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Sample records for healthy korean adults

  1. A study of several normal values of Korean healthy adults on chest roentgenograms

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    Rhee, Byung Chull [Choong Nam University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Determination of several normal values were carried out healthy 1805 cases of Korean adults, 1436 cases of male and 369 cases of female, by the drawing and calculation on chest roentgenograms. In many instances, the change of normal values provides an important clinical values, and often is decisive to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary, cardiac and mediastinal disease.

  2. Size variability of handwriting in healthy Korean older adults.

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    Yoon, Ji Hye; Kim, Hyanghee; Kim, Jungwan; Park, Eunjeong; Kim, Soo Ryon

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to delineate how age-related deterioration affects the handwriting of healthy elderly (HE) subjects. A total of 235 HE (54 males, 181 females) aged 57-91 years participated as subjects in the study. In order to compare the area of handwriting, we divided the participants into two groups: (i) aged 57-74 years; and (ii) aged 75-91 years. The writing stimulus was a four-syllabic word with one-to-one grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence. The size of each syllable in the target word was measured using a software program. Alignment of the word to baseline was assessed using a multiple-choice checklist. As compared with handwriting by the younger group, the older group showed greater variability in the size of the written syllables within the word (P = 0.023). The handwriting was characterized by unequal size among syllables and non-perpendicular alignment, which could be explained by several factors. First, the variability might have resulted from irregular fine movement motor control in older adults. Second, the deterioration of visual feedback and visuomotor integration in normal aging might have affected handwriting performance. In conclusion, variability of handwriting can be sensitive in predicting the aging process. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Measurement of blood flow in the carotid arteries using color doppler in healthy Korean adults

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    Moon, Ki Ho; Jeon, Do Ig; Choi, Chang Ho; Ro, Young Jin; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow patterns and velocities of the carotid arteries in healthy Korean adults. We evaluated the blood flow patterns and measured the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the common, internal and external carotid arteries in 48 healthy adults who did not have cardiovascular disorders and neck lesions. The velocity difference was analyzed according to different age groups. In addition, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery was estimated, and our data were compared with values reported by other authors. Generally, the velocity in the younger age group tends be to higher than in older group. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocities of the internal carotid artery were 84.5 cm/sec and 30.5 cm/sec. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery were 0.715 and 0.966. The internal carotid artery was less resistant in blood flow than the external carotid artery. Our data were lower than the values which were reported by Bluth et al. The blood flow velocities of the internal carotid artery in healthy adults were lower than those of previous reported foreign values, but the patterns were similar

  4. The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

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    Jung-Hee Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.MethodsNine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.ResultsOne hundred forty-six subjects (15.4% showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7% had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women.ConclusionIn our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.

  5. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake without exercise testing in Korean healthy adult workers.

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    Jang, Tae-Won; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Jung-Man; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2012-08-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake is generally accepted as the most valid and reliable index of cardiorespiratory fitness and functional aerobic capacity. The exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake is unsuitable for screening tests in public heath examinations, because of the potential risks of exercise exertion and time demands. We designed this study to determine whether work-related physical activity is a potential predictor of maximal oxygen uptake, and to develop a maximal oxygen uptake equation using a non-exercise regression model for the cardiorespiratory fitness test in Korean adult workers. Study subjects were adult workers of small-sized companies in Korea. Subjects with history of disease such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma and angina were excluded. In total, 217 adult subjects (113 men of 21-55 years old and 104 women of 20-64 years old) were included. Self-report questionnaire survey was conducted on study subjects, and maximal oxygen uptake of each subject was measured with the exercise test. The statistical analysis was carried out to develop an equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake. The predictors for estimating maximal oxygen uptake included age, gender, body mass index, smoking, leisure-time physical activity and the factors representing work-related physical activity. The work-related physical activity was identified to be a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake. Moreover, the equation showed high validity according to the statistical analysis. The equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake developed in the present study could be used as a screening test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in Korean adult workers.

  6. Hemoglobin A1c Is Positively Correlated with Framingham Risk Score in Older, Apparently Healthy Nondiabetic Korean Adults

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    Ji Hye Shin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral studies have suggested that elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD in nondiabetic individuals. However, it is unclear whether HbA1c levels can serve as a simple screening marker for increased CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c levels and CVD risk using the Framingham risk score (FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 2,879 Korean adults between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent voluntary health check-ups at the Health Promotion Center of our hospital from July 2009 to June 2011. Subjects were subdivided based on their HbA1c levels into four groups: tertiles within the HbA1c normal tolerance range and a group for subjects with an increased risk for diabetes (IRD.ResultsThe mean FRS for the upper tertile (9.6±3.8 group was significantly higher than that of the middle tertile (8.4±4.0 and lower tertile (7.6±3.8 groups. In addition, FRS was highest in the IRD group (10.5±3.7. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that HbA1c levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with FRS when adjusted for confounding variables in all subjects (β±standard error [SE], 0.018±0.002; R2, 0.131, women (β±SE, 0.023±0.003; R2, 0.170, and men (β±SE, 0.016±0.004; R2, 0.109.ConclusionHbA1c levels were positively correlated with FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults. We propose that HbA1c levels may reflect CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals.

  7. Increased association of coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Moon, Byung Sub; Park, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Yong; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a simple screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype increases the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 32,186 participants (mean age 41.3, 80.2% men) in a health screening program, in whom the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured, were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups: 1) normal waist circumference (WC)-normal triglyceride (TG) (NWNT), 2) normal WC-high TG (NWHT), 3) enlarged WC-normal TG (EWNT), and 4) enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT). Enlarged WC was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women; high serum TG was defined as TG ≥ 150 mg/dL. The presence of CAC was defined by CACS >0, and CACS was analyzed in a logarithmized form of CACS plus 1 {ln(CACS+1)}. A total of 14.9% of the participants had CAC. The EWHT group showed the highest mean value for ln(CACS+1) among the four groups. The EWHT group showed the highest odds ratio for CAC, with NWHT group the second, and with EWNT group the third compared with the NWNT group after adjusting for confounding variables (1.579, 1.302, and 1.266 vs. NWNT). The EWHT group showed the highest association for CAC, suggesting this HTGW phenotype as a useful marker for the detection of subjects with high cardiometabolic risk in healthy Korean adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. A placebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing Influenza-like illness in healthy adults

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    Ha Ki-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. Methods/Design We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subjects 30-70 years of age will be recruited from the general populations. The subjects will be instructed to take 9 capsules per day of either the KRG extract or a placebo for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure is to assess the frequency of ILI onset in participated subjects. Secondary variable measures will be included severity and duration of ILI symptoms. The ILI symptoms will be scored by subjects using a 4-point scale. Discussion This study is a randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the KRG extract compared to placebo and will be provided valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of the KRG extract on reduction of ILI incidence including flu and upper respiratory tract infections. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if KRG extract can be shown to be an effective reduction strategy in ILI incidence. Trial Registration NCT01478009.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

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    Lee, Hoan Jong; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Woo Joo; Hong, Young Jin; Choi, Kyong Min; Lee, Jina; Oh, Chi Eun; Welsch, Jo Anne; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Ki Bae; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Bock, Hans; Dull, Peter M; Odrljin, Tatjana

    2014-11-01

    This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity. Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  10. A fruit, milk and whole grain dietary pattern is positively associated with bone mineral density in Korean healthy adults.

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    Shin, S; Sung, J; Joung, H

    2015-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem that will grow in burden with ageing of the global population. Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis, including diet, have significant implications for disease prevention. We examined associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD) in a Korean adult population. In total, 1828 individuals from the Healthy Twin Cohort were included as subjects. Information on general characteristics, lifestyles and health status was obtained through a health examination, and BMD was assessed using DEXA. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record, and dietary patterns were examined by factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMD were examined using mixed linear regression, adjusting for family and twin structure as well as other potential risk factors for bone health. Four dietary patterns were identified (Rice and kimchi; eggs, meat and flour; Fruit, milk and whole grains; and Fast food and soda). The 'Fruit, milk and whole grains' pattern was associated with a reduced risk of having low BMD in men (odds ratio (OR)=0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.22-0.67) and women (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.28-0.72) and was positively associated with BMD at multiple sites. The 'rice and kimchi' pattern had a positive association with only whole-arm BMD in men and women. Our results suggest that a dietary pattern with high intake of dairy products, fruits and whole grains may contribute positively to bone health in a Korean adult population, and dietary pattern-based strategies could have potential in promoting bone health.

  11. A Healthy Beverage Consumption Pattern Is Inversely Associated with the Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Adults.

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    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon

    2018-03-23

    As the use of beverages in diets is increasing, several studies have examined the effect of beverage consumption in human health. Thus, we aimed at identifying specific beverage patterns and determining their associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Korean adults. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2012 data, 19,800 Korean adults (≥20 years) with a single 24-h dietary recall and health examination data were investigated. All beverage items consumed by participants were categorized into 15 beverage groups based on the KNHANES coding system. Three major beverage consumption patterns were identified according to factor analysis: (1) the "healthy beverage" (high intake of dairy products, 100% fruit/vegetable juices and low intake of alcoholic beverages); (2) the "sugar-sweetened beverage" (high intake of soda, sweetened coffee/tea, and fruit drink); and (3) the "unsweetened beverage" (high intake of unsweetened coffee) patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the odds of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and MetS (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program III [NCEP III]) for each beverage pattern after controlling for covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of the "healthy beverage" pattern with risks of obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure (BP) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98), 0.83 (0.74-0.92), 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.85 (0.79-0.98), and 0.81 (0.72-0.92), respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of associations of the "sugar-sweetened beverage" pattern with risks of abdominal obesity, elevated FBG and BP were 1.15 (1.03-1.30), 1.14 (1.01-1.29), and 1.18 (1.04-1.33), respectively. However, no associations were found between the "unsweetened beverage" pattern and any parameters examined. Intake of healthy beverages should be encouraged to

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

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    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  13. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

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    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  14. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

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    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  15. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress

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    Guna Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Methods Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. Results The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Conclusion Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  16. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress.

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    Lee, Guna; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-06-18

    Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB) with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years) with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  17. Bioequivalence of a single 400-mg dose of imatinib 100-mg oral tablets and a 400-mg tablet in healthy adult Korean volunteers.

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    Lee, Hae Won; Seong, Sook Jin; Park, Sung Min; Lee, Joomi; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Sung Mook; Lim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Woomi; Yang, Dong Heon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2015-06-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new once-daily 400-mg film-coated tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Korea. The present study was designed to assess and compare the PK parameters, bioavailability, and bioequivalence of the new imatinib 400-mg formulation (test) versus the conventional 100-mg formulation (reference) administered as a single 400-mg dose in healthy adult male volunteers. This randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive 400 mg of the test (one 400-mg tablet) or reference (four 100-mg tablets) formulation, followed by a 2-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Serial blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. Plasma imatinib concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞)ž were within the predetermined range of 0.80 - 1.25. In total, 35 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse event was reported during the study. The 90% CIs of the adjusted geometric mean ratios of the test formulation to the reference formulation for C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞)ž of imatinib were all within the bioequivalence criteria range of 0.8 - 1.25. The test formulation of imatinib met the Korean regulatory requirements for bioequivalence. Both imatinib formulations were well-tolerated in all subjects.

  18. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: 25 kg/m² (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  19. Acculturation and Health of Korean American Adults.

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    Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen W

    2014-07-01

    Increasing cultural diversity in the United States and significant health disparities among immigrant populations make acculturation an important concept to measure in health research. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine acculturation and health of Korean American adults. A convenience sample of 517 Korean American adults in a Midwestern city completed a survey in either English or Korean. All four groups of Berry's acculturation model were identified using cluster analysis with Lee's Acculturation Scale. Assimilation, integration, and separation were found in the English survey sample, whereas integration, separation, and marginalization were found in the Korean survey sample. Moreover, the findings revealed that acculturation is a bidimensional process, and the unique nature of samples may determine acculturation groups. Physical health and mental health were significantly related to acculturation in the English survey sample. However, there was not a significant relationship between health and acculturation in the Korean survey sample. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

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    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  1. Daily dietary intake of elements of nutritional and radiological importance by adult Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Kang, S.H.; Lee, J.K.; Chung, Y.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    2001-01-01

    A one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean was collected from the data based on the food intake of 108 healthy subjects between the ages 20 and 50. Sampling for the Korean total diet was carried out by using a market basket study based on the Korean standard food consumption scheme reported by the Korean Nutriting Society. Average consumption frequency of different food items for a one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean and the amount of each item to prepare a one day Korean representative total diet are surveyed. The analytical methods involve both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques develop for the determination of the elements Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of food samples. Concentrations of trace elements including 5 important elements for radiological protection, U, Th, Cs, Sr and I in the Korean total diet and the 4 most frequently consumed Korean foodstuffs have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Detection limits for U, Th, Sr and I were improved to ppb levels by radiochemical separation after neutron irradiation. Five biological NIST reference materials were also analyzed for quality control of the analysis. Seventeen trace elements in the Korean total diet and four Korean representative foodstuffs were also analyzed quantitatively by instrumental neutron activation analysis. (author)

  2. Increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with high visceral adiposity index in apparently healthy Korean adults: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical tool that reflects a patient's visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have noted an association between VAI and cardiovascular event. We analyzed the association between VAI and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in Korean adults. For 33,468 participants (mean age 42 yrs) in a health screening program, VAI was calculated using the following formulae: [waist circumference (WC)/{39.68 + (1.88 * body mass index (BMI))}] * (triglyceride/1.03) * {1.31/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)} for men and [WC/{36.58 + (1.89 * BMI)}] * (triglyceride/0.81) * (1.52/HDL-C) for women. Coronary artery calcium scores were measured with multi-detector computed tomography. CACS was positively correlated with VAI (r = 0.027, p 0 as the dependent variable, subjects in the highest tertile of VAI (>1.777) had significantly increased odds ratio for CACS >0 compared to subjects in the lowest tertile (<0.967), even after adjusting for confounding variables, including BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.147-1.381). Subjects with high VAI had increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by CACS. Key messages Recent studies have noted an association between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and cardiovascular event. Subjects with coronary artery calcification (CAC) showed significantly higher VAI compared to those without CAC. The subjects with high VAI showed increased odds ratio for CAC as compared to subjects with low VAI, suggesting high VAI reflects increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  3. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  4. Sonographic measurement of thymic size in healthy Korean neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyun Joo; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Han, Sang Wook; Kim, Ho Chul; Kim, Young Mook; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2001-01-01

    To assess the variation in thymic size in healthy Korean neonates by sonography and to study the possible correlation to clinical variables. This study was made of 112 healthy Korean neonates (94 full-term and 18 preterm), at less than a week of age. The transverse diameter of the thymus was measured in a transverse scan and the largest sagittal area was assessed in a longitudinal scan. The thymic index was defined as the product of these two values. Then, this index was compared to clinical variables, such as sex, delivery method (spontaneous delivery vs cesarian section), body weight, height, body surface area, head circumference, chest circumference, gestational age, and maternal age in both full-term and preterm groups. The thymic index was 9.6 ± 3.1 (range 3.1-20.2) in full-term and 4.2 ± 2.4 (range 0.9-9.9) in preterm neonates, respectively. The thymic index was positively correlated to the body weight (R=0.550 in full-term, R=0.669 in preterm) and body surface area (R=0.540 in full-term, R=0.674 in preterm) in both full-term and preterm groups (p<0.01). There was no statistically significant correlation to sex, delivery method, height, head circumference, chest circumference, maternal age or gestational age. The thymic index in Healthy Korean neonates as measured by sonography is significantly correlated to the body weight and body surface area of the neonate.

  5. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  6. Intersectoral collaboration for physical activity in Korean Healthy Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunjeong

    2016-09-01

    Intersectoral collaboration (ISC) is important in the health field because the complexity of determinants of health makes it difficult for one institution to resolve all health issues. Promotion of physical activity can especially benefit from a multi-sectoral approach. Despite so much emphasis on its importance in both primary health and health promotion, ISC has been underachieved in the field. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and level of ISC among physical activity programs in Healthy Cities as compared to non-Healthy Cities. I conducted a postal survey where 24 people from Healthy Cities and 72 people from non-Healthy Cities participated. The survey included questions to measure the level of ISC as well as to determine ISC partners and activities. Among the entire 393 physical activity programs, 336 (85.5%) had some kind of collaboration with one or more partners. The percentage having one or more partners was greater in Healthy Cities than in non-Healthy Cities. However, there were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of the level of ISC within a municipal organization. Collaboration activities of the other departments were mostly supportive, such as providing a venue, recruiting participants and publicizing, and other kinds of administrative support. To strengthen ISC in Korean Healthy Cities, various actions including providing a legal basis, specific and substantive supports, financial incentives, and organizational recognitions will be helpful as well as the development of partnerships with other departments in urban planning, transport, urban design, and communication. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong; Song, YoonJu

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Korean kimchi: promoting healthy meals through cultural tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Hongu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The availability and many varieties of kimchi exist in the US. Despite new trends and changes in the US, kimchi continues to be a significant important staple in many Korean and non-Korean families in the US.

  9. Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean...

  10. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (Preligion with general health and depression.

  11. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  12. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  13. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as 60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  14. Predictors of suicidal ideation in Korean American older adults: analysis of the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Peter J; Kim, Kim B; Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Hochang B

    2017-12-01

    Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation among Korean American older adults and assess the self-rated mental health of Korean American older adults with suicidal ideation with or without depressive syndrome. The Memory and Aging Study of Koreans is a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of a community-representative sample of Korean American older adults (N = 1116) residing in the Baltimore-Washington area. Participants were interviewed using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). In addition, demographic information, self-rated mental health, and self-rated physical health status were obtained. In this study, 14.7% of Korean American older adults reported suicidal ideation. Predictors of suicidal ideation included living alone, major or minor depressive syndrome (diagnosed by the PHQ-9K), shorter duration of residency in the USA, and poorer self-rated mental health status. Of those who reported suicidal ideation, 64% did not have minor or major depressive syndrome. However, their self-rated mental health was as poor as that of those with major or minor depressive syndrome but without suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation without depressive syndromes was common among Korean American older adults. For this group of elders with poor self-rated mental health, future studies should look to improving early detection of suicide risks and developing feasible suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Impact of Social Integration and Living Arrangements on Korean Older Adults' Depression: A Moderation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youjung; Jang, Kyeonghee; Lockhart, Naorah C

    2018-04-01

    Depression among older adults is a challenging public health concern in Korea. Using panel data from the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs on Korean older adults and their family caregivers, this study explores significant predictors of depression among Korean older adults as well as the moderating effect of living arrangements on the association between social integration and depression. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preexisting depression was the most significant predictor of Korean older adults' current depression, followed by health status and family support. In addition, social integration significantly decreased Korean older adults' depression. Importantly, a significant moderation effect of living arrangements between Korean older adults' social integration and depression was observed. This study implies the development of individually tailored and culturally responsive programs to engage marginalized Korean older adults living alone, helping foster their well-being and optimal aging.

  16. Heritability of myopia and ocular biometrics in Koreans: the healthy twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hun; Zhao, Di; Kim, Woori; Lim, Dong-Hui; Song, Yun-Mi; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee; Sung, Joohon; Chung, Eui-Sang; Chung, Tae-Young

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the heritabilities of myopia and ocular biometrics among different family types among a Korean population. We studied 1508 adults in the Healthy Twin Study. Spherical equivalent, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal astigmatism were measured by refraction, corneal topography, and A-scan ultrasonography. To see the degree of resemblance among different types of family relationships, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Variance-component methods were applied to estimate the genetic contributions to eye phenotypes as heritability based on the maximum likelihood estimation. Narrow sense heritability was calculated as the proportion of the total phenotypic variance explained by additive genetic effects, and linear and nonlinear effects of age, sex, and interactions between age and sex were adjusted. A total of 240 monozygotic twin pairs, 45 dizygotic twin pairs, and 938 singleton adult family members who were first-degree relatives of twins in 345 families were included in the study. ICCs for spherical equivalent from monozygotic twins, pooled first-degree pairs, and spouse pairs were 0.83, 0.34, and 0.20, respectively. The ICCs of other ocular biometrics were also significantly higher in monozygotic twins compared with other relative pairs, with greater consistency and conformity. The estimated narrow sense heritability (95% confidence interval) was 0.78 (0.71-0.84) for spherical equivalent; 0.86 (0.82-0.90) for axial length; 0.83 (0.76-0.91) for anterior chamber depth; and 0.70 (0.63-0.77) for corneal astigmatism. The estimated heritability of spherical equivalent and ocular biometrics in the Korean population suggests the compelling evidence that all traits are highly heritable.

  17. Healthy building environments for ageing adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Helianthe S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy building environment, when looking from a gerontechnology perspective, should facilitate ageing adults' functioning, self-esteem, and prosperity. Creating healthy environments is becoming more and more relevant in society. Older adults tend to stay more indoors when compared to younger

  18. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008?2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ickpyo; Simpson, Annie N.; Logan, Sarah; Woo, Hee-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 10...

  19. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  20. Toenail elemental analysis of Korean young adults by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, O.

    2016-01-01

    The element contents in toenail clippings of healthy Korean young adults were measured using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. The average contents of elements such as Na, K, Cl, Ca, Fe, Se, and Zn are 449, 474, 1024, 1677, 66, 0.7 and 94 mg/kg in men, whereas those contents in women respectively 332, 476, 836, 1097, 66, 0.8 and 104 mg/kg. The correlation analysis of toenail elements with chronic disease risks showed positive associations between Na and serum HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and negative associations between Se and Hs-CRP, between Zn and hemoglobin level. (author)

  1. Examining Korean and Korean American older adults' perceived acceptability of home-based monitoring technologies in the context of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire J; Joe, Jonathan; Hall, Amanda; Demiris, George

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of home-based monitoring technologies by older adults, few studies have examined older adults' acceptance of these technologies, especially among people from diverse cultural groups. The purpose of this study was to explore Korean and Korean American older adults' attitudes toward and perceptions of home-based monitoring technologies in a cultural context. A qualitative analysis of focus groups and individual interviews using inductive coding methods and a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Several cultural factors that determine the acceptability of home-based monitoring technologies were identified. Most notably, the necessity of living alone due to loosened filial tradition and immigration was a main motivator for adopting these technologies for both Korean and Korean Americans. The level of satisfaction with the health care system or therapeutic interaction affected participants' perceived need for technologies. Compared with the Korean American group, Korean older adults regarded the government's role as more important in increasing adoption and use of new technologies. Contextual factors need to be considered when explaining perceptions of home-based monitoring technologies among older adults from various ethnic groups and developing diffusion strategies according to end users' attitudes, experiences, and cultural backgrounds.

  2. In vivo organ mass of Korean adults obtained from whole-body magnetic resonance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, J. I.; Lee, Y. J.; Lim, Y. K.; Kim, C. S.; Lee, C.

    2006-01-01

    In vivo organ mass of the Korean adult, male and female were presented for the purpose of radiation protection. A total of 121 healthy volunteers (66 males and 55 females), whose body dimensions were close to that of average Korean adults, were recruited for this study. Whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained, and contours of 15 organs (brain, eye, gall bladder, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, stomach, spleen, testes, thymus, thyroid, urinary bladder and uterus) and 9 bones (femur, tibia + fibula, humerus, radius + ulna, pelvis, cervical spine, thoracic and lumber spine, skull and clavicle) were segmented for organ volume rendering by anatomists using commercial software. Organ and bone masses were calculated by multiplying the Asian reference densities of the corresponding organs and bones by the measured volumes. The resulting organ and bone masses were compared with those of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Asian reference data. Significantly large standard deviation was shown in the moving organs of the respiratory and circulatory systems and in the alimentary and urogenital organs that are variable in volume in a single person. Gall bladder and pancreas showed unique Korean organ masses compared with those of ICRP and the Asian reference adults. Different from anatomical data based on autopsy, the in vivo volume and mass in this study can more exactly describe the organ volume of a living human subject for radiation protection. A larger sample size would be required for obtaining statistically more reliable results. It is also needed to establish the reference organ mass of younger age groups for which it is difficult to recruit volunteers and to immobilise the subjects for long-time MR scanning. At present, the data from this study will contribute to the establishment of a Korean reference database. (authors)

  3. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  4. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young

    2013-01-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  5. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ? 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting...

  6. Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hui Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003 and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011 might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  7. An integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie

    2010-12-01

    Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

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    Na Hyun Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82 and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74, respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58 for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40. However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults.

  10. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-01-01

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm 3 for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and

  11. Channels of health communications used among Korean and Asian Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Seon

    2010-01-01

    According to Healthy People 2010, health communication is an important tool to reduce health disparities. Communication channels in which people prefer to receive health information may differ by race/ethnicity. One of the main challenges in designing an effective health communication program is to identify the most trusted and most often used channels of health information by Asian older adults. The aim of this study is to determine which health communication channels can be used to promote healthy lifestyles among older adults. A non-probability, convenience-sampling technique was used to recruit Korean (n = 9) and Asian Indian (n = 9) older adults from two senior centers in New York City. The findings from the two focus groups identified three distinct channels used by Asian older adults when obtaining health information: interpersonal (i.e., health care providers, word of mouth), mass media (i.e., ethnic mass media sources), and community specific (i.e., religious organizations, community centers). Health communication is an important area for prevention. Increased efforts are needed to develop culturally appropriate health messages and equally important to deliver these messages in the context in which Asian older adults trust and use the most.

  12. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    SO, Wi-YOUNG

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. Methods: We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7?12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week) and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis a...

  13. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  14. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  15. Movement Discordance between Healthy and Non-Healthy US Adults.

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    Ann M Swartz

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the

  16. Normal kidney size and renal cortical thickness of the Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hee Kyung; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1974-01-01

    1. The kidney size and cortical thickness were measured from intravenous pyelograms of healthy Korean adults of 250 males and 250 females. 2. The measured size and cortical thickness of kidney were following figure (mm). 3. The size of kidney of male is a little larger than female both in vertical length and horizontal width. 4. The renal cortical thickness were not significant in differences between male and female, right and left, in each poles. 5. In the study of distribution of length differences between pairs of kidneys in our series, the length of right kidney is larger in 18.6%, and width in 27.2%. 6. Comparative study is carried out measuring the length of first lumbar vertebral bodies including 4 intervertebral spaces. 7. The site of kidney is larger in the group of greater length of vertebral height. 8. The renal cortical thickness have no significant differences in according to the differences of length of vertebral height, in each poles. 9. Comparing with the western authors, the kidney size of the Korean adult is not smaller than western

  17. Less healthy dietary pattern is associated with smoking in Korean men according to nationally representative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang-Yeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Sang Shin; Seo, Ah-Ram; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Yim, Eunji

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between smoking and nutrient intake has been widely investigated in several countries. However, Korea presents a population with a smoking rate of approximately 50% and dietary consumption of unique foods. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with smoking in Korean men using a nationally representative sample. The study subjects were comprised of 4,851 Korean men over 19 yr of age who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hr recall method. The smoking group comprised 2,136 men (46.6%). Five dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis: 'sugar & fat', 'vegetables & seafood', 'meat & drinks', 'grains & eggs', and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products.' Current smokers showed a more significant 'sugar & fat' pattern (P = 0.001) while significantly less of the 'vegetables & seafood' and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products' patterns (P = 0.011, P Korean male smokers showed less healthy dietary patterns than nonsmokers. Thus, the result of this study underlines the need for health professionals to also provide advice on dietary patterns when counseling patients on smoking cessation.

  18. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  19. Cephalometric evaluation on the maxillofacial type in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, You Dong; Ahn, Hyung Kyu; Park, Tae Won [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-11-15

    The study was made on the facial profile of the normal Korean adults using the roentgenographic cephalograms. The subjects consisted of 50 male and 50 female with normal occlusion. The measurements were made of the facial angles in skeletal pattern and depth, height and the length in the soft tissue profile. The mean and standard deviations from the subjects were calculated and compared with the samples of male and female. The authors have drawn the conclusions as follows: 1. Compared with the angulation in skeletal patterns, there were no differences between both sexes. 2. Individual variations of the lower face were larger than those of the upper face in most measuring points. 3. In general, facial heights were lesser than facial depth in sexual differences. 4. Most dimensions of the facial depth, height and length of the male were larger than those of female.

  20. Association between systemic inflammation and serum prostate-specific antigen in a healthy Korean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jonghyun; Lee, Hyunyoung; Yang, Wonjae

    2017-01-01

    Objective Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may be elevated in healthy men with systemic inflammation. We aimed to investigate the association between systemic inflammation markers and serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. Material and methods A cohort of 20,151 healthy native Korean men without prostate disease between the ages of 40 and 65 years who underwent medical checkups were studied from January 2007 to December 2013. Serum total PSA and serum C-reactive protein concentrations, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts were determined. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were calculated. We checked the correlation between systemic inflammation markers and PSA. Results Data obtained from 18,800 healthy men were analyzed. The mean age of the study subjects was 50.72±7.62 years and the mean NLR was 1.764±0.804. Correlation analysis after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) revealed that neutrophil count (coefficient = 0.028, p value <0.001), and NLR (coefficient = 0.027, p value <0.001) correlated with PSA. Multivariate analysis using the full model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.043 respectively). Multivariate analysis using a stepwise model revealed that age, neutrophil count and NLR were positively correlated with PSA (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.040, respectively) and BMI was negatively correlated with PSA (p<0.001). Conclusion Systemic inflammation markers are useful with a serum PSA in a healthy Korean population. NLR in particular is significantly associated with serum PSA. PMID:28861299

  1. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

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    Hye Sook Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2. However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  2. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age.

  3. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  4. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted.

  6. Relationship between the triglyceride glucose index and coronary artery calcification in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; Kim, Kyung Rae; Park, Jong Suk

    2017-08-23

    The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been considered a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the TyG index and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Thus, we investigated the relationship between the TyG index and CAC in healthy Korean adults. In total, 4319 participants who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT) in a health promotion center were enrolled. Anthropometric profiles and multiple cardiovascular risk factors were measured. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2], and the insulin resistance index of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was estimated. The CAC was measured using multidetector CT, and CAC presence was defined as an Agatston score of >0. All subjects were stratified into four groups based on their TyG indices. Significant differences were observed in cardiovascular parameters among the groups, and the prevalence of CAC significantly increased with increasing TyG index. In the logistic regression analysis after adjustment for multiple risk factors, the odds ratio for the prevalence of CAC, when comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of the TyG index was 1.95 (95% CI 1.23-3.11; P for trend = 0.01); the odds ratio for the prevalence of CAC, when comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.64 (95% CI 1.12-2.40; P for trend = 0.04). In the receiver operating characteristics analysis, the TyG index was superior to HOMA-IR in predicting CAC. The TyG index is more independently associated with the presence of coronary artery atherosclerosis than is HOMA-IR in healthy Korean adults.

  7. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won-Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. Methods The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous...

  8. Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults.

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    Su Kyoung Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort, which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES. A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. RESULTS: We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80(th percentile value of cIMT (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009, and especially in elderly men (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021. We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. CONCLUSIONS: Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk.

