate difference-in-differences estimates for examining the impact of the initiative. We found that the China Healthy Cities initiative was associated with increases in the proportion of urban domestic sewage treated (32 percentage points), the proportion of urban domestic garbage treated (30 percentage points), and the proportion of qualified farmers' markets (40 percentage points), all of which are statistically significant (P Healthy Cities initiative was associated with significant improved urban environment in terms of infrastructure construction, yet had little impact on green space and air quality.

  16. Vitamin D Status and Quality of Life in Healthy Male High-Tech Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Tepper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25–65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and Body Mass Index (BMI were measured; further information was collected about physical activity, education, sun exposure, sick-days, and musculoskeletal pain severity (visual analog scale. Three hundred and fifty-eight men were enrolled in the study; mean serum 25(OHD level was 22.1 ± 7.9 ng/mL (range 4.6–54.5 ng/mL. In a multivariate logistic regression model, 25(OHD was a significant independent determinant of self-rated health; Odds Ratio (OR for self-rated health was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.85–0.97, p = 0.004, adjusted for age, BMI, pain severity, physical activity, and sun exposure. Every 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OHD was associated with 9% reduction in the odds of reporting self-rated health as fair or poor. Poisson regression model demonstrated an association between physically unhealthy days and 25(OHD levels (rate ratio 0.95, p < 0.001. In conclusion, serum levels of 25(OHD were associated with self-rated health and with physically unhealthy days of HRQOL in healthy high-tech male workers. Future intervention studies are required to test the impact of vitamin D supplementation on QoL.

  17. The relation between serum leptin levels and max VO2 in male patients with type I diabetes and healthy sedentary males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Unal, Durisehvar Ozer; Salman, Fatih; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2004-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating leptin levels in male diabetes type I patients who were on insulin treatment and also healthy sedentary males. The study included 10 male type I diabetes patients and 17 healthy sedentary males. Leptin levels of type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males with body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2 were evaluated separately. The relation between serum leptin, max VO2, blood lactic acid levels before and after exercise, and effort durations of participants were investigated. At the end of the tests, no difference was found between leptin levels, max VO2 values, lactic acid values before exercise, and test durations of male type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males (p > .05), whereas lactic acid levels after exercise were found to be lower in healthy sedentary males (p max VO2 values and test durations were higher in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .05). In conclusion, leptin levels of male type I diabetes patients are close to those of healthy sedentary males. The increase in leptin levels in both groups is in proportion to the BMI of individuals.

  18. Impact of 9 days of bed rest on hepatic and peripheral insulin action, insulin secretion, and whole-body lipolysis in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, Amra C; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of 9 days of bed rest on insulin secretion, insulin action, and whole-body glucose and fat metabolism in first-degree relative (FDR) and matched control (CON) subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 13 FDR and 20 CON subjects...... deteriorates with 9 days of bed rest, converging toward similar degrees of whole-body insulin resistance. FDR subjects exhibit hepatic insulin resistance (HIR), which, in contrast to CON subjects, deteriorates in response to physical inactivity. FDR subjects exhibit reduced insulin secretion when seen...

  19. The impact of pesticides on male fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, N.; Bretveld, R.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Observations in several Western countries point toward a decline in semen quality which may be associated with exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors such as several frequently used pesticides. The scarce literature on the effects of pesticides on male fertility will be re

  20. Impact of doulas on healthy birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Kenneth J; Cupito, Susan H; Dobson, Christina F

    2013-01-01

    Birth outcomes of two groups of socially disadvantaged mothers at risk for adverse birth outcomes, one receiving prebirth assistance from a certified doula and the other representing a sample of birthing mothers who elected to not work with a doula, were compared. All of the mothers were participants in a prenatal health and childbirth education program. Expectant mothers matched with a doula had better birth outcomes. Doula-assisted mothers were four times less likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) baby, two times less likely to experience a birth complication involving themselves or their baby, and significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Communication with and encouragement from a doula throughout the pregnancy may have increased the mother's self-efficacy regarding her ability to impact her own pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Effect of Preexercise Creatine Ingestion on Muscle Performance in Healthy Aging Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Taylor P; Candow, Darren G; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Preexercise creatine supplementation may have a beneficial effect on aging muscle performance. Using a double-blind, repeated measures, crossover design, healthy males (N = 9, 54.8 ± 4.3 years; 92.9 ± 11.5 kg; 179.2 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to consume creatine (20 g) and placebo (20 g corn starch maltodextrin), on 2 separate occasions (7 days apart), 3 hours before performing leg press and chest press repetitions to muscle fatigue (3 sets at 70% 1-repetition maximum; 1 minute rest between sets). There was a set main effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the leg press and chest press with the number of repetitions performed decreasing similarly for creatine and placebo. These results suggest that a bolus ingestion of creatine consumed 3 hours before resistance exercise has no effect on upper or lower-body muscle performance in healthy aging males.

  2. Lognormal Distribution of Some Physiological Responses in Young Healthy Indian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Verma

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of statistical distribution of physiological responses is of fundamental importance for better statistical interpretation of physiological phenomenon. In this paper, statistical distribution of three important physiological responses viz., maximal aerobic power (VO2 max, maximal heart rate (HR max and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV in young healthy Indian males of age ranging from 19 to 22 years have been worked out. It is concluded that these three important physiological responses follow the lognormal distribution.

  3. Effect of tamsulosin on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride in Chinese male healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafang; Yang, Jiansong; Zhao, Hongxin; Fossler, Michael J; Wang, Chunrong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin (0.2 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride (0.5 mg) in a group of healthy Chinese male volunteers. This was an open-label, single-sequence, 3-period, drug-drug interaction phase 1 study. Twenty-four healthy Chinese male volunteers were enrolled and administered a single dose of 0.5 mg dutasteride and, following a 28- to 30-day washout period, 0.2 mg tamsulosin once daily for 7 days. On day 5, subjects received 0.2 mg tamsulosin coadministered with 0.5 mg dutasteride. Serum dutasteride and tamsulosin concentrations were monitored. In the presence or absence of tamsulosin, there were no apparent changes in dutasteride AUC and Cmax . Adverse events reported were mild to moderate in intensity and resolved by the end of the study. In healthy Chinese male volunteers, tamsulosin 0.2 mg at steady state had no apparent effect on dutasteride pharmacokinetics. Dutasteride and tamsulosin when administered alone or in combination were well tolerated.

  4. Integration of Environmental Impact Assesment in Healthy Trolley Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of green customer in the last few periods, indicate that the environmental performance of a product has become the main attributes, not just as a complement attributes to the customers. This condition encourages every industry to assess the environmental impact of the products that being marketed. Healthy trolley is a product innovation of shopping trolley that being developed using reverse engineering methods. This study aims to analyze the environmental impact of Healthy Trolley to provide an alternative product design improvements based on sustainable products concept. The method used is life cycle assessment that consist of several stages i.e., goals and scoping, inventory analysis, impact assessment and improvement analysis. Based on the results, products waste in the end of use gives the biggest negative impact on the environment and humans. The environmental impact of products derived from the constituent materials such as iron (Fe, lead (Pb and sulfuric acid (SO4. So the alternative Healthy Trolley design improvements are replacing the drive system into manual in order to eliminate the environmental impact from waste of material lead (Pb and sulfuric acid (SO4.

  5. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  6. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  7. The effects of morphine and methylnaltrexone on gastrointestinal pain in healthy male participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokjaer, A; Olesen, A E; Christrup, Lona Louring;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioid antagonists are increasingly used to abolish the gastrointestinal side effects of opioids. However, they can potentially interfere with local analgesia exerted via opioid receptors in the gut. Thus, in the current study we aimed to explore the effect of rectal morphine before...... and after blocking opioid receptors outside the central nervous system with methylnaltrexone (MNTX). METHODS: In this randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study 15 healthy male participants received the following drugs at three separate sessions: (i) placebo, (ii) 30 mg morphine administered per...

  8. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    was to assess and compare gut hormone response and satiety changes after a liquid meal intake in young, healthy T and UT males. Postprandial gut hormone release and subjective feelings of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed before and frequently for the following 3 h after...... concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial...

  9. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulatio...

  10. Changes in hematological indices and lymphocyte subsets in response to whole blood donation in healthy male donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borai, Anwar; Livingstone, Callum; Alsobhi, Enaam; Al Sofyani, Abeer; Balgoon, Dalal; Farzal, Anwar; Almohammadi, Mohammed; Al-Amri, Abdulafattah; Bahijri, Suhad; Alrowaili, Daad; Bassiuni, Wafaa; Saleh, Ayman; Alrowaili, Norah; Abdelaal, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Whole blood donation has immunomodulatory effects, and most of these have been observed at short intervals following blood donation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of whole blood donation on lymphocyte subsets over a typical inter-donation interval. Healthy male subjects were recruited to study changes in complete blood count (CBC) (n = 42) and lymphocyte subsets (n = 16) before and at four intervals up to 106 days following blood donation. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables between different visits. Following blood donation, changes in CBC and erythropoietin were as expected. The neutrophil count increased by 11.3% at 8 days (p donation, there are transient changes in lymphocyte subsets. The effect of BMI on lymphocyte subsets and the effect of this immunomodulation on the immune response merit further investigation.

  11. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  12. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  13. Therapeutic effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzadi, Andleeb; Javed, Ijaz; Aslam, Bilal; Muhammad, Faqir; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme inducer) medicine which is used by epileptic patients for a long time. During the course of therapy, patients are generally caught by other diseases like urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection etc. To cure them, physicians commonly prescribe fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (CYP1A2 inhibitor) along with Carbamazepine (CBZ). Interactions may result without recognition which may lead to unforeseen toxicity, untoward effects or even therapeutic failure. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate the effect of Ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in healthy adult male volunteers. The main objective of this study was to generate new knowledge regarding CBZ and ciprofloxacin interaction for physicians and research workers dealing with these medicines. Eight healthy adult male volunteers were selected to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine. After overnight fast the selected male volunteers were given CBZ orally. Blood samples were drawn at different time intervals after medication. Then the same volunteers were given CBZ along with ciprofloxacin. Blood samples were again drawn at the same time intervals as done previously. Plasma was separated from the blood samples. Concentration of CBZ in the plasma samples was determined by using HPLC technique. Results of the present study indicated that ciprofloxacin significantly increased the plasma concentration of CBZ when given concurrently to the healthy adult male volunteers. Ciprofloxacin increased Cmax, AUC and t½ while it decreased the CL and Vd of CBZ when administered concurrently to the adult volunteers. Change in pharmacokinetic parameters was due to slow metabolism or elimination of CBZ when given concurrently with ciprofloxacin to the adult volunteers. This is probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 isoenzyme by ciprofloxacin which is responsible for

  14. Cortisol secretion after adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in healthy female and male dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Victor

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the conclusive diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome, a stimulating ACTH test or a low suppressive Dexamethasone test is used. Reports in other species than the dog indicate that plasma cortisol concentration after ACTH administration is affected by gender. We investigated the effect of gender on the cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in dogs. Methods Seven healthy adult Cocker Spaniels (4 females and 3 males were assigned to a two by two factorial design: 4 dogs (2 females and 2 males received IV Dexamethasone 0.01 mg/kg, while the other 3 dogs received an IV saline solution (control group. Two weeks later the treatments were reversed. After one month, ACTH was given IV (250 μg/animal to 4 dogs (2 female and 2 males while the rest was treated with saline solution (control group. Cortisol concentrations were determined by a direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and cholesterol and triglycerides by commercial kits. Results and Discussion No effect of treatment was observed in metabolite concentrations, but females presented higher cholesterol concentrations. ACTH-treated dogs showed an increase in cortisol levels in the first hour after sampling until 3 hours post injection. Cortisol concentrations in Dexamethasone-treated dogs decreased one hour post injection and remained low for 3 hours, thereafter cortisol concentrations increased. The increase in cortisol levels from one to two hours post ACTH injection was significantly higher in females than males. In Dexamethasone-treated males cortisol levels decreased one hour post injection up to 3 hours; in females the decrease was more pronounced and prolonged, up to 5 hours post injection. Conclusion We have demonstrated that cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone treatment in dogs differs according to sex.

  15. Impact of yoga on haemodynamic function in healthy medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, O; Richards, A; Asnani, M

    2011-03-01

    Yoga improves cardiovascular health in both healthy individuals and those with diagnosed heart disease. This study compares changes in some cardiovascular parameters before and after the practice of Yoga in healthy medical students. Sixty-four healthy medical students (57 females and 7 males), mean age 21.3 +/- 2.6 years, attending a Special Study Module 'Role of Dhyana Yoga in Stress Management', participated in this study. Systolic (SYS) and Diastolic (DIA) blood pressure, Heart Rate (HR), Stroke Volume (SV), Cardiac output (CO), Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR), Interbeat Interval (IBI), Left Ventricular Ejection Time (LVET), Arterial Compliance (Cwk) and Ascending Aorta Impedance (Zao) were measured before and after six weeks of yogic exercises. Various exercises included asanas (Postures), pranayama (Breathing), and dhyana (Meditation). Data were analyzed using Stata for Windows. Two-tailed paired t-test revealed that practice ofyoga caused significant increases in HR (p yoga for 6 weeks as compared to before yoga practice. No significant differences were, however observed in SYS, DIA, Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and LVET CONCLUSIONS: Practice of yoga even for a short period showed ability to improve most of the cardiovascular functions. Regular practice of yoga for a longer period may further improve these functions and possibly result in improved management of their daily stress.

  16. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during exercise following three months of endurance training in healthy overweight males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P

    2009-01-01

    Endurance training improves muscular and cardiovascular fitness, but the effect on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism remains unknown. We hypothesized that 3 mo of endurance training would reduce cerebral carbohydrate uptake with maintained cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Healthy...... overweight males were included in a randomized, controlled study (training: n = 10; control: n = 7). Arterial and internal jugular venous catheterization was used to determine concentration differences for oxygen, glucose, and lactate across the brain and the oxygen-carbohydrate index [molar uptake of oxygen...... with a lower plasma epinephrine concentration (P exercising at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (approximately 211 W). Before training, both OCI (3.9 +/- 0.9) and DeltaP(Mito)O(2) (-22 mmHg) decreased (P

  17. Mechanical compression during repeated sustained isometric muscle contractions and hyperemic recovery in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osada, Takuya; Mortensen, Stefan P; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated intramuscular pressure during a single forearm isometric muscle contraction may restrict muscle hyperemia. However, during repeated isometric exercise, it is unclear to what extent mechanical compression and muscle vasodilatation contribute to the magnitude and time course...... of beat-to-beat limb hemodynamics, due to alterations in leg vascular conductance (LVC). METHODS: In eight healthy male subjects, the time course of both beat-to-beat leg blood flow (LBF) and LVC in the femoral artery was determined between repeated 10-s isometric thigh muscle contractions and 10-s muscle...... (%). RESULTS: The exercise protocol was performed completely by all subjects (≤50 % MVC), seven subjects (≤70 % MVC), and two subjects (≤90 % MVC). During a 10-s isometric muscle contraction, the time course in both beat-to-beat LBF and LVC displayed a fitting curve with an exponential increase (P 

  18. Sonographic evaluation of spleen size and prevalence of accessory spleen in a healthy male Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Serter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that the measurement of splenic length in routine clinical practice is a very good indicator of actual splenic size. Knowledge of the normal range of spleen size in the population being examined is a prerequisite. Racial differences in splenic length could result in incorrect interpretation of splenic measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the range of spleen length in a young male Turkish population.Material and Methods: A total of 2179 volunteers, healthy men aged 17-42 years, from the annual Army Reserve Officer Training Corps training camp at Manisa were included in the study. Sonographic measurements of spleen length were performed on 2179 military personnel. Presence of accessory spleen was also determined. In addition, the height, weight, and age of each volunteer were recorded. Using linear regression analysis, the relation of spleen length and body height, weight and body mass index (BMI was evaluated. Additionally, the prevalence of accessory spleen detected on ultrasound was calculated.Results: The mean±SD height was 173,1±6,5 cm, mean weight 69,1±9,7 kg, and mean BMI 22,62±2,87. Mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. The length of the spleen was below 12,80 cm in 95% of the subjects. No statistically significant correlation (p<0.01 between spleen length and body height, weight and BMI was found. The prevalence of accessory spleen was determined as 2.5% on ultrasound screening.Conclusion: It was found that in healthy Turkish men, mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. This data should be taken into consideration when the diagnosis of splenomegaly is established in Turkish males.

  19. Diurnal and seasonal variation of the brain serotonin system in healthy male subjects.

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    Matheson, Granville J; Schain, Martin; Almeida, Rita; Lundberg, Johan; Cselényi, Zsolt; Borg, Jacqueline; Varrone, Andrea; Farde, Lars; Cervenka, Simon

    2015-05-15

    The mammalian circadian clock underlies both diurnal and seasonal changes in physiology, and its function is thought to be disturbed in both seasonal and non-seasonal depression. In humans, molecular imaging studies have reported seasonal changes in the serotonin system. Despite the role of the circadian clock in generating seasonal physiological changes, however, diurnal variation of serotonin receptors and transporters has never been directly studied in humans. We used positron emission tomography to examine diurnal and seasonal changes in the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter in two large cohorts of healthy male subjects, employing a cross-sectional design. In 56 subjects measured with [(11)C]WAY-100635, we observed diurnal increases in the availability of 5-HT1A receptors in the cortex. In 40 subjects measured with [(11)C]MADAM, a decrease in 5-HTT was observed in the midbrain across the day. We also found seasonal changes in the 5-HT1A receptor in serotonin projection regions, with higher availability on days with a longer duration of daylight. Our observation that serotonin receptor and transporter levels may change across the day in humans is corroborated by experimental research in rodents. These findings have important implications for understanding the relationship between the circadian and serotonin systems in both the healthy brain and in affective disorders, as well as for the design of future molecular imaging studies.

  20. Effect of sitting postures and shoulder position on the cervicocephalic kinesthesia in healthy young males.

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    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Information about head orientation, position, and movement with respect to the trunk relies on the visual, vestibular, extensive muscular, and articular proprioceptive system of the neck. Various factors can affect proprioception since it is the function of afferent integration, and tuning of muscular and articular receptors. Pain, muscle fatigue, and joint position have been shown to affect proprioceptive capacity. Thus, it can be speculated that changes in body posture can alter the neck proprioception. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of body posture on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in healthy subjects. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was measured by the kinesthetic sensibility test in healthy young adults while in (a) habitual slouched sitting position with arms hanging by the side (SS), (b) habitual slouched sitting position with arms unloaded (supported) (SS-AS), and (c) upright sitting position with arms hanging by the side (US) during maximum and 30 degree right, left rotations, flexion, and extension. Thirty healthy male adults (mean age 27.83; SD 3.41) volunteered for this study. The least mean error was found for the SS-AS position (0.48; SD 0.24), followed by SS (0.60; SD 0.43) and US (0.96; SD 0.71), respectively. For all test conditions, there was significant difference in mean absolute error while head repositioning from maximum and 30 degree rotation during SS and SS-AS positions (p affect the proprioception function of the neck. Supporting the upper extremities in such a way that their weight is unloaded, which leads to reduction in the tension between the neck and shoulder girdle, can improve cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The findings of this study can be implemented in people who have to do repeated arm and neck movements, by using ergonomically effective chairs with proper arm supports. This might help in prevention and treatment of neck pain.

  1. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

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    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  2. The Effects of Acute Arginine Vasopressin Administration on Social Cognition in Healthy Males

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    Amanda R. Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally similar neuropeptides and hormones oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP play significant and complex roles in modulating a range of social behaviours, including social recognition and bond formation. Although OT has well-known roles in facilitating prosocial behaviors and enhancing emotion recognition, AVP has received increasing interest for diverging effects on social cognition behaviour most notably in males. The current study aimed to determine whether AVP also modulates the ability to understand emotion. Using a randomised double blind procedure, 45 healthy young males received either an AVP or placebo nasal spray and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. In contrast to previous findings, there were no significant differences observed in performance on the RMET between AVP and placebo groups, even after examining items separated by task difficulty, emotional valence, and gender. This study provides diverging evidence from previous findings and adds to the growing body of research exploring the influence of neuropeptide hormones in social behaviour. It demonstrates that in this sample of participants, AVP does not enhance the ability to understand higher order emotion from others. Implications and suggestions for future AVP administration studies are discussed.

  3. Anthropometric study of male external genitalia of 320 healthy Nigerian adults.

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    Ajmani, M L; Jain, S P; Saxena, S K

    1985-06-01

    Five basic measurements of the male external genitalia were studied in 320 healthy male medical students belonging to the various parts of Nigeria (West Africa). Their ages range from 17 to 23 years. The measurements were as follows: average length of the penis (81.6 +/- 0.94 mm); circumference of the penis (88.3 +/- 0.02 mm); circumference of the scrotum (212.6 +/- 2.48 mm); length of right testis (46.8 +/- 0.54 mm); width of right testis (32.4 +/- 0.37 mm); length of left testis (46.0 +/- 0.53 mm); and width of left testis (31.4 +/- 0.36 mm). The size of the genitalia increases with the increase in age in younger year groups. The adult stages of genitalia development are reached at the age of 21 years in 89.0% of the individuals. The growth of the genitalia is continued with the increasing height and weight, but this growth slows down after attaining a definite height and weight.

  4. CLSI-Derived Hematology Reference Intervals for Healthy Males in Eastern India

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    Abhijit Banerjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Haematological reference ranges are often influenced by individual variables, such as race, age, gender and dietary habits. In addition, ecological factors such as climate and altitudemight affect the parameters, while variations in instrumentation techniques and laboratory personnel involved also contribute to the measurements. Therefore, the currently used reference ranges, which were originally adopted from other countries and mainly refer to European subjects, might be misleading in some cases. This study is an attempt to establish haematological reference ranges for male subjectsfrom Eastern India. Haematological tests, using an automated haematology analyzer, were carried out on 528blood samples from healthy male donors. The population was found to exhibit lowerhaemoglobin (HGB and platelet (PLT contents as compared to the standard reference values, although the difference was statistically significant only for the platelet count. Nevertheless, the digression from the international range of data was clinically significant, except for the white blood cells (WBC and red blood cells (RBC counts. Finally, the respective reference values for HGB, RBC and hematocrit (HCT were found to vary significantly with the age group of the subjects. It is expected that the study will facilitate the interpretation and reporting of haematological parameters in Eastern India.

  5. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

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    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

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    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  7. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

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    Xingze Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN, proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters.

  8. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

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    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans.

  9. One-year follow-up of penis and testis sizes of healthy Turkish male newborns.

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    Semiz, Serap; Küçüktaşçi, Kazim; Zencir, Mehmet; Sevinç, Ozgür

    2011-01-01

    Penile length, penile diameter and testicular volume at birth reflect the activity and normality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis. In this prospective longitudinal study, we aimed to measure penis and testicular size in healthy newborns at birth and 6 and 12 months of age. Seven hundred forty-six term healthy male newborns were enrolled in the study. According to measurements taken within 48 hours after birth, mean penile length (MPL) was 2.81 +/- 0.32 cm, mean penile diameter (MPD) 1.04 +/- 0.09 cm, right testicular volume (TV) 1.73 +/- 0.45 ml, and left TV 1.64 +/- 0.48 ml. At 6 months of age, MPL was 3.67 +/- 0.35 cm, MPD 1.23 +/- 0.08 cm, right TV 2.07 +/- 0.31 ml, and left TV 2.00 +/- 0.27 ml. At 12 months of age, MPL was 4.47 +/- 0.43 cm, MPD 1.25 +/- 0.09 cm, right TV 2.01 +/- 0.12 ml, and left TV 2.01 +/- 0.13 ml. There was a weak albeit statistically significant correlation between weight, length and PL at birth. In conclusion, the MPL of newborns was shorter than that reported in the published data from other populations. This situation may be related to ethnicity in addition to the lower birth weight and length of our subjects when compared to the newborns in other populations. We observed a significant increase, more marked during the first six months, in MPL, MPD and TV, which can be explained by the hormonal mechanism during minipuberty.

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of branded and generic formulations of meloxicam in healthy male volunteers

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    Del Tacca M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mario Del Tacca,1,2 Giuseppe Pasqualetti,3 Giovanni Gori,1 Pasquale Pepe,1 Antonello Di Paolo,2 Marianna Lastella,2 Ferdinando De Negri,1 Corrado Blandizzi2 1Clinical Pharmacology Centre for Drug Experimentation, Pisa University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 3Geriatrics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic bioequivalence between a generic formulation of meloxicam 15 mg tablets (Meloxicam Hexal and its respective brand product (Mobic, in order to verify whether the generic product conforms to the regulatory standards of bioequivalence in the postmarketing setting. As a secondary exploratory aim, the pharmacodynamic effects of the two formulations were also evaluated by means of rating scales following hyperalgesia induced by cutaneous freeze injury. Subjects and methods: A single 15 mg dose of generic or branded meloxicam tablets was administered to 24 healthy male volunteers in a crossover fashion. Plasma samples, collected for 24 hours after dosing, were assayed for meloxicam concentration by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results: The analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any significant difference between the two meloxicam formulations: the 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptance range of 80%–125% (0.84–1.16 for area under the curve [0–24], and 0.89–1.23 for peak concentration. No difference in the pharmacodynamic end point was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the two meloxicam formulations confirm the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence; pharmacodynamic data indicate a similar antihyperalgesic effect. The two formulations can be used interchangeably in the clinical setting. Keywords: meloxicam, pharmacokinetics, healthy volunteers, generic drug, bioequivalence, postmarketing

  11. Effect of St. John's wort supplementation on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion in healthy male Chinese volunteers.

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    Lei, H-P; Yu, X-Y; Xie, H-T; Li, H-H; Fan, L; Dai, L-L; Chen, Y; Zhou, H-H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous St. John's wort administration on single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion, a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6, in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eighteen unrelated healthy male subjects participated in this study. The single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were determined before (control) and after a long-term period of St. John's wort intake (325 mg, three times a day for 14 days). Plasma concentrations of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were determined before and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h after dosing. St. John's wort treatment decreased the area under the concentration versus time curve extrapolated to infinity of bupropion in healthy volunteers from 1.4 microg.h ml(-1) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.6 microg.h ml(-1)) after bupropion alone to 1.2 microg.h ml(-1) (95% CI = 1.1-1.3 microg.h ml(-1)) during St. John's wort treatment. St. John's wort treatment increased the oral clearance of bupropion from 108.3 l h(-1) (95% CI = 95.4-123.0 l h(-1)) to 130.0 l h(-1) (95% CI = 118.4-142.7 l h(-1)). No change in the time to peak concentration (t(max)) and the blood elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of bupropion was observed between the control and St. John's wort-treated phases. However, the half-life of hydroxybupropion between two phases had a significant difference by a Student's t test after logarithmic transformation. St. John's wort treatment decreased the half-life of hydroxybupropion from 26.7 h (95% CI = 23.8-29.9 h) to 24.4 h (95% CI = 21.9-27.3 h). St. John's wort decreased, to a statistically significant extent, the plasma concentrations of bupropion, probably mainly by increasing the clearance of bupropion.

  12. Neckties and Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Males: A Pilot Randomised Crossover Trial

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    Mark Rafferty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A necktie may elevate intracranial pressure through compression of venous return. We hypothesised that a tight necktie would deleteriously alter cerebrovascular reactivity. Materials and Methods. A necktie was simulated using bespoke apparatus comprising pneumatic inner-tube with aneroid pressure-gauge. Using a randomised crossover design, cerebrovascular reactivity was measured with the “pseudo-tie” worn inflated or deflated for 5 minutes (simulating tight/loose necktie resp.. Reactivity was calculated using breath hold index (BHI and paired “t” testing used for comparative analysis. Results. We enrolled 40 healthy male volunteers. There was a reduction in cerebrovascular reactivity of 0.23 units with “tight” pseudotie (BHI loose 1.44 (SD 0.48; BHI tight 1.21 (SD 0.38 P<.001. Conclusion. Impairment in cerebrovascular reactivity was found with inflated pseudo-tie. However, mean BHI is still within a range of considered normal. The situation may differ in patients with vascular risk factors, and confirmatory work is recommended.

  13. Effects of chicken essence on recovery from mental fatigue in healthy males.

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    Yamano, Emi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Abe, Keiichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-07-08

    Fatigue is a common symptom in modern society. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in traditional remedies for fatigue. Chicken essence, which is rich in anserine and carnosine, has been widely taken in Asian countries as a traditional remedy with various aims, including attenuation of physical and mental fatigue. However, the evidence for its efficacy specifically for mental fatigue remains unclear. We examined the effect of essence of chicken on mental fatigue in humans, using our established fatigue-inducing task and evaluation methods. In this placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive daily oral administration of essence of chicken or placebo drink provided by Cerebos Pacific Ltd. via Suntory holdings Ltd. for 4 weeks. The participants performed 2-back test trials as a fatigue-inducing mental task and then had a rest session. Just before and after each session, they completed cognitive task trials focusing on selective attention to evaluate the level of mental fatigue. After essence of chicken intake for 1 and 4 weeks, the reaction times on the cognitive task trials after the rest session were significantly shorter than those at baseline, and significant changes were not observed with placebo intake. The reaction times before and after the fatigue-inducing session were not altered by either essence of chicken or placebo intake. We showed that daily intake of essence of chicken could be effective for the recovery from mental fatigue and is a promising candidate for use as an anti-fatigue food.

  14. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations.

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    Balleza, M.; Vargas, M.; Kashina, S.; Huerta, M. R.; Delgadillo, I.; Moreno, G.

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration.

  15. Effects of grapefruit juice on cortisol metabolism in healthy male Chinese subjects.

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    Xiao, Ya-Jie; Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 activity and it has been suggested that GFJ may also inhibit renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2), which converts cortisol to cortisone. This study examined the effect of GFJ on the urinary excretion of cortisol, cortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHC) and their ratios to asses these effects. Healthy male Chinese subjects took single doses of GFJ (200, 400, and 600 mL, respectively) at weekly intervals. Urine was collected over 24 h the day before and following GFJ intake. Subsequently, volunteers drank 400 mL GFJ for 7 days and urine was collected from 0 to 4 h daily. GFJ had dose-dependent effects on increasing cortisol excretion (P cortisol to cortisone (P cortisol (P cortisol. It increased the ratio of cortisol to cortisone and this appeared largely due to increased cortisol excretion related to impaired CYP3A4-mediated cortisol metabolism although a true inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD2 in the kidney cannot be excluded.

  16. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

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    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  17. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

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    Balraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal.

  18. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Treece, Jennifer M.; Bhatheja, Samit; Lavine, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT) scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal. PMID:27738530

  19. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: effects on memory activation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Nicolson, Nancy A; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cortisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were scanned (functional magnetic resonance imaging) during memory encoding and recognition tasks in fatigue and control conditions. A group of 15 'responders' showed significantly higher cortisol levels in the fatigue condition than 12 'non-responders'. Responders showed higher subjective fatigue and reduced encoding and recognition activation than non-responders in the fatigue condition. An interaction in activation changes in the right hippocampus during encoding reflected decreased activation in responders, but somewhat increased activation in non-responders in the fatigue compared to control condition. Moreover, decreased hippocampal activation in responders was associated with increased subjective fatigue. Findings are consistent with a central role for the hippocampus in differences between responders and non-responders and also implicate the right hippocampus in individual differences in induced cognitive fatigue effects.

  20. BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF TWO BRANDS OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM 100MG FORMULATIONS IN HEALTHY ADULT MALE RABBITS

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    Saroj Nepal , Suhrid Banskota , Nirmal Marasini, Biki Gupta , Shyam Prasad Lohani , Shova Basnet and Bal Mukunda Regmi*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the bioavailability of a single oral 100 mg dose of two brands of phenytoin sodium formulations available in the Nepalese market. Formulation B was taken as test drug and compared with the innovator brand which was taken as reference standard. A randomized, two-way crossover study was done in six healthy adult male rabbits. All six rabbits received a single oral 100 mg dose of both the formulations with a two-week washout period between the formulations. Blood samples for plasma phenytoin levels were collected at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 hours. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the two brands of phenytoin sodium calculated were area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC 0–24, Area under the Curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞, peak plasma concentration (Cmax and time of peak concentration (tmax. Formulation B failed to comply in terms of Area under the Curve (AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter to test bioequivalency, which was tested at significance level 0.05. This showed that the test formulation is not bioequivalent with the innovator. Taken together, our preliminary findings suggest that further studies in a large population is needed before switching phenytoin brands once a patient is carefully titrated to a given phenytoin brand.

  1. Effect of static neck flexion in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Khatir, Roghayeh; Talebian, Saeed; Maroufi, Nader; Olyaei, Gholam Reza

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, especially among skilled workers who must keep their necks in a flexed position frequently during the day. The present study investigated changes in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon parameters after sustained neck flexion. The participants were 40 healthy subjects grouped by gender (20 females, 20 males). They were exposed to static neck flexion at the full angle of cervical flexion for 10 min. Each subject underwent three trials of cervical flexion and re-extension before and after this period. Differences in onset and cessation angle of flexion-relaxation phenomenon, maximum neck flexion angle, amplitude of neck muscle activation and flexion-relaxation ratio were evaluated. The maximum neck flexion angle significantly increased after sustained flexion. The onset of flexion-relaxation was significantly delayed during flexion, but cessation angle remained unchanged. Myoelectric activity of the cervical erector spinae muscles increased significantly after maintaining flexion, especially in female subjects. The flexion-relaxation ratio also decreased significantly. It was concluded that 10 min of static flexion results in a delay in flexion-relaxation phenomenon and a shortened silence period. Also the cervical erector spinae muscles are required to be active longer and generate more activity. These neuromuscular changes may be a risk factor for neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Allen, Andrew P; Temko, Andriy; Hutch, William; Kennedy, Paul J; Farid, Niloufar; Murphy, Eileen; Boylan, Geraldine; Bienenstock, John; Cryan, John F; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers. To determine the impact of L. rhamnosus on stress-related behaviours, physiology, inflammatory response, cognitive performance and brain activity patterns in healthy male participants. An 8week, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers participated. Participants completed self-report stress measures, cognitive assessments and resting electroencephalography (EEG). Plasma IL10, IL1β, IL6, IL8 and TNFα levels and whole blood Toll-like 4 (TLR-4) agonist-induced cytokine release were determined by multiplex ELISA. Salivary cortisol was determined by ELISA and subjective stress measures were assessed before, during and after a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT). There was no overall effect of probiotic treatment on measures of mood, anxiety, stress or sleep quality and no significant effect of probiotic over placebo on subjective stress measures, or the HPA response to the SECPT. Visuospatial memory performance, attention switching, rapid visual information processing, emotion recognition and associated EEG measures did not show improvement over placebo. No significant anti-inflammatory effects were seen as assessed by basal and stimulated cytokine levels. L. rhamnosus was not superior to placebo in modifying stress-related measures, HPA response, inflammation or cognitive performance in healthy male participants. These findings highlight the challenges associated with

  3. Effect of absorption site on the pharmacokinetics of sublingual asenapine in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Mireille; de Greef, Rik; Peeters, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Asenapine is a psychopharmacologic agent approved in the United States for the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults and the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder with or without psychotic features in adults. It is pending approval for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in Europe. Asenapine is administered as a sublingual formulation. To determine whether the pharmacokinetics of asenapine are impacted by placing the tablet buccally ('cheeking') or allowing the tablet to dissolve on the top of the tongue, pharmacokinetics were compared following buccal and supralingual administration versus sublingual administration. In this open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover trial, healthy men (n=36) received single 5 mg doses of asenapine via sublingual, supralingual and buccal routes, at least 1 week apart. With buccal administration, the area under the concentration-over-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) and peak concentration (C(max)) were, respectively, 24%, and 19% higher than with sublingual administration; these routes were not bioequivalent. With supralingual administration, AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were 6% and 13% lower than with sublingual administration; bioequivalence was established based on AUC(0-infinity) only; bioequivalence based on C(max) could not be assessed due to 40% within-subject variability. The most common adverse events were oral paresthesia (sublingual, 75.8%; supralingual, 55.9%; buccal, 45.7%) and somnolence (81.8%; 76.5%; 68.6%). Compared with the recommended sublingual route of asenapine administration, exposure was 24% higher with buccal administration and comparable to supralingual administration. However, differences in exposure associated with variable placement in the oral cavity did not compromise safety in healthy subjects.

  4. Bioequivalence study of two imatinib formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J A; Kim, N; Yang, J-S; Kim, T-e; Kim, J-R; Song, G-S; Kim, H; Ko, J W; Huh, W

    2014-12-01

    Imatinib mesylate is effective for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. We aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 200-mg imatinib tablet compared to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in order to meet the regulatory requirements for marketing in Korea.An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 28 healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects were administered a 200-mg imatinib tablet and 2×100-mg imatinib tablets under a fasting state according to a randomly assigned order with a 2-week wash-out period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods.A total of 28 subjects were enrolled and 23 subjects completed the study. There were no serious adverse events during the study. 23 mild to moderate adverse events were reported (11 events with 200-mg imatinib vs. 12 events with 2×100-mg imatinib) and subjects recovered without sequelae. The Cmax value was 922.8±318.8 μg/L at 3.15 h for 200-mg imatinib tablet, and 986.3±266.0 μg/L at 2.91 h for the 2×100-mg imatinib tablet. The AUClast of 200-mg and 2×100-mg tablets were 13 084.3±39.1 and 14 131.7±3 826.2 h · μg/L, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) for Cmax and AUClast were 0.9121 (0.8188, 1.0161) and 0.9558 (0.8685, 1.0519), respectively.A newly developed 200-mg imatinib tablet was bioequivalent to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in healthy Korean subjects. A single-dose of either of the 2 formulations was generally well tolerated.

  5. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema: an alarming complication of general anaesthesia in a young healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Afonso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure pulmonary oedema is a rare but potentially harmful event[1,3]. The mechanisms of this pulmonary injury are not totally understood. It is believed that airway obstruction, as caused by laryngospasm after extubation, combined with the attempt of a forced inspiring effort, produce a negative intrathoracic pressure, increasing the venous return with a consequent rise of the hydrostatic pressure, ultimately leading to a leakage of fluid to the extracellular compartment. Nevertheless, it is possible that other factors may contribute to this condition, including hypoxia, cardiogenic and neurogenic mechanisms[2]. We present the case of a healthy 20-years-old male, who underwent a deferred left clavicle osteosynthesis. Immediately after surgery, the patient developed irritative cough and marked dyspnoea. There were no auscultatory anomalies and the plain chest radiograph was normal. He did not show clinical improvement after increasing oxygen supply and bronchodilators, and was then transferred to our hospital for further evaluation. A thoracic Computed Tomography (CT scan was performed (figure 1, revealing multiple areas of ground glass aspect and alveolar filling with centrilobular distribution, suggesting alveolar haemorrhage. The patient remained under observation for 48 hours, with clear signs of clinical improvement and no further complications, with no need for positive pressure ventilation. He was discharged being asymptomatic and with no signs of respiratory distress, after a control CT scan showing radiologic improvement. This case highlights the need to be aware of this diagnosis, that is usually self-limited but can be life-threatening and require specific treatment.

  6. Acute Normobaric Hypoxia Increases Post-exercise Lipid Oxidation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Liam P; Basset, Fabien A

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to determine the effect of moderate normobaric hypoxia exposure during constant load cycling on post-exercise energy metabolism recorded in normoxia. Indirect calorimetry was used to examine whole body substrate oxidation before, during, 40-60 min post, and 22 h after performing 60 min of cycling exercise at two different fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2): (i) FIO2 = 0.2091 (normoxia) and (ii) FIO2 = 0.15 (hypoxia). Seven active healthy male participants (26 ± 4 years of age) completed both experimental trials in randomized order with a 7-day washout period to avoid carryover effects between conditions. Resting energy expenditure was initially elevated following cycling exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (Δ 0.14 ± 0.05, kcal min(-1), p = 0.037; Δ 0.19 ± 0.03 kcal min(-1), p oxidation occurred after exercise performed in hypoxia while post-exercise measurements were similar to baseline after cycling exercise in normoxia. The additional metabolic stress of hypoxia exposure was sufficient to increase the rate of lipid oxidation (Δ 42 ± 11 mg min(-1), p = 0.019) and tended to suppress carbohydrate oxidation (Δ -55 ± 26 mg min(-1), p = 0.076) 40-60 min post-exercise. This shift in substrate oxidation persisted the next morning, where lipid oxidation remained elevated (Δ 9 ± 3 mg min(-1), p = 0.0357) and carbohydrate oxidation was suppressed (Δ -22 ± 6 mg min(-1), p = 0.019). In conclusion, prior exercise performed under moderate normobaric hypoxia alters post-exercise energy metabolism. This is an important consideration when evaluating the metabolic consequences of hypoxia exposure during prolonged exercise, and future studies should evaluate its role in the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training observed in persons with obesity and insulin resistance.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence studies of galantamine hydrobromide dispersible tablet in healthy male Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-jun; Fang, Xiao-ling; Li, Xue-ning; Wang, Qing-song; Han, Li-mei; Zhang, Zhi-wen; Sha, Xian-yi

    2007-03-01

    A randomized, two-way, crossover study was conducted in 18 healthy male Chinese volunteers to compare pharmacokinetics profiles of galantamine hydrobromide dispersible tablet with that of conventional tablet. A single oral dose of 10 mg galantamine was administrated to each volunteer. Plasma concentrations of galantamine were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection, which allowed 1 ng/mL to be assayed as the lowest quantifiable concentration. From plasma concentrations, AUC(0-->t) (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time, 32 hr), AUC(0-->infinity) (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity), t((1/2)) (elimination of half-life of the terminal log linear phase), C(max) (maximum plasma drug concentration) and T(max) (time to reach C(max)) were evaluated through noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. AUC(0-->t) and AUC(0-->infinity) were calculated by the linear-log trapezoidal rule method. C(max) and T(max) were obtained directly from the plasma concentration-time curve. Analysis of variance was carried out using logarithmically transformed AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max). As far as AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) were concerned, there was no statistically significant difference between the test and reference formulations. Ninety percent confidence intervals (90% CI) for the ratio of AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) values for the test and reference formulations were 100.4-107.8%, 99.0-107.2% and 87.5-111.3%, respectively. As the 90% CIs of AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max) were entirely within 80-125%, two formulations were considered bioequivalent.

