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Sample records for healthy japanese male

  1. Diet quality and adherence to a healthy diet in Japanese male workers with untreated hypertension.

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    Kanauchi, Masao; Kanauchi, Kimiko

    2015-07-10

    As Japanese societies rapidly undergo westernisation, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing. We investigated the association between dietary quality and the prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 433 male workers who completed a brief food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the WHO-based Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), the American Heart Association 2006 Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and Mediterranean-style diet was assessed using four adherence indexes (HDI score, AI-84 score, DASH score and MED score). Hypertension classes were classified into three categories: non-hypertension, untreated hypertension and treated hypertension (ie, taking antihypertensive medication). The prevalence of untreated hypertension and treated hypertension was 22.4% and 8.5%, respectively. Patients with untreated hypertension had significantly lower HDI and AI-84 scores compared with non-hypertension. DASH and MED scores across the three hypertension classes were comparable. After adjusting for age, energy intake, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, physical activity and salt intake, a low adherence to HDI and a lowest quartile of AI-84 score were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of untreated hypertension, with an OR of 3.33 (95% CI 1.39 to 7.94, p=0.007) and 2.23 (1.09 to 4.53, p=0.027), respectively. A lower dietary quality was associated with increased prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. Our findings support a potential beneficial impact of nutritional assessment using diet qualities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

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    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    )] were explored in 322 male university students in suburban Tokyo. The subjects constituted part of a large cross-sectional survey on the reference value of semen quality of Japanese men. Urinary 3-PBA was detectable in 91% of the subjects demonstrating ubiquitous exposure among the general population...... students who were not aware of their own fertility, whereas the previous study subjects were infertility patients. However, the multiple regression models could explain only a limited fraction of total variance in serum levels of hormones. Identification of other contributors is warranted....

  3. Effect of the interaction between mental stress and eating pattern on body mass index gain in healthy Japanese male workers.

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    Toyoshima, Hideaki; Masuoka, Nobutaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Otsuka, Rei; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the interaction between long-term mental stress and eating habits on weight gain has not been confirmed in humans. A population of 1080 healthy Japanese male local government employees without lifestyle-related diseases at baseline were studied [corrected]. Height and weight were measured and perception of mental stress and the frequency of eating to satiety, drinking, smoking, and exercise were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in both 1997 and 2002. Exposure patterns during this 5-year period were classified as low or high. Information on daily food and energy intake was collected in 2002. The effect of the interaction between stress and the frequency of eating to satiety on change in BMI (DeltaBMI) during this 5-year period was examined by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age, BMI at baseline, and other lifestyle habits. The association between satiation eating and DeltaBMI was compared between participants with high and low levels of stress. Stress and satiation eating were not significantly mutually correlated. Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction (F = 4.90, P = 0.03) between mental stress and satiation eating. Among participants with a high level of stress, BMI gain was significantly larger in those who ate to satiety than in those who ate moderately, when DeltaBMI was unadjusted or adjusted for covariates (adjusted mean [SE]: 0.34 +/- 0.06 kg/m(2) vs. 0.12 +/- 0.07 kg/m(2), P = 0.002). Among participants with a low level of stress no such difference was observed. These results were unchanged after further adjustment for energy intake in 2002. In this population, eating pattern interacted with long-term mental stress to produce a larger body mass gain in satiation eaters than in moderate eaters among participants with a high level of stress, independent of energy intake or other lifestyle habits.

  4. Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Omega-3-Carboxylic Acids in Healthy Japanese Male Subjects: A Phase I, Randomized, Open-label, Three-period, Crossover Trial.

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    Shimada, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Catarina; Noda, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively. The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects. NCT02372344.

  5. Effect of genetic polymorphisms of SLC28A1, ABCG2, and ABCC4 on bioavailability of mizoribine in healthy Japanese males.