  9. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A lateral cephalometric study of pharyngeal cavity in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the size of pharyngeal cavity and sexual differences between Korean adult mal e and female by introducing linear analysis of the lateral cephalogram. The radiograms were composed of 46 adult male aged 24.64 and 52 adult female aged 22.74 respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area, the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S,N,A,Ptm, B,H,H', M ,S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper he ad positioning of subjects, especially in the relative positions of A and H, while radiography. All points to be measured were projected at right angles to the Frankfort plane. For the purpose of measuring the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngeal cavity the distances were measured in A-Ptm, A-S, S-Ptm and CV-H, and vertical measurements were made in SN-A, SN-PNS, SN-H' and M-H. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The pharyngeal cavity is broader in the vertical than in the anteroposterior diameter in both sex and the maximum sexual differences were showed in the distances between SN and H', and minimal sexual differences in the distances between S and Ptm. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngea l cavity, but the distances between A and S, between CV and H showed significant sexual differences when evaluated statistically. 3. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in all variables.

  11. A lateral cephalometric study of pharyngeal cavity in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the size of pharyngeal cavity and sexual differences between Korean adult mal e and female by introducing linear analysis of the lateral cephalogram. The radiograms were composed of 46 adult male aged 24.64 and 52 adult female aged 22.74 respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area, the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S,N,A,Ptm, B,H,H', M ,S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper he ad positioning of subjects, especially in the relative positions of A and H, while radiography. All points to be measured were projected at right angles to the Frankfort plane. For the purpose of measuring the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngeal cavity the distances were measured in A-Ptm, A-S, S-Ptm and CV-H, and vertical measurements were made in SN-A, SN-PNS, SN-H' and M-H. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The pharyngeal cavity is broader in the vertical than in the anteroposterior diameter in both sex and the maximum sexual differences were showed in the distances between SN and H', and minimal sexual differences in the distances between S and Ptm. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngea l cavity, but the distances between A and S, between CV and H showed significant sexual differences when evaluated statistically. 3. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in all variables.

  12. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun; Shin, Jin-Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall pre...

  13. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9±7.1 years) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans

  14. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  15. Roentgenographic studies of Korean adults profile with normal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    A roentgraphic cephalometric study was made on the soft and hard tissue profile of Korean adults. The subject consisted of 52 males and 54 females from 17 to 22 years of age and with normal occlusion and acceptable profile. Twenty one landmarks were plotted and two oriented lines named SnH line and SnV line were drawn on the tracings of all cephalograms. The means and the standard deviations from the subjects were calculated in each measuring category and the means were compared with those of male and female samples. The results were obtained as follow: 1. In depth and height, individual variations and sex differences of the lower facial profile were larger than the upper face. 2. The sex differences of upper facial profile were larger in height than depth. 3. The individual variations and sex differences of the top of nose were the smallest in all measuring points. 4. The thickness of the soft tissue of upper face and upper lip in male sample were larger than those of female, but the same matter were not found in mental region.

  16. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  17. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  18. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bassis, Christine M; Tang, Alice L; Young, Vincent B; Pynnonen, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and dep...

  19. Spirituality and stress management in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Inez; Alleyne, Renee; Thinganjana, Wantana

    2006-12-01

    The purposes of this longitudinal, descriptive pilot study were to (a) test the acceptability and feasibility of a 6-week spiritual intervention; (b) determine the relationship between spirituality and stress; (c) explore the effects of the intervention on measures of perceived stress, spiritual perspective, and spiritual well-being; and (d) explore the meaning of spirituality. The sample consisted of 27 community-dwelling adults. Six categories emerged from the qualitative data as descriptors of the meaning and significance of spirituality. The survey data indicated that there were significant negative correlations between perceived stress and spiritual well-being at three time intervals, a significant decline in the levels of perceived stress, and a significant increase in spiritual perspective from the pretest to the 6-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in spiritual well-being. The intervention proved effective in reducing stress in this healthy adult sample.

  20. The association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hack-Lyoung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population. Methods A total of 115 healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors or overt heart disease who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV measurement at the same day during their routine check-ups were analyzed. Results The mean age of study subjects was 52.8 ± 8.4 years, and 78 (67.8% were men. The mean baPWV value was 1,325 ± 185 cm/s. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups according to E/E’ value: subjects with E/E’ p β = 0.371, p after controlling confounders including age, sex and body mass index. In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of E/E’ ≥ 10 were 78.6% and 59.8%, respectively with mean baPWV of 1,282 cm/s as the cut off value. The discriminatory capacity for predicting E/E’ ≥ 10 was improved from an area under the ROC curve of 0.646 with age alone to 0.734 when baPWV was added (p Conclusions There is a significant association between baPWV and E/E’ in an apparently healthy Korean population. BaPWV is useful as a simple and non-invasive method for early detection of increased LV filling pressure among these people.

  1. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  2. A Roentgenocephalometric Study for the Acceptable Profile in Korean Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, You Dong; Lee, Sang Rae

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to analyze the hard and soft tissue profile and comparison of the both sexes in Korean adults using roentgenocephalometry. The subjects were 122 males and 116 females from 18 to 22 years of age selected on the basis of their excellent occlusion and harmonious profile. It was an investigation about the interrelationships in the angles which consisted of Frankfort horizontal plane (FH plane), Sella Nasion plane (SN plane), Nasal floor plane (NF plane) and Mandibular plane (Md plane) as reference planes, and of the axial inclinations of the upper anterior tooth to Nasal floor plane (NF Plane) and of the lower anterior tooth to Mandibular plane (Md Plane). Among the 14 categories established on the soft tissue landmarks, the 6 categories were studied for the relationship to Frankfort horizontal plane (FH Plane), and the 8 categories were studied for the soft tissue contour. The results were as follows: 1. Among 8 measured angles in the hard tissue, the angle of FH-Md, NF-Md and N-Md were greater in females than in males. 2. The axial inclinations of the anterior teeth to NF Plane and Md plane were slightly greater in males than in females. 3. Among 14 measured angles in the soft tissue, the angles of G-Sn-P and E-Pog-Sn were greater in males, and FH-G-Sn, G·Sn-Sn·Pog and Pog-Sn-P were greater in females. 4. In males, the variability of measured values in both lips region were high.

  3. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  4. The influence of culture on the experiences of Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian-American family caregivers of frail older adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eun-Hi

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore cultural influences on the experiences of Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian American family caregivers caring for frail older adults in terms of the selection of a primary caregiver, caregiving motivation, support/help-seeking, and negative emotional responses(depression and burden). Seven electronic databases were searched to retrieve studies from 1966 to 2005. Thirty-two studies were identified. This review supported cultural influences on the selection of primary caregiver, caregiving motivation, and support/help-seeking among the three caregiver groups. In Korean caregivers, the major primary caregivers were daughters-in-law while among Korean American and Caucasian American caregivers, the major primary caregivers were daughters or spouses. As a major caregiving motivation, Caucasian American caregivers reported filial affection while Korean caregivers and Korean American caregivers reported filial obligation. Korean caregivers reported higher extended family support, while Caucasian American caregivers reported higher utilization of formal support. Korean caregivers showed the highest levels of depression followed by Korean American caregivers and Caucasian American caregivers. In order to develop culturally appropriate interventions and policies, more research is needed to further explain these differences among the three groups, especially regarding support/help-seeking and negative emotional responses.

  5. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008-2013 Korean Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Simpson, Annie N; Logan, Sarah; Woo, Hee-Soon

    2016-08-01

    To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83-3.10). The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  6. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  7. Dairy food consumption is inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J

    2013-07-01

    The present study explored the association between dairy food consumption and the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the most recent nationally representative data. The study sample comprised 4862 Korean adults (≥19 years) who participated in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dairy food consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. We found that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk or yogurt consumption (P foods may be associated with a lower risk of the metabolic syndrome. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Unprocessed Meat Consumption and Incident Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from the Ansung-Ansan cohort (2001–2012, including 9370 adults (40–69 years without CVD or cancer at baseline. Total unprocessed meat consumption was estimated as the sum of unprocessed red meat (beef, pork, and organ meat and poultry consumption. In the fully adjusted Cox regression model, the relative risks of CVD across increasing quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.0 (reference, 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.55, 0.95, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.78, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95, and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.97, but no significant linear trend was detected (p for trend = 0.14. Frequent poultry consumption was significantly associated with a decreased CVD risk; this association showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.04. This study showed that a moderate intake of total unprocessed meat was inversely associated with CVD risk. A significant inverse association between poultry consumption and incident CVD was observed in Korean adults, requiring further confirmation in other populations.

  9. Unprocessed Meat Consumption and Incident Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Son, Jakyung; Jang, Jiyoung; Kang, Ryungwoo; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kyong Won; Lee, Seung-Min; Lim, Hyunjung; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from the Ansung-Ansan cohort (2001–2012), including 9370 adults (40–69 years) without CVD or cancer at baseline. Total unprocessed meat consumption was estimated as the sum of unprocessed red meat (beef, pork, and organ meat) and poultry consumption. In the fully adjusted Cox regression model, the relative risks of CVD across increasing quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.0 (reference), 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.95), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.78), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95), and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.97), but no significant linear trend was detected (p for trend = 0.14). Frequent poultry consumption was significantly associated with a decreased CVD risk; this association showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.04). This study showed that a moderate intake of total unprocessed meat was inversely associated with CVD risk. A significant inverse association between poultry consumption and incident CVD was observed in Korean adults, requiring further confirmation in other populations. PMID:28505126

  10. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7-12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week) and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, body mass index, frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, parents' education level, family economic status, frequency of vigorous physical activity (PA), frequency of moderate PA, frequency of muscular strength exercises, and level of mental stress. For male adolescents, the odds ratios (ORs) for achieving average or higher academic performance according to the breakfast frequency per week were once per week, 1.004 (P=0.945); twice per week, 0.915 (P=0.153); 3 days per week, 0.928 (P=0.237); 4 days per week, 1.087 (P=0.176); 5 days per week, 1.258 (Pacademic performance according to the breakfast frequency were once per week, 1.068 (P=0.320); twice per week, 1.140 (P=0.031); 3 days per week, 1.179 (P=0.004); 4 days per week, 1.339 (Pacademic performance in both male and female healthy adolescents in Korea.

  11. [Efficacy of Lactose-free Milk in Korean Adults with Lactose Intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Hee; Chang, Young Woon; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Min Hye; Nam, Ji Hyeok; Oh, Chi Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Wook; Jang, Jae-Young; Yang, Jin Oh; Yoo, Jin Ah; Chung, Jin Young

    2016-01-25

    Lactose-free milk (LFM) is available for nutrient supply for those with lactose intolerance (LI). However, there are no consistent results of the efficacy of LFM in LI subjects. We aimed to examine the changes of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and hydrogen breath test (HBT) values after ingestion of lactose contained milk (LCM) vs. LFM. From May 2015 to September 2015, thirty-five healthy adults with history of LCM-induced GI symptoms were recruited at a tertiary hospital. For the diagnosis of LI, HBT with LCM 550 mL (lactose 25 g) was performed every 20 minutes for 3 hours. The test was defined as "positive" when H2 peak exceeded 20 ppm above baseline values (ΔH2>20 ppm). When the subjects are diagnosed as LI, the second HBT using LFM 550 mL (lactose 0 g) was performed 7 days later. Subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about the occurrence and severity of GI symptoms. Among a total of 35 subjects, 31 were diagnosed with LI at first visit, and their LCM-related symptoms were abdominal pain (98.6%), borborygmus (96.8%), diarrhea (90.3%), and flatus (87.1%). The ΔH2 value in subjects taking LCM (103.7±66.3ppm) significantly decreased to 6.3±4.9 ppm after ingesting LFM (p<0.0001). There were also significant reduction in total symptom scores and the severity of each symptom when LCM was changed to LFM (p<0.0001). This is the first report that LFM reduce LCM-related GI symptoms and H2 production in Korean adults. LFM can be an effective alternative for LCM in adults with LI.

  12. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-01-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korea...

  13. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  14. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94. The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  15. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Kyu; Sung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jin Eui [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mmuU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  16. Physical Activity Level of Korean Adults with Chronic Diseases: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ho-Seong; An, Ah-Reum; Choi, Ho-Chun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Heon; Oh, Seung-Min; Seo, Young-Gyun; Cho, Be-Long

    2015-11-01

    Proper physical activities are known to be helpful in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, the physical activity level of patients with chronic diseases is low. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical activity compliance of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Korea. This study analyzed the 2010-2012 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We included 13,873 individuals in the analysis. The level of physical activity compliance was measured by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses. In the univariate analysis, the subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to comply with the physical activity guidelines less faithfully than their healthy counterparts. The proportion of subjects with hypertension who were insufficiently physically active was 65.4% among the men and 75.8% among the women. For diabetes, the proportions were 66.7% and 76.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the subjects with dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant difference in physical activity compliance was observed between the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts for both sexes. The patients with hypertension or diabetes tended to have lower physical activity prevlaence than their healthy counterparts. However, for dyslipidemia, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Given the significance of physical activities in the management of chronic diseases, the physical activities of these patients need to be improved.

  17. Factors Affecting Diabetic Screening Behavior of Korean Adults: A Multilevel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsu Kim, MD, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This study identified a contextual effect influencing the participation of Korean adults in diabetes screening. It is necessary to develop specific policies that consider not only individual factors, but also community factors relating to individual behaviors to increase the likelihood of diabetes screening.

  18. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation in a Representative Sample of Korean Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Seo, Hong-Gwan

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the stages of change in smoking cessation in a representative sample of Korean adult smokers. The study subjects, all adult smokers (n=2,422), were recruited from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2001. The stages of change were categorized using demographic (age and sex), socioeconomic (education, residence, and household income), and smoking characteristics (age at smoking onset, duration of smoking, and number of cigarettes sm...

  20. The association between dietary cholesterol intake and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, EunSun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Joon Mo; Cho, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Sung, Ki Chul

    The Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015) concluded that restriction of dietary cholesterol is unnecessary in most adults for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis according to coronary artery calcium score (CACS), based on dietary cholesterol intake in apparently healthy Korean adults. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 30,068 participants (mean age 40.8 years; 84.5% men) in a health screening program in Korea. The data were collected from 2001 to 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Total energy intake and dietary cholesterol intake were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The participants were stratified according to quartile of dietary cholesterol intake. CACS was measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Lipid profiles were measured, and the participants were divided into 6 groups according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level: 0. Dietary cholesterol intake did not correlate with mean value of serum LDL-C level. For both genders, the odds ratio for coronary artery calcification was not significantly greater with greater amounts of dietary cholesterol (as assessed by quartile). The risk for coronary artery calcification was not higher in subjects with LDL-C 70-129 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; however, the risk was significantly greater in subjects with LDL-C ≥ 130 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. Dietary cholesterol intake did not have an association with LDL-C level or with risk for coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults. The results have to be translated with consideration of limitation of population-based studies. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, ppocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  2. Assessment of breathing rate of adult Korean for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, Y.W.; Kim, C.S.; Lee, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Breathing rate is one of the key factors in evaluating doses due to inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Since the reference values of breathing rate provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based on the physiology of Caucasian, they are not necessarily appropriate for internal dosimetry for Korean. In this study, we assessed breathing rate of Korean by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in second (FEV1) and the minute ventilation(MV). Measurements were made using SP-1 spirometry unit (Schiller AG. 1998) for 1474 adult Koreans whose heights and weights are in the range of one standard deviation from the mean values. The total liters of air breathed for working and resting were evaluated after the ICRP approach. We also considered smoking and ailment in the lungs. The resulting breathing rate appears to be 2.3x10 4 L/day which well agrees with the value given in ICRP 23

  3. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake.

  4. A rice-based traditional dietary pattern is associated with obesity in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Jo, Inho; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-02-01

    Dietary patterns are critical in the prevention of chronic disease. The relationship between specific dietary patterns and obesity has not been evaluated in a Korean adult population. This study examined whether specific dietary patterns are associated with obesity using survey data of the largest, nationally representative, general Korean population. The cross-sectional study was comprised of 10,089 Korean adults (19 years or older) who participated in the second and third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 2001 and 2005, respectively. Dietary data were assessed by 24-hour recall method. Obesity was defined as body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) ≥25, which is the cutoff point for adults in the Asian and Pacific regions. Four dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis (white rice and kimchi pattern; high-fat, sweets, and coffee pattern; meat and alcohol pattern; and grains, vegetables, and fish pattern). Each dietary pattern explained 8.6%, 6.7%, 5.7%, and 5.7% of the variation in food intake, respectively. The white rice and kimchi pattern (P for trend=0.0039) and the high-fat, sweets, and coffee pattern (P for trend=0.0054) were positively associated with obesity after adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking status, physical activity, and chronic diseases. No significant association was found among the meat and alcohol pattern; the grains, vegetables, and fish pattern; and obesity. Specific dietary patterns, which include the white rice and kimchi and high-fat, sweets, and coffee patterns, may be independently associated with obesity in Korean adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded. The standard deviation in reaction time was significantly shorter in girls than in boys (p Coca-Cola showed negative correlation with the results of verbal memory tests (p < 0.05). The consumption of mushrooms showed positive correlation with visual memory and reasoning test results (p < 0.05). The consumption of nuts showed positive correlation with SDMT results (p < 0.01). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the intake of protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin B6 (p < 0.05), as well as with vitamin D and zinc intake (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with caffeine intake (p < 0.05). Omission errors were positively correlated with the consumption of rice and ramyeon (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with the consumption of snacks (p < 0.05). Standard deviations in reaction times showed positive correlation with the consumption of rice (p < 0.01), snacks, and chocolate (p < 0.05). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the consumption of rice with mixed grains (p < 0.01) and eggs (p < 0.05). The relationship between dietary intake and cognitive function is generally better observed in girls than in boys. The consumption of healthy foods is correlated with good cognitive function. These results suggest that diet is

  6. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 B.O.N intramuscular injection in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Intramuscular injection of vitamin D3 200,000 IU was superior to placebo in terms of its impact on serum 25(OHD concentrations, and is considered to be safe and effective in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency.

  8. The Change of South Korean Adult Education in Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jung

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of adult education in South Korea from postwar modernization to the current globalized environment. Notes that adult higher education is increasingly formalized and institutionalized, with expanded credentialism, inequality, and government intervention and a weakening connection between adult education and social…

  9. Spirometry of healthy adult South African men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-07

    Jul 7, 1996 ... radiographic screening process was used to identify a healthy population ... significantly lower values than the Autolink for FVC measurements despite .... t Medical Instrumentation. ATS '" American ... Quality control. Biological ...

  10. Engaging in Security Work: Selective Disclosure in Friendships of Korean and Mexican Undocumented Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Esther Y

    2017-01-01

    While much of the literature on undocumented immigrants has focused on employment and education outcomes, we know little about the effects of their precarious legal status on interpersonal relationships. Based on interviews with 50 Korean and Mexican undocumented young adults, I find that, regardless of ethnoracial background, undocumented immigrants approach relationships cautiously, engaging in "security work" to protect themselves and their loved ones. Security work is a negotiated process...

  11. Construction of Korean adult voxel phantoms for radiation dosimetry and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Sik

    2002-08-15

    Although contribution of the MIRD-type mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms to computational radiation dosimetry, especially in determining the effective dose to the exposed personnel, is very significant, there remain some questions on possible deviation in the resulting dosimetric quantities from the true values. This is particularly the case for those organ or tissues having complicated geometry difficult to model with simple geometrical body elements. As an alternative approach to resolve the problem, there have been efforts to use voxel phantoms, which can very precisely describe both the external shape and the internal organs by virtue of fast advances in medical imaging technology as well as in computing power. In this study, Korean adult male and female voxel phantoms were constructed by processing whole-body MR images of healthy volunteers who belong to middle group of Korean in height and weight. Organs and tissues on tomographic images were manually segmented and indexed using the graphic software PL-400 . Due to limited resolution of the raw MR images, voxels of rather large size, 2 mmx2 mmx8 mm for the woman and 2mmx2mmx10mm for the man, were used. The resulting male and female voxel phantoms were named KRMAN and KRWOMAN, respectively. To assess utility of the voxel phatoms, calculations were carried out with the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B for two illustrative problems. A program VOXELMAKER1.0 was developed to convert the voxel phantom data into MCNP geometry input format. In the first example, organ equivalent doses and effective doses were evaluated for phantoms in broad parallel photon fields of different energies and directions and were compared to corresponding values given in ICRP 74 which were derived with the MIRD-type phantoms. No significant deviations between MIRD and voxel phantoms were found in the effective doses. Significant differences up to around factor of 2, however, were observed in organ equivalent doses for some organs including

  12. Neuroticism and facial emotion recognition in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andric, Sanja; Maric, Nadja P.; Knezevic, Goran; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana; Velthorst, Eva; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether healthy individuals with higher levels of neuroticism, a robust independent predictor of psychopathology, exhibit altered facial emotion recognition performance. Facial emotion recognition accuracy was investigated in 104 healthy adults using the

  13. Association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kang, Ju Wan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults. Cross-sectional data analysis. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Noninstitutionalized adults aged 60 to 80 (N = 1,614). The confounding variables were serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and self-reported daily sun exposure and sleep duration. Self-reported daily sleep duration was divided into four groups: Q1 (≤4 hours), Q2 (5-6 hours), Q3 (7-8 hours), and Q4 (≥9 hours). Mean serum vitamin D levels of subjects in the Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups were 44.18, 48.08, 48.83, and 51.78 nmol/L, respectively. On multivariate linear regression analysis, subjects in the Q2 (B = 3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-7.19), Q3 (B = 4.89, 95% CI = 1.54-8.24), and Q4 (B = 5.18, 95% CI = 0.78-9.58) groups had significantly higher serum vitamin D levels than subjects in the Q1 group. Serum vitamin D level is positively associated with self-reported daily sleep duration in elderly Korean individuals. These results suggest that inadequate sleep duration may be associated with lower vitamin D levels in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Older Korean adults have lower physical function despite longer exercise times compared to their Japanese counterparts: A Japan-Korea comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Songee; Okubo, Yoshiro; Osuka, Yosuke; Seino, Satoshi; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to compare the level of physical function (PF) and habitual exercise between older Japanese and Korean adults. A comparative study was carried out on 1069 community-dwelling older Japanese and Korean adults (mean age 73.9 ± 5.2 years). The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire regarding habitual exercise and covariates. PF age, a composite measure of PF, was derived from the 12 items, using principal component analysis. PF age and habitual exercise were compared between the Japanese and Korean adults, using analysis of covariance (ancova) and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for all covariates using propensity scores. ancova showed that PF age in older Japanese adults was significantly younger than in their Korean counterparts. Older Japanese adults exercised significantly less frequently than their Korean counterparts. Furthermore, older Japanese adults practiced significantly less walking, mountain climbing and bicycling, but more calisthenics, resistance training, ball games and dances than their Korean counterparts. We found that older Korean adults had lower PF (3.7 years older in PF age) than their Japanese counterparts. Although the overall frequency and amount of habitual exercise in older Korean adults were higher than those in their Japanese counterparts, particular types of exercise might have contributed to the higher PF levels among older Japanese adults. Thus, older Korean adults might need to engage more in habitual exercises that are specifically effective in maintaining PF. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 576-583. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively.

  16. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  17. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  18. Association of Family Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults Aged over 45 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ju

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender in Korean adults aged 45 years and older. The sample consisted of 11,291 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. We used complex sample analyses, including strata, cluster, and sample weighting, to allow generalization to the Korean population. Complex samples crosstabs and chi-square tests were conducted to compare the percentage of sociodemographic characteristics to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by gender and family composition. Next, a complex sample logistic regression was performed to examine the association between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender. The percentage of adults living alone was 5.6% for men and 13.9% for women. Slightly more women (14.0%) than men (10.1%) reported living with three generations. The percentage of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults aged 45 years and older was 53.2% for men and 35.7% for women. For women, we found that living with one or three generations was significantly associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, and triglyceride abnormality after adjusting for age, education, household income, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index, when compared to living alone. No significant relationships were found for men. A national strategy, tailored on gender and family composition, needs to be developed in order to prevent the increase of metabolic syndrome in Korean women over middle age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  20. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  1. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1 the experience of psychological benefits, 2 the creation of social support, and 3 the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  2. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  3. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms. (paper)

  4. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-21

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Independently Inversely Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Healthy, Non-Obese Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Ock

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe evaluated the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations in serum and insulin resistance in the healthy Korean population.MethodsWe conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 1,807 healthy Korean people (628 men and 1,179 women aged 30 to 64 years in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiologic Research Center study. All participants were assessed for 25(OHD, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, and completed a health examination and lifestyle questionnaire according to standard procedures. Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance higher than the 75 percentile.ResultsCompared to those in the highest tertile (≥14.3 ng/mL, the odds ratio (OR for insulin resistance was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.86 for the 1st tertile (<9.7 ng/mL and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.08 to 1.62 for the 2nd tertile (9.7 to 14.3 ng/mL after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical exercise, season, and cohort. After stratification of the subjects by adiposity, these associations remained only in non-obese subjects (lowest tertile vs. highest tertile, multivariable OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.56.ConclusionSerum 25(OHD has an independent inverse association with insulin resistance in the healthy, non-obese Korean population, even among people with vitamin D insufficiency.

  6. Exercise in the healthy older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karani, R; McLaughlin, M A; Cassel, C K

    2001-01-01

    Habitual exercise provides numerous health benefits to the older adult. While dynamic aerobic activities increase stamina and lung capacity, isometric or resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance. Long-term benefits of continued exercise include a decreased risk of death from heart disease, enhanced balance and mobility, a decreased risk of diabetes, and an improvement in depressive symptoms. While the hazards of exercise relate predominantly to extremes of intensity and duration, all older adults should consult with a physician before beginning a new activity program. A prescription for exercise should include both aerobic and resistance training components, and frequent follow-up to improve adherence is highly recommended. (c)2001 CVRR, Inc.

  7. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: a Q methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents' ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented-self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented-self-recognition type, reflection-oriented-self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented-self-maintenance type. The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  9. Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine hydrochloride in Korean adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung Irene; Song, Dong-Ho; Shin, Dong Won; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Young Sik; Hwang, Jun-Won; Park, Tae Won; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Jong Il; Bahn, Geon Ho; Hirata, Yuko; Goto, Taro; Takita, Yasushi; Takahashi, Michihiro; Lee, Sanghoon; Treuer, Tamás

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to assess the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in Korean adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This post hoc double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine (40-120 mg/day) over 10 weeks in adults with ADHD at 45 Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese study sites focused on patient data from Korea (atomoxetine, n = 37; placebo, n = 37). Primary efficacy outcome was change in baseline-to-endpoint Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator-rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) Total ADHD Symptoms score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included changes in Adult ADHD Quality of Life (AAQoL) total, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self-Report (BRIEF-A:Self-Report), and Clinical Global Impression-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) scale scores. Atomoxetine-treated patients demonstrated a mean 18.9-point reduction in CAARS-Inv:SV total ADHD Symptoms score, compared with the 7.45-point reduction in placebo-treated patients (P ≤ 0.01). Significantly greater improvement was found for atomoxetine versus placebo in CGI-ADHD-S (P ≤ 0.01), BRIEF-A:Self-Report global executive composite (P ≤ 0.05), and metacognition index (P ≤ 0.01) executive function scores. Nausea, decreased appetite, and dry mouth were reported with significantly greater frequency by atomoxetine-treated patients, and only one placebo-treated patient discontinued because of adverse event. A 2.1-kg reduction in weight and a 7.5-beat/minute increase in pulse rate were observed in atomoxetine-treated patients. These data support a significant benefit of 80- to 120-mg once daily atomoxetine versus placebo for treatment of ADHD in adult Korean patients. A high placebo response rate was observed in this adult Korean sample; a higher discontinuation rate was also observed in atomoxetine-treated patients. These observations warrant further investigation. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Social networks, health promoting-behavior, and health-related quality of life in older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Minjoo; De Gagne, Jennie C; Shin, Hyewon

    2018-03-01

    In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we compared the sociodemographic characteristics, social networks, health-promoting behavior, and the health-related quality of life of older Korean adults living in South Korea to those of older Korean adult immigrants living in the USA. A total of 354 older adults, aged 65 years or older, participated. Data were collected through self-directed questionnaires, and analyzed using a two way analysis of variance, t-tests, χ 2 -tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The association between four sociodemographic characteristics and health-related quality of life was significantly different between the two groups. For the older Korean adults living in South Korea, positive correlations existed between a measure of their social networks and both health-promoting behavior and health-related quality of life. For the older Korean immigrants, the findings revealed a positive correlation only between social networks and health-promoting behavior. The study findings support the important association social networks can have with health-related quality of life, and their possible relationship to health-promoting behaviors of older Korean adults. We suggest that health policy-makers and healthcare providers develop comprehensive programs that are designed to improve older adults' social networks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  12. Living arrangements and suicidal ideation among the Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-12-01

    This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Analyzing a sample of 5795 women and 3758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data-set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. About 1 out of 12 respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse, and others). Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men's suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture.

  13. Perceived face size in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual body size distortions have traditionally been studied using subjective, qualitative measures that assess only one type of body representation-the conscious body image. Previous research on perceived body size has typically focused on measuring distortions of the entire body and has tended to overlook the face. Here, we present a novel psychophysical method for determining perceived body size that taps into implicit body representation. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC), participants were sequentially shown two life-size images of their own face, viewed upright, upside down, or tilted 90°. In one interval, the width or length dimension was varied, while the other interval contained an undistorted image. Participants reported which image most closely matched their own face. An adaptive staircase adjusted the distorted image to hone in on the image that was equally likely to be judged as matching their perceived face as the accurate image. When viewed upright or upside down, face width was overestimated and length underestimated, whereas perception was accurate for the on-side views. These results provide the first psychophysically robust measurements of how accurately healthy participants perceive the size of their face, revealing distortions of the implicit body representation independent of the conscious body image.