  8. Electrophysiological responses of feedback processing are modulated by MAOA genotype in healthy male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ren; Jia, Huiqiao; Yi, Fei; Ming, Qingsen; Wang, Xiang; Gao, Yidian; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene is closely related to aggression. Although previous studies suggested that impaired ability of feedback processing might be associated with aggressive behaviour, studies concerning the MAOA gene-related aggression rarely focused on the link between MAOA gene and feedback processing. We therefore sought to investigate the effect of MAOA genotype on electrophysiological responses of feedback processing in 72 healthy male adolescents during a simple monetary gambling task. Feedback processing was investigated by measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 as electrophysiological markers. We observed a decreased electrophysiological response of the loss-gain difference waves from 250 to 350 ms (dFRN) in individuals with the lower activity alleles (MAOA-L) during the task, an effect that was driven primarily by the considerably altered response to monetary gains. The reduced dFRN in MAOA-L group might indicate poor ability to learn from feedback, which is followed by adjusting future behaviour. And MAOA-L carriers exhibited lower P300 compared with subjects with higher activity alleles (MAOA-H), which suggested fewer attentional resources were allocated to feedback processing. In addition, MAOA-L carriers demonstrated higher aggression and the aggression were inversely correlated with dFRN across two groups; further analyses suggested that dFRN mediated the MAOA genotype-aggression relationship. Consequently, we concluded that it might be the altered feedback processing that makes MAOA-L carriers more vulnerable to aggressive behaviour.

  9. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  10. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

  11. Effects of submaximal exercise with water ingestion on intraocular pressure in healthy human males

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    Moura M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise and water replacement on intraocular pressure (IOP have not been well established. Furthermore, it is not known whether the temperature of the fluid ingested influences the IOP response. In the present study we determined the effect of water ingestion at three temperatures (10, 24 and 38ºC; 600 ml 15 min before and 240 ml 15, 30 and 45 min after the beginning of each experimental session on the IOP of six healthy male volunteers (age = 24.0 ± 3.5 years, weight = 67.0 ± 4.8 kg, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak = 47.8 ± 9.1 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects exercised until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a 60% VO2peak in a thermoneutral environment. IOP was measured before and after exercise and during recovery (15, 30 and 45 min using the applanation tonometry method. Skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously. IOP was similar for the right eye and the left eye and increased post-water ingestion under both exercising and resting conditions (P<0.05 but did not differ between resting and exercising situations, or between the three water temperatures. Time to exhaustion was not affected by the different water temperatures. Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide extraction and lactate concentration were increased by exercise but were not affected by water temperature. We conclude that IOP was not affected by exercise and that water ingestion increased IOP as expected, regardless of water temperature.

  12. Effects of meal frequency on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjet J M Munsters

    Full Text Available The daily number of meals has an effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which may affect substrate partitioning and thus weight control. This study investigated the effects of meal frequency on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning.Twelve (BMI:21.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 healthy male subjects stayed after 3 days of food intake and physical activity standardization 2 × 36 hours in a respiration chamber to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received two isoenergetic diets with a Low meal Frequency (3 ×; LFr or a High meal Frequency (14 ×; HFr consisting of 15 En% protein, 30 En% fat, and 55 En% carbohydrates. Blood was sampled at fixed time points during the day to measure metabolic markers and satiety hormones.Glucose and insulin profiles showed greater fluctuations, but a lower AUC of glucose in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. No differences between the frequency diets were observed on fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Though, protein oxidation and RMR (in this case SMR + DIT were significantly increased in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. The LFr diet increased satiety and reduced hunger ratings compared with the HFr diet during the day.The higher rise and subsequently fall of insulin in the LFr diet did not lead to a higher fat oxidation as hypothesized. The LFr diet decreased glucose levels throughout the day (AUC indicating glycemic improvements. RMR and appetite control increased in the LFr diet, which can be relevant for body weight control on the long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034293.

  13. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    and red meat) greatly increase both sales and the market share of the healthy labeled meal. We conclude that a careful design of the healthy food supply may be efficient in encouraging healthier meal choices, e.g. supplying healthy labeled versions of popular conventional meals. We find no impact...

  14. Should different marketing communication strategies be used to promote healthy eating among male and female adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.

  15. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used...... functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine...

  16. Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use increased dramatically among adolescent males. This review focuses on studies using animal models of AAS exposure during adolescence which is a hormonally sensitive developmental period. AAS exposure during this critical period has wide-ranging consequences, including increased dendritic spine density, altered brain serotonin levels and escalated aggression in response to physical provocation. Human data suggest that AAS induces indiscriminate and unprovoked aggression often described as "'roid rage". However, animal studies indicate that the behavioral impact of AAS is modulated by experiential and social contingencies, a perceived provocation, and the chemical composition of the AAS. The AAS, testosterone increases aggression in juvenile and adult male rats when physically provoked. In contrast, stanzolol, inhibits aggression in both juvenile and adult male rats, even when physically provoked. Nandrolone has minimal effects on aggression, unless preceded by attack training. Exposure to AAS during adolescence may have a host of unintended bio-behavioral consequences. Yet, the perception of harmlessness surrounds AAS use. The perception of harmlessness is promoted by the availability of AAS especially through internet pharmacies. The perception of acceptability is reflected in current cultural ethics that no longer condemn cheating to obtain personal achievement or success. A prevailing conviction is that although AAS are illegal they are not really bad. Reduction of the availability of AAS to adolescents requires ardent legislative and legal intervention. The problem of acceptability can be addressed by educating adolescents about the short-term and long-term effects of AAS on brain and behavior, to increase awareness of the potential consequences of AAS use that apply directly to them.

  17. [Impact of homicide on male life expectancy in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact of homicide on male life expectancy in Mexico and its 32 states during the three-year periods 1998-2000 and 2008-2010 and the weight of the different age groups in years of life expectancy lost (YLEL) due to this cause. Based on official death and population data, abridged tables for male mortality in Mexico as a whole and its states were created for the three-year periods studied. Health-adjusted life expectancy and YLEL for men aged 15 to 75 were calculated by selected causes (homicide, diabetes mellitus, and traffic accidents) and age groups in each three-year period. In the years between the 1998-2000 and 2008-2010 periods, YLEL due to homicide increased both nationally and in 19 states. In four states, the YLEL in 2008-2010 exceeded two, with the state of Chihuahua standing out at 5.2 years. In 14 of the 18 states where health-adjusted life expectancy among men declined between the two three-year periods, the YLEL due to homicide increased. From 2008 to 2010, homicides were the leading cause of YLEL among men aged 20-44. YLEL due to homicide among those aged 15-44 increased between the two three-year periods. The increase in the rate of homicidal violence, especially among young people, is impeding an increase in male life expectancy in Mexico. In several states, such as Chihuahua and Durango, this violence appears to be the main reason for the decline in life expectancy among men aged 15 to 75.

  18. Bioequivalence study of two losartan formulations administered orally in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Agnieszka; Brzezińiski, Rafał; Szałek, Edyta; Dubai, Vitali; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Dyderski, Stanisław; Drobnik, Leon; Wolc, Anna; Olejniczak-Rabinek, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    The bioavailability of a new losartan preparation (2-butyl-4-chloro-1-[p-(o-1H-tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]imidazole-5-methanol monopotassium salt, CAS 114798-26-4) was compared with the reference preparation of the drug in 24 healthy male volunteers, aged between 19 and 32. The open, randomized, single-blind two-sequence, two-period crossover study design was performed. Under fasting conditions, each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg losartan as a test or reference formulation. The plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite were analyzed by a rapid and sensitive HPLC method with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters included AUC0-36h, AUC0-infinity, Cmax, t1/2, and Ke. Values of AUC0-infinity demonstrate nearly identical bioavailability of losartan from the examined formulations. The AUC0-infinity of losartan was 2019.92+/-1002.90 and 2028.58+/-837.45 ng x h/ml for the test and reference formulation, respectively. The AUC0-infinity of the metabolite was 10851.52+/-4438.66 and 11041.18 +/-5015.81 ng x h/ml for test and reference formulation, respectively. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of losartan was 745.94+/-419.75 ng/ml for the test and 745.74+/-329.99 ng/ml for the reference product and the Cmax of the metabolite was 1805.77+/-765.39 and 1606.22 +/-977.22 ng/ml for the test and reference product, respectively. No statistical differences were observed for Cmax and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve for both losartan and its active metabolite. 90 % confidence limits calculated for Cmax and AUC from zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of losartan and its metabolite were included in the bioequivalence range (0.8-1.25 for AUC). This study shows that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference formulation for losartan and its main active metabolite.

  19. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-06-01

    • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation. • This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation. To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was

  20. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  1. Effect of Misoprostol on the Pharmacokinetics of Sustained Release Diclofenac in Myanmar Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Htet Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained release diclofenac (diclofenac SR is the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol, prostaglandin analogue, is the agent that enhances gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Concomitant administration of misoprostol with diclofenac SR can prevent the gastrointestinal side effects of diclofenac SR. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of misoprostol on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac SR in healthy volunteers. Methods: Crossover study was evaluated in 14 male volunteers. Single oral dose of 100 mg diclofenac SR was concomitantly administered with 200 μg misoprostol with one-week wash out period. Plasma concentrations at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6 and 10 hrs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-α, peak plasma concentration (Cmax, time to achieve peak plasma concentration (Tmax, absorption half-life (T½(ab, elimination half-life (T1/2(el, absorption rate constant (Kab, and elimination rate constant (Kel were determined. Results: With misoprostol, the mean AUC0-α of diclofenac SR was significantly reduced from 12.11±5.25μg/ mL×hr to 4.17±2.72μg/mL×hr (p0.05. The mean T½(ab was decreased from 0.56±0.23hr to 0.54±0.19hr (p>0.05. The mean Kab were almost the same 1.43±0.54hr-1 and 1.43±0.48hr-1. The mean T1/2(el was decreased from 3.68±1.64hr to 3.03±1.08hr (p>0.05. The mean Kel was increased from 0.21±0.09hr-1 to 0.25±0.09hr-1 (p>0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the extent of absorption of diclofenac SR when concomitantly administered with misoprostol. Therefore, the dose of diclofenac SR may need to be increased to avoid therapeutic failure of diclofenac SR or concurrent use with misoprostol may need to be changed to other gastroprotective agents.

  2. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-09-01

    Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade

  3. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice.

  4. Inter- and Intra-individual Variability in the Pharmacokinetics of Agomelatine Tablets in Chinese Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-l; Du, A-h; Zhang, D; Meng, L-j; Liu, M; Zhang, L-n; Zhao, H-n; Liu, H-c

    2015-10-01

    Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a unique action mechanism differing from conventional antidepressants. The high inter- and intra-individual variability of agomelatine was previously reported, but no exact data values about the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax were mentioned. The current study aimed to determine and evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax of agomelatine tablets in Chinese healthy male subjects, providing useful information for designing bioequivalence studies of agomelatine. Each of 12 Chinese healthy male subjects received a 25-mg agomelatine tablet on 2 separate periods, and plasma samples were collected up to 24 h after dose and analyzed for agomelatine. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of agomelatine was assessed. High variations in the plasma concentrations of agomelatine could be observed at each sampling time between the different subjects and in one subject on different periods. The inter-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 102.20%, 131.74% and 130.59%, respectively. The intra-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 84.34%, 49.61% and 50.83%, respectively. The results showed high inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects, and the intra-individual variability at CV>80% should be considered in the design of bioequivalence studies.

  5. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  6. Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marconi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.

  7. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Kanda

    Full Text Available Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD. The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people.A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by >25% in 3 years.Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week; non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718; obese male (body mass index ≥25, 1.634 (1.160, 2.302; and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more (ref. no exercise; non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754; obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577. Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events.These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.

  8. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Suwa, Kaname; Nakajima, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by >25% in 3 years. Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week) (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week); non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718); obese male (body mass index ≥25), 1.634 (1.160, 2.302); and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more) (ref. no exercise); non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754); obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577). Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events. These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.

  9. Impact of Perceived Healthiness of Food on Food Choices and Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.

  10. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen;

    2016-01-01

    -individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min) in healthy volunteers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days......, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min.), and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied. RESULTS: For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra...... and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary...

  11. Effects of smoking on cerebral and ventricular volumes in healthy males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Jun Kim; Jae-Hoon Jun; Gye-Rae Tack; Soon-Cheol Chung; Mi-Hyun Choi; Beob-Yi Lee; Su-Jeong Lee; Jae-Woong Yang; Ji-Hye Kim; Jin-Seung Choi; Dong-Won Kang; Jang-Yeon Park

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported decreased cerebral volume as a result of smoking.However,little is known about accompanying changes in ventricular volume for healthy subjects who smoke,although ventricular volume is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis who smoke.The present study analyzed whether cerebral volume decreased with smoking through the use of magnetic resonance imaging.In addition,accompanying changes in ventricular volume that resulted from decreased cerebral volume and smoking were analyzed in healthy subjects.When multivariate lysis of covariance was performed by integrating the 2 age groups,aged 20-28 years and 40-49 years,with statistical significance,results showed that cerebral volume of smokers was smaller and ventricular volume was greater compared with the non-smokers.These findings suggest that ventricular volume changes could be utilized to characterize the effects of smoking.

  12. Idiopathic Thrombosis of the Inferior Vena Cava and Bilateral Femoral Veins in an Otherwise Healthy Male Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava is less common than deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, particularly in the absence of an obvious congenital caval abnormality or hypercoagulable state. We present a case of IVC thrombosis in an otherwise healthy and active 28-year-old male soldier secondary to dehydration and venous webbing. IVC thrombosis is an uncommon and underrecognized condition; in this case, the patient’s caval thrombosis was initially mistaken for acute back strain. Prompt recognition is necessary to minimize long-term sequelae.

  13. Can healthy eating be cool?: A study of celebrities’ impact on teens’ attitudes towards healthy eating

    OpenAIRE

    Gregório, Filipa dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In adolescence peers become a major influence, however teenagers also look to celebrities to know what is “trending”. This study was a first step to understand if celebrities can have a positive influence in adolescents’ views of healthy food. Research was done to 13 and 14 year olds who were divided into experimental and control groups. The...

  14. Gait in male trans-tibial amputees: a comparative study with healthy subjects in relation to walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermodsson, Y; Ekdahl, C; Persson, B M; Roxendal, G

    1994-08-01

    Walking speed, stance duration and ground reaction forces were studied with the use of a stable force platform (Kistler) in 24 male transtibial amputees and 12 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. The aim of the study was to compare the gait performance of two groups with unilateral trans-tibial amputations for either vascular disease or trauma and also to compare the results of the two groups with the results of a group of healthy subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to compare the stance duration and the ground reaction forces in relation to walking speed. The vascular and traumatic amputees had significantly reduced walking speeds compared with the healthy subjects, 0.85 +/- 0.2 m/s and 0.99 +/- 0.2 m/s. respectively, as compared to 1.42 +/- 0.2 m/s. By comparing the vascular and traumatic amputees with the healthy subjects in relation to walking speed, it was shown that the gait performance of the vascular amputee differed from that of the traumatic amputee, a difference that was not caused by the reduced walking speed. The active forces during push off on both the healthy (p = 0.02) and the prosthetic leg (p = 0.003) in the trauma group were not found in the vascular group. This disparity could be an effect of the systemic disease. It may be argued that the results of this study contribute to the understanding of the reduced walking ability of the vascular amputee and should be borne in mind when planning rehabilitation.

  15. SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS OF HEALTHY CAUCASIAN, CHINESE AND HAIDA INDIAN MALES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORD, D K; DEMOS, A M

    1964-06-06

    Because previous studies have shown that serum uric acid levels are higher in members of the Filipino and Maori races than in Caucasians, and because gout seemed unexpectedly common in the Chinese population of Vancouver, a study of serum uric acid levels in Caucasian, Chinese and Haida Indian males was undertaken. The serum uric acid levels of 200 Caucasian, 100 Chinese and 237 Haida Indian males were determined by the ultraviolet spectrophotometric method of Dubbs, which gives a result 0.5 mg. % below that of the more commonly employed method of Grayzel. The mean level of the Caucasians was 4.55 mg. % and that of the Haida Indians 4.41 mg. %; in contrast, the Chinese mean was 5.44 mg. %, a significantly higher figure than the means of the other two groups. No explanation for this finding can be given at present.

  16. An unusual cause for recurrent jaundice in an otherwise healthy male

    OpenAIRE

    Sowjanya Dasari; Kushal Naha; Mukhyaprana Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    AbstractA 41-year-old Asian-Indian male presented with recurrent episodes of jaundice over the past six months. Physical examination was normal, barring mild icterus. Laboratory parameters revealed indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Further evaluation yielded a diagnosis of severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia was ascribed to ineffective erythropoiesis. Underlying Gilbert’s syndrome was ruled out by provocative testing with lipid-restricted diet. Presentation of se...

  17. Stretching training affects erythrocyte rheological properties and anaerobic performance in healthy young males

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Emine Kılıç; Koçak, Fatma Ünver; Erken, Gülten; Küçükatay, Melek Bor

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stretching exercise training is used to improve flexibility and performance. This study aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of stretching exercise on flexibility, performance, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation. METHODS: 7 young male subjects (mean age 20.71±0.52 years) participated to the study. Stretching protocol consisted of 3 repetitions for 60 seconds, 3 days/week, 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after the stretc...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  20. HPV prevalence among healthy Italian male sexual partners of women with cervical HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Marandino, Ferdinando; Carosi, Mariantonia; Diodoro, Maria Grazia; Sentinelli, Steno; Visca, Paolo; Rollo, Francesca; Mariani, Luciano; Vocaturo, Giuseppe; Sindico, Roberto; Terrenato, Irene; Donnorso, Raffaele Perrone; Vocaturo, Amina

    2008-07-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer and is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Only limited and controversial data are available regarding HPV transmission in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the genotype distribution of HPV in penile scrapings of a series of Italian men, who had no visible penile lesions and were partners of women who were affected, or had been affected previously by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or who were infected with HPV. The concordance of the viral group in the infected partners was determined. A total of 77 penile scrapings were screened for HPV infection by the polymerase chain reaction, while 59 cervicovaginal brushings of their female partners were tested. 35% of evaluable male samples and 64% of female sexual partners were found to be HPV positive. In the 55 simultaneously evaluable couples, a concordance of 45% was found, 11 couples (20%) with both partners being HPV negative and 14 couples (25%) with both partners HPV positive (P=0.001). Six out of the 14 couples (43%), where both partners were HPV positive, harbored the same HPV genotype group. These data, although preliminary, could support further the hypothesis that male HPV infection is more frequent in sexual partners of HPV positive or women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia indicating that men could represent an important source of HPV transmission between sex partners.

  1. The effects of methylphenidate on cognitive performance of healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Rostron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH in healthy rats on two distinct radial maze tasks which rely on brain structures and neurotransmitters known to be affected by MPH: the Random Foraging Non-Delay Task (RFNDT and the Delay Spatial Win Shift Task (DSWT. Hooded Lister rats were trained to complete either the RFNDT or the DSWT having received oral treatment of either a vehicle or MPH (3.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg for RFNDT, 3.0 mg/kg for DSWT. We found no effect of MPH on the RFNDT relative to the control group. However, those treated with 5.0 mg/kg MPH did take significantly longer to reach criterion performance than those treated with the 3.0 mg/kg MPH, suggesting some doses of MPH can have detrimental effects. For the DSWT, if MPH was present in both phases, performance did not differ from when it was absent in both phases. However, when present in only one phase there was an increase in errors made, although this only reached significance for when MPH was present only in the test-phase. These data suggest that MPH may have detrimental effects on task performance and can result in state dependent effects in healthy individuals.

  2. Coffee bean polyphenols ameliorate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the effect of coffee bean polyphenols (CBPs) on blood vessels, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CBPs on acute postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen healthy non-diabetic men (mean age, 44.9 ± 1.4 years) consumed a test beverage (active: containing CBPs, placebo: no CBPs) before a 554-kcal test meal containing 14 g of protein, 30 g of fat and 58 g of carbohydrates. Then, a crossover analysis was performed to investigate the time-dependent changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery. In the active group, the postprandial impairment of FMD was significantly improved, the two-hour postprandial nitric oxide metabolite levels were significantly increased and the six-hour postprandial urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group. The test meal increased the levels of blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides in both groups with no significant intergroup differences. These findings indicate that CBPs intake ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men.

  3. Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Shioya, Yasushi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2014-02-01

    Brewed coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and many studies have examined its effects on human health. We investigated the vascular effects of coffee polyphenols (CPPs), hypothesizing that a single ingestion of CPP during glucose loading would improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized acute clinical intervention study with crossover design and measured reactive hyperemia index (RHI) to assess the acute effects of a 75-g glucose load with CPP in healthy, nondiabetic adult men. Blood glucose and insulin levels were elevated after glucose loading with and without CPP, with no significant differences between treatments. The RHI did not significantly decrease after glucose loading without CPP. With CPP, however, RHI significantly (P < .05) increased over baseline after glucose loading. The difference between treatments was statistically significant (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in an oxidative stress marker after glucose loading with or without CPP. These findings suggest that a single ingestion of CPP improves peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy subjects.

  4. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: an unusual manifestation of brucellosis in a previous healthy male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaritsis, Konstantinos P; Liaskos, Christos; Papadamou, Georgia; Dalekos, George N

    2015-04-22

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution and protean clinical manifestations. Therefore, its prompt and timely diagnosis is still challenging. Among several complications of brucellosis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in previously healthy participants is rarely recognised, although this condition can be fatal if misdiagnosed and untreated. We present a case of a 69-year-old previously healthy stockbreeder who suffered from back pain along with abdominal pain and distension because of ascites of 6-8 weeks duration. Cultures of ascitic fluid and peripheral blood specimens revealed Brucella spp as the causative agent of ascites and spondylodiscitis, which was then confirmed by MRI findings. After appropriate treatment for 4.5 months (streptomycin 1 g/day for 3 weeks intramuscularly, doxycycline 100 mg twice a day orally and rifampicin 900 mg/day orally), the patient fully recovered. Conclusively, in the appropriate epidemiological and clinical setting, the consideration of brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of SBP could be rational as well as life-saving.

  5. An unusual cause for recurrent jaundice in an otherwise healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Sowjanya; Naha, Kushal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old Asian-Indian male presented with recurrent episodes of jaundice over the past six months. Physical examination was normal, barring mild icterus. Laboratory parameters revealed indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Further evaluation yielded a diagnosis of severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia was ascribed to ineffective erythropoiesis. Underlying Gilbert's syndrome was ruled out by provocative testing with lipid-restricted diet. Presentation of severe vitamin B12 deficiency with isolated hyperbilirubinemia without concomitant major haematologic or neurologic dysfunction is unusual and potentially underdiagnosed. Awareness of this possibility can permit early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and forestall development of severe haematologic and neurologic sequelae.

  6. Tribulus terrestris-induced severe nephrotoxicity in a young healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza; Abkhiz, Saeed; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2010-11-01

    Herbal medications are being progressively utilized all over the world. Nevertheless, herbal remedies are not without hazards and several cases of adverse reactions have been described. Tribulus terrestris is traditionally used because of its aphrodisiac and antiurolithiatic activities with almost complete inhibition of stone formation. We report a case of T. terrestris-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in an Iranian male patient who used the plant's extract to prevent kidney stone formation. He presented with seizure and very high serum aminotransferases and creatinine after consuming herbal water for 2 days. Discontinuation of the herbal remedy resulted in improvement in symptoms and normalization of his liver enzymes.

  7. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side......The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...

  8. A novel HLA-B*57 (B*5714) allele in a healthy male Caucasian individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermann, W W; Grondkowski, V; Reichert, S; Seliger, B; Schlaf, G

    2008-03-01

    A novel human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B57 (HLA-B*5714) allele has been identified in a male Caucasian individual from Middle Europe using single allele-specific sequencing strategy. This allele is identical to the HLA-B*570101 allele except for two point mutations in exon 3 at codon 138 (ACG-->ACC) with no amino acid change [persisting threonine (T)] and at codon 171 (TAC-->CAC), resulting in an amino acid change from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H).

  9. A gamma scintigraphy study to investigate lung deposition and clearance of inhaled amikacin-loaded liposomes in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weers, Jeffry; Metzheiser, Beth; Taylor, Glyn; Warren, Simon; Meers, Paul; Perkins, Walter R

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhalation of a liposomal formulation of amikacin in healthy male volunteers in terms of pulmonary deposition, clearance, and safety following nebulization with a commercial jet nebulizer. Amikacin was encapsulated in liposomes comprised of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol via a proprietary manufacturing process (20 mg/mL final amikacin concentration). The liposomes were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc using the tin chloride labeling method. A nominal dose of 120 mg of drug product was loaded into a PARI LC STAR nebulizer, aerosolized using a PARI Boy compressor where subjects inhaled for 20 min. Lung deposition was determined by gamma scintigraphy in three healthy male volunteers at the following time points (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-administration). Total lung deposition, expressed as a percentage of the emitted dose, was 32.3 +/- 3.4%. The time-dependent retention of radiolabeled liposomes was biphasic with an initial rapid reduction in counts, followed by a slower phase to 48 h. The overall mean retention at 24 and 48 h was 60.4 and 38.3% of the initial dose deposited, respectively. The observed clearance of radiolabel is consistent with clearance of amikacin following aerosol delivery to rats. There were no clinically significant changes in laboratory parameters, vital signs, or ECG. No adverse events including cough or bronchospasm were reported. Inhalation of a single nominal dose of 120 mg liposomal amikacin results in prolonged retention of drug-loaded liposomes in the lungs of healthy volunteers. The treatment was well tolerated.

  10. Relationships between serum omentin-1, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X P; Zeng, S; Wang, M; Wu, X P; Liao, E Y

    2014-10-01

    The present study is firstly designed to identify the relationship between serum omentin-1 concentration, body fat mass and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese male adults in Changsha city. A total of 219 (20-80 years old) healthy subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum omentin-1, adiponectin, leptin, resistin and bone turn over biochemical markers were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat body composition were determined using dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. Serum omentin-1 levels in the overweight subjects were significantly lower than those of the subjects with normal weight (p fat body mass (FBM, r = -0.430), fat % (r = -0.408), trunk fat (-0.431). However, after controlling for age, BMI and FBM, no significant correlation was noticed between omentin-1 and BMD at different skeletal sites. Pearson's correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients after adjustment showed no significant correlations between omentin-1 and bone turn over biochemical markers, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and bone cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. Multiple line stepwise regression analysis revealed that FBM, WHR, adiponectin were important variables affecting omentin-1. Moreover, lean tissue mass was the most important factor affecting BMD and explained 10.5-14.7 % of the variance. Omentin-1, leptin and resistin were not the predictors of BMD. Serum omentin-1 was negatively correlated with FBM and BMI in healthy Chinese male adults, It was not significantly correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. Omentin-1 may exert ambiguous effects on BMD, which maybe caused by the complex interactions among adipokines, hormonal activity, and body composition and bone metabolism.

  11. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  12. Impact of human coronavirus infections in otherwise healthy children who attended an emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert G M; Tremolati, Elena; Begliatti, Enrica; Rognoni, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Claudia; Principi, Nicola; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2006-01-01

    This prospective clinical and virological study of 2,060 otherwise healthy children aged <15 years of age (1,112 males; mean age +/- SD, 3.46 +/- 3.30 years) who attended the Emergency Department of Milan University's Institute of Pediatrics because of an acute disease excluding trauma during the wi

  13. An unusual cause for recurrent jaundice in an otherwise healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowjanya Dasari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA 41-year-old Asian-Indian male presented with recurrent episodes of jaundice over the past six months. Physical examination was normal, barring mild icterus. Laboratory parameters revealed indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Further evaluation yielded a diagnosis of severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Indirect hyperbilirubinemia was ascribed to ineffective erythropoiesis. Underlying Gilbert’s syndrome was ruled out by provocative testing with lipid-restricted diet. Presentation of severe vitamin B12 deficiency with isolated hyperbilirubinemia without concomitant major haematologic or neurologic dysfunction is unusual and potentially underdiagnosed. Awareness of this possibility can permit early diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and forestall development of severe haematologic and neurologic sequelae.

  14. Balanoposthitis as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus in an apparently healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Saoji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanoposthitis inflammation of the glans penis, which often involves prepuce is a common condition and are usually managed symptomatically without considering a possible association diabetes. Acquired balanoposthitis may be the first clinical presentation of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods: We enrolled 100 subjects with balanoposthitis with no history of diabetes mellitus in the past. Random blood sugar was done in all subjects, those with random blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl underwent fasting and 2 hour post prandial blood sugar estimation. Result: Out of 100 patients having balanitis,7 patients were detected to have diabetes mellitus for the first time, while another 4 patients were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for the first time. Conclusion: In conclusion, we must bear in mind that balanoposthitis may be the first clinical sign of diabetes mellitus in males and hence appropriate blood glucose testing should be carried out when assessing men with balanoposthitis.

  15. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The mod ified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods.

  16. Attentionally modulated effects of cortisol and mood on memory for emotional faces in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Honk, J; Kessels, R P C; Putman, P; Jager, G; Koppeschaar, H P F; Postma, A

    2003-10-01

    Heightened cortisol levels due to stress or acute administration seem to enhance memory for emotional material, independently of emotional valence. An arousal-driven neurobiological mechanism involving the amygdala has been proposed. The relation between pre-task salivary measures of cortisol (by convention named 'basal levels') and emotionally modulated memory has not been investigated yet. Given the association between higher basal levels of cortisol and indices of low mood, valence-specific effects on emotionally modulated memory could be expected (e.g. mood-congruent or stimulus-specific forms of processing). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between basal levels of salivary cortisol, self-reported mood and spatial memory for neutral, happy and angry facial expressions in healthy young volunteers (N=31). Memory performance was indexed using a modified version of a computerized object-relocation task, using emotional facial expressions as stimuli. Results showed a significant relation between cortisol and depressive mood. More importantly, both the levels of cortisol and depressive mood were inversely related to the memory performance for the happy facial expressions, while a similar relationship between cortisol and memory performance on angry faces neared significance. An explanation in terms of the down-regulation of social behavior by elevated basal cortisol levels is postulated.

  17. Post-vaccination myositis and myocarditis in a previously healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Matthew P; Kozoriz, Michael G; Ahmadi, Amir A; Kelsall, John; Paquette, Katryn; Onrot, Jake M

    2016-01-01

    The immunological literature has been redefining clinical phenomena as hypotheses emerge regarding causal links between triggers, immunologic manifestations, and their specific inflammatory cascades. Of late, autoimmune manifestations that appear to be caused by an external adjuvant have been grouped into a complex syndrome referred to as autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). This syndrome may present with diverse clinical problems, which may include neurocognitive impairment, inflammatory musculoskeletal changes, and constitutional symptoms. There is evidence in the literature linking vaccines to different auto-immune manifestations. Vaccines have not traditionally been reported to trigger ASIA, although reports are emerging linking the human papilloma virus and hepatitis B vaccines to it. We report the first suspected case of ASIA in a previously healthy patient who received the Fluad seasonal influenza vaccine, which contains the MF59 adjuvant. He presented to hospital with profound weakness and was diagnosed with severe rhabdomyolysis. He also had elevated troponin-I and extensive cardiac investigations enabled the diagnosis of myocarditis. His infectious and rheumatologic work-ups were negative. He responded well to conservative management and did not require immune suppressive therapy. Given the benefits of the influenza vaccine, and the low incidence of clinically significant complications, we encourage ongoing seasonal influenza immunization. However, ongoing surveillance is required to evaluate the occurrence of rare adverse events, including ASIA.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zancong; Gillen, Michael; Miner, Jeffrey N; Bucci, Gail; Wilson, David M; Hall, Jesse W

    2017-01-01

    Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males. This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10-12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE) reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs). A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5-0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose) and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose). The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported. Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated, absorption was rapid, and exposure was dose proportional. Verinurad increased urinary uric acid elimination and resulted in sustained reductions in serum urate. These data support further clinical evaluation of once-daily verinurad as a treatment for

  19. The Impact of Coed Living on Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf; Otto, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information about the initial differences between students entering coed and single-sex university dormitories and to identify the different effects of these living arrangements on male and female students. Results suggest that there may be important stresses in coed living, especially for females. (Author)

  20. The Impact of Induced Positive Affect on Incarcerated Males' Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tanis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescent males (n=62) with high and low depression scores were assigned to a positive or neutral affect induction condition. Following affect induction, subjects participated in tasks involving learning to read Hindi words. Results showed a main effect for self-induced positive affect on learning but no main effect for depression…

  1. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  2. Impulsive personality traits in male pedophiles versus healthy controls: is pedophilia an impulsive-aggressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; McGeoch, Pamela G; Poznansky, Olga; Itskovich, Yelena; Murphy, Sean; Klein, Erik; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Despite the extensive literature documenting the pervasive and pernicious effects of childhood sexual abuse, there is surprisingly little psychiatric literature on pedophilia and its etiology remains enigmatic. In recent years, the psychiatric literature on the phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment of impulsive-aggressive disorders has grown significantly. As some investigators have conceptualized pedophilia as an impulsive-aggressive disorder, it is of interest whether recent advances in the study of impulsive-aggressive disorders might shed light on pathological mechanisms underlying pedophilia. In the following study, 20 male subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of pedophilia, heterosexual type were recruited from an outpatient facility for sexual offenders and compared to 24 demographically similar control subjects. Groups were compared on three personality instruments--the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment-Questionnaire (DAPI-Q)--to assess for select impairment in impulsive-aggressive personality traits. Pedophiles showed severe and pervasive personality impairment relative to controls. Although there was evidence of impulsivity, the findings do not suggest a predominance of impulsive-aggressive traits, and in fact provide evidence of inhibition, passive-aggression, and harm avoidance. The notion of "compulsive-aggression" in pedophilia is proposed.

  3. The effect of foot overpronation on Achilles tendon blood supply in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, K; Kalogeris, M; Mandalidis, D; Geladas, N; Karteroliotis, K; Athanasopoulos, S

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon blood flow in individuals with overpronated feet during non-weight- and weight-bearing positions. Achilles tendon blood flow was measured by means of the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistance index (RI) in 15 male individuals with overpronated feet and 15 counterparts with normal feet, using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDI). Achilles tendon ultrasonographic (US) assessment was performed at its musculo-tendinous junction (MTJ), mid-tendon (MT), and osseotendinous junction (OTJ) at a non-weight-bearing relaxed position (RP) and during two-leg stance (TLS) and one-leg upright stance (OLS). PI and RI indices were significantly greater in individuals with overpronated feet compared to individuals with normal feet at the OTJ in OLS position (P MTJ in all positions (P MTJ (P < 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that foot overpronation may affect Achilles tendon blood flow, particularly at mid-tendon, thus enhancing the possibility for injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Screening Neuropharmacological Activities of Kaempferia parviflora (Krachai Dam in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaneeya Hawiset

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the global prevalence of psychological disorders is increasing continually, the efficacies of therapeutic strategies are still very limited. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and substance possessing antioxidant activity can alleviate the mentioned conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that Kaempferia parviflora, a medicinal plant claimed for nerve tonic, also possessed the neuropharmacological activities which provide the advantage for psychiatric disorders. Approach: Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 grams, were orally given the ethanolic extract of K. parviflora at doses of 150, 200 and 250 mg kg-1 BW once daily for 2 weeks. Then, they were determined the neuropharmacological activities including anxiolytic, anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement after single dose, 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. Results: K. parviflora possessed anti-depression like behavior and cognitive enhancement at all treatment duration. Unfortunately, this substance failed to show anxiolytic like activity. Conclusion: Our results suggested that K. parviflora might be used as a novel therapeutic strategy for psychiatric disorder and cognitive enhancement. However, further investigations about precise underlying mechanism are still required.

  5. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of canagliflozin and teneligliptin in Japanese healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shuji; Kondo, Kazuoki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic interactions of the antidiabetic agents canagliflozin (a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor) and teneligliptin (a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) in Japanese healthy adult men. Open-label, one-way crossover study used canagliflozin (200 mg/day p.o.) and teneligliptin (40mg/day p.o). A single dose of object drug (either canagliflozin or teneligliptin) was administered on day 1 followed by washout and continuous administration of precipitant drug (days 1 - 9). Both drugs were concomitantly administered on day 7. No changes in AUC0 - 72h and Cmax were observed for canagliflozin+teneligliptin versus monotherapy; geometric mean ratios for AUC0 - 72h and Cmax were 0.982 and 0.982 for the plasma concentration of canagliflozin and 0.983 and 0.976 for the plasma concentration of teneligliptin, respectively. Plasma concentrations of active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increased with canagliflozin+teneligliptin versus teneligliptin alone. Mean AUC0.5 - 4h increased post-meal, on combination therapy, from 9.6 to 12.5 pmol·h/l (active GLP-1) and from 21.5 to 32.3 pmol·h/l (total GLP-1). Adverse events developed in four subjects; all were mild and resolved but one subject withdrew due to generalized erythema. GLP-1 levels increased with the canagliflozin+teneligliptin combination, and no PK interaction was observed. This combination may show favorable antidiabetic effects without increasing systemic exposure.

  6. Single-dose oral pharmacokinetics of three formulations of thalidomide in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, S K; Colburn, W A; Thomas, S D

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a complication of leprosy. The present study determined the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetics of Celgene's commercial and clinical trial thalidomide formulations and the Brazilian Tortuga formulation in an open-label, single-dose, three-way crossover design. Seventeen healthy subjects were given 200 mg of thalidomide on three occasions, and blood samples were collected over 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental methods for the two Celgene formulations and using noncompartmental methods for all three formulations. All subjects reported adverse events, none of which was serious or unexpected. Celgene formulations were bioequivalent when comparing Cmax, tmax, and AUC. There was significant variability in plasma levels from the Tortuga formulation, giving a mean profile that was distinctly different from the two Celgene formulations with a lower Cmax value and a longer terminal phase. The lower Cmax was probably due to slower absorption. The terminal rate constant for the Tortuga formulation was significantly less, giving rise to a terminal half-life of 15 hours compared to about 5 to 6 hours for the Celgene formulations. Confidence intervals for Cmax between the Tortuga and the Celgene formulations were outside the 80% to 125% range, indicating a lack of bioequivalence. Extent of absorption, as measured by AUC0-infinity, was approximately equal for all three formulations. Terminal half-life for Tortuga was two to three times longer compared to the Celgene formulations and is clear evidence for absorption rate limitations. The two Celgene formulations showed similar pharmacokinetic parameters with profiles that were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The authors conclude that Celgene's clinical trial and commercial thalidomide formulations are similar to each other and distinctly

  7. Additive Effects of Heating and Exercise on Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Claudia Lucia de Moraes; Low, David Andrew

    2017-08-31

    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25±1 yrs, 23.8±0.5 kg/m(2)) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole-body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a: pre-intervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; post-intervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HRreserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HRreserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRSSEQ) and transfer function (cBRSTF) methods. HRV was assessed using the indices SDNN (standard deviation of RR intervals) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR intervals). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e. matched heart rate conditions: EX1=116±3 vs. 114±3, EX2=143±4 vs. 142±3 bpm; but different workloads: EX1=50±9 vs. 114±8, EX2=106±10 vs. 165±8 Watts; for HS and NT, respectively; Pheart rates), cBRS and HRV were significantly reduced in HS (cBRSSEQ = 1.6±0.3 vs. 0.6±0.1 ms/mmHg, Pexercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared to exercise in normothermia. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  8. Driving social impact with common global indicators for healthy lifestyle programs: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicole R; Gin, Julia; Kamath-Jha, Shilpa; Infantes, Michel; Hernandez, Ricardo; Alberg-Seberich, Michael; Suri, Devika; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    Partnerships between corporate entities and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in delivering community focused health and well-being programs are becoming increasingly valuable especially in the context of promoting healthy lifestyles around the globe. The Mondelēz International Foundation (MIF) has funded healthy lifestyles community based programs targeting children and youth through partnership with seven global NGOs. To assess collective impact of these programs, it is crucial to identify best practices and common impact indicators that can be measured across programs. MIF therefore organized the Healthy Lifestyles Evaluation Workshop to explore these pertinent questions. Share best practices and identify common impact indicators to measure the success of current and future MIF funded healthy lifestyles programs. Analysis of the Program Impact Pathways (PIPs) and measured output of each of the seven programs. Individual and combined analysis of PIPs of the seven NGO programs led to identification of three critical impact indicators: nutrition knowledge, physical activity, and healthier eating, and also enabled NGOs to identify pathways to improve program delivery among the target population. This workshop enabled MIF and partner NGOs to came together to align on metrics and future engagement approaches for promoting and evaluating community based healthy lifestyles programs.

  9. Healthy foods research: a publication strategy to maximize impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2008-06-25

    Intense current interest in healthy foods, combined with new technologies in communication, have prompted changes in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) to allow it to remain a primary means for disseminating new research information about the chemistry of foods and agriculture. JAFC has added categories covering bioactive substances that may contribute to health benefits of foods, molecular nutrition, and safety and toxicology in order to highlight these topics along with its traditional coverage of food chemistry, analytical methods, and composition of foods. JAFC has also increased the speed of manuscript processing and its international presence. The changes at the Journal enable scientists in publicly funded laboratories, universities, and other research organizations to increase their emphasis on information dissemination and technology transfer. Scientists working in the broad area of foods and health now have various paths for relaying research results promptly to the many constituencies in this topical area, but JAFC retains its status as a primary peer-reviewed vehicle for dissemination.

  10. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    positions in accordance with the distributions in test fats. Calculations of postprandial TAG concentrations from fatty acid data revealed increasing amounts up to 4 h but lower response curves (IAUC) for the two saturated fats in accordance with previous published data. The T fat gave results comparable......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five...... interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat...

  11. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular...... function in humans, twelve young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined...... %) and to 12 watts of active exercise (by 9 ± 1 %), indicating impaired vascular function. Reduced flow response to passive and active exercise was paralleled by a significant upregulation of Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and the Rho...

  12. Bone metabolism biomarkers, body weight, and bone age in healthy Brazilian male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Nga, Hong Si; Moretto, Maria Regina; Dalmas, José Carlos; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven male volunteers were grouped according to bone age (BA): 10-12 years (n=25), 13-15 years (n=36), and 16-18 years (n=26), and the following were recorded for each: weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), calcium intake from three 24-h food recalls (mg/day), puberty evaluation by Tanner stages, bone biomarker (BB) evaluation, serum osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxyterminal telopeptide (S-CTx), and bone mineral density (BMD) evaluations by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (g x cm(2)) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and the whole body. BBs showed similar behaviors, and very high median values were observed for individuals aged 13-15 years (BAP = 155.50 IU/L, OC = 41.63 ng/mL, S-CT x =2.09 ng/mL). Lower median BB values were observed with advancing BA between 16 and 18 years (BA P =79.80 IU/L, O C =27.80 ng/mL, S-CT x =1.65 ng/mL). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed body weight associated with BA as independent variables with greater determination power for S-CTx (r(2) = 0.40) and OC (r(2)=0.21). For BAP, stepwise analysis showed body weight and whole-body BMD (r(2) = 0.34). All predictive models showed significance ( p Weight and BA were significant in determining predictive equations of OC and of S-CTx, whereas for BAP, weight and BMD of full body were selected.