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    Fukao, Miki; Ishida, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Takuya; Taguchi, Masato; Matsukura, Hiroyoshi; Miyawaki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic factors responsible for the interindividual variability in the bioavailability of mizoribine. Thirty healthy Japanese men aged 20-49 years and weighing 53-75 kg participated in the present study and took 150 mg of mizoribine. Urine samples were collected periodically for 12 h after the dose, and the bioavailability of mizoribine was calculated from the estimated total urinary excretion from time zero to infinity. The bioavailability of mizoribine in the 30 subjects ranged from 60.3% to 99.4%. The mean bioavailability of mizoribine in subjects with the concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (SLC28A1) 565-A/A allele (75.4%) was significantly lower than that in subjects with the SLC28A1 565-G/G allele (90.1%). On the other hand, the bioavailability of mizoribine was not affected by polymorphisms of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) C421A and multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (ABCC4) G2269A. The findings in the present prospective study suggested that the genetic test for the SLC28A1 G565A polymorphism is promising for predicting the Japanese subjects with lower bioavailability of mizoribine.

  6. Effect of Sports Club Activities on the Physique and Physical Fitness of Young Japanese Males

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    Noguchi, Takanori; Demura, Shin-ichi; Shimada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Hidetsugu; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Yamada, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the growth and development of the physique and physical fitness of young Japanese males who belong to sports clubs and those who did not based on longitudinal data obtained over four years. Physique and physical fitness tests were administered to 253 healthy male technical college students four times from the 9 to 12 grade.…

  7. Paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene: a Japanese mothers' view.

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    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the views of 20 Japanese mothers concerning paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene. In Japan, routine male circumcision has never been implemented for newborns and children, and adult males are mostly circumcised at aesthetic clinics. However, media reports indicate a trend of Japanese mothers willing to have their sons circumcised. In discussing penile hygiene and male circumcision, the construct of a 'sexual script' becomes relevant to understanding how linguistic and gender barriers made references to male genitalia and penile hygiene largely appear as 'vulgar' and 'unfeminine' in daily life conversations. Peers were often identified as the main source of information and only mothers who have struggled with their children's penile infections have learnt about male genital hygiene, a domain of knowledge largely transmitted by men. Male circumcision becomes a double-edged sword that could help prevent penile infections but also an embarrassing conversational topic that could elicit discrimination because most Japanese children are uncircumcised.

  8. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I.; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H.; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Cognitive Function Profile of Rupatadine 10, 20 and 40 mg in Healthy Japanese Subjects: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    T?ubel, J?rg; Ferber, Georg; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Santamar?a, Eva; Izquierdo, I?aki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rupatadine is a marketed second generation antihistamine, with anti-PAF activity, indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and tolerability of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects after single and multiple oral doses. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 male and female healthy Japanese subjects were administered single ...

  10. Testosterone and disinhibited personality in healthy males.

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    Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F; García, Óscar; Blanco, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The relationship among testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and personality were studied in a sample of 105 healthy males (26.71±9.68years old). The possible effects of age and other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (ALB) were controlled. Personality was assessed by the novelty seeking scale of Cloninger's Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI), and a reduced version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Main results show that there is a weak association among three measures of testosterone with novelty seeking, sociability and, to a lesser extent, with impulsive sensation seeking. Our data, as expected, confirmed previous results and also suggest that these relationships are strongly affected by the age variable. LH, FSH and SHBG hormones play no role in the reported relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of kinetic parameters for 123-I thyroid uptake in healthy Japanese

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    Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic parameters for iodide thyroid accumulation in Japanese today with previously reported values. We determined the thyroid uptake of 123-I at 24 hours after the oral administration in healthy male Japanese without any diet restriction. The mean value was 16.1±5.4%, which was similar or rather lower than those previously reported in Japan (1958-1972). Kinetic model analysis was conducted to obtain the clearance for thyroid uptake from the blood circulation. The thyroid uptake clearance of 123-I was 0.540±0.073 ml/min, which was almost similar to those reported previously. There is no obvious difference in the thyroid uptake for 24 hours, and kinetic parameters in healthy Japanese for these 50 years. The fraction of distributed to the thyroid gland is lower than the ICRP reference man, and such difference must be taken into consideration to estimate the radiation exposure upon Fukushima accident in Japan.

  12. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

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    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  13. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

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    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  14. Comparative study of cardio-ankle vascular index between Chinese and Japanese healthy subjects.