  14. Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between healthy diet and exercise, individually and combined, and low muscle mass in older Korean adults. Population-based cross-sectional study from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2011. Community. Nationally representative sample aged 65 and older (1,486 men, 1,799 women) in the Republic of Korea. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine frequency of food group consumption (meat, fish, eggs, legumes; vegetables; fruits). Participation in exercise (aerobic and resistance) was based on self-report. Combined healthy lifestyle factors were calculated as the number of recommendations met regarding consumption of food groups and exercise performed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and low muscle mass was defined using the variable of ASM adjusted for weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between healthy lifestyle factors and low muscle mass, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. In women, after controlling for covariates, vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass. Older women who exercise and consume a healthy diet have lower odds of low muscle mass. Engaging in multiple healthy behaviors may be important in preventing low muscle mass in late life. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. The Association of Serum Cystatin C with Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Korean Adults

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    Eun Hee Sim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCystatin C has been known to be associated not only with early renal impairment but also with the incidence of diabetic conditions (prediabetes plus diabetes. However, it is not clear whether cystatin C levels are associated with the prevalence of diabetic conditions in Asian populations. We evaluated this association using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels as the definition of diabetes in Korean adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 1,559 Korean adults (937 men and 622 women with available serum cystatin C and HbA1c values.ResultsThe serum cystatin C levels in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes were significantly increased (0.91±0.14 mg/L in prediabetes and 0.91±0.17 mg/L in diabetes vs. 0.88±0.13 mg/L in patients with normal glucose levels, P=0.001. At increasing cystatin C levels, the prevalence of subjects with prediabetes (30.2% vs. 14.6%, P<0.001 and those with diabetes (10.6% vs. 8.0%, P<0.001 significantly increased in the group with the highest cystatin C levels. The group with the highest cystatin C levels had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR for the presence of diabetic conditions compared to the group with the lowest values in total subjects (OR, 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 3.58; P<0.001 and in women (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.97 to 8.65; P<0.001, though there was no significant increase after adjusting for multiple variables.ConclusionsHigher levels of serum cystatin C are associated with an increased prevalence of diabetic conditions in Korean adults. Our findings may extend the positive association of cystatin C with diabetes incidence to an Asian population.

  16. Analysis of Selenium Contents in Plant Foods Consumed by Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Okhee; Kim, Kangsung; Moon, Jonghwa; Chung, Yongsam

    2014-01-01

    Se exhibited a relatively small range of adequate ingestion level for health. An accurate investigation of Se consumption in Korean population has been rare because the database of food containing selenium is rather small. The table of Se content in food is a basic tool for calculating selenium intake. Since diet is the main source of Se intake, the Se content in various foods and personal dietary practices would be primarily determined to evaluate the nutritional status of Se for a population. To evaluate the Se intake levels of a population, a Se food database should be generated based on data produced by high-precision analytical techniques. In addition, this database should contain the Se contents of foods that are regularly consumed by the studied population. Plant foods contain lower Se levels when compared to animal products. However, grains, potatoes, starches, and legumes have been the main sources of carbohydrates and proteins in traditional Korean diet. Since grains such as rice are a staple food and remain the most consumed foods in Korea, their contribution to dietary Se intake might be considerable. However, no reports on the selenium content from plant foods have been compiled for the Korean population. The goal of this study was to measure the Se content in common consumed plant foods such as grain, potatoes, legumes and their products. The legume rich in protein contained relatively high amount of Se when compared to other plant food type. The raw wheat and wheat product which have been imported from abroad showed higher amount of Se than rice mostly produced in Korea. The acquired Se value is useful to assess the Se intake of Korean adults from plant foods

  17. Analysis of Selenium Contents in Plant Foods Consumed by Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Okhee; Kim, Kangsung [Kyonghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jonghwa; Chung, Yongsam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Se exhibited a relatively small range of adequate ingestion level for health. An accurate investigation of Se consumption in Korean population has been rare because the database of food containing selenium is rather small. The table of Se content in food is a basic tool for calculating selenium intake. Since diet is the main source of Se intake, the Se content in various foods and personal dietary practices would be primarily determined to evaluate the nutritional status of Se for a population. To evaluate the Se intake levels of a population, a Se food database should be generated based on data produced by high-precision analytical techniques. In addition, this database should contain the Se contents of foods that are regularly consumed by the studied population. Plant foods contain lower Se levels when compared to animal products. However, grains, potatoes, starches, and legumes have been the main sources of carbohydrates and proteins in traditional Korean diet. Since grains such as rice are a staple food and remain the most consumed foods in Korea, their contribution to dietary Se intake might be considerable. However, no reports on the selenium content from plant foods have been compiled for the Korean population. The goal of this study was to measure the Se content in common consumed plant foods such as grain, potatoes, legumes and their products. The legume rich in protein contained relatively high amount of Se when compared to other plant food type. The raw wheat and wheat product which have been imported from abroad showed higher amount of Se than rice mostly produced in Korea. The acquired Se value is useful to assess the Se intake of Korean adults from plant foods.

  18. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution and renal function in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Seo, Yong-Seok; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has a negative effect on many diseases, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Recent studies have reported a relationship between air pollution and renal function, but the results were limited to exposure to particulate matter (PM). This study was to identify associations between various air pollutants and renal function among Korean adults. Nationwide survey data for a total of 24,407 adults were analyzed. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for each individual to assess their renal function and used this to categorize those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate exposure to ambient air pollution, we used the annual mean concentrations of four ambient air pollutants: PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). We identified significant inverse relationships between the air pollutants PM 10 and NO 2 and eGFR in all statistical adjustment models (all p  ambient air pollutants were significantly related to an increased risk of CKD in the unadjusted model ( p   0.05). Exposures to PM 10 and NO 2 were significantly associated with decreases in eGFR levels, but not CKD, in Korean adults.

  19. [The experience of adult Korean children caring for parents institutionalized with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Suhye; Tae, Young Sook

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experience of adult Korean children who are caregivers for parents institutionalized with dementia. Participants were fourteen adult children caregivers of elders institutionalized with dementia. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews with individual participants from August to November, 2012. Theoretical sampling was used to the point of theoretical saturation. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's Grounded Theory Method. From open coding, 67 concepts, 29 sub-categories, and 14 categories were identified. Analysis revealed that the core category of the experience of adult children caring for their parents institutionalized with dementia was 'enduring the role of a prop' consisting of four phases: initial turmoil, exploration, role adjustment, and acclimation. To manage the role of a prop, participants utilized various action/interactional strategies such as overcoming the unfamiliarity, overseeing the nursing home care, and counterbalancing the caring roles. As a result, participants experienced ambivalence towards the existence of parents with dementia, changes in family relationships, altered viewpoint towards nursing homes, and restructuring of life. In-depth understanding of the experience will guide nurses to promote effective interventions in order to better support the Korean family caregivers of parents institutionalized with dementia.

  20. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeg Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15, dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106 and women (n = 155. Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys, but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75, plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively. One GPX1 genotype (679T/T was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.

  1. Identifying Dietary Patterns Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults Using Reduced Rank Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in cognitive function. Few studies have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive functions of older adults in the Korean population. This study aimed to identify the effect of dietary patterns on the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 239 participants, including 88 men and 151 women, aged 65 years and older were selected from health centers in the district of Seoul, Gyeonggi province, and Incheon, in Korea. Dietary patterns were determined using Reduced Rank Regression (RRR methods with responses regarding vitamin B6, vitamin C, and iron intakes, based on both a one-day 24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between dietary pattern score and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 20 (8% out of the 239 participants had mild cognitive impairment. Three dietary patterns were identified: seafood and vegetables, high meat, and bread, ham, and alcohol. Among the three dietary patterns, the older adult population who adhered to the seafood and vegetables pattern, characterized by high intake of seafood, vegetables, fruits, bread, snacks, soy products, beans, chicken, pork, ham, egg, and milk had a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment compared to those who did not (adjusted odds ratios 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.72 after controlling for gender, supplementation, education, history of dementia, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, and duration of sleep. The other two dietary patterns were not significantly associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, seafood, and protein foods was significantly associated with reduced mild cognitive impairment in older Korean adults. These results can contribute to the establishment of

  2. Insulin Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Wan; Kim, Jin Hwa; Ko, Seung Hyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Hyun Jin; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Seok O; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-10-01

    The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) has regularly updated its Clinical Practice Guidelines. In 2017, the KDA published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Growing evidence from new multinational clinical trials using novel and traditional insulin analogues has also been accumulated. Following global trends, many results of clinical trials, especially concerning the clinical efficacy and safety of insulin therapy, have been published about Korean patients with T2DM. After a systematic search of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the initiation, choice, and intensification of insulin and created an insulin treatment algorithm for the first time to guide physicians caring for adult Korean patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association.

  3. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  5. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-08-28

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75{+-}1.55 {mu}m versus after supplementation: 70.25{+-}1.31 {mu}m; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

  6. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  7. Association between osteocalcin and cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradburn, Steven; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Bagley, Liam; Sipila, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; Narici, Marco Vincenzo; Pääsuke, Mati; Gapeyeva, Helena; Osborne, Gabrielle; Sassano, Lorraine; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Murgatroyd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 225 old

  8. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  9. MR Detection of microhemorrhages in neurologically healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Y.; Tanizaki, Y.; Aoki, J.; Endo, K.

    2002-01-01

    T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) magnetic resonance images frequently demonstrate small hypointense lesions in patients with systemic hypertension and spontaneous hematomas. These lesions have been suspected to represent subclinical microhemorrhages. We examined the incidence of these lesions in neurologically healthy adults, and the factors associated with them. Axial T2*-weighted GE images (TR = 1,000 ms, TE = 30 ms, flip angle = 20 ) were obtained in addition to conventional T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images in 450 neurologically healthy Japanese adults (289 men and 161 women; age 52.9±7.7 years, range 24-84). The overall incidence of small hypointense lesions was 3.1% (14/450), and these lesions were closely related to systemic hypertension (P 20 cigarettes per day; P=0.003). Although the incidence of hypointense lesions was lower in neurologically healthy adults than in the reported incidence in patients with a hemorrhagic history, the presence of these lesions was related to the risk factors for primary intracerebral hemorrhage even in the neurologically healthy adults. (orig.)

  10. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration

  11. Napping: Do's and Don'ts for Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Napping isn't just for children. Understand the pros and cons of napping and the best way to take a nap. ... you might be thinking about taking a nap. Napping at the wrong time of day or for ...

  12. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  13. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeana; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Oh, Sohee

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Development of the Korean Adult Reading Test (KART to estimate premorbid intelligence in dementia patients.

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    Dahyun Yi

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV. Among the 94 words, 50 words that did not show a significant difference between the CN and the AD group were selected and constituted the KART. Using the 30 CN calculation group (CNc, a linear regression equation was obtained in which the observed full-scale IQ (FSIQ was regressed on the reading errors of the KART, where education was included as an additional variable. When the regressed equation computed from the CNc was applied to 30 CN individuals of the validation group (CNv, the predicted FSIQ adequately fit the observed FSIQ (R2 = 0.63. In addition, independent sample t-test showed that the KART-predicted IQs were not significantly different between the CNv and AD groups, whereas the performance of the AD group was significantly worse in the observed IQs. In addition, an extended validation of the KART was performed with a separate sample consisted of 84 CN, 56 elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 43 AD patients who were administered comprehensive neuropsychological assessments in addition to the KART. When the equation obtained from the CNc was applied to the extended validation sample, the KART-predicted IQs of the AD, MCI and the CN groups did not significantly differ, whereas their current global cognition scores significantly differed between the groups. In conclusion, the results support the validity of KART-predicted IQ as an index of premorbid IQ in individuals with AD.

  15. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

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    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  16. A roentgenological study on the position of the stomach in Korean adults, and the radiological evaluation of gastric acid secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Jae

    1970-01-01

    The position and form of the stomach vary depending upon the position and habit of the body, spatial conditions of the abdominal cavity, phase of respiration, level of the liver and diaphragm. There has been much speculation about the criteria and significance of gastroptosis. Some regard gastroptosis as a manifestation of asthenic habit, while others claim that this entity is a generalized symptom complex. However, it appears that many clinicians in this country prefer to ascribe the gastric symptoms subtly to gastroptosis in the patients in whom no organic lesions can be detectable on x-ray study and physical examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, they say that level of the stomach is considerably lower in position and the incidence of gastroptosis is much higher in Koreans than in western peoples or in Japanese. Employing a roentgenological study the author made observations on the level and form of the stomach in 100 healthy Korean adults and on the interrelationships of the stomach, level of the other abdominal viscera and gastric emptying time in 46 symptomatic patients with no demonstrable organic lesions. The interrelationship between the acidity of gastric secretion and the mucosal pattern of the stomach and duodenum was also evaluated in 92 patients in whom no demonstrable organic lesion was found. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The lower pole of the stomach was lying below Jacob's line in 18% of 73 healthy men under 40 years of age and in 44% of the asymptomatic individuals over 40 years, while in symptomatic group it was lying below Jacob's line in 35% of 65 men under 40 years of age and in 56% of 71 patients over 40 years. 2. The incisura angularis of the stomach was observed lying below Jacob's line in 7.5% of the symptomatic groups. On the contrary, the incisura angularis was located above the level of the iliac crest in all of the healthy group. 3. The stomach of Korean adults was slightly higher in position than

  17. A modified Mediterranean diet score is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2018-03-21

    Findings from studies in Western countries showed that Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, but little is known about this association in Asian countries. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome in Korean population, this study was conducted. A total of 8387 adults 19-64 years of age from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015 were assessed. A 112-item dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. Mediterranean diet was assessed by a modified Mediterranean diet score, which was based on the alternate Mediterranean diet score of Fung et al. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other dietary and lifestyle variables. Participants with 5-6 and 7 or higher modified Mediterranean diet scores had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) and 36% (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89; P-trend = 0.0031), compared with those with 2 or lower modified Mediterranean diet scores, respectively. Higher modified Mediterranean diet scores were associated with a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, peanuts and fish is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

  18. Association between dry eye symptoms and suicidal ideation in a Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Sun-Bi; Yeom, Hyungseon; Kim, Na Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Hyung Keun; Suh, Il

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the association of dry eyes with depression and suicidal ideation in a Korean adult population. Data from 16408 participants (6972 men and 9436 women) aged ≥ 19 years included in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2010-2012, were analyzed. For dry eyes, surveys of previous diagnosis of dry eye disease (DED) by an ophthalmologist and experience of subjective dry eye symptoms were separately used. Diagnosis of depression and suicidal ideation were obtained via responses to an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, and questions were asked in a closed-ended response format. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between dry eyes, depression, and suicidal ideation. DED diagnosis exhibited an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.57) for depression and 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.48) for suicidal ideation compared to those without DED, after adjusting for sex, age, education, occupation, household income, body mass index, smoking behavior, alcohol consumption, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, thyroid diseases, major cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Similarly, the adjusted OR (95% CI) of dry eye symptoms was 1.50 (95% CI 1.30-1.73) for depression and 1.47 (95% CI 1.27-1.70) for suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that dry eyes (either DED diagnosis or dry eye symptoms) may be associated with the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation in the Korean adult population.

  19. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

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    Kyungdo Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726. Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601 when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  20. Psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults: a modified replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have shown interest in the development of psychological essentialism among children; that is, a belief that certain psychological characteristics (such as personality) are relatively stable and unchanging. Although previous studies have shown that children are essentialistic about human traits, and the coherence among various essentialism dimensions increases with age, moderating cultural factors in the development of essentialism, especially among Asian children, have received little attention. Using the methodologies of Gelman, Heyman, and Legare (2007), levels of psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults were measured, and compared with the original US data. Results demonstrated cross-cultural similarity in the development of coherence in essentialistic thought, and difference in the level of essentialism among adult participants. The present findings imply that different cultural values between Asians and Westerners can play a role in the developmental trajectory of psychological essentialism.

  1. The Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Eun; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Byun, A Ri; Kim, Jung Hwa; An, Hee Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Background The sodium intake of Koreans was higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Urinary sodium, which is correlated with sodium intake, can be easily calculated by the Tanaka's equation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods A total of 5,870 participants from the 2010–2011 KNHANES were included in this study. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium was calculated by the Tanaka's equation using spot urine. Participants were divided into tertiles based on urinary sodium levels. The association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of urinary sodium levels was 1.51 (1.16–1.97) and 1.56 (1.23–1.97) compared to the lowest tertile of urinary sodium in men. The ORs and 95% CIs of metabolic syndrome in women were 1.20 (0.95–1.51) for the 2nd tertile and 2.16 (1.68–2.78) for the 3rd tertile. These associations remained statistically significant, even after adjusting for multiple covariates such as age, education, regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion These findings indicate that urinary sodium is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. PMID:28775809

  2. Lung function parameters of healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R

    2014-06-01

    To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.

  3. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in older adults: comparison of adults with mild dementia, adults with arthritis, and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, D F; MacDonald, S W; Hunter, M A; Levy-Bencheton, J; Strauss, E

    2000-10-01

    Intraindividual variability in latency and accuracy of cognitive performance across both trials and occasions was examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy adults, adults with arthritis, and adults diagnosed with mild dementia. Participants completed 2 reaction-time and 2 episodic-memory tasks on 4 occasions. Results indicated that intraindividual variability in latency was greater in individuals diagnosed with mild dementia than in adults who were neurologically intact, regardless of their health status. Individual differences in variability were stable over time and across cognitive domains. Intraindividual variability was also related to level of performance and was uniquely predictive of neurological status, independent of level of performance. Results suggest that intraindividual variability may be a behavioral indicator of compromised neurological mechanisms.

  4. The changing role of employment status in marriage formation among young Korean adults

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    Keuntae Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a persistent decline in Korea's marriage rates over the past three decades, there is a striking lack of research on the transition to marriage among young Koreans. Similarly, few studies have examined how economic determinants have evolved over the past several decades, even as the Korean social and socioeconomic structure has undergone substantial transformation. Methods: This paper examines changes over time in the determinants of marriage formation in Korea, using employment history data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS on three cohorts of young adults born in the 1950s‒1970s. Results: Results indicate that, for women, the marital implications of being employed reversed over the three decades examined. While working decreased the odds of getting married for women born in the 1950s, it had no statistically significant effect for those born in the 1960s, and it strongly increased the odds of marriage for the most recent (1970s cohort of women. For their part, men's employment not only continued to positively predict getting married over the three decades, but its impact became stronger with each cohort, so that a man's odds of transition to first marriage was most strongly tied to his employment status for those born in the 1970s, as compared to earlier cohorts. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature by addressing the relationship between marriage timing and economic resources using more direct measures, examining the association between mandatory military service and marriage formation, and testing if determinants of marriage timing may evolve over time in Korea.

  5. The Socioculturally Constructed Multivoiced Self as a Framework for Christian Education of Second-Generation Korean American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. Steve

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes a new framework for theory and practice of Christian education for second-generation Korean American young adults using the literature of sociocultural constructionism and the multivoiced self. This framework can provide holistic nurture and future trajectories in which to encourage a reflexive, praxis-generating faith. The…

  6. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  7. Healthy older adults have insufficient hip range of motion and plantar flexor strength to walk like healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-03-21

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in 10 young and 10 older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Periodontitis is associated with the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yoo-Been; Shin, Myung-Seop; Han, Dong-Hun; Sukhbaatar, Munkhzaya; Kim, Mi-Sun; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of periodontitis with the development of early atherosclerotic vascular disease in Korean adults. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1343 adults aged over 40 years were recruited from a community-based cohort of Yangpyeong county, Korea, during the period 2010-2014. Only dentate individuals were included in the study. Subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) was defined as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)≥0.754 mm, as assessed bilaterally by B-mode ultrasound. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI)≤1.0, as measured by Doppler. History of periodontitis was assessed by measuring the radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) on a digital dental panorama and was classified into three groups: normal, moderate and severe periodontitis (≥2 non-adjacent interproximal sites with RABL≥4 mm and 6 mm, respectively). The associations of periodontitis with SA and PAD were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance, adjusted for age, sex, education level, tooth loss, smoking, drinking, exercise, obesity, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, hs-CRP, diabetes and hypertension. Stratified analyses were performed to identify specific risk groups. After controlling for confounders, severe periodontitis was associated with SA [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.24] and PAD (aOR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.05-3.93). These associations were highlighted in never-smokers. For increasing severity of periodontitis, the adjusted mean cIMT increased (p = 0.011) while that of ABI decreased (p = 0.033). Our data showed that periodontitis is a substantially important risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease among Korean adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between Milk Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study

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    Sangah Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a greater dairy consumption, particularly of milk, may have contributed in lowering the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between milk consumption and MetS, and its components among Korean adults aged 40–69. A total of 130,420 subjects (43,682 men and 86,738 women from the Health Examinees Study were selected for the final analysis. Milk consumption was estimated using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP III. Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs between milk consumption and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. In this study, the average milk consumption was 77.9 g/day, with the overall prevalence of MetS being 26.1% (29.1% in men and 24.6% in women. We found that the prevalence of the MetS was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk consumption (p < 0.0001. Adjusted OR for MetS was significantly lower in the highest milk consumption category (≥1 serving/day among men; ≥2 serving/day among women than those in the lowest milk consumption category (OR: 0.92 95%CI: 0.86–0.99, p trend = 0.0160 in men; OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.60–0.76, p trend < 0.0001 in women. Overall, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the MetS components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglyceride, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (all p trend < 0.05. This study concludes that higher milk consumption is associated with the lower odds of MetS in Korean adults.

  10. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  11. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  12. Association between triglyceride glucose index and arterial stiffness in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bae; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; You, Ji Hong; Kim, Min Jin; Kim, Min Kyung; Park, Jong Suk

    2018-03-21

    The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been suggested as a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, there are limited data regarding the association between the TyG index and arterial stiffness in adults. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the TyG index and arterial stiffness as measured based on brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in Korean adults. A total of 3587 subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were measured. The TyG index was calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides(mg/dl) × fasting glucose(mg/dl)/2], and the insulin resistance index of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was estimated. Arterial stiffness was determined by measuring baPWV. The subjects were stratified into four groups based on the TyG index. There were significant differences in cardiovascular parameters among the groups; the mean baPWV increased significantly with increasing TyG index. According to the logistic regression analysis after adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increased baPWV (> 75th percentile) for the highest and lowest quartiles of the TyG index was 2.92 (1.92-4.44) in men and 1.84 (1.15-2.96) in women, and the odds ratio for increased baPWV for the highest and lowest quartiles of the HOMA-IR was 1.80 (1.17-2.78) in men and 1.46 (1.06-2.47) in women, respectively. The TyG index is more independently associated with increased arterial stiffness than HOMA-IR in Korean adults.

  13. White noise enhances new-word learning in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Angwin, Anthony J.; Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy L.; Signorini, Annabelle; Barry, Robert J.; Copland, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that listening to white noise may improve some aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with lower attention. This study investigated the impact of white noise on new word learning in healthy young adults, and whether this effect was mediated by executive attention skills. Eighty participants completed a single training session to learn the names of twenty novel objects. The session comprised 5 learning phases, each followed by a recall test. A final recognition test ...

  14. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on ...

  15. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  16. Selected Food Consumption Mediates the Association between Education Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So-Young; Kim, Boeun; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to higher incidence/mortality of cardiovascular disease, but emerging evidence inconsistently reported that education level, a proxy for SES, is related to cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. Furthermore, limited information is available on whether dietary components would mediate the relationship between education level and cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that selected food consumption mediates the association between education level and MetS prevalence. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008-2011) were included in cross-sectional analyses (n = 11,029, 30-64 years). The possible mediating effect of selected food groups (fruits, raw vegetables, red meat, milk, and soft drinks) on the association between education level and MetS was tested using a multiple mediation model. Education level was negatively associated with MetS prevalence. The association between lower education level and higher MetS prevalence was partially mediated by selected food consumption (lower intakes of fruit, red meat and milk; higher intakes of vegetable and soft drink) after adjusted for covariates. Gender also modified the association between education level and MetS prevalence that was more prominent in women than in men. Selected food consumption substantially contributes to the association between education level and MetS in Korean adults, especially among women. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A study on normal value of eyeball protrusion in Korean adult using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chi Sung; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1984-01-01

    CT may be valuably used in determination of proptosis. Normal value of eyeball protrusion was measured in normal Koreans using CT. Among 86 Koreans, 26 have normal both eyes, but 60 have one normal eye with one abnormal eye (chiefly, proptosis and and eyeball tumor). The results of 112 eyes are as follows: Absolute measurement of 'a', that is, the distance between cornea and IZL (interzygomatic line) is 16.0±3.4 mm in male (for 63 eye), 15.7±4.0 mm in female for 49 eyes. Ratio of 'a' over 'A' (A-P diameter of eyeball) is 57±12% is male (for 63 eye), 57±14% in female (for 49 eye) Discrepancy of eyeball protrusion between both eyes is 0.67±1.5 mm (for 26 adults). Practically, normal range of eyeball prtotrusion ('a') is 12.6 mm < male < 19.4 mm, 11.7 mm < female < 19.7 mm. 'a/A' ratio over 70% and over 2mm discrepancy between both eyes are also suggested as genuine exophthalmos

  18. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  19. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Seok; Ju, Se-Young

    2014-12-01

    Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention.

  1. Isometric and swallowing tongue strength in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Butler, Susan G

    2013-10-01

    The tongue contributes to a safe swallow. It facilitates bolus control during mastication, maintains a bolus in the oral cavity to prevent premature entry of the bolus into the hypopharynx, and helps generate pressure in the hypopharynx during swallowing. This study examined isometric tongue strength and tongue pressure measured during swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Prospective group design. One hundred twenty-six healthy individuals who were recruited as part of a larger study on swallowing participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age groups: 20 to 40 years, 41 to 60 years, and ≥61 years. A KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation with an air-filled bulb array was placed on the tongue of each participant (anterior to posterior). Participants completed three isometric tongue presses and three swallows. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant main effect of age (P = .01) and gender by tongue bulb location interaction (P = .02) for isometric tongue strength. That is, older adults had lower isometric tongue strength than young adults, and females had a greater difference between anterior and posterior tongue strength than males. Tongue strength during swallowing yielded significantly greater anterior versus posterior tongue pressure. This study comprises one of the largest in terms of number of healthy participants reported to date and confirms previous findings that isometric tongue strength decreases with age. Furthermore, given young and older adults generate similar swallowing pressures, swallowing is a submaximal strength activity, yet older adults have less functional reserve. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  3. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  4. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Falls, and Fear of Falling in Old Korean Adults: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y; Paik, N-J; Kim, K W; Jang, H-C; Lim, J-Y

    2017-01-01

    Fall is a common cause of disability and death in old adults, and much research has been focused on identifying risk factors and developing preventive measures. Yet the majority of preceding research has been focused on physical performance. This study aims to evaluate the association between fall and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly. Cross-sectional data of 431 men and 546 women was collected from old Korean adults living in Seongnam, Korea. Geriatric fall assessment was conducted by self-report questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were associated with both fall and fear of falling in old adults. A clear gender difference was newly discovered, as depression played a stronger role in women. These results imply that clinicians should consider the negative affect of geriatric patients when assessing fall risk. Also, measures against depression might be effective in reducing falls.

  6. Insulin Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Wan Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA has regularly updated its Clinical Practice Guidelines. In 2017, the KDA published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Growing evidence from new multinational clinical trials using novel and traditional insulin analogues has also been accumulated. Following global trends, many results of clinical trials, especially concerning the clinical efficacy and safety of insulin therapy, have been published about Korean patients with T2DM. After a systematic search of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the initiation, choice, and intensification of insulin and created an insulin treatment algorithm for the first time to guide physicians caring for adult Korean patients with T2DM.

  7. Swallow Event Sequencing: Comparing Healthy Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Erica G; Lazarus, Cathy L; Steele, Catriona M; Molfenter, Sonja M

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has established that a great deal of variation exists in the temporal sequence of swallowing events for healthy adults. Yet, the impact of aging on swallow event sequence is not well understood. Kendall et al. (Dysphagia 18(2):85-91, 2003) suggested there are 4 obligatory paired-event sequences in swallowing. We directly compared adherence to these sequences, as well as event latencies, and quantified the percentage of unique sequences in two samples of healthy adults: young ( 65). The 8 swallowing events that contribute to the sequences were reliably identified from videofluoroscopy in a sample of 23 healthy seniors (10 male, mean age 74.7) and 20 healthy young adults (10 male, mean age 31.5) with no evidence of penetration-aspiration or post-swallow residue. Chi-square analyses compared the proportions of obligatory pairs and unique sequences by age group. Compared to the older subjects, younger subjects had significantly lower adherence to two obligatory sequences: Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) opening occurs before (or simultaneous with) the bolus arriving at the UES and UES maximum distention occurs before maximum pharyngeal constriction. The associated latencies were significantly different between age groups as well. Further, significantly fewer unique swallow sequences were observed in the older group (61%) compared with the young (82%) (χ 2  = 31.8; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that paired swallow event sequences may not be robust across the age continuum and that variation in swallow sequences appears to decrease with aging. These findings provide normative references for comparisons to older individuals with dysphagia.

  8. Gender difference in relationship between serum ferritin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Korean adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Min Seong

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess the gender difference in the relationship between serum ferritin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in Korean adults.A total of 5,147 adults (2,162 men, 1,563 premenopausal women, and 1,422 postmenopausal women aged ≥ 20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data (2012 were analyzed. A covariance test adjusted for covariates was performed for serum ferritin levels in relation to vitamin D status (vitamin D deficiency, 25(OHD < 10.0 ng/mL; vitamin D insufficiency, 25(OHD ≥ 10.0, < 20.0 ng/mL; vitamin D sufficiency, 25(OHD ≥ 20.0 ng/mL.The key study results were as follows: First, in men, in terms of serum ferritin levels by serum 25(OHD level after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, SBP, DBP, WM. TC, TGs, HDL-C, FPG, Hb, Hct, MCV, and Fe, serum ferritin levels were inversely increased with the increasing of serum 25(OHD level (P = 0.012. Second, in premenopausal women, after adjusting for related variables, serum ferritin levels were increased with the increasing of serum 25(OHD level (P = 0.003. Third, in postmenopausal women, after adjusting for related variables, serum ferritin levels were not significantly increased with the increasing of serum 25(OHD level (P = 0.456.Serum 25(OHD level was inversely associated with the serum ferritin levels in men, but was positively associated with the serum ferritin levels in premenopausal women, and was not associated with the serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women.

  9. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  10. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  11. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang Ho; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2016-04-01

    Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous month. The question regarding sleep need was "How much sleep do you need to be at your best during the day?" Unmet sleep need was calculated as sleep need minus habitual sleep duration. Participants with a score of >10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered to have EDS. The overall prevalence of EDS was 11.9%. Approximately one-third of the participants (31.9%) reported not getting at least 7 hours of sleep. An unmet sleep need of >0 hours was present in 30.2% of the participants. An adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant excess risk of EDS in the groups with unmet sleep needs of ≥2 hours [odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-2.54] and 0.01-2 hours (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98). However, habitual sleep duration was not significantly related to EDS. EDS was found to be associated with unmet sleep need but not with habitual sleep duration when both factors were examined together. We suggest that individual unmet sleep need is more important than habitual sleep duration in terms of the relation to EDS.

  12. Management Status of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongseok; Son, Heejeong; Ryu, Ohk Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010-2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations.