  13. Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread reduces subsequent energy intake with no effect on post-prandial glucose and cholesterol in healthy, overweight males. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A C; Fairclough, A C; Mahadevan, K; Paxman, J R

    2012-02-01

    It is well recognised that the consumption of seaweed isolates (such as alginate) successfully reduce energy intake and modulate glycaemic and cholesterolaemic responses. However, to date, the effect of adding whole seaweed to bread has not been widely investigated. Hence, this study aims to investigate the acceptability of Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread as part of a meal, and measure its effect on energy intake and nutrient absorption in overweight, healthy males to see if it has a similar impact. Results from the acceptability study, (79 untrained sensory panellists) indicated that it is acceptable to incorporate seaweed (A. nodosum) into a staple food such as bread at concentrations of up to 4% per 400 g wholemeal loaf. A single blind cross over trial (n=12 males, aged 40.1±12.5 years; BMI 30.8±4.4 kg/m(2)) was used to compare energy intake and nutrient uptake after a breakfast meal using the enriched bread (4% A. nodosum) against the control bread (0% A. nodosum). Consumption of the enriched bread at breakfast led to a significant reduction (16.4%) in energy intake at a test meal 4 h later. Differences between treatment arms for area under the curve, peak values, and time of peak for blood glucose and cholesterol were not significant. Further investigation of potential mechanisms of action is warranted.

  14. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  15. The impact of psychosocial stress on healthy skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, H J A; Momen, S E; Kleyn, C E

    2015-07-01

    Dermatologists are only too aware of the significant role psychosocial stress plays in the exacerbation of skin disease; indeed, it is often the first precipitant patients mention when they attend outpatient clinics. Of late, research has focused on understanding the 'brain-skin' axis, a complex interplay between the nervous and immune systems and the skin. In particular, there is an evolving body of literature exploring the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by which psychosocial stress influences skin homeostasis. This article provides a broad overview of the literature, emphasizing the importance of individual stress perception and summarizing the varied roles of the major cutaneous stress-response pathways. Both central [the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) sympathetic adrenomedullary system] and peripheral (the intracutaneous HPA axis and the release of mediators from peripheral sensory and autonomic nerves) pathways are discussed. Moreover, how activation of these pathways affects the skin's immune system, barrier function, wound healing and susceptibility to infection is reviewed. Although this field of research is rapidly expanding, several important questions remain unanswered, including: what is the precise role of mast cells in the cutaneous stress response?; what is the role of regulatory T-cells?; can therapeutic intervention be harnessed to prevent the stress-induced exacerbation of skin disease? It is anticipated that an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which psychosocial stress affects the homeostasis of healthy skin will not only increase knowledge of the brain-skin axis but will also improve the holistic management of stress-responsive cutaneous disease.

  16. Time-Course Analysis of the Neuroanatomical Correlates of Sexual Arousal Evoked by Erotic Video Stimuli in Healthy Males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Gwang Won; Baek, Han Su; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  17. Time-course analysis of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal evoked by erotic video stimuli in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Gwang-Won; Baek, Han-Su; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2010-01-01

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  18. Human Pharmacokinetics of High Dose Oral Curcumin and Its Effect on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Klickovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has been proposed to exert pharmacological benefits by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. HO-1 expression may be affected by the GT length polymorphism in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We investigated the inducibility of HO-1 by orally administered curcumin in healthy male subjects and its correlation with the GT length polymorphism. Methods. In an open label uncontrolled phase-1 pilot study, ten male subjects received 12 g of oral curcumin. To investigate the effects of the GT length polymorphism on the inducibility of HO-1, five subjects with homozygous short and five with homozygous long GT genotypes were studied. Plasma concentrations of curcumin, bilirubin, HO-1 mRNA, and protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were analyzed over 48 hours. Results. At a detection limit of 1 µg/mL curcumin could not be detected in plasma of any subject. Compared to baseline, HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were not induced in PBMCs at any time point up to 48 hours. There was no correlation between any of the parameters and GT length polymorphism. Conclusions. Oral curcumin administration has low bioavailability and does not induce HO-1 on mRNA or protein level in PBMCs.

  19. Pharmacokinetic interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine: a randomized, open-labeled crossover study in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hae Sun Jeon,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Mi Young Bahng,2 Kyun-Seop Bae1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 2Clinical Development Department, Dong-A ST Co, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: “Udenafil” is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor indicated for erectile dysfunction. “Dapoxetine” is a serotonin transport inhibitor indicated for premature ejaculation. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine in healthy male subjects. Methods: An open-label, three-treatment, six-sequence, three-period crossover study was performed in healthy male subjects. In varying sequences, each subjects received single oral doses of udenafil 200 mg, dapoxetine 60 mg, and both treatments. The periods were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing. The plasma concentrations of udenafil and dapoxetine were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: Twenty-three healthy subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for udenafil were 0.923 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.863–0.987 and 0.864 (90% CI: 0.789–0.947, respectively. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for dapoxetine were 1.125 (90% CI: 1.044–1.213 and 0.837 (90% CI: 0.758–0.925, respectively. There were no serious adverse events reported, and none of the subjects dropped out due to adverse events

  20. A multi-ingredient, pre-workout supplement is apparently safe in healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Joy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-workout supplements (PWS have become increasingly popular with recreational and competitive athletes. While many ingredients used in PWS have had their safety assessed, the interactions when combined are less understood. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of 1 and 2 servings of a PWS. Design: Forty-four males and females (24.4±4.6 years; 174.7±9.3 cm; 78.9±18.6 kg from two laboratories participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either one serving (G1; n=14 or two servings (G2; n=18 of PWS or serve as an unsupplemented control (CRL; n=12. Blood draws for safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist before and after the supplementation period. Results: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group×time interactions (p<0.05 for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; CRL: 30.9±0.8–31.0±0.9 pg; G1: 30.7±1.1–30.2±0.7 pg; G2: 30.9±1.2–30.9±1.1 pg, MCH concentration (CRL: 34.0±0.9–34.4±0.7 g/dL; G1: 34.1±0.9–33.8±0.6 g/dL; G2: 34.0±1.0–33.8±0.8 g/dL, platelets (CRL: 261.9±45.7–255.2±41.2×103/µL; G1: 223.8±47.7–238.7±49.6×103/µL; G2: 239.1±28.3–230.8±34.5×103/µL, serum glucose (CRL: 84.1±5.2–83.3±5.8 mg/dL; G1: 86.5±7.9–89.7±5.6 mg/dL; G2: 87.4±7.2–89.9±6.6 mg/dL, sodium (CRL: 137.0±2.7–136.4±2.4 mmol/L; 139.6±1.4–140.0±2.2 mmol/L; G2: 139.0±2.2–138.7±1.7 mmol/L, albumin (CRL: 4.4±0.15–4.4±0.22 g/dL; G1: 4.5±0.19–4.5±0.13 g/dL; G2: 4.6±0.28–4.3±0.13 g/dL, and albumin:globulin (CRL: 1.8±0.30–1.8±0.28; G1: 1.9±0.30–2.0±0.31; G2: 1.8±0.34–1.8±0.34. Each of these variables remained within the clinical reference ranges. Conclusions: The PWS appears to be safe for heart, liver, and kidney function in both one-serving and two-serving doses when consumed daily for 28 days. Despite the changes observed for select variables, no variable reached clinical significance.

  1. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  2. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  3. The influence of impaction on the rate of third molar mineralisation in male black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olze, Andreas; van Niekerk, Piet; Schulz, Ronald; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schmeling, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    One of the main criteria used in dental age diagnostics in living adolescents and young adults is assessment of the mineralisation stage of the third molars. In the case of Europid populations, it has been established that impaction status has an influence on the rate of mineralisation of the third molars. In view of this, a study was undertaken to determine whether the chronological process of wisdom tooth mineralisation is dependent upon impaction status in black Africans too. Orthopantomograms (553) of 437 male and 116 female black South Africans with verified birth dates in the age group between 10 and 26 years were studied. Mineralisation stage and impaction status were determined for all third molars. Statistical measures were calculated for the mandibular wisdom teeth at stages F, G and H and for the maxillary wisdom teeth at stage H in the male gender for both impacted and non-impacted third molars. It was ascertained that the minimum age in persons with impacted third molars, depending on the wisdom tooth observed, was 0.19-2.57 years higher than in those with non-impacted wisdom teeth. Test persons with impacted mandibular wisdom teeth at stage F or G were on average between 0.32 and 1.88 years older than those with non-impacted mandibular wisdom teeth. The 50 % probability values of impacted wisdom teeth at stage H were 1.85-3.31 years higher than those in non-impacted wisdom teeth. The conclusion was drawn that in male black Africans, impacted mandibular wisdom teeth mineralise more slowly than non-impacted lower third molars. The presence of impacted mandibular wisdom teeth in mineralisation stage H in male black Africans does not, however, furnish proof of completion of the 18(th) year of life beyond reasonable doubt.

  4. Acute effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose metabolism and interleukin-6 concentration in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, M; Krüsmann, P J; Mersa, L; Eder, E M; Gatterer, H; Melmer, A; Ebenbichler, C; Burtscher, M

    2016-06-01

    Acute muscle-damaging eccentric exercise (EE) negatively affects glucose metabolism. On the other hand, long-term eccentric endurance exercise seems to result in equal or superior positive effects on glucose metabolism compared to concentric endurance exercise. However, it is not known if acute non-muscle-damaging EE will have the same positive effects on glucose metabolism as acute concentric exercise (CE). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) released from the exercising muscles may be involved in the acute adaptations of glucose metabolism after CE and non-muscle-damaging EE. The aim of this study was to assess acute effects of uphill walking (CE) and non-muscle-damaging downhill walking (EE) on glucose metabolism and IL-6 secretion. Seven sedentary non-smoking, healthy males participated in a crossover trial consisting of a 1 h uphill (CE) and a 1 h downhill (EE) walking block on a treadmill. Venous blood samples were drawn before (pre), directly after (acute) and 24 h after (post) exercise. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and 24 h after exercise. Glucose tolerance after 1 and 2 hours significantly improved 24 hours after CE (-10.12±3.22%: P=0.039; -13.40±8.24%: P=0.028). After EE only the 1-hour value was improved (-5.03±5.48%: P=0.043). Acute IL-6 concentration rose significantly after CE but not after EE. We conclude that both a single bout of CE and a single bout of non-muscle-damaging EE elicit positive changes in glucose tolerance even in young, healthy subjects. Our experiment indicates that the overall metabolic cost is a major trigger for acute adaptations of glucose tolerance after exercise, but only the IL-6 production during EE was closely related to changes in glycaemic control.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of pregabalin on simulated driving ability using a driving simulator in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tujii T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomoaki Tujii, Win Thiri Kyaw, Hirotaka Iwaki, Noriko Nishikawa, Masahiro Nagai, Madoka Kubo, Masahiro Nomoto Department of Neurology and Clinical Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Tohon Ehime, Japan Abstract: Pregabalin, a novel agent for treating partial epilepsy and peripheral neuropathic and central pain, was studied for its effect on driving performance in healthy volunteers. Sixteen healthy male volunteers who drove regularly were enrolled in a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study assessing the effect of pregabalin on driving performance. Subjects received an oral dose of pregabalin 75 mg or placebo, and a second dose 12 hours later. A driving simulator was used to test simple and complicated braking reaction time, and simple and complicated steering-wheel techniques before the first dose, and 1 hour and 3 hours after the second dose of pregabalin or placebo. The effect of training during the driving test on the driving performance of each group was also evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in driving performance between the pregabalin and the placebo groups. However, the pregabalin group showed no significant improvement in steering-wheel skills with training, whereas the placebo group showed a significant (P<0.05 improvement with training. In this study using a driving simulator, pregabalin did not impair driving performance but mildly reduced the training effects of driving experiments. Although pregabalin caused sleepiness, it had no severe effect on driving ability after a second dose of 75 mg after the initial introduction of pregabalin. Keywords: pregabalin, driving, volunteers

  6. Impact of the HEALTHY Study on Vending Machine Offerings in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstein, Jill; Cullen, Karen W.; Virus, Amy; El Ghormli, Laure; Volpe, Stella L.; Staten, Myrlene A.; Bridgman, Jessica C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Gillis, Bonnie; McCormick, Sarah B.; Mobley, Connie C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report the impact of the three-year middle school-based HEALTHY study on intervention school vending machine offerings. There were two goals for the vending machines: serve only dessert/snack foods with 200 kilocalories or less per single serving package, and eliminate 100% fruit juice and…

  7. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  8. Prozac impacts lateralization of aggression in male Siamese fighting fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HedayatiRad, Maryam; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Brown, Culum

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, preferentially use right-eye during the aggressive displays. However, administration of antidepressant drugs may disrupt eye-use preference in association with a reduction in aggression; a phenomena that has not been explored in fish. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of exposure to the antidepressant drug, fluoxetine, on lateralization in eye-use during aggressive displays in male Siamese fighting fish. Baseline aggression and lateralization in eye use of thirty fish were assessed toward live conspecifics, following which experimental subjects (n=15) were then exposed to fluoxetine (540ng/L) in a static renewal water system. Behavior was quantified again after 9 days of exposure. All of the subjects preferentially used the right-eye during aggressive responses before the exposure experiments. Fluoxetine exposed subjects showed a reduction in the time spent gill flaring as has previously been reported, indicative of a reduction in the level of aggression. Fluoxetine also had a significant effect on the lateralization in preferred eye-use while looking at their opponent. Fish exposed to fluoxetine switched from a preferential use of the right-eye during aggressive encounters prior to exposure to using their left-eye after exposure to fluoxetine. The results are discussed with regard to asymmetrical distribution of serotonin between the two brain hemispheres.

  9. Economic impact of kidney stones in white male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Scheaffer, R L

    1984-10-01

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountain states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approximate cost of various types of surgery, number of days hospitalized, and room rates. Work force costs were estimated from information on work days lost and income categories. Estimated recurrence rates for this disease are used to approximate the total cost, due to stones, for the next year for a current stone case. Each incident of stone disease costs, on the average, approximately $2,000, exclusive of recurrences. Hospital stays average four to five days. The average annual cost of recurrence for a current stone case is conservatively estimated to be in the $300 to $400 range. A conservative projection of these costs to the entire national population of white males in the age range of eighteen to sixty years yields an annual cost due to kidney stones approaching $315,000,000.

  10. Mixed Impact of Firearms Restrictions on Fatal Firearm Injuries in Males: A National Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Gjertsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public health organizations have recommended restricted access and safe storage practices as means to reduce firearm injuries and deaths. We aimed to assess the effect of four firearm restrictions on firearm deaths in Norway 1969–2009. Methods: All deaths due to firearm discharge were included (5,660 deaths, both sexes. The statistical analysis to assess impact of firearm legislations was restricted to males because of the sex disproportionality (94% were males. Results: A total of 89% of firearm deaths (both sexes were classified as suicide, 8% as homicide, and 3% as unintentional (accident. During the past four decades, male accidental firearm death rates were reduced significantly by 90%. Male firearms suicide rates increased from 1969 to 1991 by 166%, and decreased by 62% from 1991 to 2009. Despite the great reduction in male accidental firearm deaths, we were unable to demonstrate effects of the laws. In contrast, we found that a 1990 regulation, requiring a police permit before acquiring a shotgun, had a beneficial impact on suicide in the total sample and in those aged 15–34 years. Male firearm homicides decreased post-2003 regulation regarding storing home guard weapons in private homes. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that two laws could have contributed to reduce male firearm mortality. It is, however, a challenge to measure the role of four firearm restrictions. The null findings are inconclusive, as they may reflect no true impact or study limitations.

  11. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sadek Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  12. Use of pharmacist blood pressure telemonitoring systems in diagnosis of nocturnal hypertension in a young healthy male

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    Mizuno T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,* Chizuru Matsumoto,1,* Nobuko Nabetani,2 Yoshinari Yasuda,3 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Norimasa Umemura2 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Haruka Community Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Blood pressure (BP telemonitoring systems and pharmacist management programs were introduced into Haruka Community Pharmacy. A 22-year-old healthy male came to the community pharmacy, although he was not in a diseased state, he had been informed previously that he had a moderately high BP during a routine examination. He continued home BP telemonitoring for 28 days. A pharmacist intervention was conducted at 2 week intervals. His average nighttime systolic BP was higher than the daytime systolic BP. The pharmacist consulted a doctor based on the BP telemonitoring results, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was initiated. The doctor detected nocturnal hypertension based on the results of ABPM monitoring. BP telemonitoring systems have been introduced into a small percentage of pharmacies in Japan, and this is the first case report for the usefulness of these systems in a community pharmacy. Keywords: community pharmacy, management, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  13. Orally given gastroprotective capsaicin does not modify aspirin-induced platelet aggregation in healthy male volunteers (human phase I examination).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, B; Papp, J; Mozsik, Gy; Szolcsanyi, J; Keszthelyi, Zs; Juricskay, I; Toth, K; Habon, Tamas

    2014-12-01

    Capsaicin is a well-known component of red pepper. Recent studies have shown that capsaicin could prevent gastric ulcer provoked by various NSAID-s like acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Primary objective of this human clinical phase I trial was to investigate whether two different doses of capsaicin co-administered with ASA could alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation. 15 healthy male subjects were involved in the study and treated orally with 400 μg capsaicin, 800 μg capsaicin, 500 mg ASA, 400 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA and 800 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA. Blood was drawn before and 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after the drug administration. After that epinephrine induced platelet aggregation was measured by optical aggregometry. Between treatments, volunteers had a 6-day wash-out period. Our results showed that capsaicin had no effect on platelet aggregation, while as expected, ASA monotherapy resulted in a significant and clinically effective platelet aggregation inhibition (p ≤ 0.001). The combined ASA-capsaicin therapies reached equivalent effectiveness in platelet aggregation inhibition as ASA monotherapy. Our investigation proved that capsaicin did not influence the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation, thus the capsaicin-ASA treatment would combine the antiplatelet effect of ASA with the possible gastroprotection of capsaicin.

  14. The effects of a special Agnus castus extract (BP1095E1) on prolactin secretion in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, P G; Gorkow, C; Schrödter, A; Rietbrock, S; Sieder, C; Loew, D; Dericks-Tan, J S; Taubert, H D

    1996-01-01

    The effects of three doses of a special Agnus castus extract (BP1095E1)--extracts from 120 mg, 240 mg and 480 mg of drug per day--were examined within the framework of a placebo-controlled clinical study of tolerance and prolactin secretion in 20 healthy male subjects during a period of 14 days. There was good tolerance during the study as regards the following: adverse effects, the effects on blood pressure and heart rate, blood count, Quick's test, clinical chemistry as well as testosterone, FSH and LH values. During each study phase the 24-hour prolactin secretion profile was measured from the penultimate to the final day, and the amount of prolactin release was monitored an hour after TRH stimulation on the last day. A significant increase in the 24-hour profile was registered with the lowest dose in comparison to placebo, the opposite being the case with the higher doses, i.e. a slight reduction. In contrast to the administration of placebo, the 1-hour AUC after TRH stimulation resulted in a significant increase with the lowest dose and a significant reduction with the highest dose. The results suggest effects of the special Agnus castus extract which are dependent on the dose administered and the initial level of prolactin concentration.

  15. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest.

  16. Anodal Stimulation of the Left DLPFC Increases IGT Scores and Decreases Delay Discounting Rate in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS, the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC task. Three experiments were conducted: Exp. 1 (N = 41 to study the left DLPFC, Exp. 2 (N = 49 to study the right DLPFC, and Exp. 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Exp. 1 to switch the experimental and control conditions. All participants were healthy male college students. For Exps. 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to either the HD- tDCS or the sham stimulation condition. For Exp. 3, participants were assigned to the condition they were not in during Exp. 1. Results showed that HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC increased IGT score, decreased the recency parameter in IGT, and lowered delay discounting rate (k in the ITC task. We discussed the potential roles of impulse control and time perception in mediating the effect of tDCS stimulation of left DLPFC on decision making. Our results have clinical implications for the treatment of disorders involving poor decision-making, such as addictions.

  17. Influence of food on the oral bioavailability of deramciclane from film-coated tablet in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabant, Sándor; Nemes, Katalin Balogh; Horváth, Viola; Tolokán, Antal; Grézal, Gyula; Anttila, Markku; Gachályi, Béla; Kanerva, Harri; Al-Behaisi, Samar; Horvai, George; Klebovich, Imre

    2004-11-01

    The effect of a high-fat meal on the oral bioavailability of deramciclane 30 mg tablet was evaluated in 18 healthy male volunteers in a randomised, single dose, two-way crossover study. The drug was administered following an overnight fast or a standardised high-fat breakfast. The plasma concentrations of deramciclane and N-desmethylderamciclane were determined by using a validated HPLC-MS -MS/MS method. An effect of food on the bioavailability was indicated if the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of geometric means of fed and fasted treatments was not contained in the equivalence limit of 0.8-1.25 for AUC and C(max). The ratios of the mean C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) values of deramciclane were 1.24 (90% CI 1.12-1.38) and 1.31 (90% CI 1.21-1.41) in fed versus fasted subjects, which overlapped but exceeded the equivalence limit. In contrast to the parent compound, the 90% CI of the mean ratios for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) of N-desmethylderamciclane were within the predefined range. The 24 and 31% increase in C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) of deramciclane, respectively, under fed condition is modest and probably has no clinical significance since it is relatively small compared to the inter-individual variability of these parameters.

  18. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO2 tension (PetCO2), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O2 uptake (VO2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO2; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV1, FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, M.; Kruger, R.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We wanted to test the impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage (TOD) defined as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arterioclerosis and microvascular damage. Design and method: In a population based cohort study of 2115 healthy subjects (1049......SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (24hDBP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by M-mode echocardiography, carotid plaques (CP) by carotid ultra sound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). To establish best model for association of LVMI, CP, PWV and UACR we used multiple linear regression analysis starting...... associated to hypertrophy, arteriosclerosis and microvascular damage in healthy subjects....

  20. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism Q192R affects the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in healthy males

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    Rimbach Gerald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is an HDL-associated enzyme with anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory properties that has been suggested to play an important protective role against coronary heart diseases and underlying atherogenesis. The common PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662, A>G, a glutamine to arginine substitution at amino acid residue 192, has been analyzed in numerous association studies as a genetic marker for coronary heart diseases, however, with controversial results. Findings To get a better understanding about the pathophysiological function of PON1, we analyzed the relationships between the Q192R polymorphism, serum paraoxonase activity and serum biomarkers important for atherogenesis. Genotyping a cohort of 49 healthy German males for the Q192R polymorphism revealed an allele distribution of 0.74 and 0.26 for the Q and R allele, respectively, typical for Caucasian populations. Presence of the R192 allele was found to be associated with a significantly increased paraoxonase enzyme activity of 187.8 ± 11.4 U/l in comparison to the QQ192 genotype with 60.5 ± 4.9 U/l. No significant differences among the genotypes were found for blood pressure, asymmetric dimethylarginine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol. As expected, MIP-2 alpha a cytokine rather not related to atherosclerosis is not affected by the PON1 polymorphism. In contrast to that, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is enhanced in R192 carriers (163.8 ± 24.7 pg/ml vs 94.7 ± 3.2 pg/ml in QQ192 carriers. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the common PON1 R192 allele may be a genetic risk factor for atherogenesis by inducing chronic low-grade inflammation.

  1. The effect of repeated intramuscular alfentanil injections on experimental pain and abuse liability indices in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, David Andrew; Smith, Michael T; Bigelow, George E; Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vatem; Strain, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli after repeated opioid exposures, has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. However, there is no accepted, prospective model of OIH after repeated opioid exposures currently available in humans. This study assessed a potential prospective OIH model. Double-blind intramuscular injections of a short-acting opioid (alfentanil 15 mcg/kg; N=8) were compared to active placebo (diphenhydramine 25 mg; N=3) on cold and pressure pain testing and standard abuse liability measures in eight 10-hour sessions (1 injection/session) over 4 to 5 weeks in healthy, pain-free males. Decreases from session baseline pain threshold (PThr) and tolerance (PTol) were calculated to represent hyperalgesia, and were assessed both within and across sessions. Mean decreases in cold PTol were seen in the alfentanil group at 180 minutes (-3.8 s, ±26.5) and 480 minutes (-1.63 s, ±31.5) after drug administration. There was a trend for differences between conditions on cold PThr hyperalgesia but not for pressure PThr. Alfentanil participants had greater mean ratings on Liking and High visual analog scales at peak effects (30 min), but these scores did not change across sessions. Repeated alfentanil exposures over 4 to 5 weeks resulted in within session decreases in cold pain tolerance from baseline but these differences were not substantially different from diphenhydramine controls. The results did not support the phenomenon of OIH in this model, although definitive conclusions regarding the existence of OIH in humans likely requires a larger sample size or an alternative model.

  2. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side effects as well as adjunctive treatments to inhibit these has been of major interest. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthy male volunteers (age: 36 ± 11 years; BW: 84 ± 12 kg; BMI=25.5 ± 2.5) whether adjunctive topiramate (TPM) administration opposes OLZ-induced weight gain over the course of 14 days treatment. In addition, we investigated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic characteristics as underlying and potentially predictive factors for weight regulation and/or metabolic derangements associated with OLZ and TPM treatment. While adjunctive TPM indeed reduced OLZ-induced weight gain (PTPM. Using multiple regression analysis, BW gain was the key factor explaining metabolic disturbances (e.g., plasma insulin- LDL interaction: PTPM treatment, nor its circulating levels, contributed to variation observed in ΔBW. In a second multiple regression analysis, we observed that a low baseline thyrotropin profile (TSHAUC) before the start of drug treatment was associated with an increase in ΔBW over the course of drug treatment (PTPM treatment did attenuate OLZ induced BW gain (PTPM treatment blocking OLZ-induced ΔBW gain. Others have shown that OLZ-induced BW gain is associated with improvement in brief psychiatric rating scores (BPRS); adjunctive TPM treatment may be a solution specifically for those subjects susceptible to OLZ-induced rapid weight gain who-on a therapeutic level-benefit most of OLZ treatment.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongseong; Lee, SeungHwan; Yi, Sojeong; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Bahng, Mi Young; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5) in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects. Methods A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated. Results After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2–3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9–28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7–5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20–80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0–t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20–80 mg. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 had an effect on the systemic exposure of DA-8031. DA-8031 was well tolerated after single doses of 80 mg or less. PMID:28331291

  4. Comparison of the impact of environmental stress on male and female skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblong, J E

    2012-06-01

    Past research on understanding gender differences of skin biology and its response to environmental insults has focused on morphological and gross physiological comparisons. In general it has been found that male skin has a greater susceptibility to being negatively impacted by environmental stressors, in particular ultraviolet radiation. These noted differences in response to environmental insults are probably due to a combination of underlying biologically based differences and variable sun-protection and skin-care product usage between genders. Overall, published data support the hypothesis that male facial skin undergoes significant challenges from environmental insults that lead to a more damaged condition compared with female skin. These changes occur both from acute insults and from the impact of cumulative chronic exposure. Appropriate sun protection should be viewed as an important step in male skin care and grooming habits.

  5. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Arme

  6. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Arme

  7. Impact of physical activity and exercise on male reproductive potential: a new assessment questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaamonde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Male athletes in general are subjected to the same causes of infertility as the general population, but sports practice itself may be possibly an additional infertility factor or, at least an aggravating factor for a previously existing fertility condition; on the contrary, being physically active has been hypothesized to favor hormonal and seminological processes and could be beneficial for fertility. In this relationship, the different inherent parameters of physical activity-exercise (training volume, intensity, objective, organization and frequency are of paramount importance. Therefore, this review discusses both the negative and positive impact of physical exercise on the male reproductive potential. Clear knowledge is lacking on this topic as incongruences exist due to the fact that studies lack standardization in assessment tools or research protocols. So that future studies can reveal more information regarding exercising male fertility, we introduce a unique questionnaire developed with the intent to help standardize future studies on male fertility and exercise.

  8. The Effect of Calcium or Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Leslie N; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K

    2015-10-01

    Research examining the preventative effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation has focused on children and females, leaving the effects on male bone mineral density (BMD) largely unexplored. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D for improving BMD in healthy males. Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Complete, CINHAHL Plus and PubMed databases were searched for studies including healthy males which provided participants calcium supplementation with or without vitamin D and used changes to BMD as the primary outcome measure. Between trial standardized mean differences of percentage change from baseline in BMD of femoral neck, lumbar spine, total body and total hip sites were calculated. Nine studies were included in the systematic review with six references totaling 867 participants contributing to the meta-analysis. Significant pooled effects size (ES) for comparison between supplementation and control groups were found at all sites included in the meta-analysis. The largest effect was found in total body (ES = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.406-0.883; p calcium and vitamin D supplementation for improving BMD in older males. There is a need for high quality randomized controlled trials, especially in younger and middle-aged male cohorts and athletic populations to determine whether supplementation provides a preventative benefit.

  9. Impact of Oral Iron Challenges on Circulating Non-Transferrin-Bound Iron in Healthy Guatemalan Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuemann, Klaus; Kroll, Sylvia; Romero-Abal, Maria-Eugenia; Georgiou, Niki A.; Marx, Jo J. M.; Weiss, Guenter; Solomons, Noel W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction:Oral iron as a supplement has been associated with adverse health consequences, especially in the context of young children with active malaria. A potential aggravating role of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) has been proposed. Material and Methods: NTBI responses in both a fasting an

  10. Impact of Oral Iron Challenges on Circulating Non-Transferrin-Bound Iron in Healthy Guatemalan Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuemann, Klaus; Kroll, Sylvia; Romero-Abal, Maria-Eugenia; Georgiou, Niki A.; Marx, Jo J. M.; Weiss, Guenter; Solomons, Noel W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction:Oral iron as a supplement has been associated with adverse health consequences, especially in the context of young children with active malaria. A potential aggravating role of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) has been proposed. Material and Methods: NTBI responses in both a fasting an

  11. Differential impact of glucose administered intravenously or orally on bone turnover markers in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westberg-Rasmussen, Sidse; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with type-1 (T1D) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of hip fracture. The underlying mechanisms may involve disturbances in the incretin hormones. Our aim was to clarify if glucose administration i.e. orally or intravenously differentially affects bone ...

  12. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dongseong Shin,1 SeungHwan Lee,2 Sojeong Yi,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,2 Joo-Youn Cho,2 Mi Young Bahng,3 In-Jin Jang,2 Kyung-Sang Yu2 1Clinical Trials Center, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 3Department of Product Development, Dong-A ST, Seoul, Korea Objective: DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5 in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects.Methods: A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated.Results: After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2–3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9–28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7–5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20–80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0–t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20

  13. Immediate Impact of Uni-nephrectomy among Bangladeshi Healthy Live Kidney Donors: BIRDEM General Hospital Experience

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    Palash Mitra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment option for end stage kidney disease. Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation; but it carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual. These donors remain at an increased risk of multiple medical problems for the rest of their life. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the immediate impact of uninephrectomy among kidney donors during the period of post-transplant hospital stay. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at BIRDEM General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2014. All kidney donors who had undergone graft nephrectomy during the study period were the study population. All the donors underwent Tc-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA renogram for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR. GFR was also estimated by different equations in both pre-transplant and post-transplant periods. Pre-uninephrectomy GFR and post-uninephrectomy GFR of donors were compared. Results: Total number of subjects was 81, male 48 and female 33. Mean age was 36.3 ± 9.9 years. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 8.2 ± 2.0 days. The mean pre-operative measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFRDTPA was 99.54 ± 19.06 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKD-EPI was 99.0 ± 18.55 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.855. In post-nephrectomy period mean urine output decreased from 2708.1 ± 842.8 to 2228.4 ± 702.4 mL/day (p=0.000. Mean SBP lowered from 120.3 ± 12.5 to 115.6 ± 9.2 mm of Hg (p=0.000 after nephrectomy. There was significant increase in blood urea (from 19.7 ± 5.7 to 30.4 ± 9.5 mg/dL, p=0.000 and serum creatinine (from 0.90 ± 0.16 to 1.26 ± 0.24 mg/dL, p=0.000 in post-uninephrectomy period. Mean mGFRDTPA of the subjects of non-nephrectomized kidney of the donors was 49.18 ± 9.50 mL/min/1.73 m2 and mean eGFRCKD-EPI of same kidneys was 69.09 ± 16.79 mL/min/1.73m2 (p=0.000 after uni

  14. Impact of male infanticide on the social structure of mountain gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Andrew M; Gray, Maryke; Basabose, Augustin; Uwingeli, Prosper; Mburanumwe, Innocent; Kagoda, Edwin; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Infanticide can be a major influence upon the social structure of species in which females maintain long-term associations with males. Previous studies have suggested that female mountain gorillas benefit from residing in multimale groups because infanticide occurs when one-male groups disintegrate after the dominant male dies. Here we measure the impact of infanticide on the reproductive success of female mountain gorillas, and we examine whether their dispersal patterns reflect a strategy to avoid infanticide. Using more than 40 years of data from up to 70% of the entire population, we found that only 1.7% of the infants that were born in the study had died from infanticide during group disintegrations. The rarity of such infanticide mainly reflects a low mortality rate of dominant males in one-male groups, and it does not dispel previous observations that infanticide occurs during group disintegrations. After including infanticide from causes other than group disintegrations, infanticide victims represented up to 5.5% of the offspring born during the study, and they accounted for up to 21% of infant mortality. The overall rates of infanticide were 2-3 times higher in one-male groups than multimale groups, but those differences were not statistically significant. Infant mortality, the length of interbirth intervals, and the age of first reproduction were not significantly different between one-male versus multimale groups, so we found no significant fitness benefits for females to prefer multimale groups. In addition, we found limited evidence that female dispersal patterns reflect a preference for multimale groups. If the strength of selection is modest for females to avoid group disintegrations, than any preference for multimale groups may be slow to evolve. Alternatively, variability in male strength might give some one-male groups a lower infanticide risk than some multimale groups, which could explain why both types of groups remain common.

  15. Impact of male infanticide on the social structure of mountain gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Robbins

    Full Text Available Infanticide can be a major influence upon the social structure of species in which females maintain long-term associations with males. Previous studies have suggested that female mountain gorillas benefit from residing in multimale groups because infanticide occurs when one-male groups disintegrate after the dominant male dies. Here we measure the impact of infanticide on the reproductive success of female mountain gorillas, and we examine whether their dispersal patterns reflect a strategy to avoid infanticide. Using more than 40 years of data from up to 70% of the entire population, we found that only 1.7% of the infants that were born in the study had died from infanticide during group disintegrations. The rarity of such infanticide mainly reflects a low mortality rate of dominant males in one-male groups, and it does not dispel previous observations that infanticide occurs during group disintegrations. After including infanticide from causes other than group disintegrations, infanticide victims represented up to 5.5% of the offspring born during the study, and they accounted for up to 21% of infant mortality. The overall rates of infanticide were 2-3 times higher in one-male groups than multimale groups, but those differences were not statistically significant. Infant mortality, the length of interbirth intervals, and the age of first reproduction were not significantly different between one-male versus multimale groups, so we found no significant fitness benefits for females to prefer multimale groups. In addition, we found limited evidence that female dispersal patterns reflect a preference for multimale groups. If the strength of selection is modest for females to avoid group disintegrations, than any preference for multimale groups may be slow to evolve. Alternatively, variability in male strength might give some one-male groups a lower infanticide risk than some multimale groups, which could explain why both types of groups remain

  16. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single-dose oral tolvaptan in fasted and non-fasted states in healthy Caucasian and Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaf, Susan E; Kim, Seong Ryul; Bricmont, Patricia; Mallikaarjun, Suresh

    2012-12-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tolvaptan in Caucasian and Japanese healthy male subjects under fasting and non-fasting conditions. This was a single-center, parallel-group, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover trial of single oral doses of tolvaptan 30 mg under fasting and non-fasting [a high-fat, high-calorie meal (HFM) or Japanese standard meal] conditions in 25 healthy male Caucasian subjects and 24 healthy male Japanese subjects. Pharmacodynamic endpoints were urine volume and fluid balance for 0 to 24 h postdose. In the fasted state, the plasma tolvaptan C(max) and AUC(∞) geometric mean ratios (90 % confidence interval) were 1.105 (0.845-1.444) and 1.145 (0.843-1.554) for Japanese compared to Caucasian subjects. A HFM increased the C(max) and AUC(∞) values by about 1.15-fold in both Japanese and Caucasian subjects.. Twenty-four-hour urine volumes paralleled pharmacokinetic changes, but the increases were not clinically significant. Fluid balance in the Japanese men was 1.4- to 2.0-fold more negative than that in the Caucasian men. Tolvaptan pharmacokinetics is not clinically significantly affected by race. Body weight is a factor that affects exposure. Tolvaptan can be administered with or without food.

  18. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and watching an erotic video for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively. We performed frequency-domain analysis using the EEGs with a distributed model of current-source analysis. The statistical nonparametric maps were obtained from the sessions of watching erotic and music videos (perotic stimuli decreased the current-source density of the high beta frequency band in the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in the baseline EEGs taken before sertraline intake (perotic stimuli did not induce any changes in current-source distribution of the brain 4 hours after sertraline intake. It is speculated that erotic stimuli may decrease the function of the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in healthy adult males. This change may debase the inhibitory control of the brain against erotic stimuli. Sertraline may reduce the decrement in inhibitory control.

  19. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); S. Moses (Stephen); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); R.C. Bailey (Robert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcisio

  20. Impact of endoscopy-based research on quality of life in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander; Link; Gerhard; Treiber; Brigitte; Peters; Thomas; Wex; Peter; Malfertheiner

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the impact of an endoscopy-based long-term study on the quality of life in healthy volunteers(HV).METHODS:Ten HV were included into a long-term prospective endoscopy-based placebo-controlled trial with 15 endoscopic examinations per person in 5 different drug phases.Participants completed short form-36(SF-36) and visual analog scale-based questionnaires(VAS) for different abdominal symptoms at days 0,7 and 14 of each drug phase.Analyses wereperformed according to short-and long-term changes and...

  1. Impact of bolus volume on small intestinal intra-luminal impedance in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam; Q; Nguyen; Laura; K; Bryant; Carly; M; Burgstad; Robert; J; Fraser; Daniel; Sifrim; Richard; H; Holloway

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of bolus volume on the characteristics of small intestinal (SI) impedance signals.METHODS: Concurrent SI manometry-impedance measurements were performed on 12 healthy volunteers to assess the pattern of proximal jejunal fluid bolus movement over a 14 cm-segment.Each subject was given 34 boluses of normal saline (volume from 1 to 30 mL) via the feeding tube placed immediately above the proximal margin of the studied segment.A bolus-induced impedance event occurred if there was > 12%...

  2. Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; West, Delia Smith; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Elaine Prewitt, T

    2010-06-01

    Availability and price of healthy foods in food stores has the potential to influence purchasing patterns, dietary intake, and weight status of individuals. This study examined whether demographic factors of the store neighborhood or store size have an impact on the availability and price of healthy foods in sample of grocery stores and supermarkets. The Nutrition Environment Measures Study-Store (NEMS-S) instrument, a standardized observational survey, was utilized to evaluate food stores (N = 42) in a multi-site (Vermont and Arkansas) study in 2008. Census data associated with store census tract (median household income and proportion African-American) were used to characterize store neighborhood and number of cash registers was used to quantify store size. Median household income was significantly associated with the NEMS healthy food availability score (r = 0.36, P store size (r = 0.27, P = 0.09) were significantly related to the Availability score. Larger store size (r = 0.40, P Price scores, indicating more favorable prices for healthier items; neither racial composition nor median household income were significantly related to the Price score (P's > 0.05). Even among supermarkets, healthier foods are less available in certain neighborhoods, although, when available, the quality of healthier options did not differ, suggesting that targeting availability may offer promise for policy initiatives. Furthermore, increasing access to larger stores that can offer lower prices for healthier foods may provide another avenue for enhancing food environments to lower disease risk.

  3. The cost and impact of male circumcision on HIV/AIDS in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollinger Lori A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a major issue facing Botswana, with overall adult HIV prevalence estimated to be 25.7 percent in 2007. This paper estimates the cost and impact of the draft Ministry of Health male circumcision strategy using the UNAIDS/WHO Decision-Makers' Programme Planning Tool (DMPPT. Demographic data and HIV prevalence estimates from the recent National AIDS Coordinating Agency estimations are used as input to the DMPPT to estimate the impact of scaling-up male circumcision on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These data are supplemented by programmatic information from the draft Botswana National Strategy for Safe Male Circumcision, including information on unit cost and program goals. Alternative scenarios were developed in consultation with stakeholders. Results suggest that scaling-up adult and neonatal circumcision to reach 80% coverage by 2012 would result in averting almost 70,000 new HIV infections through 2025, at a total net cost of US$47 million across that same period. This results in an average cost per HIV infection averted of US$689. Changing the target year to 2015 and the scale-up pattern to a linear pattern results in a more evenly-distributed number of MCs required, and averts approximately 60,000 new HIV infections through 2025. Other scenarios explored include the effect of risk compensation and the impact of increasing coverage of general prevention interventions. Scaling-up safe male circumcision has the potential to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana significantly; program design elements such as feasible patterns of scale-up and inclusion of counselling are important in evaluating the overall success of the program.

  4. Impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination on Estrogenic Activity in Human Male Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Plíšková, Martina; Vondráček, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jiřií; Kočan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomáš; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighbo...

  5. [The enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of desvenlafaxine sustained release tablet in Chinese healthy male volunteers after oral administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang

    2015-04-01

    A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.

  6. The introduction of health impact assessment in the WHO European Healthy Cities Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Erica

    2009-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has been a strong and persistent voice calling for the recognition of the role of health in development and of the impact of socio-economic development on health. Health impact assessment (HIA) is one mechanism that can be used to achieve this goal. The objective of this paper is to describe HIA practice in the WHO European Healthy Cities Network and present some of the initial learning from a collective approach to introducing this relatively new methodology into municipal business. One of the foundations for this was a European Union (EU)-funded project entitled Promoting and Supporting Integrated Approaches for Health and Sustainable Development at the Local Level across Europe (PHASE). For Phase IV of WHO European Healthy Cities, HIA was made one of four core themes, and a sub-network in HIA was set up to support the introduction and development of the methodology. The use of HIA by four cities in the Network-Belfast, Onex-Geneve, Helsingborg, Bologna-illustrates the challenges and successes experienced in the initial stages of Phase IV.