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    Wang, Hongyu; Shirai, Kohji; Liu, Jinbo; Lu, Na; Wang, Min; Zhao, Hongwei; Xie, Jun; Yu, Xiaolan; Fu, Xiaobao; Shi, Hongyan; Li, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. However, there was little research about the CAVI value between different countries. The aim of the present study was to compare CAVI between Chinese and Japanese subjects and to assess related factors. 2519 healthy persons [1245 Chinese (M/F, 524/721) and 1274 Japanese (M/F, 534/740)] from the Department of Physical Examination were enrolled into our study. CAVI was recorded using a VaseraVS-1000 vascular screening system. CAVI was increasing with aging in all subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese compared with Japanese both in male and female. There was difference in lipid metabolism between these two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma creatinine (Cr) were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Chinese persons (β = 0.548, p < 0.001; β = 0.129, p = 0.001; β = 0.105, p = 0.006; and β = 0.100, p = 0.012, respectively), whereas age, SBP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Cr, body mass index (BMI), FPG were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Japanese subjects (β = 0.669, p < 0.001; β = 0.198, p < 0.001; β = -0.079, p < 0.001; β = 0.090, p < 0.001; β = -0.124, p < 0.001; β = 0.055, p=0.009; respectively). CAVI was increasing with aging in both Chinese and Japanese subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese than in Japanese subjects. Age, SBP, FPG and creatinine were independently associated with CAVI in both Chinese and Japanese subjects.

  15. Esomeprazole inhibits the pentagastrin-stimulated secretion of gastric acid in healthy Japanese volunteers.

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    Maejima, Ryuhei; Koike, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease, in which the reflux of gastric acid causes mucosal damage of the esophagus and/or troublesome symptoms. Esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, has been used for treatment of GERD in Japan since 2011; namely, only little is known about its effect on gastric acid secretion in Japanese. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between dose and timing of esomeprazole administration and gastric acid inhibition in 11 healthy male Japanese volunteers by directly examining gastric acid secretion capacity. In this randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study, the subjects were dosed with esomeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg once a day (q.d.), or 20 mg twice a day (b.i.d.) for 14 days, and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion was measured by endoscopic gastrin test. At steady states, gastric acid inhibition rates were significantly higher in esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. (median 100.0%, interquartile range [IQR] 99.4-100%, P = 0.027) or 20 mg q.d. (100.0%, IQR 99.7-100%, P = 0.016), compared with 10 mg q.d. (98.4%, IQR 84.4-100%). At trough states, esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. showed significantly higher gastric acid inhibition (99.6%, IQR 99.0-100%) than did 20 mg q.d. (84.2%, IQR 76.4-88.8%, P = 0.002) or 10 mg q.d. (64.9%, IQR 59.1-76.7%, P = 0.001). Thus, esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. was sufficient to inhibit > 99% gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects. We propose that esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. is effective for treating Japanese patients with refractory GERD who require long-lasting gastric acid inhibition.

  16. Reference Ranges for Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction in Healthy Japanese Adult Population

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    Kazuto Matsunaga

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The reference ranges for FEno in healthy Japanese adults were similar to those of Caucasians. It seems reasonable that the upper limit of FEno for healthy adults should be set at approximately 36.0 ppb irrespective of ethnic differences.

  17. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

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    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  18. The traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Japanese adults.

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    Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guan, Lei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Ouchi, Eriko; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-02-01

    Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between the traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese people. We designed a 3-year longitudinal study of 980 subjects living in Japan to evaluate how the Japanese dietary pattern is related to longitudinal changes in well-recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease among apparently healthy Japanese adults. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns-"Japanese," "sweets-fruits-cooked wheaten food," and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub)" from 39 food groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean (95% confidence interval) for the change per year in diastolic blood pressure for men, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure for women related to the "Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 0.89 (0.10, 1.68), 2.25 (0.19, 4.31), and 0.75 (-1.00, 2.50) for the lowest tertile, 0.77 (-0.02, 1.56), 1.01 (-1.13, 3.15), and 0.44 (-1.38, 2.26) for the middle tertile and - 0.04 (-0.81, 0.72), -0.48 (-2.52, 1.56), and -0.77 (-2.51, 0.96) for the highest tertile (trend P value = 0.03, factor score tertiles and the longitudinal change in serum triglyceride concentration only in men (trend P value = 0.02). Greater adherence to a traditional Japanese diet was independently related to a decreased change every year in diastolic blood pressure in men and women and in systolic blood pressure in women over a 3-year follow-up period. The findings suggest that the "Japanese" dietary pattern appeared to be related to a fall in blood pressure, which might have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. A randomized trial is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.