  13. High spirituality may be associated with right hemispheric lateralization in Korean adults living with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ko, Myung-Ah; Choi, Eun-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Ye; Ryu, Han Uk

    2017-11-01

    Although it is known that epilepsy and spirituality are related, spirituality in epilepsy has received relatively little clinical and scientific attention. Therefore, we investigated which epilepsy-related factors are associated with high spirituality in Korean adults living with epilepsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two university hospitals in Korea. Spirituality was assessed using the 6-item Spirituality Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). The participants were categorized into high and low spirituality groups according to the median SSRS score. The presumptive seizure onset zone was determined based on the clinical semiology, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Of the 180 participants, 61.7% declared that they had a religious affiliation. The median SSRS score was 15 (interquartile range: 7, 22). The high spirituality subgroup consisted of 92 (51.1%) participants. In the univariate analyses, the high spirituality group was significantly associated with female sex (p<0.05), older age (p<0.01), longer epilepsy duration (p<0.05), polytherapy (p<0.05), complex partial seizure (p<0.05), levetiracetam or topiramate usage (p<0.05), and a right-lateralized seizure onset zone. The multiple logistic regression analysis identified right hemispheric lateralization as the only independent factor associated with high spirituality (odds ratio: 2.410, 95% confidence interval: 1.051-5.528, p<0.05). High spirituality may be associated with right hemispheric lateralization but not with the temporal localization of the seizure onset zone in Korean adults with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reference Values for Spirometry Derived Using Lambda, Mu, Sigma (LMS) Method in Korean Adults: in Comparison with Previous References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Bum Seak; Myong, Jun Pyo; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Koo, Jung Wan; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2018-01-15

    The present study aimed to update the prediction equations for spirometry and their lower limits of normal (LLN) by using the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method and to compare the outcomes with the values of previous spirometric reference equations. Spirometric data of 10,249 healthy non-smokers (8,776 females) were extracted from the fourth and fifth versions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007-2009; V, 2010-2012). Reference equations were derived using the LMS method which allows modeling skewness (lambda [L]), mean (mu [M]), and coefficient of variation (sigma [S]). The outcome equations were compared with previous reference values. Prediction equations were presented in the following form: predicted value = e{a + b × ln(height) + c × ln(age) + M - spline}. The new predicted values for spirometry and their LLN derived using the LMS method were shown to more accurately reflect transitions in pulmonary function in young adults than previous prediction equations derived using conventional regression analysis in 2013. There were partial discrepancies between the new reference values and the reference values from the Global Lung Function Initiative in 2012. The results should be interpreted with caution for young adults and elderly males, particularly in terms of the LLN for forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity in elderly males. Serial spirometry follow-up, together with correlations with other clinical findings, should be emphasized in evaluating the pulmonary function of individuals. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of reference data and to develop continuous reference values for spirometry across all ages. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  15. Association of PER2 and CRY1 Polymorphisms with the Morningness-Eveningness in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hie Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Individuals have a unique circadian preference, which is based on differences in endogenous rhythm and environmental factors. There has been no study on the relationship between the morningness-eveningness (ME preference and the polymorphisms of PER2 and CRY1 genes, which may play an essential role in the modulation of circadian rhythm. Our present study aims to examine the difference in the polymorphisms of PER2-2221A/G and CRY1-2790T/G, which are related to a greater cancer risk, according to the ME preference. Methods The Korean version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire was administered and buccal DNA samples were obtained from 425 Korean adults aged 18 years or older. We excluded subjects who were being treated for sleep disorders or those with shift work. 47 morning type (MT (age: 44.57 ± 12.33, M:F = 14:33 subjects, 59 neither type (NT (age: 35.20 ± 9.53, M:F = 20:39 subjects and 51 evening type (ET (age: 28.80 ± 8.03, M:F = 14:37 subjects were finally included in the present study. The above candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by DNA sequencing or a SNaPshot assay. Results For the PER2-2221A/G and CRY1-2790T/G, there were no significant differences in the genotype distribution, allele frequency, or proportion of G allele positive subjects between the MT and ET groups. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the MEQ-K, KESS, or PSQI between G allele positive and negative subjects for either PER2-A2221A/G or CRY1-2790T/G. Conclusions Our study did not support the association of the ME preference with the PER2-2221 A/G and CRY1-2790T/G in Korean adults.

  16. Antihyperglycemic Agent Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung Hyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Nan Hee; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Seok O; Lee, Byung Wan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Jin Hwa

    2017-10-01

    In 2017, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The KDA regularly updates its Clinical Practice Guidelines, but since the last update in 2015, many results from clinical trials have been introduced, and domestic data from studies performed in Korean patients with T2DM have been published. Recently, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations. Additionally, new data from clinical trials using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones in Korean patients with T2DM were added. Following a systematic review and assessment of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the use of antihyperglycemic agents and revised the treatment algorithm for Korean adult patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association.

  17. Platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy adult llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rosanne M; Bird, Karyn E; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2009-03-01

    Limited information exists regarding hemostasis in camelids despite the importance of platelet function testing in the accurate identification of platelet disorders. As further importation of llamas to North America is restricted, variability in breeding stock will continue to decrease, potentially leading to an increase in heritable bleeding disorders. The objective of this study was to measure platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy llamas and provide baseline data to which abnormal platelet function may be compared in the future. Blood samples were collected from 39 healthy adult llamas, citrated, and centrifuged to produce platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Within 4 hours of the blood draw, 20 microL of each agonist reagent were added to 180 microL of PRP. Final concentrations of agonists were 2 x 10(-5) M ADP, 0.19 mg collagen/mL PRP, 1 x 10(-4) M epinephrine, and 500 microg arachidonic acid/mL PRP. Llama platelets were most responsive to ADP and collagen, with a maximum percent aggregation (mean+/-SD) of 71.3+/-18.6% and 55.8+/-19% and aggregation rates of 9.5+/-3.9 and 6.7+/-3.7 cm/min, respectively. Llama platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine and arachidonic acid was minimal to absent. This study is the first of its kind to establish baseline values for platelet aggregation in healthy adult llamas.

  18. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  19. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  1. Reading nutrition labels is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: the 2007-2008 Korean NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H-T; Shim, J-Y; Lee, Y-J; Linton, J A; Park, B-J; Lee, H-R

    2013-09-01

    Several studies demonstrated that reading nutrition labels was associated with healthier food choices, despite some controversy. This study investigated the association between the use of nutrition labels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 7756 individuals who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A self-reported questionnaire was used to determine participant's awareness of nutrition labels. Modified Asian criteria based on a harmonizing definition of MetS were adopted. Individuals in the group that read nutrition labels (the Reading Group) were youngest and leanest, but their daily caloric intake fell between that of the group that did not read nutrition labels (the Non-Reading Group) and the group that did not know about them (the Not-Knowing Group). The prevalence of MetS was 16.8% in the Reading Group, 27.2% in the Non-Reading Group, and 47.3% in the Not-Knowing Group. In comparison to participants in the Reading Group, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the participants in the Non-Reading Group and Not-Knowing Group were 1.85 (1.60-2.14) and 4.44 (3.79-5.20), respectively, when not adjusted. The relationship between the use of nutrition labels and MetS remained statistically significant even after adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and socioeconomic status including household income and education level [1.27 (1.05-1.53) in the Non-Reading Group and 1.34 (1.05-1.70) in the Not-Knowing Group]. Reading nutrition labels appeared to be associated with a lower prevalence of MetS in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lym, Youl Lee; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40-69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (+/-SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5+/-30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respectively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men.

  3. Specific airway resistance in healthy young Vietnamese and Caucasian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tuan, Thanh; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Demoulin, Bruno; Bonabel, Claude; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Ioan, Iulia; Schweitzer, Cyril; Nguyen, H T T; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, Francois

    2015-06-01

    In healthy Vietnamese children the respiratory resistance has been suggested to be similar at 110 cm height but larger at 130 cm when compared with data in Caucasians from the literature, suggesting smaller airways in older Vietnamese children (Vu et al., 2008). The hypothesis tested here is whether the difference in airway resistance remains consistent throughout growth, and if it is larger in adult Vietnamese than in Caucasians. Airway resistance and Functional Residual Capacity were measured in healthy young Caucasian and Vietnamese adults in their respective native country using identical equipment and protocols. Ninety five subjects in Vietnam (60 males) and 101 in France (41 males) were recruited. Airway resistance was significantly larger in Vietnamese than in Caucasians and in females than in males, consistent with difference in body dimensions. Specific airway resistance however was not different by ethnicity or gender. The findings do not support the hypothesis that airway size at adult age - once normalized for lung volume - differs between Vietnamese and Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.

  5. Subchondral stress fracture of femoral head in a healthy adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subchondral fracture of the femoral head is an uncommon entity and usually occurs as an insufficiency fracture associated with poor bone quality or as a fatigue fracture in young military recruits. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hip pain in young patients along with transient osteoporosis and avascular necrosis of the hip. We report a case of acute onset hip pain in an asymptomatic healthy adult in which the diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and the patient responded well to conservative treatment.

  6. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  7. Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung

    2013-06-01

    Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.

  8. Analysis of the prevalence and associated factors of overactive bladder in adult Korean men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent condition characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Age, education, income, marital status, sleep, and emotional problems have been associated with OAB; however, conflicting results exist. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of OAB and comprehensively analyze its associated factors in a large cross-sectional, population-based study. The data of 94,554 participants aged 19-107 were analyzed from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS of 2012. Data on marital status, physical activity, education level, occupation, body mass index (BMI, income level, sleep time, and stress level were retrieved for all enrolled participants. The overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS was used to evaluate the presence and degree of OAB. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling were used for the associations between various factors and the presence of OAB. Overall, OAB was present in approximately 2.9% of the participants. The prevalence of OAB increased with age and steeply increased after 60 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each 10 years = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61-1.80, P 2.16 (1.88-2.48 > 1.39 (1.23-1.57 for severe stress > moderate stress > some stress, respectively, P<0.001]. A medical history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and/or cerebral stroke was significantly related to OAB. Approximately 2.9% of adult Korean men experienced OAB based on the OABSS. Unmarried status; occupation; being underweight; inadequate sleep; stress; and medical history of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or cerebral stroke were significantly correlated with OAB.

  9. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Jacobs, David R; Park, Kyong

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components. We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption. We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions. Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group, respectively, compared with the NFG1 group. In conclusion, a higher range of IFG levels as well as diabetes, were positively associated with chronic periodontitis in a representative sample of Korean adults. This study suggests that individuals with a higher range of IFG levels before diabetes are at risk of periodontitis, and may benefit from dental screening. PMID:27057854

  12. Diurnal Variations in Serum Glucose, Insulin and C-Peptide of Normal Korean Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Du Hyok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Hong, Kee Suk

    1983-01-01

    It is already well known that many factors are involved in maintaining normal blood glucose level. The amount and components of meal are also thought to be some of the factors which affect the blood glucose and insulin levels. It is reported that as for Koreans sugar takes up over 75% out of 2,098 kcal, the average daily calorie intake per adult. It implies that Koreans take a high-sugar diet compared with Westerners who take 40-50% of sugar out of their total average daily calorie. For the purpose of studying diurnal variations in serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide of normal Koreans adults based on ordinary Korean diet, we selected 13 normal Korean male adults and divided them into two groups, Group I (7 persons) and Group II (6 persons). We put Group I on 3,100 kcal and 75% sugar diet, and Group II on 2,100 kcal and 69% sugar diet per day for over 4 days. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide were checked every 30 minutes or every hour throughout 2 hour. Results are as follows: 1. As for serum glucose level, in the preprandial fasting state in the morning, mean±S.D. of Group I was 91.1±3.2 mg%, while that of Group II is 82.5±4.4 mg%. Both groups showed peaks of increased glucose level t postprandial 1 hour after each meal. The peak returned to the level shown during the fasting state at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast while the relatively high glucose levels were maintained respectively even for 2 or 3 hours after lunch and dinner. 2. As for serum insults level, Group I showed mean±S.D. of 14.7±3.0 μU/ml while Group II shows that of 7.0±2.6 μU/ml in the fasting state. Group I particularly showed the largest peak from preprandial a half or one and half an hour to postprandial one hour of lunch, and made relatively small peaks (47.7±10.8 μU/ml) at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast and dinner. No such large peak was marked in Group II, though it showed relatively similar patterns of peak after each meal. 3. As for C-peptide, in the fasting state

  13. Diurnal Variations in Serum Glucose, Insulin and C-Peptide of Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Du Hyok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kee Suk [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    It is already well known that many factors are involved in maintaining normal blood glucose level. The amount and components of meal are also thought to be some of the factors which affect the blood glucose and insulin levels. It is reported that as for Koreans sugar takes up over 75% out of 2,098 kcal, the average daily calorie intake per adult. It implies that Koreans take a high-sugar diet compared with Westerners who take 40-50% of sugar out of their total average daily calorie. For the purpose of studying diurnal variations in serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide of normal Koreans adults based on ordinary Korean diet, we selected 13 normal Korean male adults and divided them into two groups, Group I (7 persons) and Group II (6 persons). We put Group I on 3,100 kcal and 75% sugar diet, and Group II on 2,100 kcal and 69% sugar diet per day for over 4 days. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide were checked every 30 minutes or every hour throughout 2 hour. Results are as follows: 1. As for serum glucose level, in the preprandial fasting state in the morning, mean+-S.D. of Group I was 91.1+-3.2 mg%, while that of Group II is 82.5+-4.4 mg%. Both groups showed peaks of increased glucose level t postprandial 1 hour after each meal. The peak returned to the level shown during the fasting state at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast while the relatively high glucose levels were maintained respectively even for 2 or 3 hours after lunch and dinner. 2. As for serum insults level, Group I showed mean+-S.D. of 14.7+-3.0 muU/ml while Group II shows that of 7.0+-2.6 muU/ml in the fasting state. Group I particularly showed the largest peak from preprandial a half or one and half an hour to postprandial one hour of lunch, and made relatively small peaks (47.7+-10.8 muU/ml) at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast and dinner. No such large peak was marked in Group II, though it showed relatively similar patterns of peak after each meal. 3. As for C-peptide, in the fasting state

  14. Application of the transtheoretical model: exercise behavior in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2010-01-01

    Although regular exercise has been recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people with metabolic syndrome, little information is available about psychobehavioral strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the stages, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy of exercise behavior and to determine the significant predictors explaining regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey design enrolled a convenience sample of 210 people with metabolic syndrome at a university hospital in South Korea. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and transtheoretical model-related variables. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of regular exercise stages. Action and maintenance stages comprised 51.9% of regular exercise stages, whereas 48.1% of non-regular exercise stages were precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Adults with regular exercise stages displayed increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, were more likely to use consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation strategies, and were less likely to evaluate the merits/disadvantages of exercise, compared with those in non-regular exercise stages. In this study of regular exercise behavior and transtheoretical model-related variables, consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation were associated with a positive effect on regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. Our findings could be used to develop strategies and interventions to maintain regular exercise behavior directed at Korean adults with metabolic syndrome to reduce CVD risk. Further prospective intervention studies are needed to investigate the effect of regular exercise program on the prevention and/or reduction of CVD risk among this

  15. Structural covariance networks across healthy young adults and their consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Guo, Taomei; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

    2015-08-01

    To investigate structural covariance networks (SCNs) as measured by regional gray matter volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from healthy young adults, and to examine their consistency and stability. Two independent cohorts were included in this study: Group 1 (82 healthy subjects aged 18-28 years) and Group 2 (109 healthy subjects aged 20-28 years). Structural MRI data were acquired at 3.0T and 1.5T using a magnetization prepared rapid-acquisition gradient echo sequence for these two groups, respectively. We applied independent component analysis (ICA) to construct SCNs and further applied the spatial overlap ratio and correlation coefficient to evaluate the spatial consistency of the SCNs between these two datasets. Seven and six independent components were identified for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Moreover, six SCNs including the posterior default mode network, the visual and auditory networks consistently existed across the two datasets. The overlap ratios and correlation coefficients of the visual network reached the maximums of 72% and 0.71. This study demonstrates the existence of consistent SCNs corresponding to general functional networks. These structural covariance findings may provide insight into the underlying organizational principles of brain anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was dete...

  17. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  18. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  19. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  20. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  1. Association between serum cystatin C and bone mineral density in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi DW

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dongwon Yi,1,2 Ah Reum Khang,1,2 Hye Won Lee,1,2 Seok Man Son,1,2 Yang Ho Kang1,2 1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 2Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea Background: Serum cystatin C has been known as a novel marker of preclinical renal dysfunction, and higher cystatin C levels are associated with increased risks of hip and nonvertebral fractures. However, there are few reports on the association between serum cystatin C and bone mineral density (BMD, especially in the Asian population. We evaluated the association between cystatin C levels and BMD of the spine and hip in Korean adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 865 Korean adults (325 men and 540 women who participated in a comprehensive medical examination program and underwent bone densitometry. Renal function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, which was calculated using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcre and cystatin C (eGFRcys.Results: The serum cystatin C level was negatively correlated with different types of BMD, including the lowest lumbar, total lumbar, femoral neck, and total femur BMD, in women, but not in men. Higher cystatin C levels were associated with a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69–8.03; P=0.001, but not in men (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.30–2.38; P=0.761. However, this association was attenuated in the multivariable model adjusted for age, body mass index, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and creatinine (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.38–2.71 in women. In addition, the eGFRcys showed a stronger positive correlation with BMD than the eGFRcre.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serum cystatin C levels might help identify women with osteoporosis

  2. Suboptimal effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine in adult Korean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk Choi

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications.A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview.The VE of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI, -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1 for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2 for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1 among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2 among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5 among those aged ≥65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%.The 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations.

  3. Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ji Sung; Ahn, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin-Sun; Noh, Min Young; Lee, Ji Jeung; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Young Ran; Yoon, So Yoon; Kim, Chong Hwa; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Choi, Young Sik; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P  meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

  4. Antihyperglycemic Agent Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The KDA regularly updates its Clinical Practice Guidelines, but since the last update in 2015, many results from clinical trials have been introduced, and domestic data from studies performed in Korean patients with T2DM have been published. Recently, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations. Additionally, new data from clinical trials using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones in Korean patients with T2DM were added. Following a systematic review and assessment of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the use of antihyperglycemic agents and revised the treatment algorithm for Korean adult patients with T2DM.

  5. Diabetes risk among overweight and obese metabolically healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir

    2014-11-01

    To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence for Facial Emotion Recognition in Elderly Korean Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Taehoon; Shin, Seong A; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Youn, Jung-Hae; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: Facial emotion recognition (FER) is impaired in individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) when compared to healthy older adults. Since deficits in emotion recognition are closely related to caregiver burden or social interactions, researchers have fundamental interest in FER performance in patients with dementia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the performance profiles of six facial emotions (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and happiness) and neutral faces measured among Korean healthy control (HCs), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and FTD. Additionally, the neuroanatomical correlates of facial emotions were investigated. Methods: A total of 110 (33 HC, 32 MCI, 32 AD, 13 FTD) older adult participants were recruited from two different medical centers in metropolitan areas of South Korea. These individuals underwent an FER test that was used to assess the recognition of emotions or absence of emotion (neutral) in 35 facial stimuli. Repeated measures two-way analyses of variance were used to examine the distinct profiles of emotional recognition among the four groups. We also performed brain imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on the participants to examine the associations between FER scores and gray matter volume. Results: The mean score of negative emotion recognition (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, and sadness) clearly discriminated FTD participants from individuals with MCI and AD and HC [ F (3,106) = 10.829, p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.235], whereas the mean score of positive emotion recognition (i.e., surprise and happiness) did not. A VBM analysis showed negative emotions were correlated with gray matter volume of anterior temporal regions, whereas positive emotions were related to gray matter volume of fronto-parietal regions. Conclusion: Impairment of negative FER in patients with FTD is cross-cultural. The discrete neural correlates of FER indicate that emotional

  7. Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence for Facial Emotion Recognition in Elderly Korean Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Frontotemporal Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soowon Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial emotion recognition (FER is impaired in individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD when compared to healthy older adults. Since deficits in emotion recognition are closely related to caregiver burden or social interactions, researchers have fundamental interest in FER performance in patients with dementia.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the performance profiles of six facial emotions (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and happiness and neutral faces measured among Korean healthy control (HCs, and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, AD, and FTD. Additionally, the neuroanatomical correlates of facial emotions were investigated.Methods: A total of 110 (33 HC, 32 MCI, 32 AD, 13 FTD older adult participants were recruited from two different medical centers in metropolitan areas of South Korea. These individuals underwent an FER test that was used to assess the recognition of emotions or absence of emotion (neutral in 35 facial stimuli. Repeated measures two-way analyses of variance were used to examine the distinct profiles of emotional recognition among the four groups. We also performed brain imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM on the participants to examine the associations between FER scores and gray matter volume.Results: The mean score of negative emotion recognition (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, and sadness clearly discriminated FTD participants from individuals with MCI and AD and HC [F(3,106 = 10.829, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.235], whereas the mean score of positive emotion recognition (i.e., surprise and happiness did not. A VBM analysis showed negative emotions were correlated with gray matter volume of anterior temporal regions, whereas positive emotions were related to gray matter volume of fronto-parietal regions.Conclusion: Impairment of negative FER in patients with FTD is cross-cultural. The discrete neural correlates of FER indicate that

  8. Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence for Facial Emotion Recognition in Elderly Korean Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Frontotemporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Taehoon; Shin, Seong A; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Youn, Jung-Hae; Lee, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: Facial emotion recognition (FER) is impaired in individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) when compared to healthy older adults. Since deficits in emotion recognition are closely related to caregiver burden or social interactions, researchers have fundamental interest in FER performance in patients with dementia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the performance profiles of six facial emotions (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and happiness) and neutral faces measured among Korean healthy control (HCs), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and FTD. Additionally, the neuroanatomical correlates of facial emotions were investigated. Methods: A total of 110 (33 HC, 32 MCI, 32 AD, 13 FTD) older adult participants were recruited from two different medical centers in metropolitan areas of South Korea. These individuals underwent an FER test that was used to assess the recognition of emotions or absence of emotion (neutral) in 35 facial stimuli. Repeated measures two-way analyses of variance were used to examine the distinct profiles of emotional recognition among the four groups. We also performed brain imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on the participants to examine the associations between FER scores and gray matter volume. Results: The mean score of negative emotion recognition (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, and sadness) clearly discriminated FTD participants from individuals with MCI and AD and HC [F(3,106) = 10.829, p emotion recognition (i.e., surprise and happiness) did not. A VBM analysis showed negative emotions were correlated with gray matter volume of anterior temporal regions, whereas positive emotions were related to gray matter volume of fronto-parietal regions. Conclusion: Impairment of negative FER in patients with FTD is cross-cultural. The discrete neural correlates of FER indicate that emotional recognition processing is a multi-modal system in the brain

  9. Pharmacology and safety of glycerol phenylbutyrate in healthy adults and adults with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brendan M; Zupanets, Igor A; Lowe, Mark E; Xiao, Xunjun; Syplyviy, Vasyliy A; Monteleone, Jon; Gargosky, Sharron; Dickinson, Klara; Martinez, Antonia; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Scharschmidt, Bruce F

    2010-06-01

    Phenylbutyric acid (PBA), which is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) as sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA), mediates waste nitrogen excretion via combination of PBA-derived phenylacetic acid with glutamine to form phenylactylglutamine (PAGN) that is excreted in urine. Glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB), a liquid triglyceride pro-drug of PBA, containing no sodium and having favorable palatability, is being studied for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In vitro and clinical studies have been performed to assess GPB digestion, safety, and pharmacology in healthy adults and individuals with cirrhosis. GPB hydrolysis was measured in vitro by way of pH titration. Twenty-four healthy adults underwent single-dose administration of GPB and NaPBA and eight healthy adults and 24 cirrhotic subjects underwent single-day and multiple-day dosing of GPB, with metabolites measured in blood and urine. Simulations were performed to assess GPB dosing at higher levels. GPB was hydrolyzed by human pancreatic triglyceride lipase, pancreatic lipase-related protein 2, and carboxyl-ester lipase. Clinical safety was satisfactory. Compared with NaPBA, peak metabolite blood levels with GPB occurred later and were lower; urinary PAGN excretion was similar but took longer. Steady state was achieved within 4 days for both NaPBA and GPB; intact GPB was not detected in blood or urine. Cirrhotic subjects converted GPB to PAGN similarly to healthy adults. Simulations suggest that GPB can be administered safely to cirrhotic subjects at levels equivalent to the highest approved NaPBA dose for UCDs. GPB exhibits delayed release characteristics, presumably reflecting gradual PBA release by pancreatic lipases, and is well tolerated in adults with cirrhosis, suggesting that further clinical testing for HE is warranted.

  10. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. RESULTS: Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P ages, fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction...... was associated with lumbar paraspinal fat fraction (P activity or lower back pain. CONCLUSION: The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors...

  11. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were......: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship...... between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...

  12. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stride rate and walking intensity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Leslie; Hewitt, Allan; Rowe, David A; Sutherland, Rona

    2014-04-01

    The study investigated (a) walking intensity (stride rate and energy expenditure) under three speed instructions; (b) associations between stride rate, age, height, and walking intensity; and (c) synchronization between stride rate and music tempo during overground walking in a population of healthy older adults. Twenty-nine participants completed 3 treadmill-walking trials and 3 overground-walking trials at 3 self-selected speeds. Treadmill VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stride rate and music tempo were recorded during overground-walking trials. Mean stride rate exceeded minimum thresholds for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) under slow (111.41 ± 11.93), medium (118.17 ± 11.43), and fast (123.79 ± 11.61) instructions. A multilevel model showed that stride rate, age, and height have a significant effect (p Music can be a useful way to guide walking cadence.

  14. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  15. White noise enhances new-word learning in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwin, Anthony J; Wilson, Wayne J; Arnott, Wendy L; Signorini, Annabelle; Barry, Robert J; Copland, David A

    2017-10-12

    Research suggests that listening to white noise may improve some aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with lower attention. This study investigated the impact of white noise on new word learning in healthy young adults, and whether this effect was mediated by executive attention skills. Eighty participants completed a single training session to learn the names of twenty novel objects. The session comprised 5 learning phases, each followed by a recall test. A final recognition test was also administered. Half the participants listened to white noise during the learning phases, and half completed the learning in silence. The noise group demonstrated superior recall accuracy over time, which was not impacted by participant attentional capacity. Recognition accuracy was near ceiling for both groups. These findings suggest that white noise has the capacity to enhance lexical acquisition.

  16. A roentgenocephalometric study for the evaluation of the facial esthetics in the Korean adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mi Yea; Lee, Sang Rae

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial relationship of the Korean adult females who had excellent profile using roentgenocephalometry. The subjects were 35 females from 18 to 24 years of age selected among the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars. And, as the control group, 37 females from 18 to 23 years of age with normal occlusion and acceptable profile were selected. In both groups, each variable was measured and evaluated statistically introducing 24 reference points, 22 reference lines and 17 reference angles respectively. Conclusion from this study were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference between the two groups. But SNA and convexity angle which had indicated the maxillary protrusion were lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 2. In the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars, the maxillary and mandibular incisors were more upright than in the control group. 3. The protrusion of the upper and lower lip was lesser in the professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars than in the control group. 4. Professional models, beauty contest winners and performing stars revealed more straight profile than the control group and were similar to that of the Caucasian. 5. Generally, it was the tendency that the straight profile was accepted as esthetics.

  17. Evaluation of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in a Sample of Korean Adults.

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    You, Sukkyung; Yoo, Ji Eun

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the psychometric qualities and construct validity of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS; Ellison in J Psychol Theol 11:330-340, 1983) using a sample of 470 Korean adults. Two factor analyses, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, were conducted in order to test the validity of the SWBS. The results of the factor analyses supported the original two-dimensional structure of the SWBS-religious well-being (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) with method effects associated with negatively worded items. By controlling for method effects, the evaluation of the two-factor structure of SWBS is confirmed with clarity. Further, the differential pattern and magnitude of correlations between the SWB subscales and the religious and psychological variables suggested that two factors of the SWBS were valid for Protestant, Catholic, and religiously unaffiliated groups except Buddhists. The Protestant group scored higher in RWB compared to the Buddhist, Catholic, and unaffiliated groups. The Protestant group scored higher in EWB compared to the unaffiliated groups. Future studies may need to include more Buddhist samples to gain solid evidence for validity of the SWBS on a non-Western religious tradition.

  18. The relationship between sports facility accessibility and physical activity among Korean adults

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    Sang Ah Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of physical activity on physical and mental health are well known. The accessibility of sports facilities is reported to have considerable association with the amount of physical activity a person participates in. Therefore, we investigated the association between subjectively assessed accessibility of sports facilities and physical activity among Korean adults. Methods We obtained data from the 2012 Community Health Survey. Physical activity was measured based on weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET hours according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Sociodemographic, economic, and health variables were used as covariates in a logistic regression model. Results A total 201,723 participants were included in this study. Participants with easy access to sports facilities participated in physical activity more often than those without easy access (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.13–1.20. More physical activity was generally observed if participants had a history of depression or if participants were among the white-collar or urban subgroups. Conclusion Our results showed that the accessibility of sports facilities is associated with physical activity. Therefore, it is crucial to consider the accessibility of sports facilities when promoting an environment conducive to physical activity or designing programs for enhancing physical activity.

  19. Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction and Associated Factors in Korean Older Adults With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Jang, Miyoun; Jun, Eun-Young

    2016-10-01

    The current study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) among 161 Korean adults 60 and older with coronary artery disease (CAD). ED was diagnosed in 72.2% of patients-the prevalence of which was significantly associated with age, education, employment, monthly income, frequency of sexual intercourse, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was lower in patients with ED than in those without ED (p < 0.001). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that ED significantly influenced HRQoL in patients with CAD after adjusting for sociodemographic and disease-related characteristic variables (p < 0.001). Interventions and training courses for health care providers should focus on improving caregivers' knowledge and communication skills with patients and spouses regarding sexual health. Furthermore, guidelines to improve HRQoL in patients with CAD should consider incorporating sexual counseling. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(10), 32-41.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs. PMID:28386389

  1. Asymmetry of the structural brain connectome in healthy older adults.

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    Leonardo eBonilha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome. This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks.Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults.Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI from 17 healthy older adults. For each subject, the brain connectome was reconstructed by parcelating the probabilistic map of gray matter into anatomically defined regions of interested (ROIs. White matter fiber tractography was reconstructed from diffusion tensor imaging and streamlines connecting gray matter ROIs were computed. Asymmetry indices were calculated regarding ROI connectivity (representing the sum of connectivity weight of each cortical ROI and for regional white matter links. All asymmetry measures were compared to a normal distribution with mean=0 through one sample t-tests.Results: Leftward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in medial temporal, dorsolateral frontal and occipital regions. Rightward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in middle temporal and orbito-frontal regions. Link-wise asymmetry revealed stronger connections in the left hemisphere between the medial temporal, anterior and posterior peri-Sylvian and occipito-temporal regions. Rightward link asymmetry was observed in lateral temporal, parietal and dorsolateral frontal connections.Conclusions: We postulate that asymmetry of specific connections may be related to functional hemispheric organization. This study may provide reference for future studies evaluating the architecture of the connectome in health and disease processes in senior individuals.

  2. Socioeconomic status and number of children among Korean women: the Healthy Twin Study.

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    Kim, Jinseob; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing. This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships. The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008). This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea.