  7. THE IMPACT OF PILATES EXERCISES ON THE POSTURAL ALIGNMENT OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Krawczky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Exercises of Pilates method have been widely used to improve postural alignment. There is strong evidence favoring their use in improving flexibility and balance, as well as some evidence of improvement in muscle strength. However, the benefits related to posture are not well established. Objective: To investigate in healthy adults, the impact of the Pilates method in the postural alignment through some angles in the sagittal plane and the occurrence of pain before and after an exercise session, and after the completion of a 16-session program. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study of pre and post-intervention type. Healthy adults (n = 37 interested in starting Pilates were evaluated for acute effects on posture after a Pilates session (n = 37 and after a 16-session program, for a period of 10 weeks (n = 13. Using the postural assessment software (SAPO, six angles were analyzed: head horizontal alignment (HHA, pelvis horizontal alignment (PHA, hip angle (HA, vertical alignment of the body (VAB, thoracic kyphosis (TK, and lumbar lordosis (LL. The occurrence of pain was investigated to control adverse effects. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05 differences found after one session include increased HHA (left view, decreased VAB (left view and TK (both side views. After 16 sessions, we observed an increase of HHA, and a decrease of TK, LL (both side views and HA (right view. All the differences point to an improvement of postural alignment. A significant reduction of prevalence of pain was verified after the first session (40.5% vs. 13.5%; p=0.004 and after the full program (30.8% vs. 15.3%; p=0.02. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Pilates method has a positive impact on postural alignment in healthy adults, besides being a safe exercise.

  8. The Impact of Illicit Use of Amphetamine on Male Sexual Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Nan-Hua; Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Data concerning the impact of amphetamine on male sexual functions are limited, although amphetamine has been used as an aphrodisiac. This cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions. Male illicit drug users in a Drug Abstention and Treatment Center were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and data were compared with age-matched controls. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and global assessment questions were used to assess sexual functions. Of 1,159 amphetamine mono-illicit drug users, the mean age was 31.9 ± 7.5 (18-57) years, and mean duration of drug use was 30.7 ± 52.2 (median 9, range 0.1-252) months. Half of them reported that drug use had no impact on their sexual functions. The other half reported drug impacts as reduced erectile rigidity and sexual life satisfaction, enhanced orgasmic intensity, and prolonged ejaculation latency time more often than the opposite effects, while they reported enhanced or reduced effect equally on sexual desire. Dosing frequency of amphetamine was associated with its impact on sexual functions, but duration of its use had little association with that. Compared with 211 age-matched controls, the amphetamine mono-illicit drug users had lower IIEF scores in the domains of erectile function, orgasmic function, and overall satisfaction, but there are no significant differences in intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire scores. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) was significantly higher in the drug users than in the controls (29.3% vs. 11.9%). The odds ratio of ED for amphetamine use was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.6) after adjustment for other risk factors. The impact of illicit use of amphetamine on male sexual functions varied among users, and their ED prevalence was higher than the controls. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Impact of Fibromyalgia in the Sit-to-Stand-to-Sit Performance Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction in the ability to perform activities of daily living. Sit-to-stand-to-sit performance is one of the most common activities of daily living and often is evaluated by counting the number of repetitions of the 30-second chair-stand test. No study, however, has examined the performance over the 30 seconds of this test of female patients with fibromyalgia on a phase-by-phase basis. To evaluate the impact of fibromyalgia on performance of the 30-second chair-stand test and to analyze how the kinematic performance changed over the 30-second test period. A cross-sectional study. Local association of fibromyalgia. Fifteen females with fibromyalgia and nine healthy female controls. Participants performed the 30-second chair-stand test while wearing a motion capture device. Duration of each sit-to-stand-to-sit phase within the 30-second time limit was compared between groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. The association between duration of phases and scores from the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was tested using bivariate correlations. The duration of impulse and sit-to-stand phases were gradually increased over the 30 seconds of the chair-stand test for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). The mean duration of these 2 phases was associated with symptom duration and the function domain of the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P sit-to-stand from a chair is a common daily activity, women with fibromyalgia may require specific exercises to improve performance of this task. Not applicable. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of acute exogenous melatonin on P50 suppression in healthy male volunteers stratified for low and high gating levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Ebru; Lehtinen, Emilia K; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2012-01-01

    Sensory gating is frequently found to be disturbed in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, a disruption of the circadian rhythm together with a low nocturnal melatonin output is regularly found in these patients. Since there is some evidence that a brief period of sleep normalizes sensory...... gating in schizophrenia patients, it is conceivable that their disrupted melatonin level may contribute to the deficits in P50 suppression. In this initial study, the effects of acutely administered melatonin on sensory gating in healthy subjects were investigated. In a double-blind placebo......-controlled crossover design, 21 healthy male volunteers were administered melatonin (4 mg) or placebo, after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm. In the group as a whole, melatonin did not affect P50 suppression. However, melatonin increased the P50 ratio in the individuals with high baseline...

  11. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.

  12. Impact of male partner’s awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Echezona E Ezeanolue; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Asaolu, Ibitola; Obiefune, Michael C.; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G.; Hunt, Aaron T.; Patel, Dina; Yang, Wei; Ehiri, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the growing body of evidence on use of modern contraceptives among women in sub-Saharan African countries, little is known about the broader context in which female decision-making concerning contraceptive use occurs, particularly the role of their male partners’ awareness and support of modern contraceptives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2468 pregnant women and their male partners enrolled in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), an intervention to in...

  13. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in biological samples of male human immunodeficiency virus patients with tuberculosis and diarrhea compared to healthy control subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Naveed; Naeemullah, Faheem Shah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-01-01

    Electrolyte deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression and mortality. This study examined the association between low electrolyte concentrations in blood and scalp hair and the presence of opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Sixty-two male HIV positive patients (HIV-1) from various cities in Pakistan were recruited to the study. These Patients were divided into two groups according to secondary infections (tuberculosis and high fever with diarrhea), and biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood and urine) were collected from them. As a comparative control group, 120 healthy subjects (males) of the same age group (31 - 45 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits were also included in the study. The elements in the biological samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials (CRMs) and against values obtained by a conventional wet acid digestion method on the same CRMs. The results indicated significantly lower levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium and natrium in all analyzed biological samples (blood, serum and scalp hair) of male patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.01), while the levels of these elements were found to be higher in urine samples of the AIDS patients than in those of the control group. These data offer guidance to clinicians and other professionals investigating the deficiency of electrolytes in biological samples (scalp hair, serum and blood) of AIDS patients in relation to healthy subjects.

  14. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers: Inter- and Intra-Individual Variance and Reproducibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Sejer Hansen

    Full Text Available Clinical pain models can be applied when investigating basic physiologic pain responses in healthy volunteers. Several pain models exist; however, only few have been adequately validated. Our primary aim with this prospective study was to investigate the intra- and inter-individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min in healthy volunteers.Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min., and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied.For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra-observer intra-person correlation of 0.85, 95% CI [0.78, 0.90], an intra-observer inter-person correlation of 0.03, 95% CI [0.00, 0.16], and a coefficient of variation of 0.17, 95% CI [0.14, 0.21] was demonstrated. Four percent of the study population had areas of secondary hyperalgesia both below the 1st and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006.We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary hyperalgesia. We conclude that brief thermal sensitization produce secondary hyperalgesia with a high level of reproducibility, which can be applied to investigate different phenotypes related to secondary hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02166164.

  15. A Case Study of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a Healthy 21-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of a healthy 21-year-old male, with no significant past medical history, who was found to have an incidental nonocclusive deep vein thrombosis in the right internal jugular vein detected on a head MRI previously ordered for work-up of headaches. A follow-up upper extremity venous Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a partially occlusive deep vein thrombosis in the right jugular vein. The case presented is unique for the reason that the patient is young and has no prior risk factor, personal or familial, for venous thrombosis except for associated polycythemia on clinical presentation.

  16. The effects on plasma L-arginine levels of combined oral L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Morita, Masahiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Kamimura, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of combining 1 g of l-citrulline and 1 g of l-arginine as oral supplementation on plasma l-arginine levels in healthy males. Oral l-citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation more efficiently increased plasma l-arginine levels than 2 g of l-citrulline or l-arginine, suggesting that oral l-citrulline and l-arginine increase plasma l-arginine levels more effectively in humans when combined.

  17. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  18. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction.

  19. "It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine": a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-05-29

    Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002-7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as 'gender appropriate', 'gender anomalous' or 'gender neutral'. A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as 'a young woman's illness', serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently 'female' and so 'anomalous' for men. Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying help-seeking, gaining late access to treatments and reducing chances of

  20. Impact of Consumers’ Self-Image and Demographics on Preference for Healthy Labeled Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Hanspal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more health conscious. Increasingly, products that are labeled “healthy” are being marketed as new retailers and new brands vie for the consumers’ share of wallet. This research identifies the self-image factors that constitute a health conscious image of the self and examines how self-image impacts consumer buying of foods that are labeled healthy. It also makes an effort to find out whether specific self-image factors are significantly associated with demographics. This study employs a scale consisting of 15 statements that included four statements from the Health Consciousness scale developed by Gould. The psychometric properties of the scale used in the study are reported. The study uses factor analysis to identify five factors of consumer self-image as they relate to health consciousness. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between demographics such as age, gender, education, and relationship status with the self-image factors and reports results for consumer preferences for choosing healthy foods when hungry. This research has important implications for marketers in the health food industry and for such other companies that might use consumer health consciousness as a basis for market segmentation and strategy design.

  1. A point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person supermarket education impacts healthy food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase (POP) intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention to usual care (no treatment). Setting A supermarket in a socioeconomically diverse region of Phoenix, Arizona. Participants One-hundred fifty-three adult shoppers were recruited on-site. Intervention The intervention consisted of brief shopping education by a nutrition educator and an explanation and promotion of a supermarket POP healthy shopping program that included posted shelf signs identifying healthy foods, sample shopping lists, tips, and signage. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included purchases of total, saturated, and trans fat (g/1000 kcals), and fruits, vegetables, and dark green and bright yellow vegetables (servings/1000 kcals) derived through nutritional analysis of participant shopping baskets. Analysis Analysis of covariance compared the intervention and control groups on food purchasing patterns while adjusting for household income. Results The intervention resulted in greater purchasing of fruit and green and yellow vegetables. No other group differences were observed. Conclusions and Implications Long-term evaluations of supermarket interventions should be conducted to improve the evidence base, and to determine the potential for impact on food choices associated with decreased chronic disease. PMID:22104016

  2. Impact of implementation and conduct of the HEALTHY primary prevention trial on student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arthur E; Marcus, Marsha D; Hirst, Kathryn; Faith, Myles S; Goldberg, Linn; Treviño, Roberto P

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether a school-wide intervention program to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) affected student achievement, rates of disciplinary actions, and attendance rates. The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed to evaluate a comprehensive school-based intervention to reduce factors for T2D, especially overweight and obesity. Students were followed up from beginning of sixth grade (Fall 2006) through end of eighth grade (Spring 2009). Forty-two middle schools at seven U.S. sites. Schools were randomized in equal numbers at each site to intervention (21 schools, 2307 students) or control (21 schools, 2296 students). Intervention . An integrated school-wide program that focused on (1) foods and beverages, (2) physical education, (3) classroom-based behavior change and education, and (4) social marketing communication and promotional campaigns. Aggregate (grade- and school-wide) test performance (passing rate), attendance, and referrals for disciplinary actions. Descriptive statistics and tests of intervention versus control using mixed linear models methods to adjust for the clustering of students within schools. There were no differences between intervention and control schools in test performance for mathematics (p = .7835) or reading (p = .6387), attendance (p = .5819), or referrals for disciplinary action (p = .8671). The comprehensive HEALTHY intervention and associated research procedures did not negatively impact student achievement test scores, attendance, or referrals for disciplinary action.

  3. [Impact of the economic crisis on the right to a healthy diet. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antentas, Josep Maria; Vivas, Esther

    2014-06-01

    The present article analyzes the impact of the economic crisis on food consumption in Spain, the most affected social profiles, and the consequences of changing patterns of food consumption on health. This article is based on official reports and previous empirical studies. The crisis has affected diet and food consumption. Families are attempting to spend less money on food. Food insecurity is rising and the most affected groups are those spending a higher proportion of their income on food. Cuts in food spending run parallel with unhealthy eating habits that encourage obesity. Consequently, the crisis contributes to undermining the right to a healthy diet, recognized by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the United Nations. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype determines effect of reboxetine on emotional memory in healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ayana A.; Bautista, Carla E.; Mowlem, Florence D.; Naudts, Kris H.; Duka, Dora T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamines in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). A common polymorphism in the COMT gene (COMT val158met) has pleiotropic effects on cognitive and emotional processing. The met allele has been associated with enhanced cognitive processing but impaired emotional processing relative to the val allele. Methods We genotyped healthy, white men in relation to the COMT val158met polymorphism. They were given a single 4 mg dose of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine or placebo in a randomized, double-blind between-subjects model and then completed an emotional memory task 2 hours later. Results We included 75 men in the study; 41 received reboxetine and 34 received placebo. In the placebo group, met/met carriers did not demonstrate the usual memory advantage for emotional stimuli that was observed in val carriers. Reboxetine restored this emotional enhancement of memory in met/met carriers, but had no significant effect in val carriers. Limitations We studied only men, thus limiting the generalizability of our findings. We also relied on self-reported responses to screening questions to establish healthy volunteer status, and in spite of the double-blind design, participants were significantly better than chance at identifying their intervention allocation. Conclusion Emotional memory is impaired in healthy met homozygotes and selectively improved in this group by reboxetine. This has potential translational implications for the use of reboxetine, which is currently licensed as an antidepressant in several countries, and edivoxetine, a new selective NRI currently in development. PMID:24467942

  5. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  6. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  7. Systemic, cerebral and skeletal muscle ketone body and energy metabolism during acute hyper-D-β-hydroxybutyratemia in post-absorptive healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ketone bodies are substrates during fasting and when on a ketogenic diet not the least for the brain and implicated in the management of epileptic seizures and dementia. Moreover, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (HOB) is suggested to reduce blood glucose and fatty acid levels. OBJECTIVES: The object......CONTEXT: Ketone bodies are substrates during fasting and when on a ketogenic diet not the least for the brain and implicated in the management of epileptic seizures and dementia. Moreover, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (HOB) is suggested to reduce blood glucose and fatty acid levels. OBJECTIVES......: The objectives of this study were to quantitate systemic, cerebral, and skeletal muscle HOB utilization and its effect on energy metabolism. DESIGN: Single trial. SETTING: Hospital. PARTICIPANT: Healthy post-absorptive males (n = 6). INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were studied under basal condition and three...... concentration decreases glucose production and lipolysis in post-absorptive healthy males. Moreover, cerebral HOB uptake and oxidation rates are linearly related to the arterial HOB concentration of importance for modifying brain energy utilization, potentially of relevance for patients with epileptic seizures...

  8. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour use of Kinesiotaping (KT on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old were randomly allocated into two groups: 1 Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation; 2 Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension. Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1 familiarization; 2 baseline measurement without tape (BL; 3 immediately post-tape application (T0; 4 24h (T24; and 5 48h (T48 post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT and triple hop tests (THT, vertical jump height (VJH, vertical jump power (VJP, and rate of force development (RFD. A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. Results No significant (p >0.05 differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05. Conclusion The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance.

  9. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  10. Quantitative measurement of vocal fold vibration in male radio performers and healthy controls using high-speed videoendoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Warhurst

    Full Text Available Acoustic and perceptual studies show a number of differences between the voices of radio performers and controls. Despite this, the vocal fold kinematics underlying these differences are largely unknown. Using high-speed videoendoscopy, this study sought to determine whether the vocal vibration features of radio performers differed from those of non-performing controls.Using high-speed videoendoscopy, recordings of a mid-phonatory/i/ in 16 male radio performers (aged 25-52 years and 16 age-matched controls (aged 25-52 years were collected. Videos were extracted and analysed semi-automatically using High-Speed Video Program, obtaining measures of fundamental frequency (f0, open quotient and speed quotient. Post-hoc analyses of sound pressure level (SPL were also performed (n = 19. Pearson's correlations were calculated between SPL and both speed and open quotients.Male radio performers had a significantly higher speed quotient than their matched controls (t = 3.308, p = 0.005. No significant differences were found for f0 or open quotient. No significant correlation was found between either open or speed quotient with SPL.A higher speed quotient in male radio performers suggests that their vocal fold vibration was characterised by a higher ratio of glottal opening to closing times than controls. This result may explain findings of better voice quality, higher equivalent sound level and greater spectral tilt seen in previous research. Open quotient was not significantly different between groups, indicating that the durations of complete vocal fold closure were not different between the radio performers and controls. Further validation of these results is required to determine the aetiology of the higher speed quotient result and its implications for voice training and clinical management in performers.

  11. Male sexual function can be maintained without aromatization: randomized placebo-controlled trial of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in healthy, older men for 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Gideon A; Ly, Lam P; Handelsman, David J

    2014-10-01

    Male sexual function is highly androgen dependent but whether aromatization of testosterone (T) to estradiol is required remains contentious. This study aims to investigate the effects of selective estrogen deficiency induced by a nonaromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), on sexual function of healthy middle-aged and older men. Randomized clinical trial of daily transdermal DHT (70 mg) or placebo gel treatment in 114 healthy middle-aged and older (>50 years, mean 60.5 years) men without known prostate disease maintaining selective estrogen deficiency for 24 months. The end points were responses to a psychosexual and mood questionnaire completed before, at 3 months, then at 6 monthly intervals during and 3 months after study. Data were analyzed by mixed model analysis of variance for repeated measures using age and body mass index (BMI) as covariates and including interactions of treatment with age and time-on-study. DHT treatment increased serum DHT with complete suppression of serum T, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and estradiol throughout the 24-month study resulting in reduced spinal bone density. There were no spontaneous complaints, or discontinuations for, adverse effects on sexual function during the study. DHT administration had no effects on any of 33 measures of sexual function and mood, apart from a mild, but significant decrease in overall sexual desire, which was reversible after cessation of treatment. Increasing age and less often increasing BMI were associated with significant decreases in most aspects of sexual function. We conclude that aromatization plays only a minimal role in maintenance of sexual function in healthy eugonadal middle-aged or older men, but age and obesity are significantly associated with decreases in most aspects of self-reported sexual function and satisfaction. The dependence of male sexual function on aromatization may be conditional on age and obesity and can be overcome by a

  12. Age-related changes in cardiovascular system, autonomic functions, and levels of BDNF of healthy active males: role of yogic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rameswar; Singh, Som Nath; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Saha, Mantu

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in cardiovascular, autonomic function, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Reports are scanty regarding whether yoga can improve age-related degenerative changes in healthy active men. This study is designed to appraise the role of yoga in improving age-related degenerative changes in cardiometabolic risk profile, autonomic function, stress, and BDNF. Healthy active males of three age groups (20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years) were randomly assigned to practice yoga daily 1 h for 3 months. Significantly higher values of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), load in heart (DoP), myocardial oxygen consumption (RPP), and total cholesterol (TC) were noted in senior age group. HR, BP, DoP, RPP, and TC decreased significantly following yogic practice. High frequency (HF), total power (TP), all time domain variables of heart rate variability (HRV), and skin conductance (SC) were significantly decreased with advancement of age. HF, TP, and time domain parameters of HRV and SC increased significantly following yogic practice. Higher levels of catecholamines and low frequency (LF) power of HRV was noted with advancement of age. Levels of catecholamines and LF significantly decreased following yogic practice. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level raised in senior age group. BDNF, serotonin, and dopamine were low in higher age group. Significant decrement of cortisol; ACTH; and increment in serotonin, dopamine, and BDNF was noted following yogic practice. This study revealed that yogic practices might help in the prevention of age-related degeneration by changing cardiometabolic risk factors, autonomic function, and BDNF in healthy male.

  13. Variation of semen parameters in healthy medical students due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that vary most in samples of healthy donors undergoing stressful examination period. ... Assessment of semen quality is based on an evaluation of several parameters ... having a very important impact on infertility in both males and females.

  14. Impact of mode of delivery on the milk microbiota composition of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Rubio, R; Mira-Pascual, L; Mira, A; Collado, M C

    2016-02-01

    Breast milk constitutes one of the most important sources of postnatal microbes. However, the influence of perinatal factors on the milk microbiome is still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of mode of delivery on the microbiome composition and diversity present in breast milk of healthy mothers. Mature milk samples (n=10) were taken from mothers after 1 month of exclusively breastfeeding. Microbiomes from milk samples were analyzed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing and targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite inter-individual variability in bacterial composition, The Principal Coordinates Analysis clearly separated milk microbiome from mothers with vaginal delivery (n=6) from those who undergo C-section (n=4). In addition, higher bacterial diversity and richness was found in milk samples from vaginal deliveries. Quantitative PCR data showed that higher levels of Bifidobacterium spp. were related significantly to lower levels of Staphylococcus spp. Despite the low sample size, our data suggest that mode of delivery has an important impact on milk microbiome composition. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results and to understand the biological effects of C-section associated microbes on infant's health.

  15. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  16. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n=82, enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  17. Maintenance of wakefulness with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, compared with placebo and armodafinil in healthy adult males undergoing acute sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maria; Freeman, Jon; Zammit, Gary; Donnelly, Patricia; Gao, Joseph; Ferreira-Cornwell, Maria Celeste; Roth, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated daytime alertness and performance with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate during acute sleep loss. In a randomized, double-blind study in healthy adult men (n = 135) undergoing 24-hour sleep loss, the alerting effects of single oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate doses (20, 50, or 70 mg) were compared with a placebo and an active control (armodafinil 250 mg). Primary end point was mean unequivocal sleep latency on the 30-minute maintenance of wakefulness test taken every 2 hours from midnight to 8:00 A.M. Secondary end points included the Karolinska sleepiness scale and psychomotor vigilance task. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Least squares mean (SE) maintenance of wakefulness test unequivocal sleep latency (in minutes) was longer with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 20, 50, and 70 mg, or armodafinil 250 mg (23.3 [1.10], 27.9 [0.64], 29.3 [0.44], or 27.6 [0.63], respectively) versus placebo (15.3 [1.00]; P armodafinil (P = 0.0351) and armodafinil versus lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 20 mg (P = 0.0014). On Karolinska sleepiness scale, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 50 and 70 mg improved estimated sleepiness versus placebo (P ≤ 0.0002) and armodafinil (P ≤ 0.03). Active treatments improved psychomotor vigilance task performance versus placebo (P armodafinil (7.4% each) versus placebo (3.7%). Small mean increases in vital signs were observed with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and armodafinil. In sleep-deprived healthy men, alertness was greater with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and armodafinil versus placebo on the primary end point. Studies are needed in clinical populations and using longer durations of administration.

  18. Changes in Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, Malene

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anti-Mu¨ llerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by immature Sertoli cells, triggers the involution of the fetalMu¨ llerian ducts.AMHis a testis-specific marker used for diagnosis in infants with ambiguous genitalia or bilateral cryptorchidism. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe...... the ontogeny of AMH secretion through life in healthy males. Setting:This was a population-based study of healthy volunteers. Participants: Participants included 1027 healthy males from birth (cord blood) to 69 yr. A subgroup was followed up longitudinally through the infantile minipuberty [(in cord blood...

  19. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...

  20. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...

  1. Using ApoE Genotyping to Promote Healthy Lifestyles in Finland - Psychological Impacts: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaranta-Luoma, H-L; Luomala, H T; Puolijoki, H; Hopia, A

    2015-12-01

    Common health recommendations often incite very little public response, as people instead require individualized information. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological effects of personal genetic information, provided by different apoE genotypes, as a tool to promote lifestyle changes. This study was a one-year intervention study using healthy adults, aged 20-67 years (n = 107). Their experiences of state anxiety, threat and stage of change were measured three times over a 12 months period. These psychological experiences were assessed, during the genetic information gathering, for three groups: a high-risk group (Ɛ4+, n = 16); a low-risk group (Ɛ4-, n = 35); and a control group (n = 56). The psychological effects of personal genetic risk information were shown to be short-term, although the levels of state anxiety and threat experiences in the high-risk group both remained at a slightly higher level than in the baseline. Threat experiences differed almost significantly (alpha = 0.017) between the Ɛ4+ and Ɛ4- groups (p = 0.034). Information on the apoE genotype impacted the experience of cardiovascular threat; this effect was most intense immediately after genetic feedback was received. However, fears of threat and anxiety may not be an obstacle for using gene information to motivate healthy, stable adults towards making lifestyle changes. Further studies should thus focus on how to utilize genetic screening in prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  2. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and Whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Bønding, Signe Helbo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiog......Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration......, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P ... of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation....

  3. The impact of price reductions on individuals’ choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2015-01-01

    -labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals....... Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups...... of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals....

  4. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    -labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in calories, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals....... Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups...... of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals....

  5. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eDerntl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed a novel computerized decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010, which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors.Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors.

  7. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    -labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in calories, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals...

  8. Differential Impact of Message Appeals, Food Healthiness, and Poverty Status on Evaluative Responses to Nutrient-Content Claimed Food Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-01-01

    A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were partitioned into two groups, those below and those above the poverty line, and exposed to nutrient-content claimed advertisement treatments for healthy and unhealthy foods featuring the three appeals. The findings reaffirmed the interaction effects between perceivably healthy and unhealthy foods and different appeals reported in previous studies, and found interaction effects between consumer poverty level and response to the message appeals featured in the experimental food advertisements. Age, body mass index, current dieting status, education, and gender were examined as covariates.

  9. Schistosomiasis vaccine candidate Sm14/GLA-SE: Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity clinical trial in healthy, male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Coler, Rhea N; Parra, Juçara; Veloso, Valdilea; Jayashankar, Lakshmi; Pinto, Patricia M; Ciol, Marcia A; Bergquist, Robert; Reed, Steven G; Tendler, Miriam

    2016-01-20

    Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant 14kDa, fatty acid-binding protein(FABP) from Schistosoma mansoni (rSm14) were evaluated through an open, non-placebo-controlled, dose-standardized trial, performed at a single research site. The vaccine was formulated with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) adjuvant in an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) and investigated in 20 male volunteers from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifty microgram rSm14 with 10 μg GLA-SE (rSm14/GLA-SE)/dose were given intramuscularly three times with 30-day intervals. Participants were assessed clinically, biochemically and immunologically for up to 120 days. Participants were screened for inclusion by physical examination, haematology and blood chemistry; then followed to assess adverse events and immunogenicity. Sera were tested for IgG (total and isotypes) and IgE. T cell induction of cytokines IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IFNγ and TNFα was assessed by Milliplex kit and flow cytometry. The investigational product showed high tolerability; some self-limited, mild adverse events were observed during and after vaccine administration. Significant increases in Sm14-specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were observed 30 days after the first vaccination with specific IgG2 and IgG4 after 60 days. An increase in IgE antibodies was not observed at any time point. The IgG response was augmented after the second dose and 88% of all vaccinated subjects had developed high anti-Sm14 IgG titres 90 days after the first injection. From day 60 and onwards, there was an increase in CD4(+) T cells producing single cytokines, particularly TNFα and IL-2, with no significant increase of multi-functional TH1 cells. Clinical trial data on tolerability and specific immune responses after vaccination of adult, male volunteers in a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis with rSm14/GLA-SE, support this product as a safe, strongly immunogenic vaccine against schistosomiasis paving the way for

  10. The Motivational Impact of Wearable Healthy Lifestyle Technologies: A Self-Determination Perspective on Fitbits with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Charlotte; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable numbers of young people are not meeting physical activity guidelines. Wearable fitness devices can provide opportunities for physical activity promotion. Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore whether wearable healthy lifestyle technologies impacted on adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) motivation for physical…

  11. Differential effects of acute cortisol administration on deep and shallow episodic memory traces: a study on healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, David; Galli, Giulia; Mazzocchio, Riccardo; Feurra, Matteo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-10-01

    We aimed at investigating rapid effects of plasma cortisol elevations on the episodic memory phase of encoding or retrieval, and on the strength of the memory trace. Participants were asked either to select a word containing the letter "e" (shallow encoding task) or to judge if a word referred to a living entity (deep encoding task). We intravenously administered a bolus of 20mg of cortisol either 5 min before encoding or 5 min before retrieval, in a between-subjects design. The study included only male participants tested in the late afternoon, and neutral words as stimuli. When cortisol administration occurred prior to retrieval, a main effect of group emerged. Recognition accuracy was higher for individuals who received cortisol compared to placebo. The higher discrimination accuracy for the cortisol group was significant for words encoded during deep but not shallow task. Cortisol administration before encoding did not affect subsequent retrieval performance (either for deep or shallow stimuli) despite a facilitatory trend. Because genomic mechanisms take some time to develop, such a mechanism cannot apply to our findings where the memory task was performed shortly after the enhancement of glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, glucocorticoids, through non-genomic fast effects, determine an enhancement in episodic memory if administered immediately prior to retrieval. This effect is more evident if the memory trace is laid down through deep encoding operations involving the recruitment of specific neural networks.

  12. Quantitative SPET 99Tcm-DMSA uptake by the kidneys: age-related decline in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshar, D; Gorenberg, M; Osamah, H

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate if 99Tcm-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99Tcm-DMSA) uptake by the kidneys is related to age and creatinine clearance in males with normal renal function, quantitative single photon emission tomography (SPET) of DMSA uptake by the kidneys was performed in 18 volunteers aged 20-79 years. The quantitative uptake of DMSA in the right kidney was 13.9 +/- 2.9% and in the left kidney 14.2 +/- 3.0%. There was no statistically significant difference between left and right kidney uptake (t = 1.2, N.S.). Global kidney uptake (right + left) was 28.1 +/- 5.9%. There was a statistically significant age-related decline in global DMSA uptake. The estimated DMSA uptake (%) was given by -0.27 x age + 42 (r = -0.87, P DMSA uptake (r = 0.87, y = 2.8x + 28.3, P DMSA uptake by the kidneys are age-dependent.

  13. Intrinsic heart rate recovery after dynamic exercise is improved with an increased omega-3 index in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macartney, Michael J; Hingley, Lachlan; Brown, Marc A; Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L

    2014-12-28

    Dietary fish consumption contributes to a reduced risk of cardiac mortality. In the present study, the effect of low-dose fish oil (FO) supplementation on heart rate (HR) response to intense exercise and recovery was investigated in physically fit males. The subjects (n 26) were supplemented (double-blind, parallel design) with (2 × 1 g/d) soya bean oil (control) or tuna FO providing the long-chain n-3 PUFA DHA (560 mg) and EPA (140 mg). Erythrocyte omega-3 index (%EPA+DHA), HR, HR variability and HR recovery were analysed during rest, intense exercise and recovery at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. The mean erythrocyte omega-3 index, which did not differ between the groups at baseline (control 4.2 (sem 0.2), n 13; FO 4.7 (sem 0.2), n 13), remained unchanged in the control group (3.9 (sem 0.2)), but increased in the FO group (6.3 (sem 0.3); Pexercise over 5 min, fewer total heart beats were recorded in the FO group (-22 (sem 6) ( = -4.5 beats/min)), but not in the control group (+1 (sem 4)) (Pexercise HR and improved HR recovery without compromising the peak HR. A direct influence of DHA via reductions in the cardiac intrinsic beat rate was balanced by a reciprocal decrease in vagal tone.

  14. Gonadal impact of target of rapamycin inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) in male patients: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Eric; Zairi, Anas; Nohra, Joe; Kamar, Nassim; Plante, Pierre; Rostaing, Lionel

    2007-04-01

    The immunosuppressive agents target of rapamycin inhibitors (TOR-I) (sirolimus, and everolimus) have been widely used in kidney transplantation for >10 years. Up to 40% of men receiving a kidney transplant are younger than 50, and fertility as well as erectile function are major concerns. In this review, we provide a synopsis of past studies focusing on gonadal function in men treated with TOR-I, mainly sirolimus, to establish what impact they have on male gonads, and which pathophysiological pathways are involved. A PubMed search for the years 1990-2006 selected articles that focused on the gonadal impact of TOR-I. Primary outcome measures were testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Secondary outcome measures were sexual function, fertility status and sperm parameters. Treatment with TOR-I results in a decrease in testosterone level, and an opposite increase in LH. Moreover, spermatogenesis seems to be disrupted by TOR-I and FSH levels are increased. Sirolimus and everolimus inhibit the activity of mammalian targets of rapamycin, a serine/threonine kinase involved in numerous cell-growth processes. Molecular mechanisms of action of TOR-I on the testis involve inhibition of a stem cell factor/c-kit-dependant process in spermatogonia. Preliminary results appear to show that TOR-I treatment has deleterious actions on the testis and impairs gonadal function after renal transplantation, but the impact of these effects are unknown.

  15. Impact of Surotomycin on the Gut Microbiota of Healthy Volunteers in a Phase 1 Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Dale, Suzanne E; Chesnel, Laurent; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea has been associated with disruption of the normal intestinal microbiota, particularly theBacteroides fragilisgroup andPrevotellaspecies. Surotomycin is a bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide in development for treatment ofClostridium difficile-associated diarrhea that has selective and potent activity againstC. difficileand other Gram-positive bacteria and a minimal impact on intestinal Gram-negative organisms. The impacts of ascending doses of surotomycin on major organism groups in the gut microbiota of healthy volunteers were evaluated during a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose phase 1 study. Thirty volunteers were randomized into 3 cohorts, using a 4:1 ratio, to receive 250 mg, 500 mg, or 1,000 mg of surotomycin, or placebo, twice daily for 14 days. Stool samples collected at baseline (days 0 and 1) and at the end of treatment (days 13 to 15) were cultured quantitatively. TheB. fragilisgroup, theBacteroides/Prevotellagroup, andEnterobacteriaceaewere also quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Baseline and end-of-treatment stool samples showed 1- to 2-log10CFU/g reductions in total bacterial counts for most volunteers. Various decreases in clostridial,Lactobacillus-Bifidobacteriumgroup, and enterococcus-streptococcus group counts occurred while patients were receiving surotomycin, whereas the enterobacteria and theB. fragilisgroup persisted at the end of treatment. There was no change in enterococcus MICs of surotomycin, nor was vancomycin-resistantEnterococcusdetected after exposure. Surotomycin at doses of up to 1,000 mg twice daily had only modest disruptive effects on the gut microbiota. The potential sparing of the gut microbiota by surotomycin may decrease the risk of disease recurrence.

  16. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, P<0.05). In conclusion, SR and CM both result in impaired autonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk.

  17. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release formulations of cilostazol after multiple oral doses in fed healthy male Korean volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Jong-Lyul Ghim,2 Jin Ah Jung,2 Sang-Heon Cho,3 Sangmin Choe,4 Hee Youn Choi,1 Kyun-Seop Bae,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, 4Clinical Trials Center, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea Background: A new extended-release form of cilostazol has recently been developed. This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of sustained-release (SR and immediate-release (IR formulations of cilostazol after multiple oral doses in healthy male Korean volunteers.Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, crossover study conducted in 30 healthy Korean subjects. In each treatment period, subjects received oral doses of 200 mg SR formulation every 24 hours or 100 mg IR formulation every 12 hours for 5 consecutive days in a fed state, with a washout period of 9 days. The plasma concentrations of cilostazol and its metabolites were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve within a dosing interval (AUCT, the measured peak plasma concentration at steady state (Cmax,ss, and the time to reach Cmax,ss (tmax,ss were analyzed using a noncompartmental method. Results: A total of 24 healthy male subjects completed the study. The mean (standard deviation [SD] AUCT (96–120 hours values for SR and IR were 27,378.0 (10,301.6 ng·h/mL and 27,860.3 (7,152.3 ng·h/mL, respectively. The mean (SD Cmax,ss values were 2,741.4 (836.0 ng/mL and 2,051.0 (433.2 ng/mL, respectively. The median tmax,ss values were 8.0 hours and 4.0 hours, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals of

  18. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J; Eskesen, D C; Andersen, P W

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers...... of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8...... weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood...

  19. Asymmetry of Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Dorsal Putamen and Body Mass Index in Non-obese Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-03-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of food intake, which is crucial for the maintenance of body weight. We examined the relationship between striatal dopamine (DA) D2/3 receptor availability and body mass index (BMI) in 25 non-obese healthy male subjects using [(11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography. None of [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP) values (measures of DA D2/3 receptor availability) in striatal subregions (dorsal caudate, dorsal putamen, and ventral striatum) in the left and right hemispheres was significantly correlated with BMI. However, there was a positive correlation between the right-left asymmetry index of [(11)C]raclopride BP in the dorsal putamen and BMI (r=0.43, pputamen relative to the left in non-obese individuals. The present results, combined with previous findings, may also suggest neurochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of food intake in non-obese individuals.

  20. The impact of dietary fat composition on serum leptin concentrations in healthy nonobese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Mario; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fobker, Manfred; Buyken, Anette; Posny, Nicole; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2002-11-01

    The recently discovered hormone leptin is primarily secreted by adipose tissue and serves as an internal signal indicating the size of body fat stores. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the dietary fatty acid composition on serum leptin concentrations. Therefore, serum leptin levels were measured by RIA in healthy nonobese men (n = 30) and women (n = 25). First, all participants received a baseline high-fat diet, rich in saturated fat, for 2 wk and were then randomly assigned to one of three high-fat dietary treatments, which contained refined olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, n = 19), rapeseed oil [rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), n = 17], or sunflower oil (rich in n-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, n = 19) as the principal source of fat for 4 wk. On the rapeseed oil diet, serum leptin concentrations increased slightly in men [+0.25 ng/ml, T(9) = -2.778, P = 0.021], but decreased distinctly in women [-4.70 ng/ml, T(6) = 5.083, P = 0.002]. Both the olive oil and the sunflower oil diet did not affect serum leptin concentrations. Thus, it is proposed that serum leptin levels were affected by the high amount of alpha-linolenic acid in rapeseed oil. However, questions remain as to why this diet differently affected serum leptin in men and women.

  1. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Pim; Akin, Su-Mia; Maud, Huynen; Mohsin, Raza

    2010-09-17

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.

  2. The impact of neuroscience on society: cognitive enhancement in neuropsychiatric disorders and in healthy people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakian, Barbara J.; Bruhl, Annette B.; Cook, Jennifer; Killikelly, Clare; Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Hafizi, Sepehr; Perez, Jesus; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to causing distress and disability to the individual, neuropsychiatric disorders are also extremely expensive to society and governments. These disorders are both common and debilitating and impact on cognition, functionality and wellbeing. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Other cognitive enhancers include specific computerized cognitive training and devices. An example of a novel form of cognitive enhancement using the technological advancement of a game on an iPad that also acts to increase motivation is presented. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as methylphenidate and modafinil, which were developed as treatments, are increasingly being used by healthy people. Modafinil not only affects ‘cold’ cognition, but also improves ‘hot’ cognition, such as emotion recognition and task-related motivation. The lifestyle use of ‘smart drugs' raises both safety concerns as well as ethical issues, including coercion and increasing disparity in society. As a society, we need to consider which forms of cognitive enhancement (e.g. pharmacological, exercise, lifelong learning) are acceptable and for which groups (e.g. military, doctors) under what conditions (e.g. war, shift work) and by what methods we would wish to improve and flourish. PMID:26240429

  3. INTEGRAL APPROACHES TO TEACHING SENIOUR SCHOOLCHILDREN AND THEIR IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT OF A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Goncharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the deterioration of health indicators among adolescents is an alarming tendency observed recently. The need for development of health-safeguarding behaviour in high school students of Saransk is obvious. The authors analysed the general health status of this group depending on implementation of various types of educational programmes in high schools. Materials and Methods: the data of arterial blood pressure, body mass index, food habits among high school students according to age, gender, nationality of schoolchildren and level of integration into educational programmes have been analysed. The research included 203 high school students from14 to 17 years old, 57 % boys and 43 % girls (grades 9 to 11 from two different schools of Saransk city with different educational programmes. Results: the research demonstrated a positive impact of sport programmes on health-preserving behaviour of high school students, resulted in stabilisation of arterial blood pressure, normal body mass and lower level of fast food consumption. Discussion and Conclusions: educational programmes focused on acceptance and implementation of healthy lifestyle could be considered as possible factors affecting health-preserving behaviour. The authors suggest paying more attention to these programmes’ inclusion into educational process.

  4. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Pim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.

  5. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all. PMID:20849605

  6. Longitudinal changes in isovolumetric bladder pressure in response to age-related prostate growth in 1,020 healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Sandra; Hop, Wim; Huang Foen Chung, John; van Mastrigt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    To non-invasively study if compensation and decompensation occurs in the urinary bladder of healthy male volunteers in response to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) using the condom catheter method. Between 2001 and 2010, 1,020 healthy male volunteers were included in a longitudinal study based on three non-invasive urodynamic examinations during a 5-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were an informed consent, the ability to void in a normal standing position and a minimum free flow rate of 5.4 ml/sec. Study parameters were prostate volume (PV), maximum free urinary flow rate (Q(max)) and bladder contractility, quantified by the maximum isovolumetric bladder pressure, measured in the condom (P(cond.max)). Volunteers also completed the International Prostate Symptom Score Form (IPSS). Within limitations, the included volunteers had a flat age distribution between 38 and 72 years. This made it possible to combine longitudinal analysis in a 5-year observation interval, with cross sectional analysis in a 35-year age range. Longitudinal analysis showed that with increasing age, PV increased with 1.9% per year, whereas Qmax decreased with 1.1% per year. IPSS increased with 1.1% per year when volunteers were older than 55 years. P(cond.max) increased during the 5-year longitudinal follow-up, but not in the cross sectional analysis. The difference between cross sectional and longitudinal results of the P(cond.max) may have been caused by compensation of the urinary bladder resulting in a selection effect. This would imply that compensation is a relatively fast process, taking approximately 5 years. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post

  8. Impact of co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder on cognitive function in male children with Tourette syndrome: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termine, Cristiano; Luoni, Chiara; Fontolan, Stefania; Selvini, Claudia; Perego, Livia; Pavone, Francesca; Rossi, Giorgio; Balottin, Umberto; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-09-30

    Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are co-morbid neurodevelopmental conditions affecting more commonly male patients. We set out to determine the impact of co-morbid ADHD on cognitive function in male children with TS by conducting a controlled study. Participants included four matched groups of unmedicated children (age range 6-15 years): TS (n=13), TS+ADHD (n=8), ADHD (n=39), healthy controls (n=66). Following clinical assessment, each participant completed a battery of tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Italian Battery for ADHD, the Tower of London test, the Corsi test, and the Digit Span test. All patient groups reported significantly lower scores than healthy controls across the neuropsychological tests involving executive functions. The TS+ADHD group was the most severely affected, followed by the ADHD group and the TS group, particularly in the tests assessing planning ability, inhibitory function, working memory and visual attention, but not auditory attention. Problems in executive functions are more common in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders than controls. Deficits in planning ability, inhibitory function, working memory and visual attention reported by children with TS appear to be more strongly related to the presence of co-morbid ADHD symptoms than core TS symptoms.