  19. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  20. Construction of a short form of the healthy eating behaviour inventory for the Japanese population.

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    Shimazaki, Takashi; Iio, Misa; Lee, Ying-Hua; Suzuki, Akiko; Konuma, Kayo; Teshima, Yoko; Takenaka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    The present study constructed a short form of the Healthy Eating Behavior Inventory suitable for use in the Japanese culture (HEBI-J) and confirmed the scale's preliminary reliability and validity. In Study 1, Japanese adults (N=75) completed a free-response questionnaire about healthy eating behaviours. Thematic analysis was used to identify three factors-balance, pattern, and restriction-associated with healthy eating behaviours and 12 items related to these healthy eating behaviours. In Study 2, Japanese office workers (N=784) completed two questionnaires regarding 12 items of healthy eating behaviours and the dietary stages of change. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model was appropriate (GFI=.94, AGFI=.90, CFI=.90, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=.53). Reliability was confirmed by alpha coefficients and the Spearman-Brown formula. Concurrent validity was confirmed by the relationship between the healthy eating stages. This study demonstrated the preliminary reliability and validity of the HEBI-J. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects.

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    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Fuke, Tomoya; Ugi, Satoshi; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-06-30

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and researchers have recently reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can increase the serum adiponectin concentration, suggesting that dietary factors, such as fish intake, may have an influence on the serum adiponectin concentration. In general, Japanese subjects consume twice as much fish as people in other countries. We hypothesized that incremental change in serum omega-3 PUFA levels by fish intake is an important regulator of serum adiponectin even in Japanese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among fish consumption, serum omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), levels, and serum adiponectin levels. We recruited 17 healthy Japanese volunteers (seven men and 10 women) for an 8-week fish-diet intervention (omega-3 PUFA 3.0 g/day) without affecting total energy intake, and measured serum adiponectin concentration and fatty acid profiles. Fish-diet intervention significantly increased the serum adiponectin concentration in women (from 13.5+/-4.6 to 15.8+/-5.2 microg/mL, p <0.01) but not in men (from 8.7+/-2.8 to 8.7+/-2.5 microg/mL). Serum omega-3 PUFA increased more in female subjects than male subjects after the fish-diet intervention (57.3+/-86.6 vs 150.9+/-46.7 microg/mL, p=0.011), suggesting that changes in omega-3 PUFA concentration may explain the different response between sexes. A fish-based diet intervention increased the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese female subjects. The increment in serum omega-3 PUFA may regulate the serum adiponectin concentration.

  2. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

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    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  3. Heritability of pulmonary function estimated from genome-wide SNPs in healthy Japanese adults.

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    Yamada, Hideyasu; Yatagai, Yohei; Masuko, Hironori; Sakamoto, Tohru; Iijima, Hiroaki; Naito, Takashi; Noguchi, Emiko; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary function is a heritable trait, and recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of loci influencing the trait. Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) is a novel method provided by a software package that estimates the total additive genetic influence caused by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on whole-genome arrays. We conducted a GWAS and assessed the heritability of pulmonary function in an adult Japanese population using this approach. We initially conducted a GWAS on %forced vital capacity (FVC), %forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC in healthy Japanese adults (N=967). We then examined the heritability of these traits using GCTA with a total of 480,026 SNPs. We also estimated the genetic impact of the 24 genes identified as susceptibility genes to FEV1/FVC in six previous GWASs on the heritability of FEV1/FVC in the Japanese population. The heritabilities for %FVC, %FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were 71.2%, 51.9% and 41.6%, respectively. These results corresponded to previous heritability estimates for pulmonary function obtained by GCTA or by twin studies. The 24 previously reported pulmonary function genes accounted for 4.3-12.0% of the entire estimated heritability of FEV1/FVC. This study demonstrated that the heritability of pulmonary function traits can be explained by the additive effects of multiple common SNPs in healthy Japanese adults. The pulmonary function genes reported in previous GWASs of non-Japanese populations showed a definite impact of the genes on FEV1/FVC, thus indicating the presence of common pathways related to this trait beyond ethnicity. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kumagai

    Full Text Available Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose, luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose, placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg nor supratherapeutic (20 mg doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects.