  3. Disability prevalence among healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities. However, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and type of disability among adults who are obese. Pooled data from the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type and obesity. The disability prevalence was stratified by body mass index (BMI): healthy weight (BMI 18.5-reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of those with a healthy weight and 28.5% of those who were overweight reported a disability. The most common disabilities among respondents with obesity were movement difficulty (32.5%) and work limitation (16.6%). This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in assessing the burden of obesity. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A Disease Modification Effect of APOE E4 on the Association between Urinary Albumin Excretion and Cognition in Korean Adults

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    Min-Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No previous study examined a disease modifying effect of APOE E4 status on the association between the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR and cognition. This study aimed to investigate whether APOE E4 modified the association in Korean adults. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study in adults aged 45 to 74 who were living in Namwon City, Republic of Korea. Cognitive function was measured with the Korean version of modified Mini-Mental State Examination (K-mMMSE and cognitive impairment was defined as scores falling below the 25th percentile of the K-mMMSE according to age, sex, and educational attainments. Results. A total of 10,190 participants (4006 men and 6184 women were analyzed in the present study. Of these, 1698 subjects (16.7% were APOE E4 carriers. The UACR values were negatively associated with the K-mMMSE scores, even after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, education, and vascular risk factors. APOE E4 modified the association significantly, resulting in a steeper decline of cognitive function with the increase in UACR in E4 carriers (P for interaction = 0.021. Conclusion. Higher UACR values were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general Korean population, with cognition in APOE E4 carriers being more severely affected by increased UACR.

  6. Osteoporosis, vitamin C intake, and physical activity in Korean adults aged 50 years and over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate associations between vitamin C intake, physical activity, and osteoporosis among Korean adults aged 50 and over. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on bone mineral density measurement data from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The study sample comprised 3,047 subjects. The normal group was defined as T-score ≥ −1.0, and the osteoporosis group as T-score ≤ −2.5. The odds ratios for osteoporosis were assessed by logistic regression of each vitamin C intake quartile. [Results] Compared to the lowest quartile of vitamin C intake, the other quartiles showed a lower likelihood of osteoporosis after adjusting for age and gender. In the multi-variate model, the odds ratio for the likelihood of developing osteoporosis in the non-physical activity group significantly decreased to 0.66, 0.57, and 0.46 (p for trend = 0.0046). However, there was no significant decrease (0.98, 1.00, and 0.97) in the physical activity group. [Conclusion] Higher vitamin C intake levels were associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged over 50 with low levels of physical activity. However, no association was seen between vitamin C intake and osteoporosis risk in those with high physical activity levels. PMID:27134348

  7. What Accounts for the Relationship Between Internet Use and Suicidal Ideation of Korean Older Adults? A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hey Jung; Kim, Myoung-Yong

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between Internet use and suicidal ideation in Korean older adults and the mediating roles of social relationships and depressive symptoms. A nationally representative sample of older adults aged 50 or older (N = 6,306), from four waves of the Korean Welfare Panel Study, was used in the analyses. All analyses were conducted using generalized estimation equations, and the mediation effects of social relationship satisfaction and depression in the relationship between Internet use and suicidal ideation were calculated using the product-of-coefficients approach. Internet use was linked with lower levels of suicidal ideation directly and indirectly via the protective effects of Internet use on lowering depression, which was partially mediated by the positive influence Internet use has on older adults' social relationship satisfaction. The results support previous theories about the relationship between social relationships, depression, and suicidal behavior and prior results about how the Internet might confer mental and social health benefits to older adults. This suggests that the Internet is an important social and health activity that contributes to lowering suicidal ideation in older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Variations in eyeball diameters of the healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Inessa; Gottlieb, Paul; Vaiman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to reevaluate the normative data on the eyeball diameters. Methods. In a prospective cohort study, the CT data of consecutive 250 adults with healthy eyes were collected and analyzed, and sagittal, transverse, and axial diameters of both eyeballs were measured. The data obtained from the left eye and from the right eye were compared. The correlation analysis was performed with the following variables: orbit size, gender, age, and ethnic background. Results. We did not find statistically significant differences correlated with gender of the patients and their age. The right eyeball was slightly smaller than the left one but this difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.17). We did not find statistically significant differences of the eyeball sizes among the ethnicities we dealt with. Strong correlation was found between the transverse diameter and the width of the orbit (r = 0.88). Conclusion. The size of a human adult eye is approximately 24.2 mm (transverse) × 23.7 mm (sagittal) × 22.0-24.8 mm (axial) with no significant difference between sexes and age groups. In the transverse diameter, the eyeball size may vary from 21 mm to 27 mm. These data might be useful in ophthalmological, oculoplastic, and neurological practice.

  9. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

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    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  10. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  11. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Okhee Lee

    2015-01-01

    Thirty three frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were collected and pretreated. Selenium (Se) contents in the diet samples were analyzed using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 100 g of beef contains 12.4-50.9 μg of Se; pork, 11.2-22.6 μg; chicken, 10.2-13.7 μg and eggs, 28.6-43.0 μg. Beef innards and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of Se. This study reveals that Se intake of Korean adults are 28.7 μg/day in men and 27.6 μg/day in women from meat and eggs, which are over 1/2 of the Korean recommended Se intake. (author)

  12. Anticardiolipin and antinuclear antibodies in the adult healthy Omani individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Buloshi, Mohamed S.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and normal versus abnormal levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in a healthy adult popultion of Omani's and whether a correlation exists in between aCL and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in this Omani population. A total of 521 healthy Omani individuals (333 males and 188) females aged between 17-54 years were investigated for the presence and quntities of aClL (immunoglubolin G (IgG)) and IgM isotypesusing a conventional enzyme linked immunosobrent assay. ANA were were detacted in this group, using standard indirect immunofloresence techniques. This study was conducted during the period 2002 through 2003 at the Immunology Laboratories, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The prevalence of of aCL in healthy Omani population was estimated to be 2.5% for IgG 3.1% for IgM. The cut off points for IgG and IgM were determined for the whole population as 22.5 IgG phospholipid (GPL) units and 15.7 IgM phospholipid (MPL) units, using the mean plus 5 standard deviations. Using these cut off values, aCL were not detected in the the majority of individuals (97%) and in the remainig 3% the levels were not very high. There was no significant difference between the levels of aCL in either the male or female groups and no significant correlation for the presence of aCL with the age in this studied population. ANA were detected in 76/521 (14.6%)of the population studied, with some individuals studied, with some individuals (0.8%) showing titers of 1:640, but there was no association with aCL. Although ANA is present in this healthy Omani population at high frequency and some individuals at high levels of aCL do not occur and their presence may be an indicator of autoimmune mediated pathalogy. (author)

  13. Relative bioavailability of generic and branded 250-mg and 500-mg oral chlorphenesin carbamate tablets in healthy Korean volunteers: a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-young; Song, Hyun Ho; Kim, Bo Gyeom; Park, Hyeon Ju; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kwon, Young Ee

    2009-11-01

    Chlorphenesin carbamate is a skeletal muscle relaxant approved in Korea for use in the treatment of pain and discomfort related to skeletal muscle trauma and inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of a generic formulation of chlorphenesin carbamate at doses of 250 and 500 mg and 2 branded formulations of the same doses in healthy Korean adults. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male and female volunteers. Subjects were assigned to receive, in a randomized sequence, a single dose of the generic (test) and branded (reference) formulations of chlorphenesin carbamate at a dose of 250 or 500 mg. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetic properties (C(max), T(max), AUC(0-t) AUC(0-infinity), t(1/2), and ke) were determined using HPLC. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the treatment ratios of the geometric means of C(max) and AUC(0-t) were within a predetermined range of log 0.80 to log 1.25 based on regulatory criteria. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring for adverse events (AEs) on physical examination and/or e-mail and personal interview at the beginning and end of each study period. Twenty-eight subjects (22 men, 6 women) received chlorphenesin carbamate at the 250-mg dose, and 24 male subjects received the 500-mg dose. The mean (SD) ages of the subjects were 24.0 (2.6) and 24.0 (1.9) years in the 250- and 500-mg groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the test and reference formulations (90% CIs: C(max), 1.0048-1.1153 with the 250-mg dose and 0.9630-1.1189 with the 500-mg dose; AUC(0-t), 0.9882-1.0546 and 0.9842-1.0578, respectively). No clinically significant AEs (upper gastric pain, abdominal bloating, pyrexia, edema, nausea, heartburn, constipation, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or fatigue) were reported throughout

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-12-01

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  15. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

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    Yun-Mi Jang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS.ResultsMidnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12 than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34 (P=0.001. Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4.ConclusionThe results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS.

  16. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Increased Vascular Disease Mortality Risk in Prediabetic Korean Adults Is Mainly Attributable to Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kwon, Tae Yeon; Yu, Sungwook; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-04-01

    Prediabetes is a known risk factor for vascular diseases; however, its differential contribution to mortality risk from various vascular disease subtypes is not known. The subjects of the National Health Insurance Service in Korea (2002-2013) nationwide cohort were stratified into normal glucose tolerance (fasting glucose mortality risk for vascular disease and its subtypes-ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. When adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, IFG stage 2, but not stage 1, was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.34) and vascular disease mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.49) compared with normal glucose tolerance. Among the vascular disease subtypes, mortality from ischemic stroke was significantly higher (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.18-2.18) in subjects with IFG stage 2 but not from ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke. The ischemic stroke mortality associated with IFG stage 2 remained significantly high when adjusted other modifiable vascular disease risk factors (HR, 1.51; 95% CI: 1.10-2.09) and medical treatments (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.57). Higher IFG degree (fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dL) was associated with increased all-cause and vascular disease mortality. The increased vascular disease mortality in IFG stage 2 was attributable to ischemic stroke, but not ischemic heart disease or hemorrhagic stroke in Korean adults. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Metabolically Healthy Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Da Young; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2017-11-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) are differentiated by the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) and insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MHO in Korean children and adolescents and to investigate the anthropometric, laboratory, and lifestyle predictors of MHO. This study included data from 530 obese subjects, aged 10-19 years, obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were classified into MHO and MUO groups according to the presence of CMRF (MHO(CMRF)/MUO(CMRF)) and degree of IR (MHO(IR)/MUO(IR)). Demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle factors were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to identify factors that predicted MHO. The prevalence of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) in obese Korean youth was 36.8% (n = 197) and 68.8% (n = 356), respectively. CMRF profiles were significantly less favorable in MUO children. Longer and more vigorous physical activity and less protein intake were associated with MHO(CMRF) phenotype. The best predictors of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) were waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.88; P obesity in youth, the approach to individuals with MHO and MUO should be personalized due to variation in clinical characteristics. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate long-term consequences of MHO. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: immunogenicity and safety in 15-25 years old healthy Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Cheol; Song, Yong Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Young Tak; Ryu, Ki-Sung; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree; Bi, Dan; Bock, Hans L; Park, Jong-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine in healthy Korean women aged 15-25 years. Methods Phase IIIB, double-blind, randomised (2:1), multi-centre trial was conducted in Korea from June 2007 to March 2008. The study enrolled 225 women in the HPV (N=149) and placebo (N=76) groups who received three doses of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or placebo (aluminium hydroxide) administered intramuscularl...

  20. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  1. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land and in water: A comparative study. AI Bello, BOA Adegoke, OA Abass, O Addo. Abstract. Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: ...

  2. Brain metabolism and memory in age differentiated healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan method with positron emission tomography was used to determine age differences in factors underlying both the performances on 18 multivariate memory tests and the rates of cerebral glucose utilization in 9 left and 9 right hemispheric regions of 23 healthy adults in the age range of 27-78 years. Young persons below age 42 had higher scores than middle-aged (age 48-65 yrs) or old (age 66-78 yrs) persons on two of seven factors, reflecting memory for sequences of words or events together with metabolic indices of Broca's (and its mirror region) and Thalamic areas. Reliable correlations (critical r = 0.48, p<0.02) indicated that persons with high Superior Frontal and low Caudate-Thalamic metabolic measures were the same who performed well in tests of memory for sentences, story, designs, and complex patterns; while metabolic indices of Occipital and Posterior Temporal regions were correlated with the decision criteria adopted in testing. The mean metabolic ratio (b = -0.033, F = 5.47, p<0.03) and those of bilateral Broca's regions (b = -0.002, F = 13.65, p<0.001) significantly declined with age. The functional interrelation of frontal-subcortical metabolic ratios with memory processing was more prominent in younger persons under study and implicates decreasing thalamo-frontal interaction with age

  3. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  4. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  5. Habitual exercise instigation (vs. execution) predicts healthy adults' exercise frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Gardner, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Habit is thought to be conducive to health behavior maintenance, because habits prompt behavior with minimal cognitive resources. The precise role of habit in determining complex behavioral sequences, such as exercise, has been underresearched. It is possible that the habit process may initiate a behavioral sequence (instigation habit) or that, after instigation, movement through the sequence is automated (execution habit). We hypothesized that exercise instigation habit can be empirically distinguished from exercise execution habit and that instigation habit strength is most predictive of future exercise and reflective of longitudinal exercise behavior change. Further, we evaluated whether patterned exercise action-that is, engaging in the same exercise actions from session to session-can be distinct from exercise execution habit. Healthy adults (N = 123) rated their exercise instigation and execution habit strengths, patterned exercise actions, and exercise frequency in baseline and 1-month follow-up surveys. Participants reported exercise engagement via electronic daily diaries for 1 month. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses and repeated-measures analyses of variance. Exercise instigation habit strength was the only unique predictor of exercise frequency. Frequency profiles (change from high to low or low to high, no change high, no change low) were associated with changes in instigation habit but not with execution habit or patterned exercise action. Results suggest that the separable components of exercise sessions may be more or less automatic, and they point to the importance of developing instigation habit for establishing frequent exercise. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Structure of four executive functioning tests in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther

    2006-03-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of 4 indicators of executive functioning derived from 2 new (i.e., Hayling and Brixton) and 2 traditional (i.e., Stroop and Color Trails) tests. Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 55- to 85-year-old healthy adults (N=427) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.52) tested both a 2-factor model of Inhibition (Hayling, Stroop) and Shifting (Brixton, Color Trails) and a single-factor model. The 2-factor model did not fit the data because the covariance matrix of the factors was not positive definite. The single-factor model fit the data well, chi(2)(2, N=427)=0.32, p=.85, root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA)=.00, comparative fit index (CFI)=1.00, goodness-of-fit index (GFI)=1.00. Moreover, the single-factor structure of executive functioning was invariant (configural and metric) across gender, and invariant (configural with limited metric) across age. Structural relations showed that poorer executive functioning performance was related to older age and lower fluid intelligence, chi(2)(11, N=418)=23.04, p=.02, RMSEA=.05, CFI=.97, GFI=.98.

  7. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Grönholm-Nyman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17 performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session, while the active control group (n = 16 played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  8. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  9. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  10. Development and Cross-Validation of Equation for Estimating Percent Body Fat of Korean Adults According to Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyong Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Using BMI as an independent variable is the easiest way to estimate percent body fat. Thus far, few studies have investigated the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent body fat of Korean adults according to the BMI. The goals of this study were the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent fat of representative Korean adults using the BMI. Methods : Samples were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. The samples from 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 were labeled as the validation group (n=10,624 and the cross-validation group (n=8,291, respectively. The percent fat was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the body mass index, gender, and age were included as independent variables to estimate the measured percent fat. The coefficient of determination (R², standard error of estimation (SEE, and total error (TE were calculated to examine the accuracy of the developed equation. Results : The cross-validated R² was 0.731 for Model 1 and 0.735 for Model 2. The SEE was 3.978 for Model 1 and 3.951 for Model 2. The equations developed in this study are more accurate for estimating percent fat of the cross-validation group than those previously published by other researchers. Conclusion : The newly developed equations are comparatively accurate for the estimation of the percent fat of Korean adults.

  11. Correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of problematic game use in a national wide sample of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Son, Jung Woo; Kim, Haesoo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of problematic game use in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Of the 6022 subjects who participated in the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study and completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, 1397 game users were evaluated for problematic game use using 9-item DSM-5 proposed criteria for Internet gaming disorder. Respondents who responded "yes" to five or more of the nine DSM-5 criteria were considered as problematic game users and the reminders were considered as normal game users. 4.0% (56/1397) of game users were classified as a problematic game user. Problematic game users were more likely to be in younger age group and live in urban area compared with normal game user. Problematic game use was positively associated with several psychiatric disorders including nicotine use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder, but not associated with alcohol use disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, after adjusting for age, sex, and residential area. Problematic game use was significantly and positively associated with suicide plans, after controlling for psychiatric disorders as well as socio-demographic factors. Problematic game use is relatively prevalent in Korean adult population and highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders and suicidality. Therefore, preventive strategy for problematic game use is needed for game users who were more likely to be addicted such as young adults in urban area, and mental health screening and appropriate treatment are needed for individuals with problematic game use.

  12. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV 1 /FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R 2 =0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV 1 /FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations

  13. Major Obstacles to Implement a Full-Time Intensivist in Korean Adult ICUs: a Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wan Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Critical care physician staffing is a crucial element of the intensive care unit (ICU organization, and is associated with better outcomes in ICUs. Adult ICUs in Korea have been suffering from inadequate full-time intensivists and nurses because of insufficient reimbursement rates (<50% of the original critical care cost from the National Health Insurance System. Recently, full-time intensivists have been introduced as a prerequisite for adult ICUs of tertiary hospitals in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of intensivist staffing among critical care program directors regarding the barriers and solutions when implementing an intensivist model of critical care in Korea. Methods: An email survey of critical care program directors in designated teaching hospitals for critical care subspecialty training by the Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine was performed. The survey domains included vision, culture, resources, barriers, and potential solutions to implementing intensivist physician staffing (IPS. Results: Forty-two critical care program directors were surveyed. A total of 28 directors (66.7% responded to email queries. Of these, 27 directors (96.4% agreed that IPS would improve the quality of care in the ICU, although half of them reported a negative perception of relevant clinical colleagues for the role of full-time intensivists and poor resources for IPS in their hospitals. Increased financial burden due to hiring full-time intensivists and concerns regarding exclusion from the management of their critically ill patients in the ICU, together with loss of income for primary attending physicians were stated by the respondents to be major barriers to implementing IPS. Financial incentives for the required cost from the health insurance system and enhancement of medical law relevant to critical care were regarded as solutions to these issues. Conclusions: Critical care program directors believe that

  14. Distribution of glycated haemoglobin and its determinants in Korean youth and young adults: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Young; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Seong Yong; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2018-01-31

    The present study aimed to describe the distribution of and to investigate the factors associated with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in Korean youth (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old). Data from the Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2015) were used. A total of 6,418 participants (male 3,140 [53.2%]) aged 10-29 years were included in the analysis. Percentiles of HbA1c were calculated and HbA1c values were compared according to age, sex, and associated factors. The mean HbA1c values (% [mmol/mol]) were 5.42 ± 0.01 (35.7 ± 0.1) for youths and 5.32 ± 0.01 (34.7 ± 0.1) for young adults (P distribution of HbA1c values in Korean youth and young adults. There were significant differences in the level of HbA1c according to age and sex.

  15. Modeling cognitive reserve in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.

  16. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-01-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future

  17. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Department of radiation oncology, Inha University, 7-206, 3-ga, Shinheumg-dong, Jung-gu, Incheon, 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Choonsik [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chung, Min Suk [Department of Anatomy, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5 Wonchon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2008-08-07

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  18. Chromosome aberrations in T lymphocytes carrying adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigens (ATLA) from healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, S; Hinuma, Y; Gotoh, Y I; Uchino, H

    1983-01-01

    Chromosomes were studied in cultured T lymphocytes carrying adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigens (ATLA) that were obtained from five Japanese anti-ATLA seropositive healthy adults. Chromosomally abnormal cells were observed in three of the five healthy adults, and these cells were clonal in two subjects. All cells examined in one subject had rearrangements of chromosome nos. 7 and 14. Clonal cells from the second had a minute chromosome of unknown origin. A few cells in the third had nonclonal rearrangements of chromosomes. Thus, ATLA-positive T lymphocytes in some anti-ATLA seropositive healthy people have chromosome aberrations.

  19. Korean anatomical reference data for adults for use in radiological protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chansoo; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Lee, Hanjin; Han, Haegin; Shin, Bangho; Zhang, Xujia; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Chung, Beom Sun

    2018-01-01

    For radiological protection from exposure to ionizing radiation, in which a population-averaged dose evaluation is used, establishing a system of reference anatomical and physiological data for a specific population of interest is important. Some studies were done in the past to establish Korean reference data; however, the data provided the mass values only for a limited number of organs/tissues. In addition, the standing height and total body mass are based on 20-year-old data. In the present study, a new set of Korean reference anatomical values was established for use in the radiological protection of Korean workers and members of the public. The established Korean reference data provide the masses of 58 organs/tissues, including those needed to calculate the effective dose, which were derived by collecting and analyzing various scientific reports in the literature and data. In addition, the data provide not only standing height and total body mass, but also 131 additional anthropometric parameters; these values were derived from the most recent Korean national survey project, 7 th Size Korea. The characteristics of the data were also compared with several other population data, including the Asian and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference data.

  20. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  1. Molecular evaluation of vitamin D responsiveness of healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuter, Sabine; Virtanen, Jyrki K; Nurmi, Tarja; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Neme, Antonio; Carlberg, Carsten

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin D 3 has via its metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) direct effects on the transcriptome and the epigenome of most human cells. In the VitDbol study we exposed 35 healthy young adults to an oral vitamin D 3 dose (2000μg) or placebo and took blood samples directly before the supplementation as well as at days 1, 2 and 30. Within 24h the vitamin D 3 intake raised the average serum levels of both 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 by approximately 20%. However, we observed large inter-individual differences in these serum levels, reflected by the average ratios between 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 concentrations ranging from 277 to 1365. Interestingly, average serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased at day 1 by some 10% but then decreased within the following four weeks to levels 5% below baseline. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were isolated at the same time points we determined vitamin D-modulated chromatin accessibility by FAIRE-qPCR at selected genomic loci. This method is well suited to evaluate both short-term and long-term in vivo effects of vitamin D on the epigenome of human subjects. The differential vitamin D responsiveness of the VitDbol study participants was determined via individual changes in their PTH levels or chromatin accessibility in relation to alterations in 25(OH)D 3 concentrations. This led to the segregation of the subjects into 14 high, 11 mid and 10 low responders. In summary, the vitamin D responsiveness classification provides additional information compared to a vitamin D status assessment based on single 25(OH)D 3 serum measurements. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02063334). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long Sleep Duration is Associated With Sarcopenia in Korean Adults Based on Data from the 2008-2011 KNHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Jang, Suk-Yong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, A-Ra; Shim, Jae-Yong; Linton, John A

    2017-09-15

    Sarcopenia, or loss of muscle mass, occurs with aging and results in frailty, disability, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Recently, researchers have asserted that sarcopenia is not an inevitable process, but is a modifiable condition. Adequate sleep duration is also important to maintain good physical and mental health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the association between sleep duration and sarcopenia in Korean adults. Data from 16,148 participants (7,158 men and 8,990 women) were analyzed from the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We defined sarcopenia as one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of the appendicular skeletal muscle/height-squared values of a young reference group. Participants were categorized into 5 groups according to sleep duration. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for sarcopenia according to sleep duration were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.3% in the total population (males 18.7%, females 9.7%). Compared to the 7 hours of sleep group, the OR (95% CI) for sarcopenia of the long sleep duration group (9 hours or more) was 1.589 (1.100-2.295) after controlling for confounding factors. From the results of subgroup analysis, high-risk groups for sarcopenia are as follows: 40-64 years old (OR = 1.868), normal body mass index (OR = 1.516), smoking (OR = 2.219), no regular exercise (OR = 1.506) in long sleepers. Long sleep duration (9 hours or longer) is independently associated with sarcopenia in Korean adults. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  3. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  4. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction exerted

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the Korean Version of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mona; Ahn, Sangwoo; Jung, Dukyoo

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE-K). The SEE-K consists of nine items and was translated into Korean using the forward-backward translation method. We administered it to 212 community-dwelling older adults along with measures of outcome expectation for exercise, quality of life, and physical activity. The validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis with INFIT and OUTFIT statistics, which showed acceptable model fit. The concurrent validity was confirmed according to positive correlations between the SEE-K, outcome expectation for exercise, and quality of life. Furthermore, the high physical activity group had higher SEE-K scores. Finally, the reliability of the SEE-K was deemed acceptable based on Cronbach's alpha, coefficients of determination, and person and item separation indices with reliability. Thus, the SEE-K appears to have satisfactory validity and reliability among older adults in South Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens.

  7. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  8. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  9. Gender differences in the association between self-rated health and hypertension in a Korean adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hee-Young

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH has been reported as a predictor of mortality in previous studies. This study aimed to examine whether SRH is independently associated with hypertension and if there is a gender difference in this association. Methods 16,956 community dwelling adults aged 20 and over within a defined geographic area participated in this study. Data on SRH, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, education and health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Logistic regression models were used to determine a relationship between SRH and hypertension. Results 32.5% of the participants were found to have hypertension. Women were more likely than men to rate their SRH as poor (p p p Conclusions SRH was independently associated with hypertension in a Korean adult population. This association was modified by gender.

  10. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  11. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyeong; Lee, Yujin; Park, Kyong

    2018-01-06

    Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants ( n = 586) were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women ( p = 0.02), older participants ( p = 0.002), and those with a higher income level ( p = 0.03) than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7-3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  12. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyeong Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants (n = 586 were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women (p = 0.02, older participants (p = 0.002, and those with a higher income level (p = 0.03 than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7–3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  13. Differences in knowledge of dementia among older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: A representative nationwide sample of Korean elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Soowon; Kim, Ki Woong; Kwon, Ji Eyon; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Chang-Uk; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about a disease could impede early diagnosis and may lead to delays in seeking appropriate medical care. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge of dementia (KOD) and to find the determinants of KOD among three groups: older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. A representative nationwide sample of 6141 Korean elders aged 65 years or older participated in face-to-face interviews and answered 14 questions pertaining to general information, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of dementia. Stepwise multiple regressions and path analyses probed the relationships between various sociodemographic variables and KOD. The percentage of correct responses was only 62%. The item 'A person who remembers things that happened in the past does not have dementia' was answered correctly (false) by only 24.8-27% of the respondents in all groups. Older adults with normal cognition had higher KOD scores than those with MCI or dementia. In the normal-cognition group, KOD scores were higher among highly educated, younger, and literate women with no depression and a family history of dementia. In contrast with the determinants in the normal-cognition group, only the ability to read and write predicted KOD scores in the dementia group. Efforts to enhance KOD in elder adults are needed. Public education regarding the differences between dementia and healthy aging may increase KOD among normal elders and those with MCI. Among elders with dementia, educational materials that do not require literacy may be more helpful in increasing KOD with the aim of preventing treatment delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study of negative life events and depressive symptoms among healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Gao, Tingting; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Wang, Ruimei; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to study internal relations and functionary mechanism between social support, coping style, negative life events and depressive symptoms and compare these relations in healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. In total, 1,264 older adults with chronic disease and 749 healthy older adults participated in this investigation which consist of socio-demographic characters, negative life events, social support, coping style and depressive symptoms. The path and direction of variable function in healthy older adults were inconsistent with older adults with chronic disease. Older adults with chronic disease had more severe depressive symptoms and negative life events, and lower social support and positive coping style. Negative life events, subjective support, positive coping style and negative coping style were significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Objective support may weaken the influence of negative life events on depressive symptoms in chronic disease group. Utilization of support and positive coping style worsen the effect of negative life events on depressive symptoms in healthy older adults. This study implied that to improve their mental health, attention should be paid to the role of biological, psychological and social stress factors and its inherent law of interaction.

  15. Quantification of nimesulide in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV): application to pharmacokinetic studies in 28 healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Do-Wan; Yang, Seok-Chul; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2012-05-01

    Nimesulide is a selective COX-2 inhibitor that is as effective as the classical non-acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the relief of various pain and inflammatory conditions, but is better tolerated with lower incidences of adverse effects than other drugs. After oral dose of 100 mg nimesulide to western subjects, a mean maximal concentration (C(max)) of 2.86 ∼ 6.5 µg/mL was reached at 1.22 ∼ 2.75 h and mean t(1/2β) of 1.8 ∼ 4.74 h. This study developed a robust method for quantification of nimesulide for the pharmacokinetics and suitability of its dosage in Korea and compared its suitability with other racial populations. Nimesulide and internal standard were extracted from acidified samples with methyl tert-butyl ether and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The 28 healthy volunteers took 2 tablets of 100 mg nimesulide and blood concentrations were analyzed during the 24 h post dose. Several pharmacokinetic parameters were represented: AUC(0-infinity) = 113.0 mg-h/mL, C(max) = 12.06 mg/mL, time for maximal concentrations (T(max)) = 3.19 h and t(1/2β) = 4.51 h. These were different from those of western populations as follows: AUC was 14.5% and C(max) was 28% that of of Korean subjects and T(max) and t(1/2β) were also different. The validated HPLC-UV method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic studies of nimesulide in Korean subjects. Because the pharmacokinetics of nimesulide were different from western populations, its dosage regimen needs to be adjusted for Koreans. © The Author [2012]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  17. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Sun-Ha; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is a key constituent of enzyme in glutathione peroxidase, which is effective in decreasing various types of oxidative stress, Thus, the adequacy of selenium intake is very important in decreasing the risks of various degenerating diseases such as cardiovascular disease, or certain cancers. Lately, the intake of animal foods is increasing among Koreans owing to a dietary transition toward a western style. This study was conducted to measure the selenium content in meat and eggs, and then assessed the selenium intake from these foods. Forty frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were analyzed using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The selenium content in 100g of raw meat and eggs ranged from 8.1ug to 50.9ug. In particular, 100g of beef contained 12.4ug to 50.9ug of selenium; pork, 11.2ug to 22.6ug chicken, 10.2ug to 13.7ug and eggs, 28.6ug to 43.0ug. Thus, beef viscera and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of selenium among these groups. 100g of Pork belly, the most frequently eaten meat type among Koreans, contains 14.6ug of selenium. An evaluation of dietary selenium intake shows that the total selenium supply from meats and eggs was 28.4ug/day and 27.5 ug/day in adult men and women, respectively. These are over one-half of the Korean RNI (Recommended Daily Intake) of 55ug/day. (author)

  18. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Bernice AL; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sle...

  19. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  20. The Relationship Between the Metabolic Syndrome and Systolic Inter-Arm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Choi, Seong Woo; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Oh, Hye Jong; Choi, Cheol Won

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference (sIAD) in Korean adults. This study included 410 adults (235 males, 175 females) who were over 30 years old and had undergone a health check from July to December in 2013. The incidence of high sIAD and metabolic syndrome were 23.4% and 23.2%, respectively. Key study results were as follows: First, the sIAD levels increased significantly with an increase in metabolic syndrome score (p<0.001), shown by sIAD levels after adjusted the variables that affect sIAD levels (age, gender, smoking, drinking, exercising, total cholesterol, and body mass index). These were 4.6±0.7 mmHg for metabolic syndrome score (MSS) 0; 5.8±0.5 mmHg for MSS 1; 6.2±0.6 mmHg for MSS 2, 9.2±0.8 mmHg for MSS 3; and 9.9±1.2 mmHg for MSS ≥4 (p<0.001). Second, the sIAD level of the metabolic syndrome group (9.3±0.7 mmHg) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than for the nonmetabolic syndrome group (5.7±0.3 mmHg). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and an increased number of its components are associated with the sIAD levels in Korean adults.