  9. Voluntary medical male circumcision: an introduction to the cost, impact, and challenges of accelerated scaling up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hankins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention is cost saving and creates fiscal space in the future that otherwise would have been encumbered by antiretroviral treatment costs. An investment of US$1,500,000,000 between 2011 and 2015 to achieve 80% coverage in 13 priority countries in southern and eastern Africa will result in net savings of US$16,500,000,000. Strong political leadership, country ownership, and stakeholder engagement, along with effective demand creation, community mobilisation, and human resource deployment, are essential. This collection of articles on determining the cost and impact of VMMC for HIV prevention signposts the way forward to scaling up VMMC service delivery safely and efficiently to reap individual- and population-level benefits.

  10. The impact of male migration from Morocco to Europe on women: a gender approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Sadiqi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a gender approach to the impact of male migrationfrom Morocco to Europe on women left behind. The pertinence of the topic stems from the fact that very few studies have been conducted on the subject. It is believed that such studies will help in the understanding of the the phenomenon of migration and help to find solutions for some of the problems it poses. More and more Moroccan women suffer as a result of the migration of their husbands, sons,fathers, etc. Their suffering is not only due to separation from the loved ones but also to the dire economic and social conditions that a heavily patriarchal context does not help to alleviate.

  11. The impact of social exclusion vs. inclusion on subjective and hormonal reactions in females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, E M; Silani, G; Metzler, H; Thaler, H; Lamm, C; Gur, R C; Kryspin-Exner, I; Habel, U; Derntl, B

    2013-12-01

    The experience of social exclusion represents an extremely aversive and threatening situation in daily life. The present study examined the impact of social exclusion compared to inclusion on steroid hormone concentrations as well as on subjective affect ratings. Eighty subjects (40 females) participated in two independent behavioral experiments. They engaged in a computerized ball tossing game in which they ostensibly played with two other players who deliberately excluded or included them, respectively. Hormone samples as well as mood ratings were taken before and after the game. Social exclusion led to a decrease in positive mood ratings and increased anger ratings. In contrast, social inclusion did not affect positive mood ratings, but decreased sadness ratings. Both conditions did not affect cortisol levels. Testosterone significantly decreased after being excluded in both genders, and increased after inclusion, but only in males. Interestingly, progesterone showed an increase after both conditions only in females. Our results suggest that social exclusion does not trigger a classical stress response but gender-specific changes in sex hormone levels. The testosterone decrease after being excluded in both genders, as well as the increase after inclusion in males can be interpreted within the framework of the biosocial status hypothesis. The progesterone increase might reflect a generalized affiliative response during social interaction in females. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Knockouts of high-ranking males have limited impact on baboon social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Mathias; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    Social network structures can crucially impact complex social processes such as collective behaviour or the transmission of information and diseases. However, currently it is poorly understood how social networks change over time. Previous studies on primates suggest that `knockouts' (due to death or dispersal) of high-ranking individuals might be important drivers for structural changes in animal social networks. Here we test this hypothesis using long-term data on a natural population of baboons, examining the effects of 29 natural knockouts of alpha or beta males on adult female social networks. We investigated whether and how knockouts affected (1) changes in grooming and association rates among adult females, and (2) changes in mean degree and global clustering coefficient in these networks. The only significant effect that we found was a decrease in mean degree in grooming networks in the first month after knockouts, but this decrease was rather small, and grooming networks rebounded to baseline levels by the second month after knockouts. Taken together our results indicate that the removal of high-ranking males has only limited or no lasting effects on social networks of adult female baboons. This finding calls into question the hypothesis that the removal of high-ranking individuals has a destabilizing effect on social network structures in social animals.

  13. Dietary flaxseed modulates the colonic microenvironment in healthy C57Bl/6 male mice which may alter susceptibility to gut-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Lepp, Dion; Zarepoor, Leila; Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Tsao, Rong; Liu, Ronghua

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases.

  14. The acute effects of the thermogenic supplement Meltdown on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamic responses in young, healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic supplement, Meltdown, on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamics before and after maximal treadmill exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 12 male participants underwent two testing sessions after consuming either the Meltdown or placebo supplement. While in a fasted state, participants rested for one hour, orally ingested either Meltdown or placebo and rested for another hour, performed a maximal treadmill exercise test, and then rested for another hour. Throughout the testing protocol, resting energy expenditure (REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were assessed. In addition, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed before and after exercise. Meltdown increased REE significantly more than placebo at 45 min (1.44 ± 0.25 vs. 1.28 ± 0.23 kcal/min; p = 0.003, 60 min (1.49 ± 0.28 vs. 1.30 ± 0.22 kcal/min; p = 0.025, and 120 min (1.51 ± 0.26 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 kcals/min; p = 0.014 post-ingestion. Meltdown significantly decreased RER at 30 min (0.84 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04; p = 0.022 and 45 min post-ingestion (0.82 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05; p = 0.042, and immediately post-exercise (0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.90 ± 0.07; p = 0.009. Furthermore, over the course of the evaluation period, area under the curve assessment demonstrated that REE was significantly increased with Meltdown compared to placebo (992.5 ± 133.1 vs. 895.1 ± 296.1 kcals; p = 0.043, while RER was significantly less than placebo (5.55 ± 0.61 vs. 5.89 ± 0.44; p = 0.002 following ingestion. HR and BP were not significantly affected prior to exercise with either supplement (p > 0.05 and the exercise-induced increases for HR and BP decreased into recovery and were not different between supplements (p > 0.05. These data suggest that Meltdown enhances REE and fat oxidation more than placebo for several hours after ingestion in fully rested and

  15. Relationships between lumbar inter-vertebral motion and lordosis in healthy adult males: a cross sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan

    2016-03-10

    Intervertebral motion impairment is widely thought to be related to chronic back disability, however, the movements of inter-vertebral pairs are not independent of each other and motion may also be related to morphology. Furthermore, maximum intervertebral range of motion (IV-RoMmax) is difficult to measure accurately in living subjects. The purpose of this study was to explore possible relationships between (IV-RoMmax) and lordosis, initial attainment rate and IV-RoMmax at other levels during weight-bearing flexion using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF). Continuous QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active sagittal flexion of 60° in 18 males (mean age 27.6 SD 4.4) with no history of low back pain in the previous year. IV-RoMmax, lordotic angle, and initial attainment rate at all inter-vertebral levels from L2-S1 were extracted. Relationships between IV-RoMmax and the other variables were explored using correlation coefficients, and simple linear regression was used to determine the effects of any significant relationships. Within and between observer repeatability of IV-RoMmax and initial attainment rate measurements were assessed in a sub-set of ten participants, using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). QF measurements were highly repeatable, the lowest ICC for IV-RoMmax, being 0.94 (0.80-0.99) and highest SEM (0.76°). For initial attainment rate the lowest ICC was 0.84 (0.49-0.96) and the highest SEM (0.036). The results also demonstrated significant positive and negative correlations between IV-RoMmax and IV-RoMmax at other lumbar levels (r = -0.64-0.65), lordosis (r = -0.52-0.54), and initial attainment rate (r = -0.64-0.73). Simple linear regression analysis of all significant relationships showed that these predict between 28 and 42 % of the variance in IV-RoMmax. This study found weak to moderate effects of individual kinematic variables and lumbar lordosis on IV-RoMmax at

  16. Modeling Costs and Impacts of Introducing Early Infant Male Circumcision for Long-Term Sustainability of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Peter; Kripke, Katharine; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Hatzold, Karin; Christensen, Alice; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be an effective prevention strategy against HIV infection in males [1–3]. Since 2007, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported VMMC programs in 14 priority countries in Africa. Today several of these countries are preparing to transition their VMMC programs from a scale-up and expansion phase to a maintenance phase. As they do so, they must consider the best approaches to sustain high levels of male circumcision in the population. The two alternatives under consideration are circumcising adolescents 10–14 years old over the long term or integrating early infant male circumcision (EIMC) into maternal and child health programs. The paper presents an analysis, using the Decision Makers Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), of the estimated cost and impact of introducing EIMC into existing VMMC programs in several countries in eastern and southern Africa. Limited cost data exist for the implementation of EIMC, but preliminary studies, such as the one detailed in Mangenah, et al. [4–5], suggest that the cost of EIMC may be less than that of adolescent and adult male circumcision. If this is the case, then adding EIMC to the VMMC program will increase the number of circumcisions that need to be performed but will not increase the total cost of the program over the long term. In addition, we found that a delayed or slow start-up of EIMC would not substantially reduce the impact of adding it to the program or increase cumulative long-term costs, which should make introduction of EIMC more feasible and attractive to countries contemplating such a program innovation. PMID:27410233

  17. Modeling Costs and Impacts of Introducing Early Infant Male Circumcision for Long-Term Sustainability of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Stegman, Peter; Kripke, Katharine; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Hatzold, Karin; Christensen, Alice; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be an effective prevention strategy against HIV infection in males [1-3]. Since 2007, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported VMMC programs in 14 priority countries in Africa. Today several of these countries are preparing to transition their VMMC programs from a scale-up and expansion phase to a maintenance phase. As they do so, they must consider the best approaches to sustain high levels of male circumcision in the population. The two alternatives under consideration are circumcising adolescents 10-14 years old over the long term or integrating early infant male circumcision (EIMC) into maternal and child health programs. The paper presents an analysis, using the Decision Makers Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), of the estimated cost and impact of introducing EIMC into existing VMMC programs in several countries in eastern and southern Africa. Limited cost data exist for the implementation of EIMC, but preliminary studies, such as the one detailed in Mangenah, et al. [4-5], suggest that the cost of EIMC may be less than that of adolescent and adult male circumcision. If this is the case, then adding EIMC to the VMMC program will increase the number of circumcisions that need to be performed but will not increase the total cost of the program over the long term. In addition, we found that a delayed or slow start-up of EIMC would not substantially reduce the impact of adding it to the program or increase cumulative long-term costs, which should make introduction of EIMC more feasible and attractive to countries contemplating such a program innovation.

  18. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced Anti-Müllerian Hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, Jan; Faber, J;

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers...... (mean age 35, range 29-46 years) were treated with GH for 3 weeks (1st week 0.01, 2nd week 0.02, 3rd week 0.03 mg/day/kg) or a GH receptor antagonist (Pegvisomant) (1st week 10, last 2 weeks 15 mg/day), separated by 8 weeks of washout. Before and after the two treatment periods, concentrations...... of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) were measured. During GH treatment, IGF-I increased [(median (IQR)] 166 (162-235) vs. 702 (572-875) μg/L, p

  19. Bioequivalence Study of a New Fixed-dose Combination Tablet Containing S-Amlodipine Nicotinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Jin; Hwang, Hyun Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Geun Hyeog; Cho, Yun-Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Soo Yeon; Cho, Kyung Hee; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Yun Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2017-07-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety profile and the bioequivalence of two different FDC formulations [amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg (reference product) and S-amlodipine nicotinate/olmesartan medoxomil 5/40 mg (test product)]. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way, and 2-period crossover study, including a 3-week washout period, was performed in 32 healthy Korean male volunteers. To analyze the concentration of S-amlodipine or olmesartan, plasma samples were collected up to 144 hours after the dose for S-amlodipine and 48 hours after the dose for olmesartan. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the Cmax and the area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) for the time versus concentration plot, were calculated. Analysis of variance for bioequivalence was conducted using Cmax and AUC0-last converted to log scale, and the mean ratios and 90% CIs were determined. Safety data included analysis of adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory test, and 12-lead ECGs. Of the 32 enrolled participants, 29 healthy volunteers completed the study. For both S-amlodipine and olmesartan, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were all within the acceptable range for regulatory bioequivalence. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of Cmax and AUC0-last were 0.8766 to 0.9760 and 0.8288 to 0.9224, respectively, for S-amlodipine and 0.9097 to 1.1229 and 0.8904 to 1

  20. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative bioavailability of levodropropizine 60 mg capsule and syrup formulations in healthy male Korean volunteers: a singledose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Jo, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Cho, Young-Wuk; Yim, Sung-Vin; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-02-01

    Levodropropizine is an oral non-opioid anti-tussive drug used in treatment of cough. A new generic 60 mg capsule formulation of levodropropizine has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the test (capsule) formulation and reference (syrup) formulation of levodropropizine (60 mg) in healthy, fasted, male Korean volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study conducted in healthy male Korean volunteers in the fasted state at Kyung Hee University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 1-week washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after study drug administration. Plasma concentration of levodropropizine was determined using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS) method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for C(max), AUC(0-12h) and AUC(0-∞) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (80 - 125%, according to the guidelines of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea FDA)). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital sign measurements, laboratory analysis (blood biochemistry, hematology, hepatic function and urinalysis) and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). A total of 36 male Korean subjects (mean (SD) age, 23.9 (2.4) years (range 19 - 30 years); height, 176.2 (6.1) cm (range 161 - 190 cm); weight, 69.8 (9.1) kg (range 54.0 - 92.2 kg); body mass index, 22.4 (2.1) kg/m2 (range 19.1 - 28.3 kg/m2)) was enrolled and completed the study. The mean values for C(max), t(max), AUC(0-12h), and AUC(0-∞) with the test formulation of levodropropizine were 331.51 ng/ml, 0.60 hours, 784.32 ng×h/ml, and 825.82 ng×h/ml, respectively; for the reference

  2. An Experimental Trial Exploring the Impact of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring upon Alcohol Consumption in a Cohort of Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university.\\ud \\ud Method: Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous ...

  3. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  4. Increased frequency of anxiety, depression, quality of life and sexual life in young hypogonadotropic hypogonadal males and impacts of testosterone replacement therapy on these conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Umit; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Akbulut, Halil; Sonmez, Alper; Yuksel, Servet; Basaran, Yalcin; Uzun, Ozcan; Bolu, Erol; Saglam, Kenan

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as the failure in production of gonadal hormones, thus resulting in lower amounts of testosterone. Depression, anxiety and decreased quality of life are the most common psychopathological conditions in young hypogonadal men. The aim of the present study was to assess the still debated relationship with testosterone levels and psychological symptoms in young male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Thirty-nine young male patients with CHH and 40 age-matched healthy males were enrolled in the present study. The impact of testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) on the patients' anxiety and depression levels, sexual function and quality of life were assessed before and after 6 months of treatment using valid and reliable scales, including the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Arizona Sexual Experiences (ASEX). Patients with CHH had significantly higher scores for BDI, BAI, and ASEX than the control subjects at baseline (p=0.011, p=0.036, pstatistically significant (p=0.135). When compared to the control group, treatment naïve hypogonadal patients had more severe symptoms of sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and worse quality of life. After 6 months of TRT, we observed improvements in the above parameters, suggesting that low endogenous levels of testosterone might be related to the increased incidence of psychological symptoms.

  5. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination on estrogenic activity in human male serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plísková, Martina; Vondrácek, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jirí; Kocan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomás; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighboring background region in eastern Slovakia. We found that the lower-chlorinated PCBs were estrogenic, whereas the prevalent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199, and 203, as well as major PCB metabolites, behaved as antiestrogens. Coplanar PCBs had no direct effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activation in this in vitro model. In human male serum samples, high levels of PCBs were associated with a decreased ER-mediated activity and an increased dioxin-like activity, as determined by the DR-CALUX assay. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) was responsible for a major part of estrogenic activity identified in total serum extracts. Significant negative correlations were found between dioxin-like activity, as well as mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes, and total estrogenic activity. For sample fractions containing only persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the increased frequency of antiestrogenic samples was associated with a higher sum of PCBs. This suggests that the prevalent non-dioxin-like PCBs were responsible for the weak antiestrogenic activity of some POPs fractions. Our data also suggest that it might be important to pay attention to direct effects of PCBs on steroid hormone levels in heavily exposed subjects.

  6. A Note on the impact on sales from introducing healthy labeled meals on the lunch menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Menu labeling of prepared meals away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper, we use a field experiment to analyze if a restaurant benefits from introducing a healthy labeled meal on its menu by experiencing an overall increase in sales. We cannot...... reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a healthy labeled meal on the menu, i.e., our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a healthy labeled meal....

  7. Effect of the potent CYP2D6 inhibitor sarpogrelate on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol in healthy male Korean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Joeng Kee; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Yang-Weon; Lee, Sukhyang; Oh, Euichaul; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2015-03-01

    1. Recently, we demonstrated that sarpogrelate is a potent and selective CYP2D6 inhibitor in vitro. Here, we evaluated the effect of sarpogrelate on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol in healthy subjects. 2. Nine healthy male subjects genotyped for CYP2D6*1/*1 or *1/*2 were included in an open-label, randomized, three treatment-period and crossover study. A single oral dose of metoprolol (100 mg) was administered with water (treatment A) and sarpogrelate (100 mg bid.; a total dose of 200 mg and treatment B), or after pretreatment of sarpogrelate for three days (100 mg tid.; treatment C). Plasma levels of metoprolol and α-hydroxymetoprolol were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Changes in heart rate and blood pressure were monitored as pharmacodynamic responses to metoprolol. 3. Metoprolol was well tolerated in the three treatment groups. In treatment B and C groups, the AUCt of metoprolol increased by 53% (GMR, 1.53; 90% CI, 1.17-2.31) and by 51% (1.51; 1.17-2.31), respectively. Similar patterns were observed for the increase in Cmax of metoprolol by sarpogrelate. However, the pharmacodynamics of metoprolol did not differ significantly among the three treatment groups. 4. Greater systemic exposure to metoprolol after co-administration or pretreatment with sarpogrelate did not result in clinically relevant effects. Co-administration of both agents is well tolerated and can be employed without the need for dose adjustments.

  8. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  9. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  10. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...

  11. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  12. A Consideration of the Impacts of Two Intensive Rural Leadership Development Programs on Male and Female Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert E.; Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    The comparative impact of 2 intensive rural leadership development programs on male and female participants in Montana and Pennsylvania was examined. One goal of the one to three year programs (to increase the participants' involvement in public affairs organization) was tested by analysis of pre- and posttest data regarding participants…

  13. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  14. An Africentric Rite of Passage Program and Its Impact on Adolescent African-American Male Attendance, Discipline, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Little, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine an Africentric rite of passage program's impact on African-American male high school students. It is intended to determine whether a rite of passage program will affect attendance, discipline and achievement. The study also investigates the development of a school-based Africentric program as well as its…

  15. The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G Williams

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial (RCT has shown that male circumcision (MC reduces sexual transmission of HIV from women to men by 60% (32%-76%; 95% CI offering an intervention of proven efficacy for reducing the sexual spread of HIV. We explore the implications of this finding for the promotion of MC as a public health intervention to control HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using dynamical simulation models we consider the impact of MC on the relative prevalence of HIV in men and women and in circumcised and uncircumcised men. Using country level data on HIV prevalence and MC, we estimate the impact of increasing MC coverage on HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, and HIV-related deaths over the next ten, twenty, and thirty years in sub-Saharan Africa. Assuming that full coverage of MC is achieved over the next ten years, we consider three scenarios in which the reduction in transmission is given by the best estimate and the upper and lower 95% confidence limits of the reduction in transmission observed in the RCT. MC could avert 2.0 (1.1-3.8 million new HIV infections and 0.3 (0.1-0.5 million deaths over the next ten years in sub-Saharan Africa. In the ten years after that, it could avert a further 3.7 (1.9-7.5 million new HIV infections and 2.7 (1.5-5.3 million deaths, with about one quarter of all the incident cases prevented and the deaths averted occurring in South Africa. We show that a MC will increase the proportion of infected people who are women from about 52% to 58%; b where there is homogenous mixing but not all men are circumcised, the prevalence of infection in circumcised men is likely to be about 80% of that in uncircumcised men; c MC is equivalent to an intervention, such as a vaccine or increased condom use, that reduces transmission in both directions by 37%. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis is based on the result of just one RCT, but if the results of that trial are confirmed we suggest that MC could

  16. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerton, Dean M; Campbell, Matthew D; Gonzalez, Javier T; Rumbold, Penny L S; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-02-25

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m²) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0--180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose buprenorphine following single administration of sublingual tablet formulations in opioid naïve healthy male volunteers under a naltrexone block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Sarah D; Mills, Richard J; Polack, Torsten; Hussain, Tanweer; Rolan, Paul E; Gibbs, Alan D; Mullins, Frank G P; Hussein, Ziad

    2003-10-24

    Sublingual buprenorphine formulations have been developed as treatments for opioid dependence. In three studies, opioid naïve healthy male subjects received Subutex tablets (buprenorphine 2 and 8 mg [N=27] or 12 and 16 mg [N=27]) or Suboxone (two formulations) tablets (buprenorphine 8 mg/naloxone 2 mg [N=36]) sublingually, under a naltrexone block for assessment of buprenorphine pharmacokinetics and tablet disintegration times. Plasma buprenorphine was quantified up to 72 h post-dose using a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay. Mean Cmax values ranged from 1.6 to 6.4 ng/ml and tmax from 0.5 to 3 h. Concentrations declined bi-exponentially and fluctuations after a meal suggested enterohepatic recirculation of buprenorphine. The terminal half-life was approximately 26 h (range 9-69). Cmax and AUC appeared to increase in proportion to Subutex dose over 8-16 mg. The Suboxone formulations were bioequivalent. The least squares mean (90% CI) treatment ratio for Cmax was 1.00 (0.92-1.10) and AUC was 1.00 (0.95-1.06). Median times of disintegration were similar for all doses and formulations (range 6-12 min). Sublingual buprenorphine, up to 40 times the 400 microg analgesic dose, was well tolerated in these opioid naïve subjects, as administration of naltrexone 50-150 mg was sufficient to attenuate anticipated adverse effects in this population of subjects.

  18. Effects of an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of C-reactive protein synthesis on the endotoxin challenge response in healthy human male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveck, Robert; Stroes, Erik S G; Flaim, JoAnn D; Baker, Brenda F; Hughes, Steve; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-07-10

    C-reactive protein (CRP) binds to damaged cells, activates the classical complement pathway, is elevated in multiple inflammatory conditions, and provides prognostic information on risk of future atherosclerotic events. It is controversial, however, as to whether inhibiting CRP synthesis would have any direct anti-inflammatory effects in humans. A placebo-controlled study was used to evaluate the effects of ISIS 329993 (ISIS-CRPR x) on the acute-phase response after endotoxin challenge in 30 evaluable subjects. Healthy adult males were randomly allocated to receive 6 injections over a 22-day period of placebo or active therapy with ISIS 329993 at 400- or 600-mg doses. Eligible subjects were subsequently challenged with a bolus of endotoxin (2 ng/kg). Inflammatory and hematological biomarkers were measured before and serially after the challenge. ISIS-CRPR x was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Median CRP levels increased more than 50-fold from baseline 24 hours after endotoxin challenge in the placebo group. In contrast, the median increase in CRP levels was attenuated by 37% (400 mg) and 69% (600 mg) in subjects pretreated with ISIS-CRPR x (Pantisense oligonucleotides and provide an investigative tool to further define the role of CRP in human pathological conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Beardsley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81–0.88, test–re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88–0.95, and test–re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65 and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85. Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test–re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test–re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  20. Evaluation of drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and metformin in healthy Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liupeng; Wu, Chunyong; Shen, Lu; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Fang; Wang, Youqun; Yang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    1. Henagliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor and presents a complementary therapy to metformin for patients with T2DM due to its insulin-independent mechanism of action. This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin and metformin in healthy Chinese male subjects. 2. In open-label, single-center, single-arm, two-period, three-treatment self-control study, 12 subjects received 25 mg henagliflozin, 1000 mg metformin or the combination. Lack of PK interaction was defined as the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence interval (CI) for combination: monotherapy being within the range of 0.80-1.25. 3. Co-administration of henagliflozin with metformin had no effect on henagliflozin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) (GRM: 1.08; CI: 1.05, 1.10) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (GRM: 0.99; CI: 0.92, 1.07). Reciprocally, co-administration of metformin with henagliflozin had no clinically significant on metformin AUC0-24 (GRM: 1.09, CI: 1.02, 1.16) although there was an 11% increase in metformin Cmax (GRM 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23). All monotherapies and combination therapy were well tolerated. 4. Henagliflozin can be co-administered with metformin without dose adjustment of either drug.

  1. Hand skill and hand-eye preference in relation to verbal ability in healthy adult male and female right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynia, Inge; Müller, Jens

    2006-09-01

    Verbal as well as non-verbal performances were investigated in relation to both hand skill assessed by finger-tapping performances and hand-eye preference in 83 healthy adult right-handers, most of them students. The primary objective of this study was to show better finger-tapping performances in right-handed participants with best verbal IQ values. We found that it was not the non-verbal but the verbal abilities that were related to finger-tapping performances. This was proven, especially as to the left-hand taps. Faster left-hand taps in participants with higher verbal IQ values may be due to a closer cooperation of right-hemispheric regions in information processing and an intimate relationship between language and finger-motor functions. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analyses included gender differences and hand-eye preference. While in the females left-hand taps correlated somewhat more with verbal IQ values, in the males this effect was seen in selected variables of the right-hand taps. Moreover, laterality assessed in finger-tapping performances may not be in accordance with laterality found in the handedness questionnaire. In addition to this, congruent hand-eye dominance was found to be slightly more prevalent in participants with best verbal IQ values. However, these findings will have to be confirmed in further experiments.

  2. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcision programs for HIV prevention is unclear. Methods Two mathematical models were examined to explore this issue: a random mixing model and a compartmental model that distinguishes risk groups associated with sex work. In the compartmental model, two scenarios were developed, one calculating HIV transmission and prevalence in a context similar to the country of Botswana, and one similar to Nyanza Province, in western Kenya. Results In both models, male circumcision programs resulted in large and sustained declines in HIV prevalence over time among both men and women. Men benefited somewhat more than women, but prevalence among women was also reduced substantially. With 80% male circumcision uptake, the reductions in prevalence ranged from 45% to 67% in the two "countries", and with 50% uptake, from 25% to 41%. It would take over a decade for the intervention to reach its full effect. Conclusion Large-scale uptake of male circumcision services in African countries with high HIV prevalence, and where male circumcision is not now routinely practised, could lead to substantial reductions in HIV transmission and prevalence over time among both men and women.

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of Nurses’ Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors on Utilization from Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Çelebi, Pınar; Memiş, Ayşegül; Sağlam, Zeynep; Beyhan, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This descriptive study was designed to determine the impact of nurses’ healthy lifestyle behaviors on utilization from breast cancer early diagnosis methods. Materials and Methods The study was carried out with 236 (41.7%) nurses who agreed to participate out of 565 nurses who work in a university hospital from February 12th to February 15th 2011. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was collected by using a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was improved by Walker, Sechrist and Pender (1987) and was adapted to Turkish by Esin (1997). The data was evaluated by percentage calculation, one -way ANOVA, t-test and Tukey’s test. Results The mean Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale score was 129.09±19.82, the mean scores subscale scores of self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal support and stress management were 38.52±6.28, 24.95±5.39, 9.41±3.24, 16.99±3.29, 21.22±3.39 and 17.99±3.66 respectively. It was found that Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale total score was higher in nurses with sufficient level of breast cancer knowledge (F=13.115, p=0.000), who perform regular BSE (t=3.191, p=0.002) and who attended training on breast cancer (t=3030, p=0.003). Conclusion It was determined that although the mean total score of nurse’s Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale and their information on breast cancer prevention were above average, the utilization of breast cancer early detection services was not at the expected levels.

  4. Impact of the AGTR1 A1166C polymorphism on subcortical hyperintensities and cognition in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Conturo, Thomas E; Tate, David F; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Akbudak, Erbil; Paul, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Vascular aging consists of complex and multifaceted processes that may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system. A polymorphism in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AGTR1/rs5186) has been associated with an increased risk for arterial stiffness, hypertension, and ischemic stroke. Despite these identified relationships, the impact of AGTR1 A1166C on white matter integrity and cognition is less clear in a healthy aging population. The present study utilized indices of neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment to examine the impact of the A1166C polymorphism on subcortical hyperintensities (SH) and cognition in 49 healthy adults between ages 51-85. Using a dominant statistical model (CC + CA (risk) vs. AA), results revealed significantly larger SH volume for individuals with the C1166 variant (p < 0.05, partial eta(2) = 0.117) compared with those with the AA genotype. Post hoc analyses indicated that increased SH volume in C allele carriers could not be explained by vascular factors such as pulse pressure or body mass index. In addition, cognitive performance did not differ significantly between groups and was not significantly associated with SH in this cohort. Results suggest that presence of the C1166 variant may serve as a biomarker of risk for suboptimal brain integrity in otherwise healthy older adults prior to changes in cognition.

  5. Impact of gonadectomy on blood pressure regulation in ageing male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Walas, Dawid; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in blood pressure has been associated with differential expression of the angiotensin II (AII) receptors and with activity of the nervous system. It is generally accepted that ageing affects kidney function as well as autonomic nervous system and hormonal balance. Given that hypertension is more prevalent in men than women until women reach their seventh decade, we hypothesised that females would be relatively protected from adverse effects of ageing compared to males and that this would be mediated by the protective effect of ovarian steroids. Intact and gonadectomised male and female normotensive Wistar rats aged 6, 12 and 18 months were used to study renal function, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood pressure variability. We observed that intact females had lower levels of proteinuria and higher (12.5%) creatinine clearance compared to intact males and that this difference was abolished by castration but not by ovariectomy. Ovariectomy resulted in a change by 9% in heart rate, resulting in similar cardiovascular parameters to those observed in males or gonadectomised males. Spectral analysis of systolic blood pressure revealed that high-frequency power spectra were significantly elevated in the females vs. males and were reduced by ovariectomy. Taken altogether, the results show that females are protected from age-related declining renal function and to a lesser extent from rising blood pressure in comparison to males. Whilst ovariectomy had some deleterious effects in females, the strongest effects were associated with gonadectomy in males, suggesting a damaging effect of male hormones.

  6. Neurochemical and behavioural impact of C18 fatty acids in male mice postweaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Abe, Shin; Takenaga, Fumio

    2013-06-01

    Dietary components, particularly essential fatty acids, affect the expression and maintenance of normal physiological phenotypes. However, the influence of C18 fatty acids that are abundantly present in the normal diet is unclear. We focused on the behavioural and neurochemical effects of C18 fatty acids during postweaning development in male mice. An AIN-93G diet supplemented with 8% stearic acid (C18:0), 3% oleic acid (C18:1), 3% linoleic acid (C18:2) or 3% α-linolenic acid (C18:3) was provided from four weeks of age for eight weeks. At 12 weeks of age, novel exploratory behaviour and social interaction tests were carried out. One week after the last behavioural test, the brain of each mouse was removed. The frequency of social interactive behaviour was decreased by approximately 70% in the C18:0 group compared to the basal diet group, but there was no difference in cumulative time. The frequency of social interaction showed a positive correlation to cumulative time in mice fed with the experimental diets except for C18:0. Dietary C18 fatty acids following weaning had no impact on brain fatty acid composition except for the C18:3 diet. Furthermore, the neurochemical properties to be especially noted were that choline acetyltransferase activity was absolutely higher in C18:0 diet-fed mice than in the other groups, especially in the frontal cortex where it was 1.7-fold higher than in the basal diet-fed group. The present results reveal a significant possibility of neurochemical and behavioural effects of dietary fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids are of special importance during the postweaning period.

  7. II. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), and incandescent lamps on broiler welfare in response to recent interest in the agriculture industry to transition to more energy-efficient lighting technologies. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 light-tight modified large colony houses under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested were a CCFL, and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of the 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Birds were removed from each house at days 7, 14, 35, and 42 to be humanely euthanized and weighed for necropsy evaluation and comparison of body mass. Blood collection via cardiac puncture was performed to obtain heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios for evaluation of environmental stress. Birds raised under CCFLs had significantly lower body weights (2,871 g±53) than the control (3,000±33 g) by 42 d. Birds raised under CCFLs additionally had significantly higher H:L ratios (0.68±0.06) than the control (0.53±0.03), indicating that these birds may have been chronically stressed (P=0.03). There were not significant differences in the H:L ratio between LED technologies at α=0.05. A significant age and seasonal correlation in H:L ratios was observed across all technologies, along with significant differences among birds raised under the experimental technologies. This study indicates that variation in broiler body weight and stress may be attributed in part to lighting technologies implemented in broiler houses.

  8. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  9. Assessing the epidemiological impact of extending the national influenza vaccination programme to healthy children in England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.K. Green

    2015-01-01

    Infection with influenza can result in significant morbidity and mortality each winter. The key strategy for control is vaccination and it was recently recommended to extend the routine programme in England to include healthy children. The aim of this thesis is therefore to collate the intelligence

  10. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  11. Impact of Growth Hormone Receptor Blockade on Substrate Metabolism during Fasting in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, Louise; Norrelund, Helene; Jessen, Niels; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Steen B Pedersen; Bruce D Gaylinn; Liu, Jianhua; Thorner, Michael O.; Moller, Niels; Lunde Jorgensen, Jens Otto

    2009-01-01

    Context: Experimental studies in GH-deficient patients and in healthy subjects receiving somatostatin-infusion suggest that GH is an important regulator of substrate metabolism during fasting. These models may not adequately reflect the selective effects of GH, and GH receptor (GHR) blockade offers a new model to define the metabolic role of GH.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of ginkgolides A, B and K after single and multiple intravenous infusions and their interactions with midazolam in healthy Chinese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Zhang, Hongwen; Xie, Lijun; Chen, Juan; Zhou, Sufeng; Zhang, Jinsong; Lv, Jinru; Hao, Weiwen; Ma, Yunsu; Liu, Yun; Ou, Ning; Xiao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Ginkgo terpene lactones meglumine injection (GMI) is a novel preparation of traditional Chinese medicine that contains ginkgolides A, B and K (GA, GB, GK, respectively) as its primary components. In this study we evaluated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of these three ginkgolides after single and multiple intravenous infusions of GMI. We also investigated the effect of GMI on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in healthy Chinese volunteers. In this open-label, placebo-controlled study 15 subjects were randomly assigned to receive GMI or matched placebo (4:1 ratio). All subjects first received midazolam (MDZ) on day 1, followed by a 6-day washout. On Day 8, the subjects were started on once-daily dosing of either GMI or placebo for 14 days. Lastly, on Day 22 the subjects were given second dose of MDZ + GMI or MDZ + placebo. Plasma concentrations of ginkgolides, MDZ and its metabolite 1-hydroxy midazolam were quantified. The steady-state conditions of GA, GB and GK were achieved after 6 days of daily dosing. Following a single dose of GMI (Day 8) the area under the concentration-timecurve from zero to 24 h after administration (AUC0-24h) of GA, GB and GK (arithmetic ± standard deviation) was 4.10 ± 1.06, 4.61 ± 1.31 and 0.127 ± 0.102 h μg/mL, respectively; the corresponding values following multiple doses of GMI (Day 19) were 3.94 ± 1.16, 5.00 ± 1.55 and 0.118 ± 0.096 h μg/mL, respectively. The mean accumulation ratios were 0.95, 1.08 and 0.89 for GA, GB and GK, respectively. Additionally, the geometric mean [peak concentration (Cmax) and AUC0-24h] ratios of MDZ and 1-hydroxy midazolam were all within the specified acceptance ranges in the MDZ + placebo treatment and MDZ + GMI treatment. Our results show that GMI was well tolerated during the entire study. There was no systemic accumulation and no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of MDZ in healthy Chinese male subjects after repeated dosing of GMI.

  13. Paradoxical Impact of Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis on Male and Female Fertility in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachler, Frederik R; Brandsborg, Søren B; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-06-01

    Birth rates in males with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis have not been studied. This study aimed to estimate birth rates in males and females with ulcerative colitis and study the impact of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This was a retrospective registry-based cohort study that was performed over a 30-year period. Records for parenting a child from the same period were cross-linked with patient records, and birth rates were calculated using 15 through 49 years as age limits. All data were prospectively registered. All patients with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis between 1980 and 2010 were identified in Danish national databases. The primary outcomes measured were birth rates in females and males with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We included 27,379 patients with ulcerative colitis (12,812 males and 14,567 females); 1544 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (792 males and 752 females). Patients with ulcerative colitis have slightly reduced birth rates (males at 40.8 children/1000 years, background population 43.2, females at 46.2 children/1000 years, background population 49.1). After ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, males had increased birth rates at 47.8 children/1000 years in comparison with males with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (40.5 children/1000 years), whereas females had reduced birth rates at 27.6 children/1000 years in comparison with females with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (46.8 children/1000 years). Only birth rates were investigated and not fecundability. Furthermore, there is a question about misattributed paternity, but this has previously been shown to be less than 5%. Ulcerative colitis per se has little impact on birth rates in both sexes, but ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery leads to a reduction in birth rates in females and an increase in birth rates in males. This has clinical

  14. Short-term quetiapine treatment alters the use of reinforcement signals during risky decision-making and promotes the choice of negative expected values in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Philippa L; Harmer, Catherine J; McTavish, Sarah F B; Goodwin, Guy M; Rogers, Robert D

    2013-09-25

    Effective decision-making can involve using environmental signals about the possible good and bad outcomes, and their probabilities, to select optimal actions. Problematic decision-making in psychiatric disorders, and particularly bipolar illness, may result from disrupted use of these reinforcement cues, leading to actions that reflect or precipitate pathological changes in mood. Previous experiments indicate that the processing of reinforcement cues while selecting between risky actions can be influenced by dopamine and serotonin activity. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent with a complex pharmacology, including antagonist actions at 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, D2 receptors. Here, we investigated the effects of (short-term) treatment with quetiapine on the risky decision-making of healthy human adults. Twenty participants received 150 mg of quetiapine XL for 7 d, whereas 20 age- and IQ-matched participants received a placebo. On the eighth day, all participants completed a risky decision-making task that involved making a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles that differed in the magnitudes of their possible gains and losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Quetiapine treatment was associated with a marked tendency to choose options with negative expected values compared with placebo treatment in male but not female participants. Our results demonstrate that antagonism of serotonin and dopamine receptor activity can alter the way individuals use information about gains and losses when selecting between risky actions, possibly reflecting gender-specific differences in risk attitudes. These effects may be beneficial by correcting decision-making biases that feature in mood disorders.

  15. Neural Correlates of Antidepressant-Related Sexual Dysfunction: A Placebo-Controlled fMRI Study on Healthy Males Under Subchronic Paroxetine and Bupropion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Seeringer, Angela; Hartmann, Antonie; Grön, Georg; Metzger, Coraline; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like paroxetine in the treatment of depression, imposing a considerable risk on medication adherence and hence therapeutic success. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is recommended as an alternative treatment without adverse effects concerning sexual arousal and libido. We investigated the neural bases of paroxetine-related subjective sexual dysfunction when compared with bupropion and placebo. We scanned 18 healthy, heterosexual males in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject design while watching video clips of erotic and nonerotic content under steady-state conditions after taking 20 mg of paroxetine, 150 mg of bupropion, and placebo for 7 days each. Under paroxetine, ratings of subjective sexual dysfunction increased compared with placebo or bupropion. Activation along the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including subgenual, pregenual, and midcingulate cortices, in the ventral striatum and midbrain was decreased when compared with placebo. In contrast, bupropion let subjective ratings and ACC activations unchanged and increased activity of brain regions including posterior midcingulate cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and extended amygdala relative to placebo and paroxetine. Brain regions that have been related to the processing of motivational (ventral striatum), emotional, and autonomic components of erotic stimulation (anterior cingulate) in previous studies showed reduced responsiveness under paroxetine in our study. Drug effects on these regions may be part of the mechanism underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. Increased activation under bupropion may point to an opposite effect that may relate to the lack of impaired sexual functioning. PMID:21544071

  16. Repeated high-intensity interval exercise shortens the positive effect on executive function during post-exercise recovery in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    A single bout of aerobic exercise improves executive function (EF), but only for a short period. Compared with a single bout of aerobic exercise, we recently found that high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could maintain a longer improvement in EF. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of different exercise modes on the modifications of EF remains unclear. The purpose of the current investigation was to test our hypothesis that the amount of exercise-induced lactate production and its accumulation affects human brain function during and after exercise, thereby affecting post-exercise EF. Ten healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% peak VO2 with a 3-min active recovery period at 60% peak VO2. The amount of lactate produced during exercise was manipulated by repeating the HIIE twice with a resting period of 60min between the 1st HIIE and 2nd HIIE. To evaluate EF, a color-word Stroop task was performed, and reverse-Stroop interference scores were obtained. EF immediately after the 1st HIIE was significantly improved compared to that before exercise, and the improved EF was sustained during 40min of the post-exercise recovery. However, for the 2nd HIIE, the improved EF was sustained for only 10min of the post-exercise recovery period, despite the performance of the same exercise. In addition, during and following HIIE, the glucose and lactate accumulation induced by the 2nd HIIE was significantly lower than that induced by the 1st HIIE. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between lactate and EF by plotting the changes in lactate levels against changes in EF from pre-exercise during the late phase of post-exercise recovery. These findings suggested the possibility that repeated bouts of HIIE, which decreases lactate accumulation, may dampen the positive effect of exercise on EF during the post-exercise recovery.

  17. An improvement of mechanical pain sensitivity measurement method: the smaller sized probes may detect heterogeneous sensory threshold in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guangyou; Xiang, Guifang; Zhang, Xianwei; Guo, Shanna; Zhang, Yuhao

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of our experience in the application of the mechanical algometer and a number of pilot experiments, we speculated that 0.1- and 0.01-cm(2) probes might improve the measurement of mechanical pain sensitivity relative to the conventional 1-cm(2) probe. Here, we examined the accuracy, feasibility, and applicability of these probes in detecting the mechanical pain sensitivity. Mechanical pain threshold and tolerance tests were performed on subjects using the three probes of 1, 0.1, and 0.01 cm(2) in random order. We compared the application of these probes. The study was set at the Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Fifty healthy male Han Chinese subjects were recruited. We compared the qualities of stimulus-evoked pain, test stability, the measuring time, the subjects' acceptance level of the procedure, the validity of pain measurement, and the arduousness of the task for the investigator among the three different size probes. Compared with the conventional 1-cm(2) probe, the 0.01- and 0.1-cm(2) probes resulted in the subjects responding to stimulus-evoked pain more quickly, accurately, and consistently, and also made the measurement more comfortable for investigators. Up to 80% of the subjects reported the pain quality as a pricking sensation when the 0.01-cm(2) probe was used. The use of the 0.1-cm(2) probe might be more suitable as an optimized method for the detection of pressure pain sensitivity in clinical studies. In addition, the 0.01-cm(2) probe could potentially serve as an alternative to the weighted needle pinprick, providing continuous quantizing detection for pricking pain sensitivity. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Heat pain detection threshold is associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization: a study of healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization (BTS) of the skin and heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT) may both have predictive abilities in regards to pain sensitivity and clinical pain states. The association between HPDT and secondary hyperalgesia, however, remains unsettled, and the dissimilarities in physiologic properties suggest that they may represent 2 distinctively different pain entities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPDT and BTS-induced secondary hyperalgesia. Methods A sample of 121 healthy male participants was included and tested on 2 separate study days with BTS (45°C, 3 minutes), HPDT, and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C, 1 minute). Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were quantified after monofilament pinprick stimulation. The pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) were also applied. Results A significant association between HPDT and the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia (p<0.0001) was found. The expected change in area of secondary hyperalgesia due to a 1-degree increase in HPDT was estimated to be −27.38 cm2, 95% confidence interval (CI) of −37.77 to −16.98 cm2, with an R2 of 0.19. Likewise, a significant association between HADS-depression subscore and area of secondary hyperalgesia (p=0.046) was found, with an estimated expected change in secondary hyperalgesia to a 1-point increase in HADS-depression subscore of 11 cm2, 95% CI (0.19–21.82), and with R2 of 0.03. We found no significant associations between secondary hyperalgesia area and PCS score or pain during thermal stimulation. Conclusion HPDT and the area of secondary hyperalgesia after BTS are significantly associated; however, with an R2 of only 19%, HPDT only offers a modest explanation of the inter-participant variation in the size of the secondary hyperalgesia area elicited by BTS. PMID:28184167

  19. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  20. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  1. Application of a UPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of alosetron in human plasma to support a bioequivalence study in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Darshan V; Patel, Daxesh P; Shah, Jaivik V; Shah, Priyanka A; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2015-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of alosetron (ALO) in human plasma. The assay method involved solid-phase extraction of ALO and ALO 13C-d3 as internal standard (IS) on a LichroSep DVB-HL (30 mg, 1 cm(3) ) cartridge. The chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) column using acetonitrile and 2.0 mm ammonium formate, pH 3.0 adjusted with 0.1% formic acid (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase in an isocratic mode. For quantitative analysis, the multiple reaction monitoring transitions studied were m/z 295.1/201.0 for ALO and m/z 299.1/205.1 for IS in the positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.01-10.0 ng/mL for ALO. Post-column infusion experiment showed no positive or negative peaks in the elution range of the analyte and IS after injection of extracted blank plasma. The extent of ion-suppression/enhancement, expressed as IS-normalized matrix factor, varied from 0.96 to 1.04. The assay recovery was within 97-103% for ALO and IS. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 1.0 mg alosetron tablets in 28 healthy Indian male and female subjects.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON THE PROPORTION OF MALE SPECIMENS IN PARTHENOGENETIC POPULATION OF MELANOIDES TUBERCULATA (MULLER 1774 (PROSOBRANCHIA: THIARIDAE IN PERU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino, José

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoides tuberculata (Muller 1774 (Prosobranchia: Thiaridae is widely distributed throughout the world, especially in Asia where it seems to be native; it also has been described in America and in recent decades in Peru. It is widely recognized that its reproduction is parthenogenetic, with males usually not found or, if they exist, sterile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental impact of endoparasitic infection with flukes (trematodes and habitat stability on the proportion of male M. tuberculata, performing six monthly sampling from March to August 1999 in Rio Lurin, Lima, Peru. We collected specimens of M. tuberculata in branches of Lurin River, Cieneguilla district 25 km east of Lima, Peru. In the laboratory, individuals were measured and dissected. The average occurrence of males was 1.3% with the highest value in June (3.75%, which is characterized by reddish discoloration of the gonad over the digestive gland. The gonad was fixed in 10% formol saline and dehydrated in increasing alcohol baths. Successive sections were made to 8 μm thick and subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin. There was no correlation between the percentage of males and the presence of trematode parasitism in M. tuberculata. However, none of the males showed parasitism. The stability of environment also did not influence the percentage of males found in M. tuberculata. However, no male was found in a stream in which could be seen the bottom with high transparency (stable. Thus, a deeper analysis is required of abiotic and biotic factors not considered in this study that may influence sexual reproduction and the appearance of males in the population of M. tuberculata.

  3. Innovative Demand Creation for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Targeting a High Impact Male Population: A Pilot Study Engaging Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinics in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey S.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Bbaale, Denis S.; Kiragga, Agnes N.; Kigozi, Joanita; Muganzi, Alex M.; Coutinho, Alex G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circumcision has been shown to be an effective method of HIV prevention; however, only 28% of Ugandan men aged 15–49 years are circumcised. There is a paucity of data on the role of intimate partners in generating demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of a partner-focused intervention targeting males >25 years. Methods: Among pregnant women in their third trimester attending antenatal care we evaluated the impact of a pilot behavior change intervention on VMMC through a quasi-experimental approach. We observed VMMC numbers among spouses of women as per standard practice (comparison phase), and after introducing a behavioral change communication package (intervention phase). Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of VMMC uptake between comparison and intervention phases. We used qualitative methods to evaluate the casual chain using a thematic approach. Results: Of the 601 women studied, 90% articulated the health benefits of VMMC and 99% expressed interest in their spouse getting circumcised. Women's knowledge was not increased by the intervention. Four men were circumcised in the comparison and 7 in the intervention phase. The intervention was not associated with higher odds of circumcision (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI: 0.3 to 6.0, P = 0.65). We interviewed 117 individuals overall with the main enablers for VMMC being: free VMMC, transport reimbursement, and health benefits. Deterrents included misconceptions, lost wages and fear of pain. Most of the uncircumcised men interviewed reported interest in VMMC. Conclusions: Our pilot intervention had no significant impact on increasing VMMC demand. The study demonstrated the feasibility of pregnant women engaging their spouses to discuss VMMC. PMID:27404008

  4. The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male reproductive development is extremely sensitive to adverse climatic environments and (a)biotic stress. Upon exposure to stress, male gametophytic organs often show morphological, structural and metabolic alterations that typically lead to meiotic defects or premature spore abortion and male reproductive sterility. Depending on the type of stress involved (e.g. heat, cold, drought) and the duration of stress exposure, the underlying cellular defect is highly variable and either involves cytoskeletal alterations, tapetal irregularities, altered sugar utilization, aberrations in auxin metabolism, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidative stress) or the ectopic induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In this review, we present the critically stress-sensitive stages of male sporogenesis (meiosis) and male gametogenesis (microspore development), and discuss the corresponding biological processes involved and the resulting alterations in male reproduction. In addition, this review also provides insights into the molecular and/or hormonal regulation of the environmental stress sensitivity of male reproduction and outlines putative interaction(s) between the different processes involved.

  5. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa.

  6. Are interventions to promote healthy eating equally effective for all? Systematic review of socioeconomic inequalities in impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Orton, Lois; Bromley, Helen; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Taylor-Robinson, David; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Gillespie, Duncan; Moreira, Patricia; Allen, Kirk; Hyseni, Lirije; Calder, Nicola; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret; Capewell, Simon

    2015-05-02

    Interventions to promote healthy eating make a potentially powerful contribution to the primary prevention of non communicable diseases. It is not known whether healthy eating interventions are equally effective among all sections of the population, nor whether they narrow or widen the health gap between rich and poor. We undertook a systematic review of interventions to promote healthy eating to identify whether impacts differ by socioeconomic position (SEP). We searched five bibliographic databases using a pre-piloted search strategy. Retrieved articles were screened independently by two reviewers. Healthier diets were defined as the reduced intake of salt, sugar, trans-fats, saturated fat, total fat, or total calories, or increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and wholegrain. Studies were only included if quantitative results were presented by a measure of SEP. Extracted data were categorised with a modified version of the "4Ps" marketing mix, expanded to 6 "Ps": "Price, Place, Product, Prescriptive, Promotion, and Person". Our search identified 31,887 articles. Following screening, 36 studies were included: 18 "Price" interventions, 6 "Place" interventions, 1 "Product" intervention, zero "Prescriptive" interventions, 4 "Promotion" interventions, and 18 "Person" interventions. "Price" interventions were most effective in groups with lower SEP, and may therefore appear likely to reduce inequalities. All interventions that combined taxes and subsidies consistently decreased inequalities. Conversely, interventions categorised as "Person" had a greater impact with increasing SEP, and may therefore appear likely to reduce inequalities. All four dietary counselling interventions appear likely to widen inequalities. We did not find any "Prescriptive" interventions and only one "Product" intervention that presented differential results and had no impact by SEP. More "Place" interventions were identified and none of these interventions were judged as likely to widen

  7. Male Fathead Minnow Urine-Based Metabolomics for Assessing Impacts of Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed the potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was us...

  8. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lise hTomsen; Peter Humaidan; Leif Bungum; Mona Bungum

    2014-01-01

    It is well‑documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conlficting regarding the inlfuence of male body mass index(BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology(ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non‑obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility center. Self‑reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI30kgm−2. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guideline and sperm DNA integrity was analyzed by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay(SCSA). No statistically signiifcant effect of male BMI was seen on conventional semen parameters(sperm concentration, total sperm count, seminal volume and motility) or on SCSA‑results. Furthermore, the outcome of ART regarding fertilization rate, number of good quality embryos(GQE), implantation and pregnancy outcome was not inlfuenced by the increasing male BMI.

  9. Voluntary medical male circumcision: modeling the impact and cost of expanding male circumcision for HIV prevention in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Njeuhmeli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces HIV incidence in men. To inform the VMMC policies and goals of 13 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, we estimate the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC using updated, country-specific data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT to model the impact and cost of scaling up adult VMMC in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Nyanza Province in Kenya. We use epidemiologic and demographic data from recent household surveys for each country. The cost of VMMC ranges from US$65.85 to US$95.15 per VMMC performed, based on a cost assessment of VMMC services aligned with the World Health Organization's considerations of models for optimizing volume and efficiencies. Results from the DMPPT models suggest that scaling up adult VMMC to reach 80% coverage in the 13 countries by 2015 would entail performing 20.34 million circumcisions between 2011 and 2015 and an additional 8.42 million between 2016 and 2025 (to maintain the 80% coverage. Such a scale-up would result in averting 3.36 million new HIV infections through 2025. In addition, while the model shows that this scale-up would cost a total of US$2 billion between 2011 and 2025, it would result in net savings (due to averted treatment and care costs amounting to US$16.51 billion. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that rapid scale-up of VMMC in eastern and southern Africa is warranted based on the likely impact on the region's HIV epidemics and net savings. Scaling up of safe VMMC in eastern and southern Africa will lead to a substantial reduction in HIV infections in the countries and lower health system costs through averted HIV care costs.

  10. Evaluation of the hemodynamic impact of continuous renal replacement therapy in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Yoshioka, Chihiro; Minami, Koji; Okawa, Takumi; Fujisaki, Yuka; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    We performed continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on clinically healthy dogs to evaluate the effects of CRRT on hemodynamics. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and central venous pressure of the dogs (n=6) were recorded during the procedure, which was performed under general anesthesia. Throughout the CRRT, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were stable. Central venous pressure increased after CRRT termination but returned to the basal level within 30 min. In this study, hemodynamic alterations, including hypotension, hypertension, and arrhythmias, were not observed during CRRT. These observations suggest that the CRRT protocol used in the present study can be safely applied to clinical cases with acute renal failure.

  11. Impact of age and basic heart rate on heart rate turbulence in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jörg Otto; Eichner, Gerrit; Shlevkov, Nikolay; Schrickel, Jan; Yang, Alexander; Balta, Osman; Lewalter, Thorsten; Lüderitz, Berndt

    2005-01-01

    Postextrasystolic acceleration of heart rate (HR), known as HR turbulence (HRT) is attenuated in patients with coronary artery disease at increased risk of adverse events. The influence of age and basic HR on HRT have not been evaluated in a large cohort of persons. In 95 healthy individuals, HRT onset (TO) and slope (TS) were calculated from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms, as well as the turbulence timing (TT). Gender specific differences in TO and TS were compared in simple, linear, weighted regression model. The influence of age and the basic HR preceding ventricular premature contractions on HRT were examined. We found that, in men and women, TO decreases as basic HR increases (P men, TS decreased as basic HR increases, whereas in women, basic HR influenced TS only slightly (P linear regression model revealed a decrease in HRT with increasing age in men. In conclusion, physiological acceleration of the HR within the first 11 beats after premature ventricular complex (VPC) was observed in >75% of healthy individuals. An accelerating HR preceding the VPC influenced HRT in men. An increasing age was associated with a decrease in HRT in men and a decrease in TO in women. These results illustrate the importance of physiological modulations of HRT when used for risk stratification, especially in older populations.

  12. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDe Falco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic phthalates. This review describes the main effects of these substances on male reproductive system.

  13. The psychological impact of sexual abuse: content analysis of interviews with male survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisak, D

    1994-10-01

    Autobiographical interviews with 26 adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and content analyzed to identify common psychological themes. Approximately equal numbers of men were abused by male and female perpetrators, almost half came from disrupted or violent homes and a majority had a history of substance abuse. Fifteen psychological themes were identified: Anger, Betrayal, Fear, Homosexuality Issues, Helplessness, Isolation and Alienation, Legitimacy, Loss, Masculinity Issues, Negative Childhood Peer Relations, Negative Schemas about People, Negative Schemas about the Self, Problems with Sexuality, Self Blame/Guilt and Shame/Humiliation. The themes are discussed and illustrated with examples drawn from the transcripts.

  14. The impact of selective and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs on secondary hemostasis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Larsen, Torben B; Damkier, Per

    2009-01-01

    inhibitors could affect the secondary hemostasis and by that increase the risk of cardiovascular events in a population at high risk. METHODS: An open-label randomized cross-over study was performed in 20 healthy male volunteers. The study consisted of two periods of each 21 days with medication, either...

  15. Sleep disorders and their impacts on healthy, dependent, and frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochen, V; Arbus, C; Soto, M E; Villars, H; Tiberge, M; Montemayor, T; Hein, C; Veccherini, M F; Onen, S H; Ghorayeb, I; Verny, M; Fitten, L J; Savage, J; Dauvilliers, Y; Vellas, B

    2009-04-01

    Sleep disorders differ widely in the heterogeneous older adult population. Older adults can be classified into three groups based upon their overall level of disability: healthy, dependent, and frail. Frailty is an emerging concept that denotes older persons at increased risk for poor outcomes. The aim of this consensus review is to describe the sleep disorders observed in healthy and dependent older adults and to discuss the potential sleep disorders associated with frailty as well as their potential consequences on this weakened population. A review task force was created including neurologists, geriatricians, sleep specialists and geriatric psychiatrists to discuss age related sleep disorders depending on the three categories of older adults. All published studies on sleep in older adults on Ovid Medline were reviewed and 106 articles were selected for the purpose of this consensus. Many healthy older adults have complains about their sleep such as waking not rested and too early, trouble falling asleep, daytime napping, and multiple nocturnal awakenings. Sleep architecture is modified by age with an increased percentage of time spent in stage one and a decreased percentage spent in stages three and four. Insomnia is frequent and its mechanisms include painful medical conditions, psychological distress, loss of physical activity and iatrogenic influences. Treatments are also involved in older adults' somnolence. The prevalence of primary sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements and sleep disordered breathing increases with age. Potential outcomes relevant to these sleep disorders in old age include mortality, cardiovascular and neurobehavioral co-morbidities. Sleep in dependent older adults such as patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) is disturbed. The sleep patterns observed in these patients are often similar to those observed in non-demented elderly but alterations are more severe. Nocturnal sleep disruption and daytime

  16. Impact of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on Adrenaline and Cortisol Levels in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Vandana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM on the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P<.05. ANCOVA (Repeated measures on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P=.001 drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P=.138. IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons.

  17. Evaluating the Impact of the Healthy Beginnings System of Care Model on Pediatric Emergency Department Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheryl H; Gazmararian, Julie

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether enrollment in the Healthy Beginnings System of Care (SOC) model is associated with a decrease in emergency department (ED) visits among children aged 6 months to 5.5 years. A retrospective, longitudinal study of ED utilization was conducted among children enrolled in the Healthy Beginnings SOC model between February 2011 and May 2013. Using medical records obtained from a children's hospital in Atlanta, the rate of ED visits per quarter was examined as the main outcome. A multilevel, multivariate Poisson model, with family- and child-level random effects, compared ED utilization rates before and after enrollment. Adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated after controlling for sociodemographic confounders. The effect of SOC enrollment on the rate of ED visits differed by income level of the primary parent. The rate of ED visits after enrollment was not significantly different than the rate of ED visits before enrollment for children whose primary parent had an annual income of less than $5000 (P = 0.298), $20,000 to $29,999 (P = 0.199), or $30,000 or more (P = 0.117). However, for the children whose primary parent's annual income was $5000 to $19,999, the rate of ED visits after enrollment was significantly higher than the rate of ED visits before enrollment (adjusted rate ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.87). Enrollment in the SOC model does not appear to decrease the rate of ED visits among enrolled children. Additional strategies, such as education sessions on ED utilization, are needed to reduce the rate of ED utilization among SOC-enrolled children.

  18. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is

  19. Impact on parents of hla-dq/dq8 genotyping in healthy children from coeliac families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, M.M.S.; Vriezinga, S.L.; Koletzko, S.; Werkstetter, K.; Castillejo-De Villasante, G.; Shamir, R.; Hartman, C.; Putter, H.; Pal, S.M. van der; Wijmenga, C.; Bravi, E.; Mearin, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the association of coeliac disease and HLA-specificities DQ2 and DQ8, HLA-typing can be used for risk determination of the disease. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge of parents from coeliac families regarding HLA-typing and the impact of HLA-typing on the perception of the hea

  20. Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ahyoung; Surkan, Pamela J.; Coutinho, Anastasia J.; Suratkar, Sonali R.; Campbell, Rebecca K.; Rowan, Megan; Sharma, Sangita; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Karlsen, Micaela; Gass, Anthony; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a youth-targeted multilevel nutrition intervention in Baltimore City. The study used a clustered randomized design in which 7 recreation centers and 21 corner stores received interventions and 7 additional recreation centers served as comparison. The 8-month intervention aimed to increase availability and…

  1. Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ahyoung; Surkan, Pamela J.; Coutinho, Anastasia J.; Suratkar, Sonali R.; Campbell, Rebecca K.; Rowan, Megan; Sharma, Sangita; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Karlsen, Micaela; Gass, Anthony; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a youth-targeted multilevel nutrition intervention in Baltimore City. The study used a clustered randomized design in which 7 recreation centers and 21 corner stores received interventions and 7 additional recreation centers served as comparison. The 8-month intervention aimed to increase availability and…

  2. Impact of male circumcision on the HIV epidemic in Papua New Guinea: a country with extensive foreskin cutting practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Gray

    Full Text Available The degree to which adult medical male circumcision (MC programs can reduce new HIV infections in a moderate HIV prevalence country like Papua New Guinea (PNG are uncertain especially given the widespread prevalence of longitudinal foreskin cuts among adult males. We estimated the likely impact of a medical MC intervention in PNG using a mathematical model of HIV transmission. The model was age-structured and incorporated separate components for sex, rural/urban, men who have sex with men and female sex workers. Country-specific data of the prevalence of foreskin cuts, sexually transmitted infections, condom usage, and the acceptability of MC were obtained by our group through related studies. If longitudinal foreskin cutting has a protective efficacy of 20% compared to 60% for MC, then providing MC to 20% of uncut males from 2012 would require 376,000 procedures, avert 7,900 HIV infections by 2032, and require 143 MC per averted infection. Targeting uncut urban youths would achieve the most cost effective returns of 54 MC per HIV infection averted. These numbers of MC required to avert an HIV infection change little even with coverage up to 80% of men. The greater the protective efficacy of longitudinal foreskin cuts against HIV acquisition, the less impact MC interventions will have. Dependent on this efficacy, increasing condom use could have a much greater impact with a 10 percentage point increase averting 18,400 infections over this same period. MC programs could be effective in reducing HIV infections in PNG, particularly in high prevalence populations. However the overall impact is highly dependent on the protective efficacy of existing longitudinal foreskin cutting in preventing HIV.

  3. Impact of male circumcision on the HIV epidemic in Papua New Guinea: a country with extensive foreskin cutting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard T; Vallely, Andrew; Wilson, David P; Kaldor, John; MacLaren, David; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Siba, Peter; Murray, John M

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which adult medical male circumcision (MC) programs can reduce new HIV infections in a moderate HIV prevalence country like Papua New Guinea (PNG) are uncertain especially given the widespread prevalence of longitudinal foreskin cuts among adult males. We estimated the likely impact of a medical MC intervention in PNG using a mathematical model of HIV transmission. The model was age-structured and incorporated separate components for sex, rural/urban, men who have sex with men and female sex workers. Country-specific data of the prevalence of foreskin cuts, sexually transmitted infections, condom usage, and the acceptability of MC were obtained by our group through related studies. If longitudinal foreskin cutting has a protective efficacy of 20% compared to 60% for MC, then providing MC to 20% of uncut males from 2012 would require 376,000 procedures, avert 7,900 HIV infections by 2032, and require 143 MC per averted infection. Targeting uncut urban youths would achieve the most cost effective returns of 54 MC per HIV infection averted. These numbers of MC required to avert an HIV infection change little even with coverage up to 80% of men. The greater the protective efficacy of longitudinal foreskin cuts against HIV acquisition, the less impact MC interventions will have. Dependent on this efficacy, increasing condom use could have a much greater impact with a 10 percentage point increase averting 18,400 infections over this same period. MC programs could be effective in reducing HIV infections in PNG, particularly in high prevalence populations. However the overall impact is highly dependent on the protective efficacy of existing longitudinal foreskin cutting in preventing HIV.

  4. Impact of Managerial Power on Persuasive Strategy Selection by Female and Male Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Randy Y.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the persuasive communication of male and female middle managers, focusing on the mediating influence of a manager's power on his or her selection of anticipated compliance-gaining message strategies. Finds no marked differences between the genders in the types of strategies and tactics used to influence subordinates. (KEH)

  5. Potassium Dichromate Impact on Male Reproductive Integrity Biomarker in Rat. Two Generation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rankov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of Cr VI cumulative and differentiate exposure on integrity biomarker of male reproductive system. The objective was evaluation of potassium dichromate intake on genital organs and sexual accessory glands architecture in male rats from two generation. Males and females from F0 generation were exposed to potassium dichromate three months before mating. F1 generation was represented by male pups, resulted from F0 generation, exposed to potassium dichromate in utero, during suckling (via milk and water period and until sexual maturity. All the animals were divided in one control and three experimental groups, exposed to Cr VI trough drinking water, as followed E1: 25 ppm (LOAEL; E2: 50 ppm: E3: 75 ppm; control group received tap water without chromium content. The experiment was carried out with respecting legislation regarding ethics in animal experiments. The study revealed the presence of congestive and degenerative lesions in genital organs and sexual accessory glands of exposed individuals from F0 and F1 generation such as: interstitial edema, epithelial necrosis and atrophy, membrane exfoliation and necrosis. The lesions frequency and intensity were directly correlated to exposure level, the most affected being E3 group and generation, more pronounced in F1 generation.

  6. The Impact of Parental Attachment and Supervision on Fear of Crime among Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, David C.; Vartanian, Lesa Rae; Virgo, Keri

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effect of parental attachment and supervision on fear of crime among adolescent males. The results indicate that boys who are most attached to their parents are less fearful of criminal victimization and feel safer in their environment. Additionally, those boys whose parents supervise them closely are more fearful of criminal…

  7. The impact of a male or female thrombotic family history on contraceptive counseling : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, E. F. W.; Veeger, N. J. G. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Hamulyak, K.; Prins, M. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Meijer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women from thrombophilic families have increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases further during oral contraceptive (COC) use and pregnancy-postpartum. Whether this additional risk differs between relatives of male and female patients, or is different when that femal

  8. Impact of gonadectomy on sympatho-vagal balance in male and female normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Walas, Dawid; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex

  9. The Impact of Studying Abroad on Male Preservice Teachers: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, Julie M.; Linder, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe changes in preservice teachers' perceptions of and attitudes regarding diversity following a semester-long study abroad experience. Phenomenological methods were used to analyze data collected from five male preservice teachers during a study abroad to Brussels, Belgium in the Fall of 2010. Changes in…

  10. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  11. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were......-segment deviation during Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing, indicated with a specificity of 1.0 or 0.95 according to choice of criterion, implies that the person is in a healthy state....

  12. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... in healthy subjects without disease, was 1.0 when using as criterion for significant ST-segment deviation a horizontal or descending ST-segment depression of >0.20 mV or ST-segment elevation >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring, and acceptable, for example, 0.95, when using as criterion a horizontal...

  13. Development of booklet on male sexual dysfunction, its measures and assessing its impact on knowledge of patients with urological cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Yovin Chellayadhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urological cancer and its surgeries have great impact on male sexuality which could have physical or emotional consequences. In India, speaking openly about the sexual matter is a taboo and an aspect considered forbidden. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop an information booklet about male sexual dysfunction and assess its impact on knowledge of patients with urological cancers. Methods: Information booklet was developed after literature review, and its content validity was established. Reliability of the questionnaire was 0.95. A randomized control trail using pre- and post-test design was used for 30 male urological cancer patients and was assigned to experimental group (15 who received information booklet and control group (15 who received standard treatment. Subjects in the experimental group were provided with opinionnaire during posttest. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: In experimental group, 40% of the subjects were ≤ 40 years, whereas 27% in the control group (P = 0.699. The pre- and post-mean difference score was significantly higher in experimental group (mean difference - 5 than control group (mean difference - 0.4. All subjects (100% opined that the information booklet was useful, adequate, self-explanatory, sequential, and clear. Conclusions: Information in the booklet will help subjects to understand the common sexual problems after urological surgeries and help them to cope with the problems, thereby improving their quality of life.

  14. Long-Term Impact of Immunosuppressants at Therapeutic Doses on Male Reproductive System in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus are commonly used in renal transplant recipients to prevent rejection. However, information for comparative effects of these agents on the male productive system is extremely limited and controversial. In a physiologically and clinically relevant rat model of unilateral nephrectomy, we demonstrated that long-term oral administration of both cyclosporine and sirolimus at doses equivalent to the therapeutic levels used for postrenal transplant patients significantly affects testicular development and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis accompanied by profound histological changes of testicular structures on both light and electron microscopic examinations. Spermatogenesis was also severely impaired as indicated by low total sperm counts along with reduction of sperm motility and increase in sperm abnormality after treatment with these agents, which may lead to male infertility. On the other hand, treatment with therapeutic dose of tacrolimus only induced mild reduction of sperm count without histological evidence of testicular injury. The current study clearly demonstrates that commonly used immunosuppressants have various impacts on male reproductive system even at therapeutic levels. Our data provide useful information for the assessment of male infertility in renal transplant recipients who wish to father children. Clinical trials to address these issues should be urged.

  15. Long term impact of the endocrine disruptor tributyltin on male fertility following a single acute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Srivastava, Ankit; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2017-10-01

    Declining rate of human fertility is a growing concern, where lifestyle and environmental factors play an important role. We recently demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT), an omnipresent endocrine disruptor, affects testicular cells in vitro. In this study, male Wistar rats were gavaged a single dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg TBT-chloride (TBTC) (to mimic accidental exposure in vivo) and sacrificed on day 3 and day 7, respectively. TBT bioavailability was evaluated by estimating total tin content, and essential metal levels were analyzed along with redox molecules (ROS and GSH/GSSG) to understand the effect on physiological conditions. Blood-testicular barrier (BTB) disruption, levels of associated proteins and activity of proteolytic enzymes were evaluated to understand the effect on BTB. Histological analysis of tissue architecture and effect on protein expression of steroidogenic, stress and apoptotic markers were also evaluated. Widespread TBTC pollution can be an eventual threat to male fertility worldwide. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Oatmeal porridge: impact on microflora-associated characteristics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jørgen; Puaschitz, Nathalie G; Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold

    2016-01-14

    Oatmeal porridge has been consumed for centuries and has several health benefits. We aimed to investigate the effect of oatmeal porridge on gut microflora functions. A total of ten healthy subjects ingested 60 g oatmeal porridge daily for 1 week. The following microflora-associated characteristics were assessed before and after the intervention: intestinal gas production following lactulose ingestion, faecal excretion of SCFA and faecal levels of urease and β-galactosidase. In addition, rectal levels of PGE2 were measured. Microbial fermentation as evaluated by intestinal gas production and excretion of SCFA did not change significantly following the dietary intervention. However, faecal levels of β-galactosidase and urease decreased after eating oatmeal porridge (P=0·049 and 0·031, respectively). Host inflammatory state, as measured by rectal levels of PGE2, also decreased, but the change was not significant (P=0·168). The results suggest that oatmeal porridge has an effect on gut microbial functions and may possess potential prebiotic properties that deserve to be investigated further.

  17. Impact of the metabolic syndrome on reproductive health in males of infertile couples

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Lotti

    2014-01-01

    AIM OF THE THESIS Since Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is essentially based on increased adiposity and it is associated with male hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, psychological disturbances, and BPH/LUTS, and all these factors might, in different ways, affect reproductive capacity, we investigated their possible correlations with MetS. Hence, we performed two studies. In the first study (study 1) we evaluated possible associations between MetS, semen and hormonal parameters, as well as c...

  18. Impact of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR gene mutations on male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Elia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of most common mutations and intron 8 5T (IVS8-5T polymorphism of CFTR gene in Italian: a azoospermic males; b non azoospermic subjects, male partners of infertile couples enrolled in assisted reproductive technology (ART programs. Material and methods. We studied 242 subjects attending our Andrology Unit (44 azoospermic subjects and 198 non azoospermic subjects, male partners of infertile couples enrolled in ART programs. Semen analysis, molecular analysis for CFTR gene mutations and genomic variant of IVS8-5T polymorphic tract, karyotype and chromosome Y microdeletions, hormonal profile (LH, FSH, Testosterone and seminal biochemical markers (fructose, citric acid and L-carnitine were carried out. Results. The prevalence of the common CFTR mutations and/or the IVS8-5T polymorphism was 12.9% (4/31 cases in secretory azoospermia, while in obstructive azoospermia was 84.6% (11/13 cases; in these, the most frequent mutations were the F508del, R117H and W1282X. Regarding the non azoospermic subjects, the prevalence of the CFTR and/or the IVS8-5T polymorphism was 11.1% (11/99 cases in severe dyspermia, 8.1% (6/74 cases in moderate dyspermia and finally 4.0% (1/25 cases in normospermic subjects. Conclusions. This study confirms the highly significant prevalence of CFTR mutations in males with bilateral absence of the vas deferens or ejaculatory ducts obstruction compared with subjects with secretory azoospermia. Moreover, the significant prevalence of mutations in severely dyspermic subjects may suggest the possible involvement of CFTR even in the spermatogenic process. This could explain the unsatisfactory recovery of sperm from testicular fine needle aspiration in patients affected by genital tract blockage.

  19. The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Mądry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12 status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be “unnatural” products. The use of B-12 fortifi ed food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the infl uence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortifi ed food. Material and methods. A fi ve year prospective study was carried out comprising 20 omnivore healthy adult subjects, who moved to strict vegan diet for 5 years. Ten volunteers followed vegan diet based entirely on natural products, while the remaining ten subjects consumed food fortifi ed in B-12. In all subjects serum vitamin B-12 concentration was determined before and 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after the implementation of the diet. Results. A signifi cant decrease (p < 0.0002 of serum B-12 concentrations in the whole studied group was noted after 60 months of vegan diet. However, observed changes were in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p < 0.0001. Conclusions. Transition from omnivore to vegan diet is associated with the risk of vitamin B-12 defi ciency. B-12 fortifi ed products might constitute a valuable alternative in vegans refusing to take vitamin supplements.

  20. The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Grebowiec, Philip; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-04-02

    There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12) status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be "unnatural" products. The use of B-12 fortified food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the influence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortified food. A five year prospective study was carried out comprising 20 omnivore healthy adult subjects, who moved to strict vegan diet for 5 years. Ten volunteers followed vegan diet based entirely on natural products, while the remaining ten subjects consumed food fortified in B-12. In all subjects serum vitamin B-12 concentration was determined before and 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after the implementation of the diet. A significant decrease (p vegan diet. However, observed changes were in fact limited to the subgroup consuming exclusively natural products (p vegan diet is associated with the risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. B-12 fortified products might constitute a valuable alternative in vegans refusing to take vitamin supplements.

  1. Vaginal Impact of the Oral Administration of Total Freeze-Dried Culture of LCR 35 in Healthy Women

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    J. M. Bohbot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of probiotics in the prevention or treatment of some vaginal infections has been the subject of numerous studies. To assess the presence of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (LCR35 in the vagina after an oral administration, an open randomised pilot study was conducted on 20 healthy women of child-bearing age. Materials and Methods. 2 groups of 10 women were given a 28-day oral course, that is, at least 108 CFU/day (group 1 or 2×108 CFU/day (group 2 of LCR35. Nugent score and vaginal screening for LCR35 were undertaken before and after 28 days of treatment. Results. The mean Nugent score decreased in group 1 (−0,2 as well as in group 2 (−0,3. 10% of women in group 1 versus 40% of women in group 2 were carrying LCR35 at the end of the trial. Conclusion. LCR35, at the minimal dose of 2 × 108 CFU/day, can return the Nugent score to normal in healthy women of child-bearing age, by means of a well-tolerated vaginal temporary presence. Phase III clinical trials will specify the preventive or curative impact of this orally administered strain on a range of vaginal disorders such as bacterial vaginosis or vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  2. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  3. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and olmesartan: a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Lee, Donghwan; Chang, HeeChul; Yun, Chohee; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin has been widely used in combination with olmesartan for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. With no information currently available on the interaction between the 2 drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the influence of rosuvastatin on olmesartan and vice versa when the 2 drugs were coadministered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet and the associated drug-drug interaction in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study. Eligible subjects were aged 20 to 50 years and within 20% of their ideal body weight. After being randomly assigned to 6 groups of equal number, subjects received each of the following 3 formulations once a day for 7 consecutive days with an 8-day washout period between the formulations: rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet, olmesartan 40-mg tablet, and coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for rosuvastatin, its active metabolite (N-desmethyl rosuvastatin), and olmesartan. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Among the 36 enrolled subjects, 34 completed the study (mean [range] age, 28.6 [23-49] y; mean [range] weight, 66.4 [52.2-78.7] kg). The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for the coadministration of the 2 drugs to the mono-administration of each drug were 85.14% to 96.08% for AUCτ and 81.41% to 97.48% for Css,max for rosuvastatin, and 77.55% to 89.48% for AUCτ and 75.62% to 90.12% for Css,max for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin; those values were 95.61% to 102.57% for AUCτ and 91.73% to 102.98% for Css,max for olmesartan. Dizziness was the most frequently noted adverse drug

  4. An open label, dose response study to determine the effect of a dietary supplement on dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and estradiol levels in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mark L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining endogenous testosterone (T levels as men age may slow the symptoms of sarcopenia, andropause and decline in physical performance. Drugs inhibiting the enzyme 5α-reductase (5AR produce increased blood levels of T and decreased levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. However, symptoms of gynecomastia have been reported due to the aromatase (AER enzyme converting excess T to estradiol (ES. The carotenoid astaxanthin (AX from Haematococcus pluvialis, Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE from Serenoa repens and the precise combination of these dietary supplements, Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™, have been reported to have inhibitory effects on both 5AR and AER in-vitro. Concomitant regulation of both enzymes in-vivo would cause DHT and ES blood levels to decrease and T levels to increase. The purpose of this clinical study was to determine if patented Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™ could produce these effects in a dose dependent manner. Methods To investigate this clinically, 42 healthy males ages 37 to 70 years were divided into two groups of twenty-one and dosed with either 800 mg/day or 2000 mg/day of Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™ for fourteen days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 and assayed for T, DHT and ES. Body weight and blood pressure data were collected prior to blood collection. One-way, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA-RM was performed at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences from baseline within each group. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA-2 was performed after baseline subtraction, at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences between dose groups. Results are expressed as means ± SEM. Results ANOVA-RM showed significant within group increases in serum total T and significant decreases in serum DHT from baseline in both dose groups at a significance level of alpha = 0.05. Significant decreases in serum ES are reported for the 2000

  5. A clinical evaluation to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement in healthy adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman DS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Douglas S Kalman, Samantha Feldman, Adam Samson, Diane R Krieger Miami Research Associates, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PKs and pharmacodynamics (PDs of an oral inositol-stabilized arginine silicate dietary supplement. Subjects and methods: Ten healthy males, 26.7±5.4 years, took three 500 mg arginine silicate capsules (active product for 14 days. The subjects attended test visits on Days 1 and 14. Fasting blood and saliva collections were performed predose and at 0.5 hours, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, and 6 hours postdose for plasma arginine, serum silicon, and salivary nitric oxide (NO + nitrite. Results: Day 1 PK parameters (adjusted for body weight for arginine were peak serum concentration (CMax 30.06±7.80 µg/mL, time it takes to reach peak serum concentration (tMax 1.13±0.52 hours, and time required to reach half its original concentration (t1/2 15.93±9.55 hours and for silicon were CMax 2.99±0.63 µg/mL, tMax 2.44±2.05 hours, and t1/2 34.56±16.56 hours. After Day 1 dose, arginine levels increased at 0.5 hours, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, and 5 hours (P<0.01 and silicon levels increased at 1 hour and 1.5 hours (P<0.05. After Day 14 dose, arginine levels increased at 0.5 hours, 1 hour, and 1.5 hours (P<0.05 and silicon levels increased at 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, and 3 hours (P<0.01. After 14 days of use, baseline arginine trended toward being higher than baseline Day 1 (P=0.0645, and 4-hour postdose plasma arginine was significantly higher (P=0.0488 at Day 14 than Day 1. Although not a significant difference, NO, as measured as salivary nitrate, increased in four subjects and stayed the same in six subjects at 0.5 hours after the first dose (P=0.125. After 14 days of use, baseline NO levels increased in six subjects and stayed the same in four subjects; this shift was significant (P=0.031. Conclusion: The arginine silicate dietary

  6. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2* Chun-Lei Liu,3,4* Ren-Lai Zhou,3 Hong-Han Gong,1 Bin Wu,5 Lei Gao,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Key Lab of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, and National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Education, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 5National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN impairment after sleep deprivation (SD and its relationships with clinical features. Methods: Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT. The independent component analysis (ICA, rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results: Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001, a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003, a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001, and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0

  7. The impact of eating methods on eating rate and glycemic response in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-02-01

    Singapore is an island state that is composed of three major ethnic groups, namely Chinese, Malay and Indian. Its inhabitants consume food either using chopsticks (Chinese), fingers (Malay and Indian) or spoon (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Previous work by our group showed that the degree of mastication significantly influenced the glycemic response. The degree of mastication in turn may depend on the eating method as the amount of food taken per mouthful and chewing time differs between eating methods. Eleven healthy volunteers came in on six non-consecutive days to the laboratory and evaluated three methods of eating white rice (spoon, chopsticks and fingers) once and the reference food (glucose solution) three times in a random order. Their glycemic response (GR) was measured for the subsequent 120 min. Mastication parameters were determined using surface electrode electromyography. The GR to white rice eating with chopsticks was significantly lower than spoon. The GI of eating rice with chopsticks was 68 which is significantly lower than eating with spoon (GI=81). However there were no differences between fingers and spoon, and between fingers and chopsticks either in GR 120 min or GI. The inter-individual number of mouthful, number of chews per mouthful, chewing time per mouthful and the total time taken to consume the whole portion of rice were significantly different between spoon and chopsticks groups. Significant correlations between the number of mouthful to take the entire portion of rice and amount of rice per mouthful during mastication and the GR were observed for eating rice with spoon and chopsticks, but not for fingers. The results suggest that individual differences in number of mouthful and amount of rice per mouthful may be two of the causes for inter-individual differences in the GR between spoon and chopsticks. The present study suggests that eating rice with different feeding tools has different chewing times and amount of food taken per

  8. Vertical and Horizontal Impact Force Comparison During Jump Landings With and Without Rotation in NCAA Division I Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, John R; Barker, Leland A; Mercer, John A; Dufek, Janet S

    2017-07-01

    Harry, JR, Barker, LA, Mercer, JA, and Dufek, JS. Vertical and horizontal impact force comparison during jump landings with and without rotation in NCAA Division I male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1780-1786, 2017-There is a wealth of research on impact force characteristics when landing from a jump. However, there are no data on impact forces during landing from a jump with an airborne rotation about the vertical axis. We examined impact force parameters in the vertical and horizontal axes during vertical jump (VJ) landings and VJ landings with a 180° rotation (VJR). Twenty-four Division I male soccer players performed 3 VJ and VJR landings on a dual-force platform system. Paired-samples t-tests (α = 0.05) compared differences in the first (F1) and second (F2) peak vertical ground reaction forces, times to F1 (tF1), F2 (tF2), and the end of the impact phase, vertical impulse, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral force couples. Effect sizes (ES; large >0.8) were computed to determine the magnitude of the differences. Lower jump height (41.60 ± 4.03 cm, VJ landings; 39.40 ± 4.05 cm, VJR landings; p = 0.002; ES = 0.39), greater F2 (55.71 ± 11.95 N·kg, VJ; 68.16 ± 14.82 N·kg; p < 0.001; ES = 0.94), faster tF2 (0.057 ± 0.012 seconds, VJ; 0.047 ± 0.011 seconds, VJR; p = 0.001; ES = 0.89), greater anterior-posterior (0.06 ± 0.03 N·s·kg, VJ; 0.56 ± 0.15 N·s·kg, VJR; p < 0.001; ES = 1.83) and medial-lateral force couples (0.29 ± 0.11 N·s·kg, VJ; 0.56 ± 0.14 N·s·kg, VJR; p < 0.001; ES = 1.46) occurred during VJR landings. No other differences were identified. This kinetic analysis determined that landing from a jump with 180° airborne rotation is different than landing from a jump without an airborne rotation. Male Division I soccer players could benefit from increasing the volume of VJR landings during training to address the differences in jump height and force parameters compared with VJ landings.