  1. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Zarghi; Zali; A; Tehranidost; M; Mohammad Reza Zarindast; Ashrafi; F; Doroodgar; Khodadadi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female). The whole part...

  2. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conduct...

  3. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  4. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  5. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults : Understanding Their Perspectives on Healthy Living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Slaets, Joris P J; Smits, Carolien H M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults' perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative

  6. Modeling lifetime costs and health outcomes attributable to secondhand smoke exposure at home among Korean adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyae; Han, Ah Ram; Choi, Dalwoong; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2017-05-17

    The aim of this research is to estimate lifetime costs and health consequences for Korean adult women who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home. A Markov model was developed to project the lifetime healthcare costs and health outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of Korean women who are 40 years old and were married to current smokers. The Korean epidemiological data were used to reflect the natural history of SHS-exposed and non-exposed women. The direct healthcare costs (in 2014 US dollars) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were annually discounted at 5% to reflect time preference. The time horizon of the analysis was lifetime and the cycle length was 1 year. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. In the absence of SHS exposure, Korean women will live 41.32 years or 34.56 QALYs before discount, which corresponded to 17.29 years or 15.35 QALYs after discount. The SHS-exposed women were predicted to live 37.91 years and 31.08 QALYs before discount and 16.76 years and 14.62 QALYs after discount. The estimated lifetime healthcare cost per woman in the SHS non-exposed group was US$11 214 before the discount and US$2465 after discount. The negative impact of SHS exposure on health outcomes and healthcare costs escalated as the time horizon increased, suggesting that the adverse impact of SHS exposure may have higher impact on the later part of the lifetime. The result was consistent across a wide range of assumptions. Life expectancy might underestimate the impact of SHS exposure on health outcomes, especially if the time horizon of the analysis is not long enough. Early intervention on smoking behaviour could substantially reduce direct healthcare costs and improve quality of life attributable to SHS exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Tieland, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Smilde, Age K; Alves, Rodrigo D A M; Vervoort, Jacques; Müller, Michael; van Duynhoven, John P M; Boekschoten, Mark V

    2016-02-05

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy older and frail older subjects to determine the effect of age and frailty on the metabolic signature of skeletal muscle tissue. In addition, the effects of prolonged whole-body resistance-type exercise training on the muscle metabolome of older subjects were examined. The baseline metabolome was measured in muscle biopsies collected from 30 young, 66 healthy older subjects, and 43 frail older subjects. Follow-up samples from frail older (24 samples) and healthy older subjects (38 samples) were collected after 6 months of prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Young subjects were included as a reference group. Primary differences in skeletal muscle metabolite levels between young and healthy older subjects were related to mitochondrial function, muscle fiber type, and tissue turnover. Similar differences were observed when comparing frail older subjects with healthy older subjects at baseline. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training resulted in an adaptive response of amino acid metabolism, especially reflected in branched chain amino acids and genes related to tissue remodeling. The effect of exercise training on branched-chain amino acid-derived acylcarnitines in older subjects points to a downward shift in branched-chain amino acid catabolism upon training. We observed only modest correlations between muscle and plasma metabolite levels, which pleads against the use of plasma metabolites as a direct read-out of muscle metabolism and stresses the need for direct assessment of metabolites in muscle tissue biopsies.

  8. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and its association with periodontal disease in Korean adults: findings based on the 2012-2014 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Jeong-Won; Lim, Hyoung-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Sun; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,249 individuals (4,941 men and 7,308 women) who took part in the 2012-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized the TG/HDL-C ratio into three groups. Periodontal disease was defined as a community pocket index score ≥3 with at least one affected site. Multiple logistic analyses were used to analyze the association between TG/HDL-C ratio and periodontal disease. In the study population, prevalence of periodontal disease was 31.6% in men and 21% in women. Compared to the lowest tertile group, OR (95% CI) of the highest tertile group for periodontal disease was 1.474 (1.220-1.780) in men and 1.259 (1.041-1.522) in women after adjusting for age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, current smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, household income, oral health behavior, and use of anti-dyslipidemia medication. Our study suggests that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. TG/HDL-C ratio is a simple and useful marker to reflect insulin resistance. And periodontal disease is also known to be related with insulin resistance. This study indicates that TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults.

  9. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...

  10. Development of a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life (QOL) among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. To develop a situation-specific theory, three sources were considered: (a) the conceptual model of health promotion and QOL for people with chronic and disabling conditions (an existing theory related to the QOL in patients with chronic diseases); (b) a literature review using multiple databases including Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsycINFO, and two Korean databases; and (c) findings from our structural equation modeling study on health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The proposed situation-specific theory is constructed with six major concepts including barriers, resources, perceptual factors, psychosocial factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health-related QOL. The theory also provides the interrelationships among concepts. Health care providers and nurses could incorporate the proposed situation-specific theory into development of diabetes education programs for improving health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Walking Stability during Cell Phone Use in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I.; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than ...

  12. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M. I.; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    Introduction: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower

  13. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  14. On the ecosystemic network of saliva in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, Egija; Brandt, Bernd W.; Prodan, Andrei; Teixeira De Mattos, Maarten Joost; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Kool, Jolanda; Buijs, Mark J.; Jagers, Ferry L.P.W.; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, Nienke L.; Slot, Dagmar E.; Fernandez Gutierrez, Maria; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    A dysbiotic state is believed to be a key factor in the onset of oral disease. Although oral diseases have been studied for decades, our understanding of oral health, the boundaries of a healthy oral ecosystem and ecological shift toward dysbiosis is still limited. Here, we present the

  15. Spirometry of healthy adult South African men | Louw | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exhaustive questionnaire and radiographic screening process was used to identify a healthy population. Spirometry was performed using two calibrated instruments, a sleeve sealed piston spirometer (Autolink) and a bellows spirometer (Vitalograph). The methodological guidelines of the American Thoracic Society were ...

  16. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  17. Variability in Perisylvian Brain Anatomy in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Bollich, Angela M.; Corey, David M.; Lemen, Lisa C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    Gray matter volumes of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), pars triangularis (PTR), and pars opercularis were measured on MRI in 48 healthy right-handers. There was the expected leftward PT asymmetry in 70.8%, and leftward PTR asymmetry in 64.6% of the sample. When asymmetry patterns within individuals were examined, there was not one…

  18. Pyrosequencinq analysis of the oral microflora of healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Zaura, E.; Huse, S.M.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Gate, J.M. ten; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    A good definition of commensal microflora and an understanding of its relation to health are essential in preventing and combating disease. We hypothesized that the species richness of human oral microflora is underestimated. Saliva and supragingival plaque were sampled from 71 and 98 healthy

  19. Pyrosequencing analysis of the oral microflora of healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Zaura, E.; Huse, S.M.; van der Vossen, J.M.B.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    A good definition of commensal microflora and an understanding of its relation to health are essential in preventing and combating disease. We hypothesized that the species richness of human oral microflora is underestimated. Saliva and supragingival plaque were sampled from 71 and 98 healthy

  20. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  1. Inverse relationship between fat intake and blood lead levels in the Korean adult population in the KNHANES 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-07-15

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) in the Korean adult population are about twofold higher than those in the US adult population, which may be related to nutrient intake. We examined which nutritional factors might be associated with decreased BLL. This study was based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data obtained over 3 years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population of South Korea. A multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates indicated that dietary fat and protein were significant opposite predictors of BLL in five different models; fat and protein intake had negative and positive associations with BLL, respectively. Covariates used in the analysis were sex, age, regional area, education level, smoking and drinking status, hypertension, use of antihypertensive drugs, diabetes, use of antidiabetic drugs, use of cholesterol-lowering drugs, hemoglobin level, and exposure to chemical substances during daily life. Intake levels of other nutrients, such as dietary fiber, carbohydrates, and calcium, did not show any significant effect on BLL. Gender was also an important predictor: BLL was significantly higher in men than women. However, total femur T-score, which represents bone mass, was unaffected by BLL. When calculating adjusted predicted marginal values of blood lead according to dietary fat percentage, BLL was lower by 5.3% and 8.0% in men when fat intake was increased from 10% to 20% and 25%, respectively. This effect of fat intake on BLL was minimal in women. The accumulation of body stores of lead from lead exposure may be reduced by increasing dietary fat consumption to 25% of energy intake, especially in men. However, this must be weighed against possible cardiovascular risks of higher fat diets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a self-assessment score for metabolic syndrome risk in non-obese Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Youjin; Kim, Youngyo; Park, Taeyoung

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for simple risk scores that identify individuals at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study was performed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for MetS risk in non-obese Korean adults. Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2007-2009 were used to develop a MetS risk score. We included a total of 5,508 non-obese participants aged 19-64 years who were free of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stroke, angina, or cancer. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to assign each variable category a score. The validity of the score was assessed in an independent population survey performed in 2010 and 2011, KNHANES V (n=3,892). Age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, dairy consumption, dietary habit of eating less salty and food insecurity were selected as categorical variables. The MetS risk score value varied from 0 to 13, and a cut-point MetS risk score of >=7 was selected based on the highest Youden index. The cut-point provided a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 61%, positive predictive value of 14%, and negative predictive value of 98%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78. Consistent results were obtained in the validation data sets. This simple risk score may be used to identify individuals at high risk for MetS without laboratory tests among non-obese Korean adults. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness and feasibility of this score in various settings.

  3. Associations between religiosity and anxiety, depressive symptoms, and well-being in Korean adults living with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ryu, Han Uk; Choi, Eun-Ju; Ko, Myung-Ah; Jeon, Ji-Ye; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Gha-Hyun; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jo, Kwang-Deog

    2017-10-01

    Religiosity can be important in the everyday life of persons with epilepsy (PWE). How PWE live with religiosity can be influenced by their cultural background. We determined whether religiosity is associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and well-being in Korean adults with epilepsy. This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of five university hospitals in Korea. Religiosity was assessed using the five-item Duke University Religion Index (DUREL). The WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were used. The participants were categorized into three subgroups bounded by the 33rd and 66th percentiles of their DUREL scores. Of a total of 226 participants, 61.1% declared that they had religious affiliation. The median DUREL score was 11 (interquartile ranges 6, 18). All three subscales of the DUREL were significantly related to WHO-5 (p<0.01). Non-organizational religious activities such as prayer and meditation were also inversely related to anxiety (p<0.05) and depressive symptoms (p<0.01). After controlling for confounding variables, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more extensive in the low religiosity subgroup than in the high or no religiosity subgroup (p<0.01) and well-being was higher in the high or low religiosity subgroup than in the no religiosity subgroup (p<0.05). Religiosity is significantly associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and well-being in Korean adults with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dog and Cat Allergies and Allergen Avoidance Measures in Korean Adult Pet Owners Who Participated in a Pet Exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Suk; Lee, Sang Pyo; Kwon, Young Jae; Lee, Sang Min

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, PCat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, Pcats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, PCat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  5. Presymptomatic identification of CDH1 germline mutation in a healthy korean individual with family history of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ki, Chang-Seok; Suh, Soon-Pal; Kim, Jong-Won

    2014-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers with high morbidity and mortality. Familial GC is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of familial GC cases arise owing to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). CDH1, which encodes the protein E-cadherin, is the only gene whose mutations are associated with HDGC. Screening for the familial GC-predisposing gene has been neglected in high-risk countries such as Korea, China, and Japan, where all the cases have been attributed to Helicobacter pylori or other carcinogens. Screening for the GC-causing CDH1 mutation may provide valuable information for genetic counseling, testing, and risk-reduction management for the as-yet unaffected family members. An asymptomatic 44-yr-old Korean male visited our genetic clinic for consultation owing to his family history of GC. Eventually, c.1018A>G in CDH1, a known disease-causing mutation, was found. As of the publication time, the individual is alive without the evidence of GC, and is on surveillance. To our knowledge, this is the first Korean case of presymptomatic detection of CDH1 mutation, and it highlights the importance of genetic screening for individuals with a family history of GC, especially in high-risk geographical areas.

  6. Motivators of and Barriers to Engagement in Healthy Eating Behaviors among non-Hispanic Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah E M; Tucker, Carolyn M; Flenar, Delphia J; Arthur, Tya M; Smith, Tasia M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if non-Hispanic Black adults' levels of endorsement of motivators and barriers related to healthy eating are significantly associated with their level of engagement in healthy eating and their perceived importance of healthy eating and if these investigated variables differ by gender, income, and/or age. An assessment battery was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 207 non-Hispanic Black adults in Bronx, NY (54.1 % female; age: M = 38, SD = 14.12). Participants were recruited by culturally diverse data collectors at community-based locations within Bronx. Building healthy eating into a routine was a significant motivator of healthy eating (p motivators to engaging in healthy eating (routine: p motivators and barriers. Intervention programs to increase healthy eating among adults similar to those in this study may benefit from including a focus on increasing self-control of eating behaviors and incorporating healthy eating into one's routine.

  7. Intraindividual variability in physical and emotional functioning: comparison of adults with traumatic brain injuries and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Catherine L; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Hunter, Michael A

    2002-08-01

    Recent research has shown that individuals with certain neurological conditions demonstrate greater intraindividual variability on cognitive tasks compared to healthy controls. The present study investigated intraindividual variability in the domains of physical functioning and affect/stress in three groups: adults with mild head injuries, adults with moderate/severe head injuries, and healthy adults. Participants were assessed on 10 occasions and results indicated that (a) individuals with head injuries demonstrated greater variability in dominant finger dexterity and right grip strength than the healthy controls; (b) increased variability tended to be associated with poorer performance/report both within and across tasks; and (c) increased variability on one task was associated with increased variability on other tasks. The findings suggest that increased variability in physical function, as well as cognitive function, represents an indicator of neurological compromise.

  8. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  9. Things Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  10. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scarpelini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thromboelastography (TEG® provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG® parameters analyzed were R, K, α, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer’s normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, α: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity. Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer’s normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer’s recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG®, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG®.

  11. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  12. Eating Habits and Food Additive Intakes Are Associated with Emotional States Based on EEG and HRV in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Hye Lim; Kim, Dae-Keun; Kang, Seung Wan; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals. The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11.8 ± 3.6 years). Analysis indicators were a dietary intake checklist for children's nutrition-related behavior score (NBS), consisting of 19 items; food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), consisting of 76 items; the Child Depression Inventory (CDI); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); electroencephalograph (EEG); and heart rate variability (HRV). Higher scores on the CDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T indicate negative emotions, and these scores were significantly decreased from the first to the fourth quartiles. The HRV results showed that the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals was significantly higher in the first quartile than in the fourth quartile (p healthy children and adolescents.

  13. Resilience and amygdala function in older healthy and depressed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Amber M; Yang, Hongyu; Siddarth, Prabha; Vlasova, Roza M; Krause, Beatrix; St Cyr, Natalie; Narr, Katherine L; Lavretsky, Helen

    2018-04-25

    Previous studies suggest that low emotional resilience may correspond with increased or over-active amygdala function. Complementary studies suggest that emotional resilience increases with age; older adults tend to have decreased attentional bias to negative stimuli compared to younger adults. Amygdala nuclei and related brain circuits have been linked to negative affect, and depressed patients have been demonstrated to have abnormal amygdala function. In the current study, we correlated psychological resilience measures with amygdala function measured with resting-state arterial spin-labelled (ASL) and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older adults with and without depression. Specifically, we targeted the basolateral, centromedial, and superficial nuclei groups of the amygdala, which have different functions and brain connections. High levels of psychological resilience correlated with lower basal levels of amygdala activity measured with ASL fMRI. High resilience also correlated with decreased connectivity between amygdala nuclei and the ventral default-mode network independent of depression status. Instead, lower depression symptoms were associated with higher connectivity between the amygdalae and dorsal frontal networks. Future multi-site studies with larger sample size and improved neuroimaging technologies are needed. Longitudinal studies that target resilience to naturalistic stressors will also be a powerful contribution to the field. Our results suggest that resilience in older adults is more closely related to function in ventral amygdala networks, while late-life depression is related to reduced connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal frontal regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Concurrent cardiovascular and resistance training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R H; Reyes, R; Welsch, M A; Favaloro-Sabatier, J; Sabatier, M; Matthew Lee, C; Johnson, L G; Hooper, P F

    2001-10-01

    The recommendations for exercise training and physical activity for older adults include cardiovascular and resistance training components (CVT and RT, respectively). The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the fitness benefits of concurrent CVT and RT with those attained through an equivalent duration of CVT or RT alone. Thirty-six participants (ages 60-84) were assigned to a control group or to one of three exercise treatment groups. The treatment groups exercised three times per week for 12 wk using RT (N = 11), CVT (N = 10), or CVT and RT (BOTH, N = 9). Pre- and post-training, participants performed a submaximal exercise test (GXT), five repetition-maximum strength tests (5RM), and the AAHPERD functional fitness test for older adults. All exercise treatment groups revealed lower resting heart rate and rate-pressure product; lower exercise diastolic blood pressure and rating of perceived exertion; increased GXT duration; increased leg, back, and shoulder 5RM scores; and improved AAHPERD flexibility, coordination, and cardiovascular endurance scores. The exercise treatment groups responded differently on the following: RT and BOTH enhanced arm and chest strength more than CVT; and BOTH enhanced AAHPERD strength and agility scores more than CVT or RT. Concurrent CVT and RT is as effective in eliciting improvements in cardiovascular fitness and 5RM performance as CVT or RT, respectively. Moreover, incorporating both CVT and RT in exercise programs for older adults may be more effective in optimizing aspects of functional fitness than programs that involve only one component.

  15. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  16. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  17. Marrow Fat Quality Differences by Sex in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Jamilly G; de Araújo, Iana M; Carvalho, Adriana L; Simão, Marcelo N; Bastos, Clara M; Troncon, Luiz E A; Salmon, Carlos E G; de Paula, Francisco J A; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

    Several studies have demonstrated the relationship between bone marrow adiposity (BMAT) and bone mass. 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique able to assess both BMAT quantity and quality. The aim of our study was to perform quantitative and qualitative analyses of BMAT and to investigate its association with bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy nonobese volunteers. Fifty-one healthy volunteers, 21 men and 30 women, underwent 1.5 T 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lumbar spine. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate association among lipids fractions, BMD, and age. The female and male volunteers had similar body mass index and BMD (p > 0.05). Our data demonstrated an inverse correlation of BMD and BMAT with age, with a stronger correlation of saturated lipids (r = 0.701; p BMAT and other factors that influence bone integrity. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: immunogenicity and safety in 15-25 years old healthy Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Cheol; Song, Yong Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Young Tak; Ryu, Ki-Sung; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree; Bi, Dan; Bock, Hans L; Park, Jong-Sup

    2011-06-30

    The study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine in healthy Korean women aged 15-25 years. Phase IIIB, double-blind, randomised (2:1), multi-centre trial was conducted in Korea from June 2007 to March 2008. The study enrolled 225 women in the HPV (N=149) and placebo (N=76) groups who received three doses of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or placebo (aluminium hydroxide) administered intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6 months and were followed until one month post-dose 3. Serum samples were collected pre-vaccination and one month post-dose 3. Safety and reactogenicity data were collected throughout. In this trial, 208 women completed the study (141 in HPV group; 67 in placebo group). At month 7, all initially seronegative women had seroconverted for HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibodies with anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 geometric mean titres of 9,351.4 El.U/mL (95% CI, 8,145.5 to 10,735.8) and 4204.1 El.U/mL (95% CI, 3,626.5 to 4,873.6), respectively. Initially seropositive women showed similar increase in geometric mean titre levels. Compliance to the three dose vaccination course was 95.3% in HPV and 89.5% in placebo group. Solicited local (pain) and general (fatigue, myalgia or headache) symptoms were commonly reported in both groups. Three serious adverse events were reported (two in HPV group; one in placebo group), all unrelated to vaccination by the investigator; all recovered. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was highly immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in Korean women. This study was in line with previous global studies in Europe, North America, and Brazil. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT 00485732.).

  19. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in older adults in Korea: analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Age threshold for moderate and severe periodontitis among Korean adults without diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine an appropriate age threshold at which to recommend the evaluation of moderate and severe periodontitis among Korean adults.This study involved a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2012 to 2014. Incidence rates of periodontitis with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were evaluated. The predictive accuracy of age for periodontitis was determined by calculating the area under curve (AUC) on the basis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.The cutoff value of age was 43 years in men having periodontitis with an AUC of 0.70 with 95% CI of 0.69 to 0.72. The AUC was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.70-0.73), and the cutoff value of age (49 years) was identified for the moderate periodontitis in women. The cutoff values for age with AUCs and 95% CI for individuals with periodontitis were 46 years (0.72 [0.71-0.73]), 43 years (0.73 [0.72, 0.74]), 45 years (0.71 [0.70,0.72]), 43 years (0.73 [0.72, 0.74]), and 45 years (0.74 [0.72, 0.75]) for no obesity, no abdominal obesity, no diabetes mellitus, no hypertension, and no metabolic syndrome groups, respectively.This study proposed the guideline for the appropriate age threshold at which to recommend the evaluation of moderate and severe periodontitis for the general population and additionally added the guideline for the individuals without systemic disease including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. This study suggests that the participants with certain age may be recommended for the regular periodontal evaluation.

  1. Association Between Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease, Defined by Both Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria, in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Ji; Hwang, Seun Deuk; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Kimm, Heejin; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Jee, Sun Ha; Lim, Soo

    2017-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has often been defined based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) alone. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guideline highlights albuminuria in the CKD definition. Thus, we investigated the association between obesity and CKD, as defined by both GFR and albuminuria, in Korean adults. We used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 data (N = 19,331, ≥19 years old) representing the national Korean population. CKD was classified by (1) estimated GFR (eGFR) obesity and each CKD category were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates of CKD GFR , CKD ACR , and CKD Risk were 2.2%, 6.7%, and 8.1%, respectively. Compared with the normal body mass index (BMI; 18.5-22.9 kg/m 2 ) group, men with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 had 1.88 times greater risk of CKD GFR in the adjusted model [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-2.80; P = 0.002]; BMI was not significantly associated with CKD GFR in women. In contrast, both men and women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 had 1.58 and 1.40 times higher risk of CKD ACR (95% CI, 1.21-2.07 and 1.08-1.81, respectively, both P Obese men and women had 1.65 and 1.38 times higher risk of CKD Risk (95% CI, 1.29-2.12 and 1.09-1.75, respectively, both P Obesity was significantly associated with an increased ACR-based CKD risk. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the role of overweight and obesity in the development and progression of CKD.

  2. Development of a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Dzubur, Eldin; Blackman, Kacie C A; Mays, Vickie; Shoptaw, Steven; Huh, Jimi

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a preventable risk factor that contributes to unnecessary lung cancer burden among Korean Americans and there is limited research on effective smoking cessation strategies for this population. Smartphone-based smoking cessation apps that leverage just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) hold promise for smokers attempting to quit. However, little is known about how to develop and tailor a smoking cessation JITAI for Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers. This paper documents the development process of MyQuit USC according to design guidelines for JITAI. Our development process builds on findings from a prior ecological momentary assessment study by using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to inform which intervention options to offer and the decision rules that dictate their delivery. Qualitative findings highlighted that (1) smoking episodes are highly context-driven and that (2) KAEA smokers believe they need personalized cessation strategies tailored to different contexts. Thus, MyQuit USC operates via decision rules that guide the delivery of personalized implementation intentions, which are contingent on dynamic factors, to be delivered "just in time" at user-scheduled, high-risk smoking situations. Through an iterative design process, informed by quantitative and qualitative formative research, we developed a smoking cessation JITAI tailored specifically for KAEA smokers. Further testing is under way to optimize future versions of the app with the most effective intervention strategies and decision rules. MyQuit USC has the potential to provide cessation support in real-world settings, when KAEAs need them the most.

  3. Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Schumacher, Tracy; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-15

    Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: 'needs work' (Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45-75 years compared to 16-44 years ( p Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults.

  4. Is there a similarity between DNA damage in adults with chronic alcoholism and community-dwelling healthy older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Ugalde, Raquel; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Daily alcohol consumption and ageing have been linked with DNA damage, leading to the hypothesis that chronic alcoholism causes DNA damage similar to that which occurs with ageing. Likewise, it has been suggested that chronic alcoholism is the cause of accelerated or premature ageing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and magnitude of DNA damage among adults with chronic alcoholism and healthy older adults residing in Mexico City. A cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out in a sample of 53 chronic alcoholics of 25-44 years of age (without alcohol ingestion in the past 30 days) without additional diseases, 26 healthy subjects >or=60 years of age, and 25 healthy adults of 25-44 years of age without alcohol addiction, all residents of Mexico City during the past 10 years. DNA damage was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay). Our results showed a similar percentage of DNA damage between healthy elderly subjects and chronic alcoholics (62 vs 55%, P >0.05), although average DNA migration was greater in alcoholics than in the elderly (78.1 +/- 33.2 vs 58.6 +/- 26.2, P = 0.09). However, the percentage of subjects with more than six damaged cells was higher in the older adults subjects group than in the group chronic alcoholics (19 vs 35%, P = 0.16). Data suggest that DNA damage is not similar in young subjects with chronic alcoholism that which occurs with ageing.

  5. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice AL Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory under three (quiet, urban, and social noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban, reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social, and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function, and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive

  6. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bernice Al; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban), reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social), and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban) under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function), and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function) and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ) predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive disorganization.

  7. Vitamin D Insufficiency among Free-Living Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tangpricha, Vin; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Chen, Tai C.; Holick, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term vitamin D insufficiency can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia (1). In addition, there is increasing evidence that vitamin D may protect against common cancers, such as cancer of the colon (2–4), prostate (5), and breast (6). Young adults aged 17 to 35 years drink inadequate amounts of milk (7) and are concerned about exposure to the sun because of the fear of developing skin cancer (8,9), which increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency (10). We sought to exami...

  8. Construction of Healthy and Palatable Diet for Low Socioeconomic Female Adults using Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Roslee Rajikan; Nurul Izza Ahmad Zaidi; Siti Masitah Elias; Suzana Shahar; Zahara Abd Manaf; Noor Aini Md Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    Differences in socioeconomic profile may influences healthy food choices, particularly among individuals with low socioeconomic status. Thus, high-energy dense foods become the preferences compared to high nutritional content foods due to their cheaper price. The present study aims to develop healthy and palatable diet at the minimum cost based on Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010 and Recommended Nutrient Intake 2005 via linear programming. A total of 96 female adults from low socioeconomic f...

  9. A retrospective cohort study on the association between periapical abscess, advanced periodontal disease, and the national oral health screening program among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Eun; Jung, Se-Hwan; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Lee, Byoung-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2013-09-01

    The National Oral Health Screening Program (NOHSP) is a general population-based program in Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the association between participation in the NOHSP and dental visit for periapical abscess (PA) and advanced periodontal disease (APD) among Korean adults. Data were obtained for subjects from the National Health Insurance database. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of 9358 randomly selected subjects who were between 40 and 64 years old in 2002. The outcomes of dental visit for PA or APD from the years 2003 to 2007 were compared between the screening and nonscreening groups. The nonscreening group had 19% higher risk of PA and 15% higher risk of APD. This study suggests that the NOHSP may decrease the risk of dental visit because of PA and APD by preventing the progress of lesion to the advanced stage among Korean adults.

  10. The Healthy Mind, Healthy Mobility Trial: A Novel Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Gregory, Michael A; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Hachinski, Vladimir; Fitzgerald, Clara; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    More evidence is needed to conclude that a specific program of exercise and/or cognitive training warrants prescription for the prevention of cognitive decline. We examined the effect of a group-based standard exercise program for older adults, with and without dual-task training, on cognitive function in older adults without dementia. We conducted a proof-of-concept, single-blinded, 26-wk randomized controlled trial whereby participants recruited from preexisting exercise classes at the Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging in London, Ontario, were randomized to the intervention group (exercise + dual-task [EDT]) or the control group (exercise only [EO]). Each week (2 or 3 d · wk(-1)), both groups accumulated a minimum of 50 min of aerobic exercise (target 75 min) from standard group classes and completed 45 min of beginner-level square-stepping exercise. The EDT group was also required to answer cognitively challenging questions while doing beginner-level square-stepping exercise (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of interventions on standardized global cognitive function (GCF) scores at 26 wk was compared between the groups using the linear mixed effects model approach. Participants (n = 44; 68% female; mean [SD] age: 73.5 [7.2] yr) had on average, objective evidence of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, mean [SD]: 24.9 [1.9]) but not dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination scores, mean [SD]: 28.8 [1.2]). After 26 wk, the EDT group showed greater improvement in GCF scores compared with the EO group (difference between groups in mean change [95% CI]: 0.20 SD [0.01-0.39], P = 0.04). A 26-wk group-based exercise program combined with dual-task training improved GCF in community-dwelling older adults without dementia.

  11. Healthy Older Adults Have Insufficient Hip Range of Motion and Plantar Flexor Strength to Walk Like Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Dennis Earl; Madigan, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint R...

  12. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  13. Regular exercise is associated with a reduction in the risk of NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in individuals with NAFLD independent of obesity in Korean adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n = 19,921 were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53-0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7-21.6 kg/m(2. While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99, for AST and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81, for ALT than did subjects in non-exercise group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity.