  9. Lack of Male-Female Differences in Disposition and Esterase Hydrolysis of Ramipril to Ramiprilat in Healthy Volunteers after a Single Oral Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Vree

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify differences in disposition and esterase hydrolysis of ramipril between male and female volunteers. Plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve until the last measured concentration (AUCt data of ramipril and its active metabolite ramiprilat (-diacid were obtained from a randomised, cross-over bioequivalence study in 36 subjects (18 females and 18 males. Participants received a single 5-mg oral dose of two different formulations of ramipril (Formulation I and II. Plasma ramipril and ramiprilat concentrations were determined according to validated methods involving liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total number of 2 � 34 available plasma concentration-time curves of both the parent drug and the metabolite could be analysed, and variations (50�100% coefficient of variation [CV] in plasma concentrations of both parent drug and metabolite were found. With both the formulations, the mean plasma concentrations-time curves of males and females were identical. The groups of female and male volunteers showed similar yields (AUCt = mg.h/L of the metabolite ramiprilat (p = 0.37; however, females showed a higher AUCt/kg than males (p = 0.046. This difference was solely attributed to the difference in body weight between males and females (p = 0.00049. In both male and female groups, a subject-dependent yield of active metabolite ramiprilat was demonstrated, which was independent of the formulation.There is a large variation in the ramiprilat t1/2β (50�60% CV. There is a group of subjects who showed a t1/2β of approximately 80 h (15% CV, and two apparent groups with a longer t1/2βfor each formulation (124 h, 22.5% CV; 166 h, 21.6% CV, respectively, p = 0.0013. This variation in the terminal half-life of ramiprilat is not sex related. In all three groups of half-lives, the corresponding Cmax values (mean � SD of ramiprilat in males and females were identical. Thus, with

  10. Development of methods of male contraception: impact of the World Health Organization Task Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GeoffreyM.H.WaitesSc.D

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To give an historical record of the research of the World Health Organization (WHO) Task Force to develop methods of male contraception; to examine the social, political, medical, pharmaceutical, funding, and other factors that influenced progress; and to suggest reasons why such methods are only now becoming available. Design:Review of basic and clinical research over 30 years. Setting: Task force of a multinational Objective:To give an historical agency and collaborating agencies. Conclusion(s): Through the involvement of many international scientists, the WHO Task Force has uniquely contributed to the exploratory phases of the research in male contraception and by its multicenter contraceptive efficacy studies has accelerated progress towards the ideal hormonal method. Despite an adverse climate involving social and political attitudes, funding constraints, and pharmaceutical industry hesitations, WHO formed coalitions with governments and international agencies to sustain research with results that apply to men in culturally diverse populations and thereby to influence activities across the whole range of global reproductive health and family planning.

  11. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats.

  12. Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, Phei Ching; Tan, Wei Shuan Kimberly; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-03-07

    People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W) or isotonic beverage (IB) on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h) in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL) was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3%) as compared to W (p environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water.

  13. Impact of a daily exercise dose on knee joint cartilage – a systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials in healthy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bricca, Alessio; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Grodzinsky AJ, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of a daily exercise dose on cartilage composition and thickness, by conducting a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving healthy animals. Methods A narrative synthesis of the effect of a daily exercise dose on knee cartilage aggrecan......, collagen and thickness was performed. A subset of studies reporting sufficient data was combined in meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of covariates. Results Twenty-nine RCTs, involving 64 comparisons, were included. In the low dose...... composition in healthy animals....

  14. Social Network Misuse in the Classroom and Its Impact on Male Student Motivation in UAE Tertiary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan A. Alkaabi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data obtained from focus groups conducted to investigate male students’ experiences in higher education in the United Arab Emirates. Among the issues discussed by students was the impact of social networks addiction on student motivation and this paper focuses on that issue. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 83 English as a Foreign Language male students at four government campuses including United Arab Emirates University at Al Ain Campus, Higher College of Technology at Ras Al-Khaima Campus, and two campuses (Abu Dhabi and Dubai of Zayed University. Students access social network sites for both educational and non-educational aspects. Students spoke about their experiences and how social network addiction influenced their academic motivation to study. The resulting themes from the focus groups show that social network addiction has had an impact on student class performance and in some cases led to class failure. Recommendation for better class management and intervention programs are suggested to policy makers and instructors to foster a better student learning experience.

  15. Mindfulness Training for Healthy Aging: Impact on Attention, Well-Being, and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in mindfulness interventions for use in aging samples has been met with promising evidence of cognitive, emotional, and physiological benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of mindfulness training on three areas of functioning in older adults: behavioral and neural correlates of attentional performance, psychological well-being, and systemic inflammation. We have previously proposed that mindfulness training is uniquely suited as a rehabilitative tool for conferring both cognitive and emotional benefits for older adults. Specifically, mindfulness training's promotion of focused attention may mitigate the decline of attentional control abilities across late development and allow older adults to capitalize on their preserved emotion regulation abilities. Existing evidence points to some improvements in facets of attentional control in older adults, although some studies have shown no benefits in performance. Further, there is evidence of enhancements in both psychological and physical aspects of well-being, and accompanying improvements in systemic inflammation, following mindfulness training. The scientific investigation of mindfulness training is still relatively nascent, with only a limited number of studies, particularly randomized controlled trials utilizing active comparison conditions. It will be important for future research to incorporate placebo-controlled comparison groups to clearly establish the causal role of mindfulness practices in promoting holistic health in older adults. PMID:28217093

  16. Mindfulness Training for Healthy Aging: Impact on Attention, Well-Being, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in mindfulness interventions for use in aging samples has been met with promising evidence of cognitive, emotional, and physiological benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of mindfulness training on three areas of functioning in older adults: behavioral and neural correlates of attentional performance, psychological well-being, and systemic inflammation. We have previously proposed that mindfulness training is uniquely suited as a rehabilitative tool for conferring both cognitive and emotional benefits for older adults. Specifically, mindfulness training's promotion of focused attention may mitigate the decline of attentional control abilities across late development and allow older adults to capitalize on their preserved emotion regulation abilities. Existing evidence points to some improvements in facets of attentional control in older adults, although some studies have shown no benefits in performance. Further, there is evidence of enhancements in both psychological and physical aspects of well-being, and accompanying improvements in systemic inflammation, following mindfulness training. The scientific investigation of mindfulness training is still relatively nascent, with only a limited number of studies, particularly randomized controlled trials utilizing active comparison conditions. It will be important for future research to incorporate placebo-controlled comparison groups to clearly establish the causal role of mindfulness practices in promoting holistic health in older adults.

  17. Impact of two different colistin dosing strategies on healthy piglet fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, M A; Jouy, E; Eono, F; Cariolet, R; Couet, W; Gobin, P; Le Goff, O; Blanquet-Diot, S; Alric, M; Kempf, I

    2016-08-01

    Colistin is often used in piglets but underdosing and overdosing are frequent. The impact of such administrations on fecal microbiota was studied. Piglets were given either underdoses of colistin by oral gavage for five days or overdoses by in-feed medication for 14days. The composition of fecal microbiota was studied by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, culture of Enterobacteriaceae, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The mean colistin concentrations during the treatment for underdosed and overdosed groups were 14.4μg/g and 64.9μg/g of feces respectively. Whatever the piglet and the sampling day, the two main phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, The main families were Lactobacillaceae, Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The main perturbation was the significant but transitory decrease in the Escherichia coli population during treatment, yet all the E. coli isolates were susceptible to colistin. Moreover, colistin did not affect the production of SCFAs. These results show that under- or overdoses of colistin do not result in any major disturbance of piglet fecal microbiota and rarely select for chromosomal resistance in the dominant E. coli population.

  18. The effects of sustained cognitive task performance on subsequent resting state functional connectivity in healthy young and middle-aged male schoolteachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, E.A.T.; Klaassen, E.B.; Rombouts, S.A.; Backes, W.H.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that functional connectivity (FC) within resting state (RS) networks is modulated by previous experience. In this study the effects of sustained cognitive performance on subsequent RS FC were investigated in healthy young (25-30 years; n=15) and middle-aged (50-60 years; n=14

  19. Impact of cuticle photoluminescence on the color morphism of a male damselfly Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chin-Jung; Liu, Cheng-Der; Patil, Ranjit A.; Wu, Chi-Chung; Chang, Yao-Chih; Peng, Chih-Wen; Chao, Ting-Kwuan; Liou, Je-Wen; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-12-01

    In this study the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842) was first found to produce strong photoluminescence (PL) emissions from various colored-body portions, such as the eighth abdominal segment of the tail. The colors of the colored-body portions can be enhanced or modified by the PL emissions for assistance in reducing intrasexual and male harassment, and improving mature mating and conspecific identity. Therefore, the PL emissions that contribute to the color modification and coloration are involved in the cuticle evolution of the damselflies. The micro-PL confocal images verify that the PL emissions can strongly influence the surface colors of the cuticle, and demonstrate why the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis is called a bluetail.

  20. Sigmund Freud and his impact on our understanding of male sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Uwe

    2009-08-01

    Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential thinkers and theorists of the 20th century. His groundbreaking work laid the foundation to many concepts and theories relevant to modern sexual medicine. To evaluate Freud's approaches to the understanding of male sexual dysfunction both in their historical context and with respect to their significance for contemporary research and therapy of sexual problems. After a brief biographical sketch, two of Freud's writings, the widely acclaimed "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" from 1905, and a short article entitled "The Most Prevalent Form of Degradation in Erotic Life" from 1912, were analyzed, especially for their relevance to present treatment concepts of male sexual dysfunction. In Freud's clinical practice "psychical impotence" was a highly prevalent complaint. In his view, this dysfunction was caused by an inhibition due to an unresolved neurotic fixation leading to an arrest of the libidinal development. The result is a splitting of the tender and the sensual dimension of sexuality, most notably in the so-called madonna-whore complex. The degree of this dissociation (total or partial) determines the severity of the ensuing sexual dysfunction. In Freud's rather pessimistic view, the erotic life of civilized people tends to be characterized by some degree of this condition. While some of Freud's theories are obsolete today, many parts of his work appear to be astonishingly modern, even in the light of current neurobiological research and recent models of sexual dysfunction. Above all, Freud was an extremely gifted observer of human behavior who shows us that in many cases, sexual dysfunctions are no isolated phenomena, but have their roots in biographically based intrapsychic or interpersonal conflicts.

  1. The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Methods: Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants’ capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). Results: The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group. PMID:25780470

  2. Verbal and visuospatial executive functions in healthy elderly: The impact of education and frequency of reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Damiani Branco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the predictive role of education and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH on the cognitive flexibility, inhibition and planning abilities of healthy elderly individuals. Methods: Fifty-seven healthy adults aged between 60 and 75 years with 2 to 23 years of formal education were assessed as to the frequency with which they read and wrote different types of text, as well as their number of years of formal education. Executive functions were evaluated using the Hayling Test and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MWCST. Results: Weak to moderate positive correlations were found between education, FRWH and the number of categories completed in the MWCST, while negative correlations were identified between these variables and the number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors on the task. Only the FRWH was significantly correlated with the number of failures to maintain set. Speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test were only correlated with participant education. Both education and FRWH significantly predicted performance on the MWCST, and the combination of these two variables had a greater predictive impact on performance on this task than either of the two variables alone. Variability in scores on the Hayling Test was best accounted for by participant education. Conclusion: In this sample of elderly subjects, cognitive flexibility was sufficiently preserved to allow for adequate performance on verbal tasks, but may have benefitted from the additional stimulation provided by regular reading and writing habits and by formal education in the performance of more complex non-verbal tasks.

  3. An open label study to determine the effects of an oral proteolytic enzyme system on whey protein concentrate metabolism in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shil C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that protein intake of 1.5 – 2.8 g/kg/day (3.5 times the current recommended daily allowance is effective and safe for individuals trying to increase or maintain lean muscle mass. To achieve these levels of daily protein consumption, supplementing the diet with processed whey protein concentrate (WPC in liquid form has become a popular choice for many people. Some products have a suggested serving size as high as 50 g of protein. However, due to possible inhibition of endogenous digestive enzymes from over-processing and rapid small intestine transit time, the average amount of liquid WPC that is absorbed may be only 15 g. The combined effect of these factors may contribute to incomplete digestion, thereby limiting the absorption rate of protein before it reaches the ceacum and is eliminated as waste. The purpose of this study was to determine if Aminogen®, a patented blend of digestive proteases from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, would significantly increase the in-vivo absorption rate of processed WPC over control values. It also investigated if any increase would be sufficient to significantly alter nitrogen (N2 balance and C-reactive protein (CRP levels over control values as further evidence of increased WPC absorption rate. Methods Two groups of healthy male subjects were assigned a specified balanced diet before and after each of two legs of the study. Subjects served as their own controls. In the first leg each control group (CG was dosed with 50 g of WPC following an overnight fast. Nine days later each test group (TG was dosed following an overnight fast with 50 g of WPC containing either 2.5 g (A2.5 or 5 g (A5 of Aminogen®. Blood samples were collected during each leg at 0 hr, 0.5 hr, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 3.5 hr and 4 hr for amino acid (AA and CRP analyses. The following 18 AAs were quantified: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine

  4. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  5. Impact of comorbid depression on quality of life in male combat Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Phillip A; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Gros, Daniel F; Morland, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression is a highly comorbid condition. Both conditions have been associated with decreased quality of life, and research suggests that comorbid PTSD and depression may result in worse quality of life than PTSD alone. However, research is needed to elucidate the effect of comorbidity on a broader variety of quality of life domains. In this study, we used baseline data of 158 male combat Veterans taking part in a PTSD treatment trial and examined the unique relationships between quality of life domains and PTSD symptom clusters, major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Veterans with comorbid PTSD-MDD reported significantly worse satisfaction-related quality of life than those with PTSD alone, although this finding was largely attributable to PTSD numbing symptoms. Subsequent analyses comparing the effect of numbing symptoms to depressive symptoms revealed that depression exerted a stronger influence, although numbing symptoms were still uniquely associated with quality of life. We discuss implications for treatment and research, as well as the need to address negative affect in Veterans with PTSD.

  6. Differences Between Lovastatin and Simvastatin Hydrolysis in Healthy Male and Female Volunteers: Gut Hydrolysis of Lovastatin is Twice that of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Vree

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pharmacokinetic evaluation was to show the effect of the extra methyl group in simvastatin on esterase hydrolysis between lovastatin and simvastatin in male and female volunteers. This study was based on the plasma concentration-time curves and the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin and simvastatin with its respective active metabolite statin-β-hydroxy acid obtained from two different bioequivalence studies, each with 18 females and 18 males. Results were: 1-The group of female volunteers showed a higher yield of the active metabolite β-hydroxy acid than the group of males (p < 0.002 for both lovastatin and simvastatin. This difference was not related to the body weight of both groups. 2-In the male/female groups, subject-dependent yield of active metabolite β-hydroxy acid was demonstrated, which was independent of the formulation. The variation in plasma/liver hydrolysis resulted in a fan-shaped distribution of data points when the AUCt lovastatin was plotted vs. that of the β-hydroxy acid metabolite. In the fan of data points, subgroups could be distinguished, each showing a different regression line and with a different Y-intercept (AUCtβ-hydroxy acid. 3-Lovastatin hydrolysis was higher than simvastatin hydrolysis. 4-It was possible to discriminate between hydrolysis of both lovastatin and simvastatin by plasma/liver or tissue esterase activity.

  7. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Heilmann, R.M.; Grützner, N.; Suchodolski, J.S.; Steiner, J.M.; Atroshi, F.; Sankari, S.; Kettunen, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Zentek, J.; Spillmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influenc

  8. Impact of a daily exercise dose on knee joint cartilage - a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in healthy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bricca, A; Juhl, C B; Grodzinsky, A J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a daily exercise dose on cartilage composition and thickness, by conducting a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving healthy animals. METHODS: A narrative synthesis of the effect of a daily exercise dose on knee cartilage aggreca...

  9. Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phei Ching Siow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W or isotonic beverage (IB on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3% as compared to W (p < 0.05 after 8 h. IB also resulted in body mass gain (0.14 ± 0.06 kg, while W led to body mass loss (−0.04 ± 0.05 kg (p = 0.01. A significantly smaller drop in blood volume and lower free water clearance was observed in IB (−1.18% ± 0.43%; 0.55 ± 0.26 mL/min compared to W (−2.11% ± 0.41%; 1.35 ± 0.24 mL/min (p < 0.05. IB increased salivary flow rate (0.54 ± 0.05 g/min 0.62 ± 0.04 g/min. In indoor environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water.

  10. Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, Phei Ching; Tan, Wei Shuan Kimberly; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-01-01

    People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W) or isotonic beverage (IB) on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h) in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL) was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3%) as compared to W (p < 0.05) after 8 h. IB also resulted in body mass gain (0.14 ± 0.06 kg), while W led to body mass loss (−0.04 ± 0.05 kg) (p = 0.01). A significantly smaller drop in blood volume and lower free water clearance was observed in IB (−1.18% ± 0.43%; 0.55 ± 0.26 mL/min) compared to W (−2.11% ± 0.41%; 1.35 ± 0.24 mL/min) (p < 0.05). IB increased salivary flow rate (0.54 ± 0.05 g/min 0.62 ± 0.04 g/min). In indoor environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water. PMID:28272337

  11. “It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine”: a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002–7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as ‘gender appropriate’, ‘gender anomalous’ or ‘gender neutral’. Design A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. Methods We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. Findings The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as ‘a young woman's illness’, serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently ‘female’ and so ‘anomalous’ for men. Conclusions Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE ENZYME STEROID 5α-REDUCTASE 2 DEFICIENCY ON UROGENITAL BIRTH DEFECT IN MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia-Irina Olaru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work on 5α-reductase 2 is aiming to put into evidence how a mutation of the gene codifying for this enzyme can affect the phenotype of different males, leading at a partial female phenotype.  This type of research focuses on offering a scientific explanation on different health problems affecting the normal lives of some people, even from early stages of their evolution.The experiment is focused on studying the impact of an enzyme called “steroid 5α-reductase” on the development of male urogenital components during the embryological life.  In order to study the steroid 5α-reductase 2 activity, the following procedures were used: isolation of a 5α-reductase 2 gene, genomicDNAisolation, and polymerase chain reactions.Biochemical analysis put into evidence two mutations representing opposite poles of disease manifestation, i.e. feminization of external genitalia versus predominantly male development. It suggested a correlation between clinical expression and severity of the impairment of enzyme function.  As mentioned by Imperato-McGinley, Guerrero, Gautier, & Peterson (1974, one of the mutations is called “G196S mutation.”  This mutation consists of a serine substitution for a glycine at position 196.  In this case, the level of 5α-reductase activity was sufficient to induce partial virilization.  The second type of mutation is called “G34R mutation.”  This mutation consists of an arginine substitution for glycine at position 34.  The G34R enzyme is essentially inactive, thus giving rise to the female phenotype.Mutations in the type 2 gene are responsible for autosomal recessive genetic disease of 5α-reductase deficiency.

  13. Working Conditions of Male Construction Worker and Its Impact on Their Life: A Cross Sectional Study in Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiteshree C Patel, Mohua Moitra, Mohmmed Irfan H Momin, S L Kantharia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The construction sector is an important sector of the economy and contributes significantly to GDP. The working conditions and the facilities provided at the sites are far from satisfactory. Objective: 1 To study socio-demographic profile of male construction workers. 2 To study certain working conditions and its impact on health of workers. 3 To study the pushing factors for migration among them. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Materials and methods: Three different construction sites of Surat city were selected by convenience sampling. All male construction workers from these three sites were selected. Necessary consent and permission was obtained. Data collected in preformed, pre-tested questionnaire. Analysis was done by Epi-info software. Results: Out of 93 workers, 3.25% were children and 9.67% were adolescents. Illiteracy was 45.2%. All the workers were migrants. Skilled workers earned Rs 75 more than the unskilled workers per day. Mean hours of working was 8.5 per day. Body-ache was the commonest complaint with the average complaint being 0.8 per worker. Most common habit among them was tobacco chewing (48.38%. Morbidity was higher among unskilled workers. There was a statistically significant association between type of workers (skilled or unskilled and morbidity status (p< 0.05.

  14. Impact of Increasing Dietary Calcium Levels on Calcium Excretion and Vitamin D Metabolites in the Blood of Healthy Adult Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Schmiedchen, Bettina; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J.; Stumpff, Friederike; Kohn, Barbara; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary calcium (Ca) concentrations might affect regulatory pathways within the Ca and vitamin D metabolism and consequently excretory mechanisms. Considering large variations in Ca concentrations of feline diets, the physiological impact on Ca homeostasis has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, diets with increasing concentrations of dicalcium phosphate were offered to ten healthy adult cats (Ca/phosphorus (P): 6.23/6.02, 7.77/7.56, 15.0/12.7, 19.0/17.3, 22.2/19.9, 24.3/21.6 g/kg dry matter). Each feeding period was divided into a 10-day adaptation and an 8-day sampling period in order to collect urine and faeces. On the last day of each feeding period, blood samples were taken. Results Urinary Ca concentrations remained unaffected, but faecal Ca concentrations increased (P cats were observed. However, the calcitriol precursors 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, which are considered the most useful indicators for the vitamin D status, decreased with higher dietary Ca levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.033). Increasing dietary levels of dicalcium phosphate revealed an acidifying effect on urinary fasting pH (6.02) and postprandial pH (6.01) (P cats is mainly regulated in the intestine and not by the kidneys. Long-term studies should investigate the physiological relevance of the acidifying effect observed when feeding diets high in Ca and P. PMID:26870965

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors have larger impact on endothelial function in self-reported healthy women than men in the HUNT3 Fitness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Eli-Anne; Madssen, Erik; Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have larger effects on the development of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. A recent study in self-reported healthy subjects demonstrated a marked gender difference in endothelial dysfunction that may be an important precursor of manifest cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors is different in self-reported healthy women compared to self-reported healthy men. Associations between endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, FMD, of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound), anthropometric variables, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood pressure, serum lipids, blood glucose and a questionnaire on general health and lifestyle including smoking status were studied by logistic and linear regression in 2 528 women and 2 211 men aged 20-89 years, free from self-reported cardiovascular disease. In women with hyperglycemia, endothelial dysfunction (FMD ≤0%) occurred twice as frequently as in male counterparts. The presence of the metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and low VO2peak increased the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction more in women than in men. Endothelial dysfunction is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors in self-reported healthy women than in self-reported healthy men. This finding could explain why the metabolic syndrome, and especially hyperglycemia, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and a worse prognosis in women.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors have larger impact on endothelial function in self-reported healthy women than men in the HUNT3 Fitness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli-Anne Skaug

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have larger effects on the development of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. A recent study in self-reported healthy subjects demonstrated a marked gender difference in endothelial dysfunction that may be an important precursor of manifest cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors is different in self-reported healthy women compared to self-reported healthy men. METHODS AND RESULTS: Associations between endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, FMD, of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound, anthropometric variables, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, blood pressure, serum lipids, blood glucose and a questionnaire on general health and lifestyle including smoking status were studied by logistic and linear regression in 2 528 women and 2 211 men aged 20-89 years, free from self-reported cardiovascular disease. In women with hyperglycemia, endothelial dysfunction (FMD ≤0% occurred twice as frequently as in male counterparts. The presence of the metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and low VO2peak increased the prevalence of endothelial dysfunction more in women than in men. CONCLUSION: Endothelial dysfunction is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors in self-reported healthy women than in self-reported healthy men. This finding could explain why the metabolic syndrome, and especially hyperglycemia, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and a worse prognosis in women.

  17. Healthy snacks at the checkout counter: A lab and field study on the impact of shelf arrangement and assortment structure on consumer choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kleef Ellen

    2012-12-01

    not impacted by manipulations (no main or interaction effects. Employees preferred shelf displays including a larger healthy snack assortment located at top shelves. Employees also felt more freedom in choice when healthy snacks were displayed at top shelves compared to lower shelves. Conclusions Overall, results suggest that increasing the prominence of healthy snacks by enlarging their availability, while permitting access to unhealthy snacks, is a promising strategy to promote sales. These results point to the importance of nudging strategies to encourage healthier snack patterns.

  18. Healthy snacks at the checkout counter: a lab and field study on the impact of shelf arrangement and assortment structure on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Otten, Kai; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2012-12-12

    The essence of nudging is to adapt the environment in which consumers make decisions to help them make better choices, without forcing certain outcomes upon them. To determine how consumers can effectively be guided to select healthier snacks, we examine the effect of manipulating the assortment structure and shelf layout of an impulse display including both healthy and unhealthy snacks near the checkout counter of a canteen. Both a lab and field study applied a two-factor experimental design manipulating snack offerings both in an on-screen choice environment and a natural environment (hospital staff restaurant). Shelf arrangement (i.e. accessibility) was altered by putting healthy snacks at higher shelves versus lower shelves. Assortment structure (i.e. availability) was altered by offering an assortment that either included 25% or 75% healthy snacks. Participants in the lab study (n = 158) made a choice from a shelf display. A brief survey following snack selection asked participants to evaluate the assortment and their choice. The field experiment took place in a hospital canteen. Daily sales data were collected for a period of four weeks. On completion of the field study, employees (n = 92) filled out a questionnaire about all four displays and rated their attractiveness, healthiness and perceived freedom of choice. The lab study showed a higher probability of healthy snack choice when 75% of the assortment consisted of healthy snacks compared to conditions with 25% healthy snack assortments, even though choices were not rated less satisfying or more restrictive. Regarding shelf display location of healthy snacks, no significant differences were observed. There was also no significant shelf arrangement by assortment structure interactive effect. The field study replicated these findings, in that this assortment structure led to higher sales of healthy snacks. Sales of unhealthy and total snacks were not impacted by manipulations (no main or interaction effects

  19. Evaluation of variation in the lipid profile and risk for coronary artery disease in healthy male individuals with respect to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Abraham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is one of the commonest causes of death affecting both sexes worldwide. It is the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. The measurement of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins has long been recognized as necessary for the diagnosis and clinical management of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. On the basis of this, the present study was performed to compare the serum lipid profile in males of different age groups. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted after the institutional ethical clearance. The male subjects between the ages of 20-59 were included in the study. Blood was collected from the subjects after an overnight fast of 12 hours who were also advised to refrain from non-vegetarian food for 3 days. Estimation of serum total cholesterol was done by using the cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method for estimating serum cholesterol. Serum triglyceride was estimated using the triglyceride kit which is based on GPO-POD method. Estimation of serum HDL cholesterol was done using cholesterol kit which uses modified Allain's method. Serum LDL cholesterol level was calculated using the Friedewald's formula, LDL cholesterol = Total cholesterol - (HDL-C + TG/5. Estimation of fasting blood sugar was done using GOD-POD method. The lipid levels with risk for CAD were performed based on Framingham heart study. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t-test for group wise comparison and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The lipid levels on comparison in 2 successive age groups of males, that is 20-29 and 30-39 years; and 30-39 and 40-49years; 40-49 and 50-59 years, it was found that the mean values of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and the ratio of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C are increased while HDL-C is decreased in the older age group. Conclusion: From the present study it is understood that as age advances total cholesterol

  20. Impact of salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection on the mating success of male Glossina pallidipes: consequences for the sterile insect technique.

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    Gratian N Mutika

    Full Text Available Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus (GpSGHV that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH. Female Glossina pallidipes (Austen with SGH symptoms (SGH+ have reduced fecundity and SGH+ male G. pallidipes are unable to inseminate female flies. Consequently, G. pallidipes laboratory colonies with a high prevalence of SGH have been difficult to maintain and have collapsed on several occasions. To assess the potential impact of the release of SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes on the efficacy of an integrated control programme with a sterile insect technique (SIT component, we examined the mating efficiency and behaviour of male G. pallidipes in field cages in relation to SGH prevalence. The results showed in a field cage setting a significantly reduced mating frequency of 19% for a male G. pallidipes population with a high prevalence of SGH (83% compared to 38% for a male population with a low prevalence of SGH (7%. Premating period and mating duration did not vary significantly with SGH status. A high percentage (>80% of females that had mated with SGH+ males had empty spermathecae. The remating frequency of female G. pallidipes was very low irrespective of the SGH status of the males in the first mating. These results indicate that a high prevalence of SGH+ in G. pallidipes not only affects colony stability and performance but, in view of their reduced mating propensity and competitiveness, releasing SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes will reduce the efficiency of a sterile male release programme.

  1. The impact of the healthy schools program on reading, mathematics, and science achievement of 5th grade students: A causal-comparative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Christina Lynn

    The obesity rate for children has become a national epidemic in America, resulting in the need to incorporate physical fitness and nutrition into the curriculum in an effort to improve health and academic achievement. The Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is an initiative that assists schools in establishing and sustaining healthy environments, which can be instrumental in making students perform better in school. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the impact of the HSP on academic achievement. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Impact of short-term HAART initiated during the chronic stage or shortly post-exposure on SIV infection of male genital organs.

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    Marina Moreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2-4 weeks initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.

  3. Threat appeals in health communication: messages that elicit fear and enhance perceived efficacy positively impact on young male drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel N; Sarma, Kiran M

    2016-07-27

    Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These 'threat appeals' feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. To address limitations of previous research, we first identified a road safety advertisement that objectively and subjectively elicited fear using physiological and subjective measures. Study 1 (n = 62) examined the effect of this advertisement, combined with a manipulation designed to increase perceived efficacy, on speed choice. Study 2 (n = 81) investigated whether a state emotion, anger, impacts on the effectiveness of the advertisement in changing four distinct driving behaviours. Both studies examined short-term effects only. Study 1 findings indicated that a high threat message, when combined with high perceived efficacy, can lead to a decrease in speed choice. Study 2 results suggested that increased levels of state anger may counteract the potential value of combining fear-arousing threats and efficacy-building messages. Findings suggest that threat-based road safety communications that target affective (fear) and cognitive (perceived efficacy) mechanisms can positively affect driving behaviours. State emotions, such as anger, may negatively impact on the effectiveness of the message. Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the use of efficacy-building messages in threat-based communications, but highlight the need for further research into the complex array of affective influences on driving.

  4. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

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    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  5. Comparison of ground-based and space flight energy expenditure and water turnover in middle-aged healthy male US astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Schoeller, D. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Socki, R. A.; Gibson, E. K.

    1997-01-01

    Energy requirements during space flight are poorly defined because they depend on metabolic-balance studies, food disappearance, and dietary records. Water turnover has been estimated by balance methods only. The purpose of this study was to determine energy requirements and water turnover for short-term space flights (8-14 d). Subjects were 13 male astronauts aged 36-51 y with normal body mass indexes (BMIs). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was determined during both a ground-based period and space flight and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) calculations of energy requirements and dietary intake. TEE was not different for the ground-based and the space-flight periods (12.40 +/- 2.83 and 11.70 +/- 1.89 MJ/d, respectively), and the WHO calculation using the moderate activity correction was a good predictor of TEE during space flight. During the ground-based period, energy intake and TEE did not differ, but during space flight energy intake was significantly lower than TEE; body weight was also less at landing than before flight. Water turnover was lower during space flight than during the ground-based period (2.7 +/- 0.6 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.5 L/d), probably because of lower fluid intakes and perspiration loss during flight. This study confirmed that the WHO calculation can be used for male crew members' energy requirements during short space flights.

  6. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

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    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC.The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0 with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM, as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections.The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  7. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  8. Impact of Increasing Dietary Calcium Levels on Calcium Excretion and Vitamin D Metabolites in the Blood of Healthy Adult Cats.

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    Nadine Paßlack

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium (Ca concentrations might affect regulatory pathways within the Ca and vitamin D metabolism and consequently excretory mechanisms. Considering large variations in Ca concentrations of feline diets, the physiological impact on Ca homeostasis has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, diets with increasing concentrations of dicalcium phosphate were offered to ten healthy adult cats (Ca/phosphorus (P: 6.23/6.02, 7.77/7.56, 15.0/12.7, 19.0/17.3, 22.2/19.9, 24.3/21.6 g/kg dry matter. Each feeding period was divided into a 10-day adaptation and an 8-day sampling period in order to collect urine and faeces. On the last day of each feeding period, blood samples were taken.Urinary Ca concentrations remained unaffected, but faecal Ca concentrations increased (P < 0.001 with increasing dietary Ca levels. No effect on whole and intact parathyroid hormone levels, fibroblast growth factor 23 and calcitriol concentrations in the blood of the cats were observed. However, the calcitriol precursors 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD3, which are considered the most useful indicators for the vitamin D status, decreased with higher dietary Ca levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.033. Increasing dietary levels of dicalcium phosphate revealed an acidifying effect on urinary fasting pH (6.02 and postprandial pH (6.01 (P < 0.001, possibly mediated by an increase of urinary phosphorus (P concentrations (P < 0.001.In conclusion, calcitriol precursors were linearly affected by increasing dietary Ca concentrations. The increase in faecal Ca excretion indicates that Ca homeostasis of cats is mainly regulated in the intestine and not by the kidneys. Long-term studies should investigate the physiological relevance of the acidifying effect observed when feeding diets high in Ca and P.

  9. Impact of a single bout of aerobic exercise on regional brain perfusion and activation responses in healthy young adults.

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    Bradley J MacIntosh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Despite the generally accepted view that aerobic exercise can have positive effects on brain health, few studies have measured brain responses to exercise over a short time span. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact within one hour of a single bout of exercise on brain perfusion and neuronal activation. METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 16; age range: 20-35 yrs were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI before and after 20 minutes of exercise at 70% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL was used to measure absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF prior to exercise (pre and at 10 min (post-10 and 40 min (post-40 post-exercise. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional MRI (fMRI was performed pre and post-exercise to characterize activation differences related to a go/no-go reaction time task. RESULTS: Compared to pre-exercise levels, grey matter CBF was 11% (±9% lower at post-10 (P<0.0004 and not different at post-40 (P = 0.12, while global WM CBF was increased at both time points post-exercise (P<0.0006. Regionally, the hippocampus and insula showed a decrease in perfusion in ROI-analysis at post-10 (P<0.005, FDR corrected, whereas voxel-wise analysis identified elevated perfusion in the left medial postcentral gyrus at post-40 compared to pre (pcorrected = 0.05. BOLD activations were consistent between sessions, however, the left parietal operculum showed reduced BOLD activation after exercise. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of regionalized brain effects associated with a single bout of aerobic exercise. The observed acute cerebrovascular responses may provide some insight into the brain's ability to change in relation to chronic interventions.

  10. Impact of lower body negative pressure induced hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure waveform parameters in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Aymen A; Galante, Nicholas J; Stachenfeld, Nina S; Silverman, David G; Shelley, Kirk H

    2014-07-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) creates a reversible hypovolemia by sequestrating blood volume in the lower extremities. This study sought to examine the impact of central hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure (PVP) waveforms in spontaneously breathing subjects. With IRB approval, 11 healthy subjects underwent progressive LBNP (baseline, -30, -75, and -90 mmHg or until the subject became symptomatic). Each was monitored for heart rate (HR), finger arterial blood pressure (BP), a chest respiratory band and PVP waveforms which are generated from a transduced upper extremity intravenous site. The first subject was excluded from PVP analysis because of technical errors in collecting the venous pressure waveform. PVP waveforms were analyzed to determine venous pulse pressure, mean venous pressure, pulse width, maximum and minimum slope (time domain analysis) together with cardiac and respiratory modulations (frequency domain analysis). No changes of significance were found in the arterial BP values at -30 mmHg LBNP, while there were significant reductions in the PVP waveforms time domain parameters (except for 50% width of the respiration induced modulations) together with modulation of the PVP waveform at the cardiac frequency but not at the respiratory frequency. As the LBNP progressed, arterial systolic BP, mean BP and pulse pressure, PVP parameters and PVP cardiac modulation decreased significantly, while diastolic BP and HR increased significantly. Changes in hemodynamic and PVP waveform parameters reached a maximum during the symptomatic phase. During the recovery phase, there was a significant reduction in HR together with a significant increase in HR variability, mean PVP and PVP cardiac modulation. Thus, in response to mild hypovolemia induced by LBNP, changes in cardiac modulation and other PVP waveform parameters identified hypovolemia before detectable hemodynamic changes.

  11. Impact of air pollution on age and gender related increase in cough reflex sensitivity of healthy children in Slovakia.

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    Silvia eDemoulin-Alexikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose. The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3±2.6 yrs (138 females/152 males.Results. CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8 – 50.2 μmol/l] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4 – 112.2 μmol/l, p=0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2 – 253.1 μmol/l, p=0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6 – 45.6 μmol/l] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3 – 533.4 μmol/l; p=0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7 – 172.9 μmol/l; p=0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions. Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least

  12. An experimental trial exploring the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in a cohort of male students.

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    Fergus G Neville

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. METHOD: Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants' experiences of the trial. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety, participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour.

  13. An experimental trial exploring the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in a cohort of male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Fergus G; Williams, Damien J; Goodall, Christine A; Murer, Jeffrey S; Donnelly, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants' experiences of the trial. Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour.

  14. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Bo, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative...... stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral...... arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples...

  15. Daily consumption of tea catechins improves aerobic capacity in healthy male adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Noriyasu; Soga, Satoko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with tea catechins combined with exercise improved endurance capacity in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of daily tea catechin consumption on aerobic capacity in humans. Sixteen Japanese non-athlete male subjects (aged 25-47 years) took 500 mL of a test beverage with or without tea catechins (570 mg) daily for 8 weeks and attended a training program twice a week. Aerobic capacity was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and near-infrared spectroscopy during graded cycle exercise. Catechin beverage consumption was associated with a significantly higher ventilation threshold during exercise and a higher recovery rate of oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin levels after graded cycle exercise when compared to subjects receiving the placebo beverage. These results indicate that daily consumption of tea catechins increases aerobic capacity when combined with semiweekly light exercise, which may be due to increased skeletal muscle aerobic capacity.

  16. Relative bioavailability of generic and branded acetylcysteine effervescent tablets: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen

    2010-11-01

    Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and

  17. The 100-meter timed test: Normative data in healthy males and comparative pilot outcome data for use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Lindsay N; Miller, Natalie F; Berry, Katherine M; Yin, Han; Rolf, Kimberly E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Mendell, Jerry R; Lowes, Linda P

    2017-02-17

    Timed walking tests are often used to measure function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our objective was to evaluate the 100 meter timed test (100m), a fixed distance test of maximal performance, for use in DMD. To this end, we sought to establish normative 100m performance in healthy controls, compare DMD performance to controls, and evaluate the reliability of 100m. Seventy-two boys with DMD (18 steroid-naïve, 54 on steroids) and 599 controls (4-14 years) completed the 100m as speedily as possible on a 25-meter track. Repeat testing was completed between 1 and 42 days later and again at 1 year in a subgroup of 96 control boys. Additionally 35 DMD boys were followed longitudinally (5-19 months). Descriptive statistics are presented by age and cohort. There was a significant difference in performance between groups (p  0.90, p < 0.001). Normative data can be used to determine percent-predicted 100m times to quantify the severity of running impairment in children with a motor deficit. Performance of 100m follows the natural history established by other outcome measures in DMD.

  18. Can male circumcision have an impact on the HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Goodreau

    Full Text Available Three trials have demonstrated the prophylactic effect of male circumcision (MC for HIV acquisition among heterosexuals, and MC interventions are underway throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Similar efforts for men who have sex with men (MSM are stymied by the potential for circumcised MSM to acquire HIV easily through receptive sex and transmit easily through insertive sex. Existing work suggests that MC for MSM should reach its maximum potential in settings where sexual role segregation is historically high and relatively stable across the lifecourse; HIV incidence among MSM is high; reported willingness for prophylactic circumcision is high; and pre-existing circumcision rates are low. We aim to identify the likely public health impact that MC interventions among MSM would have in one setting that fulfills these conditions-Peru-as a theoretical upper bound for their effectiveness among MSM generally.We use a dynamic, stochastic sexual network model based in exponential-family random graph modeling and parameterized from multiple behavioral surveys of Peruvian MSM. We consider three enrollment criteria (insertive during 100%, >80% or >60% of UAI and two levels of uptake (25% and 50% of eligible men; we explore sexual role proportions from two studies and different frequencies of switching among role categories. Each scenario is simulated 10 times. We estimate that efficiency could reach one case averted per 6 circumcisions. However, the population-level impact of an optimistic MSM-MC intervention in this setting would likely be at most ∼5-10% incidence and prevalence reductions over 25 years.Roll-out of MC for MSM in Peru would not result in a substantial reduction in new HIV infections, despite characteristics in this population that could maximize such effects. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results for other MSM populations, and providers may consider the individual health benefits of offering MC to their MSM patients.

  19. Pharmacokinetics study of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (8:1)--a new combination in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers using the LC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanhong; Wang, Yinfu; Xie, Hua; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping; Men, Xiandong; Xu, Liting; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    New oral granules of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio have recently been developed and approved to conduct clinical trial in China. To date, there has been no report studying the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 with different dosage in healthy volunteers and provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determining the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma was developed and applied to this open-label, single- and multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 1, 2, and 4 pouches of the test granulation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio (amoxicillin is 250 mg and clavulanic acid is 31.25 mg per pouch). In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 to determine the Cmin of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. In the 4th day, samples were collected from 0.25 to 24 h after drug administration. Profiles of the concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were best fitted to two-compartment model. In this group of healthy Chinese subjects, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin fitted the linear dynamic feature at doses of 250,500 and 1,000 mg, and not obviously about clavulanic acid at doses of 31.25, 62.5, and 125 mg. The t 1/2 of single dose and multidoses were (1.45 ± 0.12) and (1.44 ± 0.26) h of amoxicillin and (1.24 ± 0.23) and (1.24 ± 0.17) of clavulanic acid, respectively; The AUC0-24 of single dose

  20. Genome-wide scan identifies variant in TNFSF13 associated with serum IgM in a healthy Chinese male population.

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    Ming Yang

    Full Text Available IgM provides a first line of defense during microbial infections. Serum IgM levels are detected routinely in clinical practice. And IgM is a genetically complex trait. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic variants affecting serum IgM levels in a Chinese population of 3495, including 1999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1496 independent individuals in the second stage. Our data show that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs11552708 located in the TNFSF13 gene was significantly associated with IgM levels (p = 5.00×10(-7 in first stage, p = 1.34×10(-3 in second stage, and p = 4.22×10(-9 when combined. Besides, smoking was identified to be associated with IgM levels in both stages (P0.05. It is suggested that TNFSF13 may be a susceptibility gene affecting serum IgM levels in Chinese male population.

  1. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

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    Arne Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP, cyclooxygenase (COX, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS. We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO, and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans.

  2. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  3. Differences and relationship of the levels of blood fat and uric acid between male and female healthy persons%体检人群血脂和尿酸水平的性别差异及相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳茹; 黄群; 王俊丰; 王帅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the differences in the levels of blood fat and uric acid (UA) between gender and the correlation of them in healthy persons.Methods A total of 695 healthy persons were divided into male group (n=412) and female group (n=283).The levels of cholesterol,triglycedde,high density lipoprotein (HDL) and UA were detected,and the data obtained were statistically analyzed.Results The ratios of high triglyceride and high uric acid (HUA) in male group were both significantly higher than those in female group (P<0.01).The levels of triglyceride,cholesterol and UA of male group were significantly higher than female group,but the level of HDL was significantly lower (P<0.01 or P<0.05).The level of UA was in positive correlation to the levels of cholesterol and triglyceride,but in negative correlation to the level of HDL.Conclusion The levels of blood fat and UA are significantly different between males and females,to which importance should be attached in early prevention and treatment.%目的 了解健康体检人群中血脂和尿酸水平的性别差异及相关性.方法 将695例健康体检者按照性别分为男性体检组412例和女性体检组283例,检测总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL)和尿酸(UA)水平,并对其进行统计学分析.结果 男性体检组中高甘油三酯和高尿酸血症的检出率明显高于女性(P<0.01);甘油三酯、胆固醇及尿酸的水平也明显高于女性,但高密度脂蛋白水平明显低于女性(P<0.01或P<0.05),尿酸与胆固醇和甘油三酯水平呈正相关,与HDL水平呈负相关.结论 男性和女性人群血脂和尿酸水平存在性别差异,在早期预防和治疗中应引起重视.

  4. Impact of cell shape in hierarchically structured plant surfaces on the attachment of male Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata

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    Bettina Prüm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant surfaces showing hierarchical structuring are frequently found in plant organs such as leaves, petals, fruits and stems. In our study we focus on the level of cell shape and on the level of superimposed microstructuring, leading to hierarchical surfaces if both levels are present. While it has been shown that epicuticular wax crystals and cuticular folds strongly reduce insect attachment, and that smooth papillate epidermal cells in petals improve the grip of pollinators, the impact of hierarchical surface structuring of plant surfaces possessing convex or papillate cells on insect attachment remains unclear. We performed traction experiments with male Colorado potato beetles on nine different plant surfaces with different structures. The selected plant surfaces showed epidermal cells with either tabular, convex or papillate cell shape, covered either with flat films of wax, epicuticular wax crystals or with cuticular folds. On surfaces possessing either superimposed wax crystals or cuticular folds we found traction forces to be almost one order of magnitude lower than on surfaces covered only with flat films of wax. Independent of superimposed microstructures we found that convex and papillate epidermal cell shapes slightly enhance the attachment ability of the beetles. Thus, in plant surfaces, cell shape and superimposed microstructuring yield contrary effects on the attachment of the Colorado potato beetle, with convex or papillate cells enhancing attachment and both wax crystals or cuticular folds reducing attachment. However, the overall magnitude of traction force mainly depends on the presence or absence of superimposed microstructuring.

  5. I. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, and allometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diode (LED), cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL), and incandescent lamps on broiler performance. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 black-out modified large colony houses, under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested included CCFL and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Live performance for each technology was evaluated using live broiler body weight (BW), weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality. Birds were removed from each house at 7, 14, 35, and 42 d to be humanely euthanized, weighed, and necropsied for allometric tissue sample analysis. Relative to the technologies tested, results indicate that birds raised under incandescent lamps had significantly higher BW by 42 d, compared to birds raised under CCFL lamps, which had poorer BW performance (P=0.03). Birds raised under both LED technologies grew to final BWs similar to those raised under incandescent light, with significant differences in neither feed conversion nor mortality.

  6. Impact of Statins on Cognitive Deficits in Adult Male Rodents after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of statin treatment on cognitive decline is controversial, and the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI has yet to be investigated. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in adult male rodents after TBI. After identifying eligible studies by searching four electronic databases on February 28, 2014, we assessed study quality, evaluated the efficacy of statin treatment, and performed stratified metaregression and metaregression to assess the influence of study design on statin efficacy. Eleven studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria from a total of 183 publications. The overall methodological quality of these studies was poor. Meta-analysis showed that statins exert statistically significant positive effects on cognitive performance after TBI. Stratified analysis showed that atorvastatin has the greatest effect on acquisition memory, simvastatin has the greatest effect on retention memory, and statin effects on acquisition memory are higher in closed head injury models. Metaregression analysis further showed that that animal species, study quality, and anesthetic agent impact statin effects on retention memory. We conclude that statins might reduce cognitive deficits after TBI. However, additional well-designed and well-reported animal studies are needed to inform further clinical study.

  7. Comparison of sulcus bleeding index between hemophilia patients and healthy males%血友病男性患者与健康男性牙龈出血指数的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京华; 李魁星; 李春; 孙丽丽; 何涛; 杨文东

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较血友病男性患者和健康男性龈沟出血指数的差异.方法 选择北京市北京协和医院血液科血友病门诊的100例男性血友病患者和北京某城区的100例健康男性进行全口牙龈沟出血指数检查.并检查100例血友病患者的茵斑指数和牙石指数.结果 血友病患者龈沟出血指数(1.79±1.27)显著高于健康男性组(1.65±1.14)(P<0.05).35岁及以上年龄组血友病患者(1.80±1.28)及健康男性龈淘出血指数(1.71±1.22)均显著高于35岁以下组(1.76±1.08,1.61±1.08)(P<0.05).血友病患者茵斑指数和牙石指数与龈沟出血指数中度相关.结论 血友病患者牙龈出血情况严重;牙龈出血与口腔卫生状况相关.%Objective To compare the differences of sulcus bleeding index between hemophilia patients and healthy males.Methods Data were derived from the survey of 100 hemophilia patients from Hematology Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and 100 healthy males from one district in Beijing.Sulcus bleeding index ( SBI) between them was evaluated for full mouth.Plaque index ( PLI) and calculus index ( CI) were evaluated for 100 hemophilia patients too.Results SBI of hemophilia patients ( 1.79 ± 1.27) was higher than that of the healthy males ( 1.65 ± 1.14) ( P < 0.05).SBI of hemophilia patients (1.80 ± 1.28) and healthy males ( 1.71 ± 1.22) above 35 years old were higher than those of the subjects (1.76 ± 1.08, 1.61 ±1.08) under 35 years old ( P <0.05).PLI and CI are moderately interrelated with SBI for hemophilia patients.Conclrrsion Cingival bleeding is rather severe in hemophilia patients, and it is interrelated with dental health situation.

  8. A rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantitation of choline, an active metabolite of citicoline: Application to in vivo pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study in Indian healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amlan Kanti; Ghosh, Debotri; Haldar, Dhiman; Sarkar, Pradipta; Gupta, Bhaswati; Dastidar, Sujata Ghosh; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-12-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of choline (CL), active metabolite of citicoline in human plasma using metformin (MF) as IS. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase Phenomenx Gemini C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol:water (containing 10mM ammonium formate) (9:1, v/v). The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.05-5μg/ml. The validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters and bioequivalence study of test and reference control release (CR) tablet preparation of citicoline 1000mg after a single oral administration to all 12 healthy male volunteers.

  9. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  10. The Impact of Early Literacy and Behavior Sanctions on African-American Male High School Students' Matriculation in a Selected South Carolina School District

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    Fitzpatrick, Raashad

    2012-01-01

    The study under investigation was the impact of early literacy and behavior sanctions on Black male matriculation towards graduation in a selected South Carolina school district. Attendance and course failure in English strongly predicted whether or not students graduated from high school. Early literacy is the foundation for academic success in…

  11. Can Managed Grazing be Part of Healthy Agroecosystems? Impacts of Various Systems on Soil Water and other Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Basche, A.; Gonzalez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the vast extent of grazing lands, value of grassland ecosystems, and environmental impacts of the agricultural sector, it is becoming increasingly important to understand to what extent managed grazing can be part of healthy agroecosystems. For example, grazing systems can degrade soils, pollute water, and result in substantial direct and indirect animal emissions. On the other hand, well-managed grasslands can store more carbon, support more biodiversity, and require fewer inputs than croplands or other land uses. Systems analyses are needed to evaluate how much grazing management (e.g., altering stocking rate intensity or regime, integrating versus separating crops and livestock, adopting silvopasture techniques) can affect agroecosystem properties and farm viability. As a result of climate change and likely increases to rainfall variability, the effects of grazing systems on soil water properties are particularly important. The primary goal of this study is to use meta-analytic techniques to better understand how changes to grazing systems affect soil water properties, focusing on soil water infiltration rates. Another goal is to conduct a literature survey to assess how similar changes to grazing have influenced other ecosystem services (e.g., soil carbon, farm profitability) and to identify gaps in knowledge. To date, our meta-analysis includes over 100 paired comparisons (>30 studies) related to grazing. The analysis is a subset of a broader study of agroecological practices that to date includes >350 paired observations. Preliminary results point to significant variability, but suggest that integrating livestock into croplands decreases infiltration (12%), whereas other changings to grazing (decreasing stocking rates, moving from continuous to rotational grazing, or converting to a silvopasture system) can improve infiltration (by an average of 223% including all practices). Findings also suggest that removing livestock tends to increase infiltration

  12. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in healthy Korean male volunteers: a randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Lee, Donghwan; Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Guk, Jinju; Jang, Seong Bok; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, and telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, are commonly prescribed in combination for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. However, the nature of the pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs is not clearly understood. The goal of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in a healthy Korean population. This was a randomized, 2-part, open-label, 2-period, crossover, multiple-dose study, with each part composed of different subjects between the ages of 20 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received rosuvastatin 20 mg with and without telmisartan 80 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In part 2, each subject received telmisartan 80 mg with and without rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In both parts, there was a 16-day washout period between mono- and coadministration. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after the last dose. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. In part 1, the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for coadministration of the 2 drugs to monoadministration of each drug were 1.0736-1.2932 for AUCτ and 1.7442-2.3229 for Cmax,ss for rosuvastatin and 0.9942-1.1594 for AUCτ and 1.3593-1.7169 for Cmax,ss for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, whereas in part 2, the CIs were 1.0834-1.2672 for AUCτ and 1.1534-1.5803 for Cmax,ss for telmisartan. The most frequently noted AE was cough in part 1, which occurred in 2 subjects receiving the combination therapy, and oropharyngeal pain in part 2, which occurred in 3 subjects receiving the combination therapy. All reported AEs were mild or moderate, and there was no significant difference in incidence between the treatments. These findings demonstrated that rosuvastatin and telmisartan mutually affected each other

  13. Efficacy of wearing compression garments during post-exercise period after two repeated bouts of strenuous exercise: a randomized crossover design in healthy, active males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kazushige; Mizuno, Sahiro; Mori, Ayaka

    2017-12-01

    The efficacy of wearing [a] compression garment (CG) between repeated bouts of exercise within a same day has not been fully understood. The present study determined the effect of wearing a CG after strenuous exercise sessions (consisting of sprint exercise, resistance exercise, drop jump) twice a day on exercise performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory responses. Eleven physically active males (age, 22.7 ± 0.9 years; height, 175.7 ± 6.7 cm; body mass, 73.6 ± 10.2 kg; BMI, 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) performed two trials (a randomized crossover design), consisting of the trial with either wearing a whole-body CG during post-exercise period (CG trial) or the trial with wearing a normal garment without specific pressure (CON trial). Two exercise sessions were conducted in the morning (09:00-10:00, Ex1) and afternoon (14:00-15:00, Ex2). Immediately after completing 60 min of each exercise, the subjects in the CG trial changed into a whole-body CG. Time-course changes in exercise performance (bench press power, jump performances, repeated sprint ability), blood variables (lactate, glucose, myoglobin, creatine kinase, interleukin-6, leptin), and scores of subjective feeling (fatigue, muscle soreness) were compared between the CG and CON trials before Ex1 (8:40), immediately before Ex2 (14:00, 4 h after Ex1), 4 h after Ex2 (19:00), and 24 h after the onset of Ex1 (9:00). Two bouts of exercise significantly decreased performances of counter movement jump (main effect for time: P = 0.04, F = 3.75, partial η (2) = 0.27) and rebound jump (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F = 12.22, partial η (2) = 0.55), while no significant difference was observed between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.10, F = 1.96, partial η (2) = 0.16 for counter movement jump, P = 0.93, F = 0.01, partial η (2) = 0.001 for rebound jump). Repeated sprint ability (power output during 10 × 6 s maximal sprint, 30-s rest

  14. The Effects of 52 Weeks of Soccer or Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Function in +65-Year-Old Healthy Males – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 weeks, respectively, unchanged in RG and 2% higher (p<0.05) in CG after 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, the response to a glucose tolerance test was 16% lower (p<0.05) after 16 wks, but not after 52 wks, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In SG, superoxide dismutase-2 expression was 59% higher (p<0.05) after 52 wks compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In RG, upper body lean mass was 3 and 2% higher (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 wks, respectively, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in SG and CG. In RG, Akt-2 expression increased by 28% (p<0.01) and follistatin expression decreased by 38% (p<0.05) during the 52-wk intervention period, and was unchanged in SG and CG. Thus, long-term soccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035 PMID:26886262

  15. Comparative bioavailability of ferrous succinate tablet formulations without correction for baseline circadian changes in iron concentration in healthy Chinese male subjects: a single-dose, randomized, 2-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-Ying; Li, Ke-Xin; Jin, Peng-Fei; Yue, Xiang-Yang; Yang, Chen; Hu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Ferrous succinate is used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Determining the bioavailability of iron products is a challenge, because iron is naturally present in the blood and some tissues. Therefore, bioequivalence evaluation of ferrous formulations can be affected by the presence of endogenous iron species. Little information regarding the pharmacokinetics of ferrous supplements is available in the healthy Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the comparative bioavailability of 200-mg of a test (ferrous succinate,100 mg × 2, Hunan Huana Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hunan, China) and reference (Sulifei, 100 mg × 2, Nanjing Jinling Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing, China) formulation in healthy Chinese male subjects. The study was conducted to meet Chinese State Food and Drug Administration regulatory requirements for approval of a generic formulation of ferrous succinate. This study utilized a single-dose randomized, 2-period, crossover design with alternate assignment of subjects to treatment (a single 200-mg [100 mg × 2]) or reference formulation groups. Both groups underwent a 4-day diet equilibration before 2 days of treatment and, finally, a 4-day washout period for the bioequivalence study. Blood samples were collected at 8:00 am on every diet equilibration day, 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 hours after drug administration. Iron concentrations were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Subjects in both groups were given a standardized diet, with known amounts of iron and calories. The formulations were assumed to be bioequivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) were within 70% to 143% and AUC(0-last) were within 80% to 125%-criteria established by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was monitored throughout the study by assessing clinical parameters (vital signs, chemistry laboratory) and subject reports. Twenty healthy Han Chinese male subjects (mean age, 26

  16. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594

  17. The Impact of Post-Mastectomy Radiation Therapy on Male Breast Cancer Patients-A Case Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Edward, E-mail: edward.yu@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada); Suzuki, Hiromichi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Younus, Jawaid [Department of Medical Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada); Elfiki, Tarek [Department of Medical Oncology, Windsor Regional Cancer Centre, Windsor, Ontario (Canada); Stitt, Larry [Epidemiology Biostatistics, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada); Yau, Gary; Vujovic, Olga; Perera, Francisco; Lock, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada); Tai, Patricia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of radiation management on male breast cancer (MBC) at London Regional Cancer Program (LRCP). Methods and Materials: Men with a diagnosis of breast cancer referred to LRCP were reviewed. The seventh American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system was used. Patients treated with and without post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) were analyzed. Disease-free survival (DFS) was defined as time duration from diagnosis to first recurrence. Overall survival (OS) was defined as time duration from pathologic diagnosis to death or last follow-up with any death defined as an event. Survival estimates were obtained using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: From January 1977 to December 2006, 81 men had invasive ductal carcinoma. The median age was 65 (range, 35-87 years). There were 15 Stage I, 40 Stage II, 20 Stage III, and 6 Stage IV patients. Median follow-up time was 46 months (range, 1-225 months). Of the 75 patients treated with curative intent, 29 did not receive PMRT and 46 completed PMRT. Patients who received PMRT demonstrated no benefit in overall survival (p = 0.872) but significantly better local recurrence free survival (p < 0.001) compared with those who did not receive RT. There was trend toward improving locoregional recurrence with PMRT in patients with high-risk features (node-positive, advanced stage, and {<=}2 mm or unknown surgical margin). The median, 5-year, and 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival for the 75 patients were 77.7 months, 66.3%, 32.7%, and 91.2 months, 73.9%, and 36.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The experience at LRCP suggests that high-risk MBC patients should consider PMRT to improve their chance of local recurrence-free survival.

  18. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters.

  19. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  20. Actions to reduce the impact of construction products on indoor air: Outcomes of the European Project HealthyAir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Richemont, S.de; Crump, D.; Maupetit, F.; Witterseh, T.; Gajdos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The European project - HealthyAir is a network project involving six institutions in Europe on actions and activities that address the effects of construction products on indoor air. Different ways to improve indoor air quality were reviewed, ranging from source control to education of occupants on

  1. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  2. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  3. The Impact of the Level of the Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Versus Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda-Faujan, N.; Abdulamir, A.S.; Fatimah, A.B.; Anas, O. Muhammad; Shuhaimi, M.; Yazid, A.M.; Loong, Y.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in faeces of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients compared to healthy subjects. SCFAs such as pyruvic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric and butyric acids were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This study showed that the level of acetic, 162.0 µmol/g wet faeces, butyric, 86.9 µmol/g wet faeces, and propionic acids, 65.6 µmol/g wet faeces, decreased remarkably in IBD faecal samples when compared with that of healthy individuals, 209.7, 176.0, and 93.3 µmol/g wet faeces respectively. On the contrary, lactic and pyruvic acids showed higher levels in faecal samples of IBD than in healthy subjects. In the context of butyric acid level, this study also found that the molar ratio of butyric acid was higher than propionic acid in both faecal samples. This might be due to the high intake of starch from rice among Malaysian population. It was concluded that the level of SCFAs differ remarkably between faecal samples in healthy subjects and that in IBD patients providing evidence that SCFAs more likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:20563285

  4. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgmeier Ingrid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Front of pack food labels or signpost labels are currently widely discussed as means to help consumers to make informed food choices. It is hoped that more informed food choices will result in an overall healthier diet. There is only limited evidence, as to which format of a food label is best understood by consumers, helps them best to differentiate between more or less healthy food and whether these changes in perceived healthiness result in changes of food choice. Methods In a randomised experimental study in Hamburg/Germany 420 adult subjects were exposed to one of five experimental conditions: (1 a simple "healthy choice" tick, (2 a multiple traffic light label, (3 a monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA label, (4 a coloured GDA label and (5 a "no label" condition. In the first task they had to identify the healthier food items in 28 pair-wise comparisons of foods from different food groups. In the second task they were asked to select food portions from a range of foods to compose a one-day's consumption. Differences between means were analysed using ANOVAs. Results Task I: Experimental conditions differed significantly in the number of correct decisions (p Conclusion Different food label formats differ in the understanding of consumers. The current study shows, that German adults profit most from the multiple traffic light labels. Perceived healthiness of foods is influenced by this label format most often. Nevertheless, such changes in perceived healthiness are unlikely to influence food choice and consumption. Attempts to establish the informed consumer with the hope that informed choices will be healthier choices are unlikely to change consumer behaviour and will not result in the desired contribution to the prevention of obesity and diet related diseases.

  5. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmeier, Ingrid; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2009-06-12

    Front of pack food labels or signpost labels are currently widely discussed as means to help consumers to make informed food choices. It is hoped that more informed food choices will result in an overall healthier diet. There is only limited evidence, as to which format of a food label is best understood by consumers, helps them best to differentiate between more or less healthy food and whether these changes in perceived healthiness result in changes of food choice. In a randomised experimental study in Hamburg/Germany 420 adult subjects were exposed to one of five experimental conditions: (1) a simple "healthy choice" tick, (2) a multiple traffic light label, (3) a monochrome Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) label, (4) a coloured GDA label and (5) a "no label" condition. In the first task they had to identify the healthier food items in 28 pair-wise comparisons of foods from different food groups. In the second task they were asked to select food portions from a range of foods to compose a one-day's consumption. Differences between means were analysed using ANOVAs. Task I: Experimental conditions differed significantly in the number of correct decisions (p food consumption did not differ significantly between the experimental conditions. Different food label formats differ in the understanding of consumers. The current study shows, that German adults profit most from the multiple traffic light labels. Perceived healthiness of foods is influenced by this label format most often. Nevertheless, such changes in perceived healthiness are unlikely to influence food choice and consumption. Attempts to establish the informed consumer with the hope that informed choices will be healthier choices are unlikely to change consumer behaviour and will not result in the desired contribution to the prevention of obesity and diet related diseases.

  6. Bioequivalence of two film-coated tablets of imatinib mesylate 400 mg: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, two-period, two-sequence crossover comparison in healthy male South American volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrillo-Campiglia, Susana; Ercoli, Mónica Cedres; Umpierrez, Ofelia; Rodríguez, Patricia; Márquez, Sara; Guarneri, Carolina; Estevez-Parrillo, Francisco T; Laurenz, Marilena; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco E

    2009-10-01

    Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been established as a highly effective therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new generic, once-daily 400-mg tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Argentina, where the regulatory standard for marketing authorization of an imatinib generic is in vitro dissolution testing. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of a new generic film-coated test tablet formulation versus a film-coated reference tablet formulation of imatinib 400 mg. The local manufacturer seeks to validate the in vitro performance of this new formulation with a bioequivalence study. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design with a 2-week washout period was used in this study. The study population consisted of healthy male South American (Uruguayan) volunteers, who were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a randomized sequence (test-reference or reference-test). In each period, the test or reference formulation was administered after an overnight fast. During the 72-hour follow-up period, participants were monitored for vital signs and symptoms. Blood samples were collected at 15 time points, including baseline, until 72 hours. Physical examination and laboratory tests (blood, urine) were repeated 1 week after study completion. A noncompartmental model was used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of imatinib. The 90% CIs of the test/reference ratios for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were determined; the test and reference formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs were between 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were assessed by a nurse who administered a questionnaire while the healthy volunteers were admitted in the unit. The bioequivalence study was conducted in 30 Uruguayan male volunteers. Demographic characteristics (mean [SD]) included age, 27.8 (6.5) years; weight, 71.2 (9.8) kg; height, 1.71 (0.09) m; and body

  7. Relative bioavailability of two formulations of nevirapine 200-mg tablets in healthy Chinese male volunteers: a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yubing; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Cuixia; Zou, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Hu, Yunfang

    2010-12-01

    Nevirapine was the first member of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class to be approved for the treatment of HIV infection. It binds directly to the allosteric site on the reverse transcriptase and inhibits the activity of both RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of nevirapine 200-mg tablets after single oral doses in healthy Chinese men to meet regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-way crossover study was conducted at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Healthy male Chinese volunteers were randomized in a 1∶1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg (3.2-mg/kg) tablet of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Concentrations of nevirapine were assayed using an HPLC-UV method. For analysis of nevirapine pharmacokinetic parameters, blood samples were obtained before dosing and at regularly scheduled intervals over 168 hours after administration. The 2 formulations would be assumed to be bioequivalent for regulatory purposes if the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of nevirapine AUC and C(max) were within the range established by the US Food and Drug Administration (0.80-1.25). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital signs, physical examinations, 12-lead ECGs, and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). Twenty Chinese male subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Their mean age was 23 years (range, 21-25 years), mean weight was 63 kg (range, 56-70 kg), and mean height was 171 cm (range, 166-176 cm). No period or sequence effect was observed. The mean (SD) t(½) was 38.12 (2.23) hours for the test tablet and 36.79 (5.06) hours for the

  8. The impact of masculinity on safety oversights, safety priority and safety violations in two male-dominated occupations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Hansen, Claus D.; Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    and safety violations in two male-dominated occupations using both a trait-based and a norm-based approach to masculinity. Methods Questionnaires covering trait-based (Bem Sex Role Inventory, BSRI) and norm-based (Male Role Norms Inventory – Revised, MRNI-R) measures of masculinity, three safety...... outcomes, whereas trait-based theories do not show strong associations with safety outcomes. Implications The association between norm-based masculinity and safety measures might be used in tailoring and developing new preventive measures that specifically address masculinity and male role norms....

  9. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  10. How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics.

  11. PHARMACOKINETIC AND BIOEQUIVALENCE COMPARISON BETWEEN EXTENDED RELEASE CAPSULES OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE 150MG: AN OPEN LABEL, BALANCED, RANDOMIZED-SEQUENCE, SINGLE-DOSE, TWO-PERIOD CROSSOVER STUDY IN HEALTHY INDIAN MALE VOLUNTEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Sarath chandiran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This bioequivalence study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic, bioavailability and bioequivalence of Venlafaxine HCl 150 mg Extended Release Capsules in comparison with Effexor®-XR 150mg Extended Release Capsules after single dose administration under fed conditions in 20 healthy adult male subjects. Therefore the design of an open label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, single dose, two way crossover study with a washout period of at least 7 days was used.Each volunteer received a 150 mg capsule of the reference or test drug respectively. On the day of dosing, blood samples were collected before dosing and at various time points up to 72 hours after dosing. Analysis of venlafaxine and its metabolite O-Desmethylvenlafaxine concentrations was performed using a validated liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Tmax, t1/2 and Kel were analyzed using the non-compartmental model. Drug safety and tolerability were assessed.The pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Tmax, t1/2 and Kel were analyzed using the non-compartmental model. Drug safety and tolerability were assessed. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf 90%CI were within the 80 to 125% interval required for bioequivalence as stipulated in the current regulations of the USFDA acceptance criteria. The geometric mean ratios (Test/Reference between the two products of extended-release venlafaxine capsule under fed condition were 104.91% (92.86%-118.53% and 114.41% (103.43%-124.55% for Cmax ratios, 102.24% (95.95%-108.94% and 105.27% (96.76%-114.53% for AUC0-t ratios and 101.66% (95.73%-107.97% and 104.71% (96.13%-114.05% for AUC0-inf ratios of Venlafaxine and its metabolite O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV respectively. 20 volunteers had completed both treatment periods. There was no significant difference of the Tmax parameter between the two

  12. 血友病男性患者与健康男性龈沟出血指数的比较%Comparison of sulcus bleeding index between male patients with hemophil-ia and healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄劲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of sulcus bleeding index between male patients with hemophilia and healthy men,analyze the correlationshiip between hemorrhage and oral hygiene. Methods 120 male patients with hemophilia admitted into our hospital from May 2011 to March 2014 were selected as observation objects (hemophilia group),were divided into group of age less than 35 years old (n=67) and group of age more than 35 years old (n=53).30 healthy men for check-up at the same period were selected as control group.Sulcus bleeding index was examined and dental plaque and calculus index in hemophilia group was observed. Results The sulcus bleeding index in hemophilia group was 1.78±1.32,higher than 1.61±1.00 in the control group,the difference was significant (P35岁组(53例),以同期入院接受全口牙龈沟出血指数检查的30例健康男性体检者为对照组。对两组均进行全口牙龈沟出血指数检测,并观察血友病组菌斑指数、牙石指数。结果血友病男性患者齿龈沟出血指数为1.78±1.32,高于对照组的1.61±1.00,差异有统计学意义(P35岁患者组的齿龈沟出血指数,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。血友病患者的菌斑指数、牙石指数与齿龈沟出血指数呈正相关。结论血友病患者出血严重程度与年龄有关,注意口腔卫生能减少牙龈出血。

  13. NMR ANALYSIS OF MALE FATHEAD MINNOW URINARY METABOLITES: A POTENTIAL APPROACH FOR STUDYING IMPACTS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for profiling endogenous metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures was explored using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy w...

  14. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  15. Does violence affect one gender more than the other? The mental health impact of violence among male and female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Grassi, Michele

    2007-09-01

    The impact of violence on health has been studied mostly among women. While the studies including men show that violence is detrimental for them also, knowledge concerning gender differences is scarce. This study explores whether violence has a different impact on males and females in a sample of 502 Italian university students, responding to a self-administered questionnaire. We considered violence by family members, witnessed family violence, peers/school violence, intimate partner violence, and sexual violence. Mental health outcomes included: depression, panic attacks, heavy alcohol use, eating problems, suicidal ideation and attempts, and self-evaluation of health. Both males and females reported similar rates of experienced and witnessed family violence as well as of intimate partner violence, to which women reacted more negatively than men. Peers/school violence was more common among men. Sexual violence was more common and more severe among females. Among mental health effects, panic attacks were more common among females, and alcohol problems among males. We considered the cumulative impact of violence, calculating the odds ratios (ORs) for reporting each health outcome after having experienced zero, one, two, three or four/five types of violence. For both men and women, the more violence, the higher the risk of health problems; however, the real jump in the risk of mental suffering occurred between three and four /five types of violence, the latter category more often female. Moreover, we obtained ORs for the relationships between health outcome and each type of violence, after adjustment for the other types of violence. For experienced and witnessed family violence, the health impact was similar for males and females; for intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and peer/school violence it was larger for females. In the literature, women report more violence-related health problems than men. Results of the present study imply that the excess health

  16. The impact of gender demography on male and female role interpretations and contributions: A qualitative study of non-executive directors of Icelandic boards

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsdottir, Thoranna

    2010-01-01

    This thesis, submitted for the Cranfield DBA programme, examines and explores the impact of gender demography on male and female director’s role interpretations and contributions. The study was inspired by the scarcity of females on corporate boards and a desire to seek an understanding of how women and men contribute to boards. The study brings together the literature on females on boards, and on board roles and processes, revealing that both bodies of literature could benefit from more in-...

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tolerability of branded etanercept (25 mg) and its biosimilar (25 mg): a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-sequence, crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Namyi; Yi, Sojeong; Kim, Tae-Eun; Kim, Jaewoo; Shin, Sang-Goo; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2011-12-01

    The biosimilar is a recombinant dimeric tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) under development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and/or tolerability of branded etanercept and its biosimilar in healthy Korean men before investigating the clinical efficacy of the biosimilar in subjects. Etanercept (reference, 25 mg) or its biosimilar (test, 25 mg) was subcutaneously injected to the periumbilical area of healthy volunteers in a randomized, open-label, single-dose, active-controlled, two-sequence, crossover study. Plasma concentrations of TNFR in serial blood samples for 480 hours after dosing were measured by ELISA. The primary outcome, pharmacokinetic characteristics, was assessed via geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of the log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters. The second outcome, tolerability, was evaluated using physical examinations, electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory tests, vital sign measurements, and adverse events (AEs) by unmasked investigators. Twenty-three men of mean age (%CV) 25.8 years (17.1%) and weight 70.5 kg (12.8%) were administered study medication. Four subjects dropped out after the first period; their data were included in the analysis. Both test and reference drugs were absorbed with a median T(max) of 72 (range, 36-144) hours and eliminated with mean (%CV) t(½) of 92.7 (20.9%) and 87.4 (16.6%) hours, respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) of the test to reference drug for C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were 0.99 (0.83-1.17), 0.95 (0.79-1.13), and 0.95 (0.80-1.13), respectively. Eleven of 21 (52.4%) and 8 of 21 (38.1%) subjects administered the test and reference drugs reported 22 and 21 AEs, respectively. Common AEs were headache (14.3%), throat irritation (8.5%), and epistaxis (9.5%). Three serious AEs related to a traffic accident (back, neck, and musculoskeletal pain) were reported in a test drug-treated subject. In this select group of Korean healthy male volunteers

  18. Healthy Water

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    ... Topics Newsroom, Features, & Announcements CDC at Work: Healthy Water Fast Facts WASH-related Observances Top Causes of Drinking ... Features, & Announcements Training & Education CDC at Work: Healthy Water Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Index of Water-Related Topics By A- ...

  19. Healthy Eating

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    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  20. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Policy Opportunities to create and support a healthy school environment. More Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child A collaborative approach to learning and health Healthy Schools School Nutrition Environment Childhood Nutrition Facts Energy Drinks Obesity Prevention Youth ...

  1. Self-awareness of fast eating and its impact on diagnostic components of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged Japanese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, A; Maejima, Y; Shimomura, K; Kumamoto, K; Takahashi, M; Akuzawa, M; Negishi, M; Ishiyama, N; Nagano, N; Aso, Y; Takenoshita, S; Shimomura, Y

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between subjects with self-awareness of fast eating and diagnostic components of metabolic syndrome in Japanese middle-aged male and female. Subjects consisted of 3208 males (average age 50.6 years) and 2055 females (average age 50.0 years). Associations between subjects with self-awareness of fast eating and multiple components of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, and related blood sample tests) were evaluated. Significantly more males (57.7%) acknowledged themselves as "fast eater" than females (46.5%). Self-reported fast eaters showed significantly elevated body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in both genders. However, only male self-reported fast eaters showed high levels of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, uric acid, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Fast eating is associated with diagnostic components of metabolic syndrome. The effect of acknowledging themselves as fast eater presents a higher impact on males than on females in the middle-aged Japanese population. The present study indicates that finding subjects with self-awareness of fast eating may lead to the prevention of developing metabolic syndrome.

  2. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity.

  3. Impact of Yoga and Meditation on Cellular Aging in Apparently Healthy Individuals: A Prospective, Open-Label Single-Arm Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolahunase, Madhuri; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on cellular aging in apparently healthy individuals. During this 12-week prospective, open-label, single arm exploratory study, 96 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled to receive YMLI. The primary endpoints were assessment of the change in levels of cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging in blood from baseline to week 12, which included DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OH2dG), oxidative stress markers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and telomere attrition markers telomere length and telomerase activity. The secondary endpoints were assessment of metabotrophic blood biomarkers associated with cellular aging, which included cortisol, β-endorphin, IL-6, BDNF, and sirtuin-1. After 12 weeks of YMLI, there were significant improvements in both the cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging and the metabotrophic biomarkers influencing cellular aging compared to baseline values. The mean levels of 8-OH2dG, ROS, cortisol, and IL-6 were significantly lower and mean levels of TAC, telomerase activity, β-endorphin, BDNF, and sirtuin-1 were significantly increased (all values p < 0.05) post-YMLI. The mean level of telomere length was increased but the finding was not significant (p = 0.069). YMLI significantly reduced the rate of cellular aging in apparently healthy population. PMID:28191278

  4. Impact of Yoga and Meditation on Cellular Aging in Apparently Healthy Individuals: A Prospective, Open-Label Single-Arm Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolahunase, Madhuri; Sagar, Rajesh; Dada, Rima

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on cellular aging in apparently healthy individuals. During this 12-week prospective, open-label, single arm exploratory study, 96 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled to receive YMLI. The primary endpoints were assessment of the change in levels of cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging in blood from baseline to week 12, which included DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH2dG), oxidative stress markers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and telomere attrition markers telomere length and telomerase activity. The secondary endpoints were assessment of metabotrophic blood biomarkers associated with cellular aging, which included cortisol, β-endorphin, IL-6, BDNF, and sirtuin-1. After 12 weeks of YMLI, there were significant improvements in both the cardinal biomarkers of cellular aging and the metabotrophic biomarkers influencing cellular aging compared to baseline values. The mean levels of 8-OH2dG, ROS, cortisol, and IL-6 were significantly lower and mean levels of TAC, telomerase activity, β-endorphin, BDNF, and sirtuin-1 were significantly increased (all values p < 0.05) post-YMLI. The mean level of telomere length was increased but the finding was not significant (p = 0.069). YMLI significantly reduced the rate of cellular aging in apparently healthy population.

  5. Urinary albumin excretion in healthy adults: a cross sectional study of 24-hour versus timed overnight samples and impact of GFR and other personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Peter; Sallsten, Gerd; Akerstrom, Magnus; Haraldsson, Borje; Barregard, Lars

    2015-01-24

    Urinary albumin can be measured in 24 h or spot samples. The 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate is considered the gold standard, but is cumbersome to collect. Instead, often an overnight sample is collected, and adjusted for dilution. Proxies for 24 h excretion rate have been studied in diabetics, but seldom in healthy individuals. Our aims were to compare 24 h and overnight albumin excretion, to assess the impact of personal characteristics, and to examine correlations between the 24 h excretion rate and proxies such as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Separate 24 h and overnight urine samples were collected from 152 healthy kidney donors. Urinary creatinine, specific gravity, collection time, and sample volume determined. Differences between 24 h and overnight samples were examined, and the effects of age, sex, smoking, body mass, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary flow rate were assessed. The 24 h albumin excretion rate and ACR were both significantly higher than their overnight counterparts. Unadjusted albumin was unsurprisingly higher in the more concentrated overnight samples, while concentrations adjusted for specific gravity were similar. In multivariate analysis, the 24 h excretion rate and proxies were positively associated with glomerular filtration rate, as was ACR in overnight samples. There were positive associations between urinary albumin and body mass. Proxies for the 24 h albumin excretion rate showed relatively high correlations with this gold standard, but differences due to sampling period, adjustment method, and personal characteristics were large enough to be worth considering in studies of albumin excretion in healthy individuals.

  6. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region.We used the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS.Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10-29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10-34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15-49. The Ministry of Health's South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO's definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban areas would be both cost

  7. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Chimbwandira, Frank; Mwandi, Zebedee; Matchere, Faustin; Schnure, Melissa; Reed, Jason; Castor, Delivette; Sgaier, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in priority countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision (MC) prevalence. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), an estimated 5.8 million males had undergone VMMC by the end of 2013. Implementation experience has raised questions about the need to refocus VMMC programs on specific subpopulations for the greatest epidemiological impact and programmatic effectiveness. As Malawi prepared its national operational plan for VMMC, it sought to examine the impacts of focusing on specific subpopulations by age and region. Methods We used the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit, Version 2.0, to study the impact of scaling up VMMC to different target populations of Malawi. National MC prevalence by age group from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey was scaled according to the MC prevalence for each district and then halved, to adjust for over-reporting of circumcision. In-country stakeholders advised a VMMC unit cost of $100, based on implementation experience. We derived a cost of $451 per patient-year for antiretroviral therapy from costs collected as part of a strategic planning exercise previously conducted in- country by UNAIDS. Results Over a fifteen-year period, circumcising males ages 10–29 would avert 75% of HIV infections, and circumcising males ages 10–34 would avert 88% of infections, compared to the current strategy of circumcising males ages 15–49. The Ministry of Health’s South West and South East health zones had the lowest cost per HIV infection averted. Moreover, VMMC met WHO’s definition of cost-effectiveness (that is, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year [DALY] saved was less than three times the per capita gross domestic product) in all health zones except Central East. Comparing urban versus rural areas in the country, we found that circumcising men in urban

  8. Bioanalysis of tolvaptan, a novel AVP-V2 receptor antagonist in human plasma by a novel LC-ESI-MS/MS method: a pharmacokinetic application in healthy South Indian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derangula, Venkata Ramu; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Bhukya, Babu Rao; Pulipati, Chalapathi Rao; Adireddy, Vinayender; Ponneri, Venkateswarlu

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) assay method is proposed for the determination of tolvaptan in human plasma samples using tolvaptan d7 as internal standard (IS). Analyte and the IS were extracted from 100 μL of human plasma via simple liquid-liquid extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mixture of methanol and 0.1% formic acid buffer (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r(2) ≥ 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.05-501 ng/mL. Method validation was performed as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The intra-day and inter-day precision (coefficient of variation) and accuracy results in three validation batches across five concentration levels were well within the acceptance limits. A run time of 2.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more samples in a short time, thus increasing the productivity. The proposed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of 15 mg and 60 mg tolvaptan tablet formulation in healthy South Indian male subjects under fasting condition.

  9. Acid Inhibitory Effect of a Combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate (CDFR0209) Compared With Delayed-Release Omeprazole 40 mg Alone in Healthy Adult Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Yang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyunil; Kwak, Seong Shin; Kim, Young-Sang; Cho, Doo-Yeoun

    2017-01-23

    CDFR0209, a combination of an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 40 mg and sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg, has been developed to treat acid-related disorders. We compared the acid inhibitory effects of CDFR0209 and delayed-release omeprazole (omeprazole-DR, Losec 40 mg) after repeated dosing in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy adult male subjects. In this 2-period crossover study, 30 subjects were randomized to CDFR0209 or omeprazole-DR daily for 7 days. An ambulatory continuous 24-hour intragastric pH recording was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 7 of each administration period. Integrated gastric acidity was calculated from time-weighted average hydrogen ion concentrations at each hour of the 24-hour record. An analysis of variance model was used to test the pharmacodynamic equivalence of CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR, using the natural logarithmic transformation of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity for the 24-hour interval after the seventh dose of each omeprazole formulation. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (CDFR0209/omeprazole-DR) of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity was 0.98 (90%CI, 0.93-1.07). Both CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR are equally effective in decreasing integrated gastric acidity at steady state.

  10. Effect of Dynamic Platform Lateral Step-Up versus Stable Platform Lateral Step-Up Weight Bearing Exercise in Hip Abductor Strengthening on Healthy Male Volunteers - Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagatheesan Alagesan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Background: To determine the effect of the dynamic platform lateral step-up and stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise in strengthening of hip abductor. Many researchers have reported that strengthening of hip muscles as important component especially hip abductors in lower extremity rehabilitation program. Study Design: Single blinded randomized comparative clinical trial. Methodology: Sixty five healthy college going male subjects (Age group of 18 – 24 years volunteered for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups. One group received the dynamic platform lateral step-up and the other received stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise. The strength measurements were recorded using hand held dynamometer. Results: The results indicate that both groups had a positive effect on the outcome measures. The strength of hip abductors in dynamic platform group improved from a mean value (SD of 19.47(3.59 to 26.93(3.19 and in stable platform group from 19.07(2.32 to 22.67(2.46. Significant difference is also observed between the two groups at p value .05. Conclusion: The study shows that dynamic platform lateral step-up exercise is more beneficial than stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise in improving hip abductor muscle strength.

  11. Impact of CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene on male infertility - a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feifan; Lan, Aihua; Lin, Zhidi; Song, Jianfei; Zhang, Yuening; Li, Jiatong; Gu, Kailong; Lv, Baihao; Zhao, Dong; Zeng, Siping; Zhang, Ruoheng; Zhao, Wei; Pan, Zhengyan; Deng, Xiaozhen; Yang, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    CAG repeats are polymorphic nucleotide repeats present in the androgen receptor gene. Many studies have estimated the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility, but the conclusions are controversial. Previous meta-analyses have come to different conclusions; however, new studies have been published. An updated meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, CBM, CNKI and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 October 2015. Case-control studies on the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility using appropriate methodology were included. Forty studies were selected, including 3858 cases and 3161 controls. Results showed statistically significantly longer CAG repeat length among cases compared with controls (SMD = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-0.26). Shorter repeat length was associated with a lower risk of male infertility compared with a longer repeat length in the overall analysis (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95). Moreover, CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Caucasian populations, but not Asian or Egyptian populations. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in German populations, but CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in China and the USA. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of oral cyanocobalamin formulated with sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino]caprylate (SNAC): an open-label, randomized, single-dose, parallel-group study in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, M Cristina; Wong, Diane F; Friedman, Kristen; Riley, M Gary I

    2011-07-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency may be caused by inadequate dietary intake of B12 or by conditions that result in malabsorption of the vitamin. Crystalline vitamin B12, usually in the form of cyanocobalamin, is administered parenterally (ie, intramuscularly) or orally for treating deficiency states. Intramuscular administration is widely accepted as a treatment method. Oral B12 supplementation is also used, but it is considered to be less reliable. This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of 2 oral formulations of cyanocobalamin-a marketed cyanocobalamin tablet (imm