  14. Frequency and levels of autoantibodies in healthy adult Omanis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; A-Belushi Mohammad; Nanze, Herburt

    2003-01-01

    A previous pilot study showed high frequency of anti-smooth muscle autoantibody in Omani blood donors and pregnant women. We conducted this larger-scale study to investigate the frequency and significance of several autoantibodies in healthy individuals from different regions of Oman. Sera obtained from 1537 healthy Omanis (1153 males and 384 females ), ranging in age from 18 to 57 years, tested for the presence of ten different autoantibodies using indirect immunofluoresence, haemagglutination and latex agglutination techniques. Low levels of autoantibodies were detected in 33.5%, whereas a few individuals (1.8%) showed high autoantibody titres. Anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies (ASMA) were the most prevalent (11%). Anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were the second most prevalent (7.6%). Anti-thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (ATMA) and anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (ATA) were present in 6.5% and 4.4% of individuals,respectively. The other autoantibodies were detected much less frequently: anti-parietal cells autoandibodies (APCA) were found in 1.6%,anti-brush border antibodies (ABBA) in 1.3% anti-reticulin autoantibodies (ARA) in 1%, anti-mitochondrial antibodies in 0.8%, antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies (AGBMA) in 0.7% and rheumatoid factor(RF) in 0.4%.Low levels of autoantibodies were detected in 33.5%, whereas a few individuals (1.8%) showed high autoantibody titres. Anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies (ASMA) were the most prevalent (11%). Anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were the second most prevalent (7.6%). Anti-thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (ATMA) and anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (ATA) were present in 6.5% and 4.4% of individuals,respectively. The other autoantibodies were detected much less frequently: anti-parietal cells autoandibodies (APCA) were found in 1.6%,anti-brush border antibodies (ABBA) in 1.3% anti-reticulin autoantibodies (ARA) in 1%, anti-mitochondrial antibodies in 0.8%, antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies

  15. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  16. Effect of atopic skin stressors on natural moisturizing factors and cytokines in healthy adult epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, K A; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2018-01-01

    : To explore the effect of selected exogenous skin stressors on NMF and skin cytokines levels in healthy adult epidermis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 healthy volunteers (18-49 years) were exposed to hard, soft, and chlorinated water, 0.5% SLS, house dust mite, cat allergen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB...... of various skin cytokines in healthy individuals. Our data highlight environmental factors that might play a role in AD pathophysiology, but needs confirmation in AD patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, K M M; Veldman, M P; Solnik, S; Koch, G; Zijdewind, I; Hortobágyi, T

    2015-06-01

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults and examined if specific metrics of neuronal excitability measured by magnetic brain stimulation mediate the practice and retention effects. Eleven healthy old adults practiced a wrist extension-flexion visuomotor skill for 20 min (MP, 71.3 years), while a second group only watched the templates without movements (attentional control, AC, n = 11, 70.5 years). There was 40 % motor learning in MP but none in AC (interaction, p learn a new motor skill and consolidate the learned skill into motor memory, processes that are most likely mediated by disinhibitory mechanisms. These results are relevant for the increasing number of old adults who need to learn and relearn movements during motor rehabilitation.

  18. Bioavailability and tolerability of combination treatment with revaprazan 200 mg + itopride 150 mg: a randomized crossover study in healthy male Korean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Youn; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Mi-Jo; Sung, Hyeryoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Sung Jae; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2012-09-01

    To date, no definitive treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD) has been proven to be effective and reasonably well-tolerated. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) combined with prokinetic agents are considered an effective option. Revaprazan is a selective potassium-competitive acid blocker that reversibly inhibits gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and shows effective acid suppression comparable to PPIs. Itopride is a prokinetic agent that has anticholinesterase activity as well as dopamine D(2) receptor antagonistic activity. For this reason, revaprazan and itopride have been prescribed for FD; however, no available studies have reported the pharmacokinetic interactions of these 2 drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of revaprazan and itopride combination therapy to those of equally dosed monotherapies to acquire basic drug-drug interaction information about revaprazan. This multiple-dose, randomized crossover study was conducted in healthy male Korean subjects. Subjects received, in randomized sequence, a 7-day oral dose of revaprazan 200 mg once daily, itopride 50 mg TID, or both. Each treatment period was separated by a 7-day washout period. Blood samples were collected for up to 24 hours following the last dose at steady state, and drug concentrations were determined using validated LC/MS-MS. Pharmacokinetic properties were obtained using noncompartmental analysis. Drug tolerability was assessed throughout the study, using measurements of vital signs, clinical chemistry testing, and interviews. A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in the study. Among them, 28 subjects completed revaprazan treatment, and 27 completed the study (3 subjects were withdrawn). The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CI) of C(max,ss), and AUC(τ,ss) with revaprazan were 0.92 (0.84-1.00) and 0.96 (0.89-1.03), respectively. The GMRs of C(max,ss) and AUC(τ,ss) with itopride were 1.07 (0.96-1.20) and 1.12 (1.06-1.18), respectively. A total of 15 adverse

  19. Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony W F

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced threat-related processing is associated with both elevated anxiety and childhood exposure to trauma. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure on subsequent psychophysiological processes in the absence of psychopathology, we investigated the relative impacts of childhood interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, as well as adult trauma exposure on neural processing of threat in healthy adults. We measured peak amplitudes of the N170 face-sensitive visual ERP component response to non-conscious and conscious Angry (threat) versus Happy (non-threat, positive) and Neutral (non-threat baseline) faces at temporo-occipital sites (right-T6; left-T5) in 489 psychiatrically asymptomatic adults (aged 18-70 years, 54% women, 94% right-handed). N170 peak amplitude differences between Angry vs Happy or Neutral faces were calculated and subjected to hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with trauma types (childhood interpersonal, childhood non-interpersonal and adult trauma) entered as predictors of interest. After controlling for sociodemographic and health factors, N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious Angry vs Happy faces were inversely associated with childhood interpersonal trauma at T6 and adult trauma exposure at T5. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVA indicated that unlike adults without trauma exposure, trauma-exposed adults failed to show significantly reduced N170 responses to Happy relative to Angry faces during non-conscious processing. This suggests that childhood interpersonal and adult trauma exposure are associated with a failure to differentiate between non-threat or positive and threat-related emotion cues. This is consistent with generalised hypervigilance seen in PTSD, and suggests trauma exposure is associated with a generalized heightened responsivity to non-conscious non-threat or positive as well as threat-related emotion cues in psychiatrically healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  20. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. Association of sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions with intention to quit smoking in Korean adults: findings from the ITC Korea Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.

  2. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (≥20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perception of the older adults regarding the practise of physical activity and healthy eating

    OpenAIRE

    de Rosso Krug, Rodrigo; Rodrigues Barbosa, Aline; Aita Monego, Estela; Ferreira de Mello, Ana Lúcia Schaefer; Francielle França, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the perception of regular physical activity and healthy eating among the older adults. Methods: This descriptive study (qualitative approach) included 36 older adults (69 to 91 years) residents in a rural community in southern Brazil. A semi-structured interview was used and the information were recorded, transcribed and interpreted (content analysis technique). Results: The following categories of analysis were identified: a) facilitators and barriers for the practis...

  4. Healthy adult aging and decision-making:Is it all downhill from here?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinvest, Neal

    2015-01-01

    As we age there are significant changes to our brain structure and cognitive functioning. There is a substantial body of literature exploring changes to memory and attention during healthy adult aging. There has been considerably less focus on the impact of aging on other areas of cognition, specifically, decision-making. This is surprising given that choices are ubiquitous in daily life across the lifespan. For example, older adults still face many significant decisions including those conce...

  5. Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics and Their Joint Association With Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Branscum, Adam; Hanks, June; Smit, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics and to examine the association between different combinations of healthy lifestyle characteristics and cardiovascular disease biomarkers. The prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics was estimated for the US adult population (N=4745) using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for the following parameters: being sufficiently active (accelerometer), eating a healthy diet (Healthy Eating Index based on 24-hour recalls), being a nonsmoker (serum cotinine level), and having a recommended body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Cardiovascular biomarkers included mean arterial pressure, C-reactive protein, white blood cells (WBCs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, and homocysteine. The study was conducted from August 15, 2013, through January 5, 2016. Only 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.4%) of all adults had all 4 healthy lifestyle characteristics. Participants with 3 or 4 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics had more favorable biomarker levels except for mean arterial blood pressure, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. Having at least 1 or 2 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics was favorably associated with C-reactive protein, WBCs, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and homocysteine. For HDL-C and total cholesterol, the strongest correlate was body fat percentage. For homocysteine, a healthy diet and not smoking were strong correlates; for WBCs, diet was not a strong correlate. Although multiple healthy lifestyle characteristics are important, specific health characteristics may be more important for particular cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Higher Eating Frequency Does Not Decrease Appetite in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam; Wang, Ching-Yun; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. In adult patients with type 1 diabetes healthy lifestyle associates with a better cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, C; Gingras, V; Desjardins, K; Brazeau, A-S; Ott-Braschi, S; Strychar, I; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of adults with T1D who adopted a healthy lifestyle and to explore the association between a healthy lifestyle and the cardiometabolic profile. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 115 adults with T1D. Participants wore a motion sensor and completed a 3-day food record. The following CMR factors were assessed: body mass index, waist circumference, body composition (iDXA), glycated hemoglobin, lipids and blood pressure. Insulin resistance was estimated (estimated glucose disposal rate). Participants were classified according to the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted (ranging from 0 to 3): regular physical activity (physical activity level ≥1.7), good diet quality (Canadian Healthy Eating Index score >80) and none-smoking status. The proportion of participants who adopted 3, 2, 1 or 0 lifestyle habits were 11%, 30%, 37%, and 23%, respectively. As the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted increased, participants had significantly lower body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure (p healthy lifestyle habit, body mass index decreased by 1.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference by 4.0 cm for men and 4.8 cm for women and trunk fat by 3.6% for men and 4.1% for women. These results suggest the importance of a healthy lifestyle among adults with T1D in order to control CMR factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical assessment of organizational strategy: An examination of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pia; White, Desirée A

    2015-06-01

    During the assessment of patients with cognitive difficulties, clinicians often examine strategic processing, particularly the ability to use organization-based strategies to efficiently complete various tasks. Several commonly used neuropsychological tasks are currently thought to provide measures of organizational strategic processing, but empirical evidence for the construct validity of these strategic measures is needed before interpreting them as measuring the same underlying ability. This is particularly important for the assessment of organizational strategic processing because the measures span cognitive domains (e.g., memory strategy, language strategy) as well as types of organization. In the present study, 200 adults were administered cognitive tasks commonly used in clinical practice to assess organizational strategic processing. Factor analysis was used to examine whether these measures of organizational strategic processing, which involved different cognitive domains and types of organization, could be operationalized as measuring a unitary construct. A very good-fitting model of the data demonstrated no significant shared variance among any of the strategic variables from different tasks (root mean square error of approximation strategic processing is highly specific to the demands and goals of individual tasks even when tasks share commonalities such as involving the same cognitive domain. In the design of neuropsychological batteries involving the assessment of organizational strategic processing, it is recommended that various strategic measures across cognitive domains and types of organizational processing are selected as guided by each patient's individual cognitive difficulties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Psychosocial factors and health behavior among Korean adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2012-01-01

    This study was an attempt to identify associations between health behavior, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, healthy diet, and physical activity, and psychosocial factors. This cross- sectional study was conducted among 1,500 participants aged between 30 and 69 years, selected from a population-based database in October 2009 through multiple-stratified random sampling. Information was collected about the participants' smoking and drinking habits, dietary behavior, level of physical activity, stress, coping strategies, impulsiveness, personality, social support, sense of coherence, self-efficacy, health communication, and sociodemographics. Agreeableness, as a personality trait, was negatively associated with smoking and a healthy diet, while extraversion was positively associated with drinking. The tendency to consume a healthy diet decreased in individuals with perceived higher stress, whereas it increased in individuals who had access to greater social support. Self-efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of all health behaviors. Provider-patient communication and physical environment were important factors in promoting positive healthy behavior, such as consumption of a healthy diet and taking regular exercise. Psychosocial factors influence individuals' smoking and drinking habits, dietary intake, and exercise patterns.

  10. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  11. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Pieniak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. Methods/design This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers’ attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1 Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2 Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3 Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. Trial

  12. Prevalence of Prediabetes and Abdominal Obesity Among Healthy-Weight Adults: 18-Year Trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Jo, Ara; Anton, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    Trends in sedentary lifestyle may have influenced adult body composition and metabolic health among individuals at presumably healthy weights. This study examines the nationally representative prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity among healthy-weight adults in 1988 through 2012. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and NHANES for the years 1999 to 2012, focusing on adults aged 20 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.99 and do not have diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed. We defined prediabetes using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ranges from 5.7% to 6.4%, as specified by the American Diabetes Association. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. The prevalence of prediabetes among healthy-weight adults, aged 20 years and older and without diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, increased from 10.2% in 1988-1994 to 18.5% in 2012. Among individuals aged 45 years and older, the prevalence of prediabetes increased from 22.0% to 33.1%. The percentage of adults aged 20 years and older with an unhealthy waist circumference increased from 5.6% in 1988-1994 to 7.6% in 2012. The percentage of individuals with an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio increased from 27.2% in 1988-1994 to 33.7% in 2012. Adjusted models found that measures of abdominal obesity were not independent predictors of prediabetes among adults with a healthy BMI. Among individuals within a healthy BMI range, the prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity has substantially increased. Abdominal obesity does not appear to be the primary cause of the increase. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  13. Lower Limb Function in Elderly Korean Adults Is Related to Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A-Sol; Ko, Hae-Jin

    2018-05-01

    Patients with cognitive impairment have decreased lower limb function. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between lower limb function and cognitive disorders to determine whether lower limb function can be screened to identify cognitive decline. Using Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database data, we assessed the cognitive and lower limb functioning of 66-year-olds who underwent national health screening between 2010 and 2014. Cognitive function was assessed via a questionnaire. Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and one-leg-standing (OLS) tests were performed to evaluate lower limb function. Associations between cognitive and lower limb functions were analyzed, and optimal cut-off points for these tests to screen for cognitive decline, were determined. Cognitive function was significantly correlated with TUG interval ( r = 0.414, p cognitive disorders were >11 s and ≤12 s for TUG interval and OLS duration, respectively. Among 66-year-olds who underwent national health screening, a significant correlation between lower limb and cognitive function was demonstrated. The TUG and OLS tests are useful screening tools for cognitive disorders in elderly patients. A large-scale prospective cohort study should be conducted to investigate the causal relationship between cognitive and lower limb function.

  14. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Using nationwide stratified random sampling, 8,596 participants aged ≥ 40 years of age with available spirometry results were recruited. After selecting participants who never smoked, the duration of exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed based on the KNHANES questionnaire. The prevalence of COPD was 6.67% in participants who never smoked. We divided the participants who had never smoked into those with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. The group exposed to secondhand smoke was younger with less history of asthma and tuberculosis, higher income, and higher educational status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that secondhand smoke did not increase the prevalence of COPD. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of COPD between participants who had never smoked with or without exposure to secondhand smoke in our study. Thus, secondhand smoke may not be an important risk factor for the development of COPD in patients who have never smoked.

  15. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. A randomized trial on the effects of 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Korean diet patterns on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Natalia; Park, Young-Hee; Kang, Min-Sook; Kim, Yangsuk; Ha, Grace K; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Yates, Allison A; Caballero, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    Dietary patterns that are considered healthy (eg, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet and Mediterranean diet) may be more successful in reducing typical cardiovascular disease risks compared to dietary patterns considered unhealthy (eg, energy-dense diets such as the typical American diet). This study assessed the effects of a Korean diet, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), and a typical American diet on cardiometabolic risk factors, including lipid levels and blood pressure, in overweight, non-Asian individuals in the United States with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The study was a three-period crossover, controlled-feeding study from January 2012 to May 2012. Thirty-one subjects were randomly allocated to one of six possible sequential orders for consuming the three diets for 4 weeks, each separated by a 10-day break. Data analysis included 27 subjects on the Korean diet periods and 29 in the DGA and typical American diet periods. Subjects remained weight stable. Lipid profile, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and 24-hour urinary sodium were determined at baseline and at the end of each diet period. The additive main effects multiplicative interactions model was used to test for a subject by diet interaction. Differences among diets were determined using a mixed-models procedure (PROC MIXED) with random intercept for each subject. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased on Korean (P<0.0001 and P<0.01, respectively) and DGA (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) diets, but not on the typical American diet. Although an unfavorable outcome, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased on all three diets (Korean: P<0.0001; DGA: P<0.0001; typical American: P<0.05). No diet had a significant effect on serum triglycerides, but a slight increase in triglycerides in the Korean and decrease in the DGA resulted in a significant difference between these two diets (P<0.01). All

  18. Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choonghee; Choi, Wookhee; Hwang, Moonyoung; Lee, Youngmee; Kim, Suejin; Yu, Seungdo; Lee, Inae; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-04-15

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been used extensively in many consumer products, resulting in widespread exposure in the general population. Studies have suggested associations between exposure to phthalates and BPA, and serum thyroid hormone levels, but confirmation on larger human populations is warranted. Data obtained from nationally representative Korean adults (n=6003) recruited for the second round of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS), 2012-2014, were employed. Three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, along with benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites, and BPA were measured in subjects' urine. Thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in serum. The associations between urinary phthalates or BPA and thyroid hormone levels were determined. Urinary phthalate metabolites were generally associated with lowered total T4 or T3, or increased TSH levels in serum. Interquartile range (IQR) increases of mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) were associated with a 3.7% increase of TSH, and a 1.7% decrease of total T4 levels, respectively. When grouped by sex, urinary MEHHP levels were inversely associated with T4 only among males. Among females, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) levels were inversely associated with TSH and T3, respectively. In addition, negative association between BPA and TSH was observed. Several phthalates and BPA exposures were associated with altered circulatory thyroid hormone levels among general Korean adult population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones, public health implications of such alteration warrant further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. METHODS: The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking...

  20. Improving Naming Abilities among Healthy Young-Old Adults Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, Adi; Mashal, Nira

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive tool to facilitate brain plasticity and enhance language abilities. Our study aims to search for a potential beneficial influence of tDCS on a cognitive linguistic task of naming which found to decline during aging. A group of fifteen healthy old adults (M = 64.93 ± 5.09 years) were…

  1. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  2. The longitudinal relation between smoking and muscle strength in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maarten O; Hoekstra, T.; Twisk, Jos W R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess longitudinally whether smoking tobacco is related to muscle strength in healthy adults and to assess the influence of lifestyle covariates on this relation. METHODS: Data were obtained from the observational Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, with four repeated

  3. Metabolic Characteristics and Risks Associated with Stone Recurrence in Korean Young Adult Stone Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.

  4. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Eun

    2018-04-01

    Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008-December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07-1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence ( P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking.

  6. Assessment of Normal Eyeball Protrusion Using Computed Tomographic Imaging and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Gil, Young-Chun; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Shin, Hyun Jin; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess normal eyeball protrusion from the orbital rim using two- and three-dimensional images and demonstrate the better suitability of CT images for assessment of exophthalmos. The facial computed tomographic (CT) images of Korean adults were acquired in sagittal and transverse views. The CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volume of faces using computer software. The protrusion distances from orbital rims and the diameters of eyeballs were measured in the two views of the CT image and three-dimensional volume of the face. Relative exophthalmometry was calculated by the difference in protrusion distance between the right and left sides. The eyeball protrusion was 4.9 and 12.5 mm in sagittal and transverse views, respectively. The protrusion distances were 2.9 mm in the three-dimensional volume of face. There were no significant differences between right and left sides in the degree of protrusion, and the difference was within 2 mm in more than 90% of the subjects. The results of the present study will provide reliable criteria for precise diagnosis and postoperative monitoring using CT imaging of diseases such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and orbital tumors.

  7. Association between grip strength and hand and knee radiographic osteoarthritis in Korean adults: Data from the Dong-gu study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Wen

    Full Text Available We assessed whether grip strength was related to various types of radiographic damage in Korean adults with osteoarthritis (OA.Data from 2,251 subjects enrolled in the Dong-gu study, who had no hand joint pain, were analyzed to investigate the relationship between grip strength and OA. Hand grip strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer, and radiographs of the hand and knee were scored according to a semi-quantitative grading system. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore associations between grip strength and radiographic features of OA.Grip strength in men and women was negatively related to hand (both p < 0.001 and knee (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.010 OA after adjusting for confounders. Hand (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.001 and knee (both p < 0.001 joint space narrowing (JSN showed the strongest associations with low grip strength, regardless of gender. Moreover, the severity of hand osteophytes in women (p = 0.001, and subchondral cysts (men, p < 0.001 was correlated with low grip strength in both genders.Among subjects without hand joint pain, low grip strength was associated significantly with hand and knee radiographic OA, regardless of gender. Among all types of OA radiographic damage, low grip strength showed the strongest association with JSN.

  8. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of the oral sarpogrelate hydrochloride controlled-release tablet in healthy male Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Kim, Tae-Eun; Lee, Soo-Youn; Huh, Wooseong; Lee, Jae Won; Jun, Hun; Ko, Jae-Wook

    2013-07-01

    A new controlled-release formulation of sarpogrelate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype 2 antagonist that blocks serotonin-induced platelet aggregation, has been developed for once-daily administration. This study evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of controlled-release sarpogrelate (sarpogrelate CR) in healthy volunteers. A randomized, open-label, two-period, two-treatment crossover study was performed in healthy male Korean subjects. Following an overnight fast, a single dose of sarpogrelate CR 300 mg was administered either in the fasted condition or immediately after a high-fat breakfast. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental analysis. Tolerability was determined using clinical laboratory testing and physical examination, including vital sign measurements, electrocardiography, and interviews with the volunteers regarding adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy subjects were enrolled, 23 of whom completed the study (mean [range] age, 26 years [21-45]; weight, 68.1 kg [56.0-79.9]; body mass index, 22.1 kg/m(2) [18.8-25.0]). Sarpogrelate C(max) and AUC(last) were decreased In the fed condition compared with those in the fasted condition, with geometric mean ratios (90% CI) of 0.4868 (0.4041-0.5864) and 0.7394 (0.6809-0.8028), respectively. T(max) was delayed from 0.75 to 4.0 hours after a high-fat meal, but the fed condition exhibited a similar elimination profile to that of the fasted condition. The most commonly reported AE was headache (n = 2), and other AEs were reported in 1 subject each. All of the AEs were considered mild in intensity, and the participants recovered without treatment. Compared with the administration of sarpogrelate CR 300 mg in the fasted condition, administration with food was associated with a decreased rate and extent of absorption, as assessed by C(max) and AUC(last), respectively. The drug was well-tolerated by the healthy subjects in this study. Copyright © 2013

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of a Korean Version of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Eunyoung; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Kim, Moonsun; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale-Korean (ARMS-K) among Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The Korean translated ARMS-K was back-translated to ensure translation equivalency. A cross-sectional survey was used to evaluate the psychometric properties with exploratory factor analysis for validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficients for reliability. The factor analysis of construct validity identified 3 dimensions of the ARMS-K, explaining 54.7% of the total variance. The internal consistency reliability for the total instrument was acceptable with a Cronbach's alpha of .801. There was good correlation between the ARMS-K and 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-Korean version (r = -0.698), indicating that these scales measure theoretically related constructs as evidence of convergent validity. As evidence of known groups validity, there was a significant association between the ARMS-K score and glycemic control (P = .048), indicating that the good glycemic controlled group was more likely to have a higher rate of adherence to refills and medications than the poor glycemic controlled group. These results support the cross-cultural applicability of the concepts underlying the ARMS-K. The ARMS-K can be used not only to assess adherence to refills and medications in Koreans with diabetes but also to examine the potential role of adherence to refills and medications in enhanced glycemic control of people with diabetes in a variety of clinical settings. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. UnAdulterated - children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  12. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Bots, Michiel L; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J; Westenberg, Jos J M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Hoefer, Imo E; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25-30 and 30-35 years) and both sexes were tested. Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all page or sex effect. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing.

  14. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  15. Factors That Affect Suicidal Attempt Risk Among Korean Elderly Adults: A Path Analysis

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    Junsoo Ro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Among the Korean elderly (those 65 years of age and older, the suicide rate is 80.3/100 000 people, which is ten times higher than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development average. Because South Korea is rapidly becoming an aging population, this high elderly suicidal rate will only get worse. Although the size of the elderly suicide problem is quite large, previous research in South Korea has surveyed restricted areas and not the entire country. Even though the factors that affect elderly suicide are complicated, there has been little research into these influencing factors. Thus, this research uses the national survey data (Community Health Survey that was obtained in 2009. Additionally, we analyze factors affecting elderly suicidal ideation and attempts as well as the paths of these effects. Methods: Community Health Survey data obtained by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009 was used for this study. We additionally examined the factors that affect suicide with chi-squared tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation test, and path analysis. Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are the only factors that directly affect suicidal attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors have indirect effects on suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Depression has the strongest influence on suicidal ideation and attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts mostly through depressive symptoms. In addition, there is a path that suggests that demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts not through depression symptoms but only through suicidal ideation. This means that the elderly who do not have depression symptoms attempt suicide according to their own situations and characteristics.

  16. The risk factors of laryngeal pathology in Korean adults using a decision tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting laryngeal pathology in the Korean population and to evaluate the derived prediction model. Cross-sectional study. Data were drawn from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The subjects were 3135 persons (1508 male and 2114 female) aged 19 years and older living in the community. The independent variables were age, sex, occupation, smoking, alcohol drinking, and self-reported voice problems. A decision tree analysis was done to identify risk factors for predicting a model of laryngeal pathology. The significant risk factors of laryngeal pathology were age, gender, occupation, smoking, and self-reported voice problem in decision tree model. Four significant paths were identified in the decision tree model for the prediction of laryngeal pathology. Those identified as high risk groups for laryngeal pathology included those who self-reported a voice problem, those who were males in their 50s who did not recognize a voice problem, those who were not economically active males in their 40s, and male workers aged 19 and over and under 50 or 60 and over who currently smoked. The results of this study suggest that individual risk factors, such as age, sex, occupation, health behavior, and self-reported voice problem, affect the onset of laryngeal pathology in a complex manner. Based on the results of this study, early management of the high-risk groups is needed for the prevention of laryngeal pathology. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-specific effects of social networks on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jiwon; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease among older adults, and is associated with medical complications and mortality. This study aimed to examine the effects of social network characteristics on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older adults. The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) interviewed 814 ≥ 60-year-old residents and their spouses from a rural township between December 2011 and March 2012 (response rate: 95%). We evaluated the data from 595 participants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of network characteristics on hypertension. We observed strong sex-specific network effects on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Among older women, network density was associated with hypertension awareness [odds ratio (OR): 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-5.37] and control (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.94-3.13). Among older men, large networks were associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58-0.96). Compared to older women, older men with coarse networks exhibited better hypertension awareness (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-0.95) and control (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). Network size interacted with density for hypertension control (P = 0.051), with controlled hypertension being associated with large and course networks. A large network was associated with a lower risk for hypertension, and a coarse network was associated with hypertension awareness and control among older men. Older women with dense networks were most likely to exhibit hypertension awareness and control.

  18. How behavioral norm and social influence affect smoking in young adulthood: the experience of Korean young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heali Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This qualitative study explored the smoking behavior and its socio-environmental contexts of Korean young adults aged 19-30 years, the age group with an upward trend of smoking. Methods 8 focus groups with 63 participants in Seoul discussed the meaning, behavior, and experience of smoking and its environment. The groups were formed by the current status of smoking(daily, social, and former, gender, and occupation. Thematic analysis was performed on all focus groups. Results The exposure to paternal and peer smoking in childhood lowered resistance and increased access to smoking. It particularly created a belief that smoking is a behavioral option to release stress. Smoking also meant an opportunity to have a break at work, school, and military service among that allows time to be alone or to socialize with other smokers. Drinking alcohol facilitated smoking to get drunk faster or better, and to be part of drinking occasions and members, which increased the amount of smoking. The young adults were sensitive to social atmosphere and thus conscious about their smoking in public places under the current policies. Whilst they supported the policy that separates smoking areas not to harm non-smokers, they wanted their choice to smoke to be respected as well. Those who perceived quitting smoking to be easy tended to think that they might smoke again but then could quit again easily. High accessibility to cigarettes in the community was a challenge for quitting smoking. Conclusions Parental smoking, solicitation to smoke among friends and colleagues, and a high availability and accessibility to cigarettes in the community are focal topics for tobacco free generation. Clear and rational explanation of tobacco policy and environmental approaches would facilitate controlling tobacco use of young population. This work was supported by the Research Program funded by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(2016P3500300.

  19. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high traditional rice cake consumption is associated inversely with colorectal cancer incidence, warranting a future study.

  20. Association of Some Vitamins and Minerals with Periodontitis in a Nationally Representative Sample of Korean Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-A; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the intakes of some kinds of vitamins and minerals are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of young adults. This study comprised 2049 young adults aged 19-39 years who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The vitamin and mineral intakes were calculated from dietary intake data gained by complete one-day 24-h recall interviews, and the intake levels for each nutrient were classified by the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) in Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans and median values. Periodontitis was assessed using Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in a whole sample and subgroups with the strata of gender or smoking, following a complex sampling design. In analyses according to RNI, a lower intake of niacin was significantly associated with periodontitis in young adults (odd ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.09-2.00) and in its subgroup of women (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.10-2.64) and current non-smokers (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.22-2.51). Whereas, in analyses according to median intake values, there were significant associations of periodontitis with a lower intake of niacin in women (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.46) and current non-smokers (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.01-2.22), with lower intake of vitamin C in women (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.04-2.64) and in current non-smokers (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.04-2.14), with lower intake of iron in women (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.11-3.07), and with lower intake of vitamin A marginally in women (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.00-2.44). In young adults, periodonitis is significantly associated with the lower intakes of niacin, vitamin C, and iron, especially in women and current non-smokers.

  1. Factors Affecting Adult Student Dropout Rates in the Korean Cyber-University Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun; Kim, Byoung Uk

    2018-01-01

    Few empirical studies of adult distance learners' decisions to drop out of degree programs have used large enough sample sizes to generalize the findings or data sets drawn from multiple online programs that address various subjects. Accordingly, in this study, we used a large administrative data set drawn from multiple online degree programs to…

  2. Schooling, Learning Disposition, and Life Course Transitions: A Life History Study on Korean Elite Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seonjoo

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the crystallized learning disposition formed in secondary schools and its persistent influence on the transition between educational sectors and the workplace. Using interview data from eight adults who graduated from a prestigious university in Korea, this study reveals that "exam-inclined self-direction," a manner…

  3. Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-12-11

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

  4. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  5. Naturalistic Assessment of Executive Function and Everyday Multitasking in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults. PMID:23557096

  6. Averaged head phantoms from magnetic resonance images of Korean children and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miran; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do; Jung, Yong Wook; Park, Jin Seo

    2018-02-01

    Increased use of mobile phones raises concerns about the health risks of electromagnetic radiation. Phantom heads are routinely used for radiofrequency dosimetry simulations, and the purpose of this study was to construct averaged phantom heads for children and young adults. Using magnetic resonance images (MRI), sectioned cadaver images, and a hybrid approach, we initially built template phantoms representing 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-year-old children and young adults. Our subsequent approach revised the template phantoms using 29 averaged items that were identified by averaging the MRI data from 500 children and young adults. In females, the brain size and cranium thickness peaked in the early teens and then decreased. This is contrary to what was observed in males, where brain size and cranium thicknesses either plateaued or grew continuously. The overall shape of brains was spherical in children and became ellipsoidal by adulthood. In this study, we devised a method to build averaged phantom heads by constructing surface and voxel models. The surface model could be used for phantom manipulation, whereas the voxel model could be used for compliance test of specific absorption rate (SAR) for users of mobile phones or other electronic devices.

  7. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 phealthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a healthy diet remained

  8. Association between childhood and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Korean young adults with Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, DongIll; Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Namkoong, Kee; Jung, Young-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities of Internet addiction (IA); however, the possible mechanisms that contribute to this high comorbidity are still under debate. This study aims to analyze these possible mechanisms by comparing the effect of IA severity and childhood ADHD on inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in young adults with IA. We hypothesized that IA might have associations with ADHD-like cogni...

  9. Association between childhood and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Korean young adults with Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DongIll; Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Namkoong, Kee; Jung, Young-Chul

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities of Internet addiction (IA); however, the possible mechanisms that contribute to this high comorbidity are still under debate. This study aims to analyze these possible mechanisms by comparing the effect of IA severity and childhood ADHD on inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in young adults with IA. We hypothesized that IA might have associations with ADHD-like cognitive and behavior symptoms aside from childhood ADHD. Methods Study participants consisted of 61 young male adults. Participants were administered a structured interview. The severity of IA, childhood and current ADHD symptoms, and psychiatry comorbid symptoms were assessed through self-rating scales. The associations between the severity of IA and ADHD symptoms were examined through hierarchical regression analyses. Results Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the severity of IA significantly predicted most dimensions of ADHD symptoms. By contrast, childhood ADHD predicted only one dimension. Discussion The high comorbidity of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in IA should not solely be accounted by an independent ADHD disorder but should consider the possibility of cognitive symptoms related to IA. Functional and structural brain abnormalities associated with excessive and pathologic Internet usage might be related to these ADHD-like symptoms. Conclusion Inattention and hyperactivity in young adults with IA are more significantly associated with the severity of IA than that of childhood ADHD.

  10. Memory-guided force control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Samimy, Shaadee; Blouch, Samantha L; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda; Diaz, Michele T; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.

  11. Measurement and analysis of cardiopulmonary vascular in Lanzhou healthy adults with multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaonan; Guo Shunlin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To constitute a normal standard of cardiopulmonary vascular diameter and size of normal adult in Lanzhou, and to compared with the other's data reported in the previous bibliography by measuring diameter and area of cardiopulmonary artery lumen of the healthy adults in Lanzhou with multislice spiral CT (MSCT). Methods: Three hundred Lanzhou adults with no cardiopulmonary disease were equally assigned to 3 groups according to their age (A group: 18-39 years, B group: 40-60 years, C group: 61-80 years; 50 females and 50 males in each group). CT data were acquired at the end of deep inspiration phase and measurements were done on 3D reconstruction image with precise landmarks. All the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The diameters and areas of the main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery ascending aorta and descending aorta differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<0.05). In groups B and C, there were significant differences in diameters and areas of pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary between different genders (P<0.05). Conclusion: Imaging standard is provided for Lanzhou adult in early diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. The diameters and areas of main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery of Lanzhou healthy adults are different from that of other regions. It may be related to the geographical environment and the state of air pollution in Lanzhou. (authors)

  12. Designing a packaging to promote healthy and low-fat foods: Adolescents versus young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  14. Association of insulin resistance with near peak bone mass in the femur and lumbar spine of Korean adults aged 25-35: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Min Soo; Choi, Se Rin; Han, Jun Hyun; Lee, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance and the bone mineral density (BMD) of femur and lumbar spine in Korean adults who are expected to exhibit near peak bone mass. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010 were analyzed. A total of 2,750 participants aged 25−35 years were included. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum fasting insulin. Results In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the HOMA-IR was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the total hip (TH, β = −0.052, P = 0.002), femoral neck (FN, β = −0.072, Pinsulin was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the TH (β = −0.055, P = 0.001), FN (β = −0.072, Pinsulin resistance may be independently and inversely associated with the near peak bone mass of the femur and lumbar spine. PMID:28704413

  15. Relationship between heavy drinking, binge drinking, and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008–December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07–1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence (P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking. PMID:29629034

  16. Comparison of Serum Ferritin and Vitamin D in Association with the Severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIncreased serum ferritin and decreased vitamin D levels associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, their association with the severity of NAFLD has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the association of serum ferritin and 25(OHD3 levels with the severity of ultrasonographically detected NAFLD (US-NAFLD and hepatic steatosis defined by fatty liver index (FLI in Korean adults.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis of clinical and anthropometric data, including serum ferritin and 25(OHD3, from men (n=295 and women (n=263 who underwent a routine health check-up in 2012.ResultsIn men, with an increase in the quartile of serum ferritin level, the incidences of subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.002, US-NAFLD (P=0.041, and FLI ≥60 (P=0.010 were significantly elevated. In women, the incidence of subjects with US-NAFLD was also significantly elevated with increases in the serum ferritin quartile (P=0.012. Regarding 25(OHD3, no statistical differences were observed among the different quartiles in either gender. Serum ferritin level significantly increased as the severity of US-NAFLD increased (P<0.001; however, no significant differences in 25(OHD3 level were observed in men. No significant differences in either serum ferritin or 25(OHD3 level were observed among women with different levels of severity of US-NAFLD.ConclusionIncreased serum ferritin level showed a closer association with severity of NAFLD compared with level of serum vitamin D, suggesting that serum ferritin level may be a better marker than vitamin D level for predicting the severity of US-NAFLD and hepatic steatosis in a clinical setting.

  17. Associations between intakes of individual nutrients or whole food groups and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Mi; Jo, An Na; Lee, Seung Min; Bae, Hyun Suk; Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Ahn, Sang Bong; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Seong Woo; Jang, Eun Chul

    2014-06-01

    Dietary factors are closely associated with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Asian and Western diets differ in energy-nutrient composition, fatty-acid composition, and main nutritional sources; therefore, the implications would be limited if the Western-oriented study results were applied to Asian patients. We aimed to identify the nutrient and food group intakes of a typical Asian diet and assess their effects on NAFLD risk. In total, 348 subjects were recruited from 5 participating hospitals. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviors were obtained through face-to-face interviews. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Dietary intakes were assessed with a 24-h recall applying a multiple-pass approach and 4-day food records that included 1 or 2 weekend days. There were no significant differences in health-related behaviors between the cases and controls except for smoking behavior. The cases had elevated triacylglycerol, fasting glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the controls. In men, after adjusting for variables, low intakes of vitamin C (odds ratio [OR], 4.23), vitamin K (OR, 3.93), folate (OR, 3.37), omega-3 fatty acids (OR, 2.16), and nuts and seeds (OR, 3.66) were associated with a significantly higher risk for developing NAFLD. In women, vitamin K (OR, 2.54) and vegetable (OR, 4.11) intakes showed a significant beneficial effect for lowering NAFLD risk. Adequate intakes of vitamin C, vitamin K, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, nuts and seeds, and vegetables may help in preventing NAFLD in Korean adults.

  18. Sedentary Behavior and Sleep Duration Are Associated with Both Stress Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Keun Ok; Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress symptoms. Moreover, mental illness is linked with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. However, it is not clear whether sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts independent of physical activity. Thus, our study aimed to identify if sedentary time and sleep duration were associated with both stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The participants in present cross-sectional study were 4,674 general Korean adults (1,938 male; 2,736 female), aged ≥ 20 years. Prolonged sedentary time (≥ 420 min/day) was significantly associated with the increased risk of stress symptoms (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62) compared with sedentary time of stress symptoms was significant for individuals who had ≤ 5 h/day of sleep time (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38) compared with sleep duration of ≥ 7 h/day. Moreover, prolonged sedentary time (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42 in ≥ 420 min/day vs. sleep duration (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62 in ≤ 5 h/day vs. ≥ 7 h/day) were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal thoughts after adjusting for confounding factors including physical activity. Thus, prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are independently associated with both the risk of stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. From a public health perspective, reducing sedentary time and improvement of sleep deprivation may serve as an effective strategy for preventing mental illness.

  19. Low vitamin D status is associated with nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease independent of visceral obesity in Korean adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji A Seo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OHD concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation was <5 Hounsfield Units. RESULTS: In subjects with diabetes (n = 282, 25(OHD levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OHD. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OHD in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0-6.2]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OHD was observed in the high HOMA-IR (≥2.5 group [n = 207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4-10.3], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5 group [n = 592, OR 0.8 (0.3-1.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance.

  20. Assessment of various hilar measurements on PA chest of Korean normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Si Won; Park, Seog Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Appreciation of the normal position of the hila is essential in screening and diagnosis of the diseases of the chest. Many authors assessed the hilar position in normal adults using PA chest roentgenograms. However there have been no previous publication regarding consolidated assessment of various measurements. The authors carried out the present study to evaluate various hilar measurements including hilar points, hilar distances, difference between both hilar heights, hilar height ratio, and the relationship between the level of the clavicle and hila on the 500 normal PA chest roentgenograms

  1. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female. The whole participants performed computerized CPT, STROOP and TOL tests after being content and trained. Results: The obtained data indicate that there is a significant correlation coefficient between age, sex and education variables (p<0.05. Discussion: The above-mentioned tests can be used to assess selective, sustained attention and planning.

  2. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Severe infective endocarditis in a healthy adult due to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Itaru; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    A case of severe endocarditis, with complications of multiple infarction, meningitis, and ruptured mitral chordae tendineae, caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a healthy man, is reported. Emergency cardiovascular surgery was performed on the day of admission. Infective endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae is very rare, particularly in a healthy adult. In addition, microbiological analysis revealed that S. agalactiae of sequence type (ST) 19, which belongs to serotype III, was present in the patient's vegetation, mitral valve, and blood culture. It was therefore concluded that the endocarditis was caused by ST19, which has been reported as a non-invasive type of S. agalactiae. This was an extremely rare case in which S. agalactiae of ST19 caused very severe endocarditis in an adult patient with no underlying disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Low transferrin saturation is associated with impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance in the South Korean adults: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R J; Moon, J D

    2015-05-01

    The associations of transferrin saturation with diabetes have not been well evaluated and conflicting results have been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of iron indices (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) with risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2413 individuals (1150 men and 1263 women) aged 20-50 years who participated in the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of diabetes, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, anaemia, pregnancy and menopause. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured as the outcomes. Impaired fasting glucose was more prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest serum ferritin quartile among men (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.24) after adjustment for multiple covariates. Following the same adjustment, impaired fasting glucose was less prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest transferrin saturation quartile among men (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.80) and women (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.77). Moreover, a higher ferritin level was significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR after adjusting for confounders in men. Lower transferrin saturation was also significantly associated with higher insulin levels and HOMA-IR in both sexes. Lower transferrin saturations were associated with an increased risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance among general South Korean population. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  5. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Restless legs syndrome in a community sample of Korean adults: prevalence, impact on quality of life, and association with DSM-IV psychiatric disorders.

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    Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Cho, Maeng Je; Lee, Hochang B

    2009-08-01

    Conflicting reports on prevalence of RLS exist in Asian countries due to differences in sampling strategies and assessment instruments. We assessed the prevalence, correlates, quality of life, and psychiatric comorbidity of RLS in South Korea. Cross-sectional nationwide survey. Nationally representative sample of 6,509 Korean adults aged 18-64. Face-to-face interviews based on the Korean translation of the four features of RLS defined by the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG), the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI), and EuroQol (EQ-5D) were conducted for all participants. The weighted prevalence of RLS in South Korea was 0.9% (men, 0.6%; women, 1.3%). Subjects with RLS had a lower quality of life according to EQ-5D than those without RLS. Adjusted odds ratio for lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (2.57, 95% confidence interval [1.33, 4.96]), panic disorder (18.9 [4.72, 75.9]) and posttraumatic stress disorder (3.76 [1.32, 10.7]) suggest strong association between RLS and DSM-IV depression and anxiety disorders. Prevalence of RLS estimated based on the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria is substantially lower in South Korea than in Western countries. Differences in culture and risk factors that affect the expression of RLS may vary across the countries.

  7. Chewing side preference is associated with hemispheric laterality in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, Selen; İnal, Özgü; Demir, Numan; Ölmez, Merih Seval; Karaduman, Aynur Ayşe

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To investigate if chewing side preference (CSP) can be used as an indicator of hemispheric laterality in healthy adults. Materials and methods Seventy-five individuals were included. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine CSP and laterality test for preferred peripheral organs. Results Significant correlation between CSP and hand, foot, ear, and eye side preference was found (r = .41, p lateralization.

  8. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  9. Experience of Orthodontic Treatment and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint in South Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sang-Hee; Park, Shin-Goo

    2018-01-01

    No epidemiological studies have targeted the association between experience of orthodontic treatment and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a large adult population. In this study, we investigated whether experience of orthodontic treatment is associated with symptoms of TMJ in adults. We used data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), conducted in 2011. Trained dentists asked subjects to report their experience of orthodontic treatment and symptoms of TMJ. Overall, 5936 subjects aged over 19 yr were included in this study (2528 males). The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression tests. The group with experience of orthodontic treatment had more symptoms of TMJ than the group without orthodontic experience. After adjusting for all covariates (i.e., age, sex, marital status, income, education, stress, teeth injury, and occupation), the adjusted odds ratio was 2.53 (95%CI 1.74-3.67). Experience of orthodontic treatment could be related to increased symptoms of TMJ.

  10. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

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    Yu Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  11. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-09-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  12. Increased risk of metabolic disorders in healthy young adults with family history of diabetes: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Roh, Eun; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a family history of diabetes on type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and behavioral traits in young Korean adults. Subjects aged 25-44 years were included, and the presence of a family history of diabetes was obtained by a self-reported questionnaire (the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010). We compared the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and other metabolic parameters, including blood pressure and lipid profile. Of 2059 participants, those with a family history of diabetes involving first-degree relatives (n = 489, 23.7%) had a significantly higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (14.3 vs. 11.7%) and type 2 diabetes (6.7 vs. 1.8%), compared to those without a family history ( P  metabolic syndrome (21.3 vs. 12.1%, P  family history of diabetes. Among subjects exhibiting normal glucose tolerance (n = 1704), those with a family history of diabetes had higher fasting glucose (89.0 vs. 87.8 mg/dL, P  family history of diabetes. Young adults with a family history of diabetes had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, even though they currently exhibited a normal glycemic profile. Proactive lifestyle consultation is requested especially among healthy young population with a family history of diabetes.

  13. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  14. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CV I ]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  16. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of a telmisartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2015-10-01

    As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test

  18. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in healthy Korean men: cross-sectional study

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    Yang Long In

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship between fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance (IR in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA composition in healthy Korean men. Methods Healthy men (n = 576, 30 ~ 79 years old were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1-10154G>T, FADS2 (rs174575C>G, rs2727270C>T, and FADS3 (rs1000778C>T SNPs. Dietary intake, serum phospholipid FA composition and HOMA-IR were measured. Results Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the rs174575G allele carriers than the CC homozygotes, but lower in the rs2727270T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. The proportion of linoleic acid (18:2ω-6, LA was higher in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154G>T, rs174575C>G and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3ω-6, DGLA and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, AA in serum phospholipids were significantly lower in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154 G>T carriers and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes respectively. AA was also significantly lower in the rs1000778T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. HOMA-IR positively correlated with LA and DGLA and negatively with AA/DGLA in total subjects. Interestingly, rs174575G allele carriers showed remarkably higher HOMA-IR than the CC homozygotes when subjects had higher proportions of DLGA (≥1.412% in total serum phospholipid FA composition (P for interaction = 0.009 or of AA (≥4.573% (P for interaction = 0.047. Conclusion HOMA-IR is associated with FADS gene cluster as well as with FA composition in serum phospholipids. Additionally, HOMA-IR may be modulated by the interaction between rs174575C>G and the proportion of DGLA or AA in serum phospholipids.

  19. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  20. Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO Norms in Healthy Tunisian Adults

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    Sonia Rouatbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To establish FeNO norms for healthy Tunisian adults aged 18–60 years and to prospectively assess their reliability. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. A convenience sample of healthy Tunisian adults was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire, and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant, Belgium. Clinical, anthropometric, and plethysmographic data were collected. All analyses were performed on natural logarithm values of FeNO. Results. 257 adults (145 males were retained. The proposed reference equation to predict FeNO value is lnFeNO (ppb = 3.47−0.56× height (m. After the predicted FeNO value for a given adult was computed, the upper limit of normal could be obtained by adding 0.60 ppb. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum of FeNO (ppb for the total sample was 13.54±4.87 (5.00–26.00. For Tunisian and Arab adults of any age and height, any FeNO value greater than 26.00 ppb may be considered abnormal. Finally, in an additional group of adults prospectively assessed, we found no adult with a FeNO higher than 26.00 ppb. Conclusion. The present FeNO norms enrich the global repository of FeNO norms that the clinician can use to choose the most appropriate norms.

  1. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

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    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  2. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pdry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pmercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  4. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

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    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Exercise accelerates wound healing among healthy older adults: a preliminary investigation.

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    Emery, Charles F; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B; Frid, David J

    2005-11-01

    Older adults are likely to experience delayed rates of wound healing, impaired neuroendocrine responsiveness, and increased daily stress. Exercise activity has been shown to have a positive effect on physiological functioning and psychological functioning among older adults. This study evaluated the effect of a 3-month exercise program on wound healing, neuroendocrine function, and perceived stress among healthy older adults. Twenty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 61.0 +/- 5.5 years) were assigned randomly to an exercise activity group (n = 13) or to a nonexercise control group (n = 15). One month following baseline randomization, after exercise participants had acclimated to the exercise routine, all participants underwent an experimental wound procedure. Wounds were measured 3 times per week until healed to calculate rate of wound healing. All participants completed assessments of exercise endurance, salivary cortisol, and self-reported stress prior to randomization and at the conclusion of the intervention. Exercise participants achieved significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, as reflected by increased oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) and exercise duration. Wound healing occurred at a significantly faster rate in the exercise group [mean = 29.2 (9.0) days] than in the nonexercise group [38.9 (7.4) days; p =.012]. Exercise participants also experienced increased cortisol secretion during stress testing following the intervention. Group differences in wound healing and neuroendocrine responsiveness were found despite low levels of self-reported stress. A relatively short-term exercise intervention is associated with enhanced rates of wound healing among healthy older adults. Thus, exercise activity may be an important component of health care to promote wound healing.

  6. The Neural Bases of Interoceptive Encoding and Recall in Healthy Adults and Adults With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVille, Danielle C; Kerr, Kara L; Avery, Jason A; Burrows, Kaiping; Bodurka, Jerzy; Feinstein, Justin S; Khalsa, Sahib S; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, W Kyle

    2018-06-01

    Theoretical models assert that the brain's interoceptive network links external stimuli with their interoceptive consequences, thereby supporting later recall of these associations to guide the selection of healthy behaviors. If these accounts are correct, previously reported interoceptive abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) should lead to altered recall of associations between external stimuli and their interoceptive (somatic) consequences. To date, the processes underlying interoceptive recall have never been experimentally investigated. We designed and implemented the Interoceptive Encoding and Recall task to compare interoceptive and exteroceptive recall among subjects with MDD (n = 24) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 21). During the encoding phase, subjects learned to pair neutral visual cues (geometric shapes) with aversive interoceptive and exteroceptive stimuli. Later, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects were prompted to recall the stimulus associated with each shape. Interoceptive recall, relative to exteroceptive recall, was associated with bilateral mid-to-posterior insula activation. Relative to the healthy control participants, participants with depression exhibited marked hypoactivation of the right dorsal mid-insula during interoceptive recall. In healthy control subjects, simply recalling a stimulus associated with a previous interoceptive challenge activated a key region in the brain's interoceptive network. Although previous research has linked MDD with aberrant processing of interoceptive stimuli, the current study is the first to demonstrate that individuals with MDD exhibit decreased insula activity while recalling interoceptive memories. It is possible that insula hypoactivation during interoceptive recall may affect the representation of prior interoceptive experiences in ways that contribute to depressive symptomology and the relationship between depression and systemic health. Copyright

  7. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

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    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  8. Effect of somatosensory and neurofeedback training on balance in older healthy adults: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpaikan, Atefeh; Taheri Torbati, Hamidreza

    2017-10-23

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of balance training with somatosensory and neurofeedback training on dynamic and static balance in healthy, elderly adults. The sample group consisted of 45 healthy adults randomly assigned to one of the three test groups: somatosensory, neurofeedback, and a control. Individualization of the balance program started with pre-tests for static and dynamic balances. Each group had 15- and 30-min training sessions. All groups were tested for static (postural stability) and dynamic balances (Berg Balance Scale) in acquisition and transfer tests (fall risk of stability and timed up and go). Improvements in static and dynamic balances were assessed by somatosensory and neurofeedback groups and then compared with the control group. Results indicated significant improvements in static and dynamic balances in both test groups in the acquisition test. Results revealed a significant improvement in the transfer test in the neurofeedback and somatosensory groups, in static and dynamic conditions, respectively. The findings suggest that these methods of balance training had a significant influence on balance. Both the methods are appropriate to prevent falling in adults. Neurofeedback training helped the participants to learn static balance, while somatosensory training was effective on dynamic balance learning. Further research is needed to assess the effects of longer and discontinuous stimulation with somatosensory and neurofeedback training on balance in elderly adults.

  9. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P point excursion measures all demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.90, 0.85, and 0.77, respectively), whereas moderate to good reliability was found for SOT vestibular ratio score (ICC = 0.71). There was large variability in performance in this healthy elderly cohort, resulting in relatively large MDC95 for these measures, especially for the LOS test. Fair correlations were found between LOS end point excursion and clinical balance and gait measures (r = 0.31-0.49), and between MCT average latency and gait measures only (r = -0.32). No correlations were found between SOT measures and clinical balance and gait measures. Age was only marginally

  10. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol

    2003-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 ± 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 ± 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 ± 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 ± 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 ± 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  11. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

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    MCH Janssen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three adult sibs (one female, two males with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A>G, c.1154C>T. These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members.

  12. Relationships Between eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.

  13. Household food insufficiency is associated with dietary intake in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun; Song, Yoon Ju; Kim, Young; Choe, Jeongsook; Paik, Hee-Young

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association of food insufficiency with dietary intake and eating and health behaviours. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from a secondary source, the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). The sample size consisted of 15 603 adults over 19 years of age (8898 households). Significant differences in socio-economic factors were observed according to food insufficiency level (Pfood-insufficient group, but we found no association with fat intake. Regarding micronutrients, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin niacin and vitamin C intakes were negatively associated with food insufficiency level (P trendfood groups, such as meat, fish, eggs and beans, vegetables and fruits, was significantly lower as food insufficiency level decreased after controlling for all possible variables; food group consumption also differed by sex. Overall eating and health behaviours were poorer in the mildly and severely food-insufficient groups, who received more food assistance but less nutritional education. Our results showed that dietary intake as well as eating and health behaviours are adversely associated with food insufficiency. These findings suggest that specific strategies to help food-insufficient individuals should be developed in order to improve their dietary quality and health status.

  14. Do spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability differ across the lifespan of healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herssens, Nolan; Verbecque, Evi; Hallemans, Ann; Vereeck, Luc; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Saeys, Wim

    2018-06-12

    Aging is often associated with changes in the musculoskeletal system, peripheral and central nervous system. These age-related changes often result in mobility problems influencing gait performance. Compensatory strategies are used as a way to adapt to these physiological changes. The aim of this review is to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal and gait variability measures throughout the healthy adult life. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42017057720). Databases MEDLINE (Pubmed), Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect were systematically searched until March 2018. Eighteen of the 3195 original studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The majority of studies reported spatiotemporal and gait variability measures in adults above the age of 65, followed by the young adult population, information of middle-aged adults is lacking. Spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability measures were extracted from 2112 healthy adults between 18 and 98 years old and, in general, tend to deteriorate with increasing age. Variability measures were only reported in an elderly population and show great variety between studies. The findings of this review suggest that most spatiotemporal parameters significantly differ across different age groups. Elderly populations show a reduction of preferred walking speed, cadence, step and stride length, all related to a more cautious gait, while gait variability measures remain stable over time. A preliminary framework of normative reference data is provided, enabling insights into the influence of aging on spatiotemporal parameters, however spatiotemporal parameters of middle-aged adults should be investigated more thoroughly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional health status of adults with tetralogy of Fallot: matched comparison with healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel; Veldtman, Gruschen; Hickey, Edward J; Bradley, Timothy; Gengsakul, Aungkana; Webb, Gary D; Williams, William G; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-07-01

    Survival prospects for adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are now excellent. Attention should therefore shift to assessing and improving functional health status and quality of life. We aimed to assess late functional health status of adults surviving TOF repair by matched comparison to their healthy siblings. All 1,693 TOF repairs performed at our institution between 1946 and 1990 were reviewed. A matched comparison was undertaken whereby presumed survivors and their healthy sibling were contacted and asked to complete the Ontario Health Survey 1990 and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Both questionnaires were completed by 224 adult survivors and their sibling closest in age. Adults with repaired TOF had lower scores for self-perceived general health status (p health as good or excellent (p health (p = 0.001) than their siblings. However, patients reported similar satisfaction with their lives, similar levels of social participation and support, and were as likely to be in long-term partnerships. Worse physical and mental health scores were associated with older age at surgery and at time of questionnaire completion and recent requirement for noncardiac medication. Although reporting lower functional health status then their siblings, quality of life and life satisfaction for adults who underwent surgery for TOF during childhood is comparable to that of their siblings without heart defects. Follow-up of younger adults is required to understand current health outcomes attributable to improvements in the management of TOF. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of enzyme supplements on macronutrient digestibility by healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Cecilia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Molina, Jenifer; Larsen, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Some enzyme supplement products claim benefits for healthy dogs to compensate for alleged suboptimal production of endogenous enzymes and the loss of enzymes in commercial pet foods secondary to processing. The objective of the current study was to determine macronutrient and energy digestibility by healthy adult dogs fed a commercial maintenance diet with or without supplementation with plant- and animal-origin enzyme products at the dosage recommended by their respective manufacturers. A group of fourteen healthy neutered adult Beagle dogs (average age 8 years) was divided into two equal groups and fed the basal diet alone and then with either the plant- or animal-origin enzyme supplement in three consecutive 10-d periods; the treatment groups received the opposite enzyme supplement in the third period. Digestibility in each period was performed by the total faecal collection method. Serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) was measured at the end of each trial. Data were analysed by repeated measures and the α level of significance was set at 0·05. There were no differences in energy and nutrient digestibility between enzyme treatments. When comparing basal with enzyme supplementation, fat digestibility was higher for the basal diet compared with the animal-origin enzyme treatment, which could be a period effect and was not biologically significant (94·7 v . 93·5 %). Serum TLI was not affected by supplementation with either enzyme product. Exogenous enzyme supplementation did not significantly increase digestibility of a typical commercial dry diet in healthy adult dogs and routine use of such products is not recommended.

  17. Association between Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI and Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudies region of Middle-East. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by AHEI, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, the frequency of anxiety and depression was 15.2% and 30.0%, respectively. After taking potential confounders into account, participants with greater adherence to AHEI had 48% lower odds of depression compared with those in the bottom quartile (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39-0.70. Those in the highest quartile of AHEI had a 29% lower odds of anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94; however, adjustment for dietary intakes and body mass index attenuated the association (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.52-1.09. Conclusion Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of depression in Iranian adults. Further studies, especially with prospective design, are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  18. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Balamurugan; Rani, B Sandya; Pugazhendhi, Srinivasan; John, K R; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2017-02-01

    The relevance of the gut microbiota to human health is increasingly appreciated. The objective of this study was to compare the gut microbiota of a group of adult tribals with that of healthy adult villagers in Tamil Nadu, India. Faeces were collected from 10 healthy tribal adults (TAs) in the Jawadhi hills and from 10 healthy villagers [rural adults (RAs)] in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. DNA was extracted, and 456 bp segments comprising hypervariable regions 3 and 4 of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified, barcoded and 454 sequenced. Totally 227,710 good-quality reads were analyzed. TAs consumed a millets-based diet, ate pork every day, and did not consume milk or milk products. RAs consumed a rice-based diet with meat intake once a week. In both groups, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The median Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was 34.0 in TA and 92.9 in RA groups. Actinobacteria were significantly low in TA, possibly due to non-consumption of milk. Clostridium constituted the most abundant genus in both groups, but was significantly more abundant in TAs than RAs, while Streptococcus was significantly more abundant in RA (P<0.05). Analyses of genetic distance revealed that the microbiota were distinctly different between TA and RA, and principal component analysis using 550 distinct taxonomically identifiable sequences revealed a clear separation of microbiota composition in the two groups. Phylogenetic analysis of major microbiota indicated clustering of microbial groups at different major branch points for TAs and RAs. Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  19. Predictive Values of the New Sarcopenia Index by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project for Mortality among Older Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project’s recommended criteria for sarcopenia’s association with mortality among older Korean adults. Methods We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study which included 560 (285 men and 275 women) older Korean adults aged ≥65 years. Muscle mass (appendicular skeletal muscle mass-to-body mass index ratio (ASM/BMI)), handgrip strength, and walking velocity were evaluated in association with all-cause mortality during 6-year follow-up. Both the lowest quintile for each parameter (ethnic-specific cutoff) and FNIH-recommended values were used as cutoffs. Results Forty men (14.0%) and 21 women (7.6%) died during 6-year follow-up. The deceased subjects were older and had lower ASM, handgrip strength, and walking velocity. Sarcopenia defined by both low lean mass and weakness had a 4.13 (95% CI, 1.69–10.11) times higher risk of death, and sarcopenia defined by a combination of low lean mass, weakness, and slowness had a 9.56 (3.16–28.90) times higher risk of death after adjusting for covariates in men. However, these significant associations were not observed in women. In terms of cutoffs of each parameter, using the lowest quintile showed better predictive values in mortality than using the FNIH-recommended values. Moreover, new muscle mass index, ASM/BMI, provided better prognostic values than ASM/height2 in all associations. Conclusions New sarcopenia definition by FNIH was better able to predict 6-year mortality among Korean men. Moreover, ethnic-specific cutoffs, the lowest quintile for each parameter, predicted the higher risk of mortality than the FNIH-recommended values. PMID:27832145

  20. Sarcopenia Is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Chon, Suk; Hwang, You-Cheol; Jeong, In-Kyung; Oh, Seungjoon; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Ahn, Hong-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. Method This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. Results 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075–2.909, P = 0.025). Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications. PMID:23533671

  1. Sarcopenia is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in older Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Chin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. METHOD: This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. RESULTS: 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075-2.909, P = 0.025. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications.

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of alcohol consumption on whole-body protein turnover in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Krentz, Helga; Bruns, Gerrit

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the whole-body protein turnover, either before or after continuous, moderate ethanol-induced oxidative stress by red wine consumption over a relatively short period in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy adults received an individual regular diet over 20 days. After 10 days, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol kg(-1) day(-1) as red wine together with dinner over a 10-day period. After 8 and 18 days, respectively, a (15)N-labelled yeast protein was administered in a dosage of 4.2 mg kg(-1) body weight. Urine and faeces were collected over 48 h, respectively. The (15)N-enrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the protein flux rates were calculated by a three-compartment model. The whole-body protein turnover without/with red wine consumption amounted to 3.73±0.6 and 3.49±0.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) (not significant), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes in the whole-body protein turnover of healthy adults.

  4. Smoking and diet in healthy adults: a cross-sectional study in tehran, iran, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Heidari, Farrokh; Yousefifard, Ma