  5. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Ticagrelor Orodispersible Tablets in Healthy Western and Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Renli; Hammarberg, Maria; Carlson, Glenn F; Bokelund-Singh, Sara; Ruderfelt, Terese; Blychert, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent for patients with acute coronary syndrome or a history of myocardial infarction. Two studies compared pharmacokinetic profiles of orodispersible (OD) ticagrelor tablets versus immediate-release (IR) tablets in Western and Japanese subjects. Both studies were open-label, randomized, crossover, single-center trials. Thirty-six healthy subjects (94% white, 6% other race; Western study NCT02400333) and 42 Japanese healthy subjects (Japanese study NCT02436577) received a single 90-mg ticagrelor dose as an OD tablet [with/without water, and via a nasogastric tube (Western study only)], and an IR tablet; washout between treatments was ≥7 days. Assessments included ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX (active metabolite) plasma concentrations for pharmacokinetic analyses, and safety evaluations. In the Western study, the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX maximum plasma concentration (C max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were within the acceptance interval (80%-125%) for OD tablets (with/without water, via a nasogastric tube) versus the IR tablet; except for an ~15% lowering of ticagrelor C max (90% CI: 76.77%-93.78%) for the OD tablet taken with water. In the Japanese study, 90% CIs of the GMRs for AUC and C max of both ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were all within the acceptance intervals for the OD (with/without water) versus IR tablet. No new safety issues were identified. Ticagrelor administered as an OD tablet to Western (without water, and via a nasogastric tube) and Japanese (with/without water) subjects was bioequivalent to the IR tablet.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  8. Of the three classifications of healthy lifestyle habits, which one is the most closely associated with the prevention of metabolic syndrome in Japanese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takashi; Fukumoto, Tsutomu; Ito, Kyoko; Hasegawa, Yasutaka; Osaki, Takanobu; Ban, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The predominant cause of metabolic syndrome is an unhealthy lifestyle. Healthy habits are represented by Breslow's 7 healthy practices, Morimoto's 8 items and Ikeda's 6 healthy habits. This study was done to determine which set of healthy habits was most likely to result in a reduced risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. From April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2007, 6,765 males and 2,789 females underwent a medical check-up at Jikei University Hospital in Japan. They completed a simple, self-administered lifestyle questionnaire based on the 3 classifications of healthy habits. The responses were divided into 3 groups (poor, moderate and favorable) according to each of the healthy habit criteria. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was defined in participants who were newly diagnosed during the follow-up using Japanese-specific diagnostic criteria. The Kaplan-Meier cumulative 7-year incidence was calculated. Kaplan-Meier curves were compared using the long-rank test adjusted for age. In females, Breslow's, Morimoto's and Ikeda's healthy habits showed significant differences in the incidence between poor and moderate groups, and between poor and favorable groups. In males, a significant difference was observed among the poor, moderate and favorable groups for Ikeda's healthy habits. However, no significant difference was observed for Breslow's healthy practices. Morimoto's items only showed a significant difference between the poor and moderate groups. Among the 3 models tested, Ikeda's healthy habits were the most useful for decreasing the risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese.

  9. Exploratory aspirin resistance trial in healthy Japanese volunteers (J-ART) using platelet aggregation as a measure of thrombogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T; Ikeda, M; Esumi, K; Fujita, T D; Kono, M; Tokushige, H; Hatoyama, T; Maeda, T; Asai, T; Ogawa, T; Katsumata, T; Sasaki, S; Suzuki, E; Suzuki, M; Hino, F; Fujita, T K; Zaima, H; Shimada, M; Sugawara, T; Tsuzuki, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Hishigaki, H; Horimoto, S; Miyajima, N; Yamamoto, T; Imagawa, K; Sesoko, S; Fujisawa, Y

    2007-12-01

    Aspirin prevents the production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) by irreversibly inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase, exhibiting antiplatelet actions. This agent has been reported to prevent relapse in patients with ischemic heart disease or cerebral infarction via this action mechanism. However, there are individual differences in this action, and aspirin is not effective in some patients, which is referred to as 'aspirin resistance'. In this study, we analyzed laboratory aspirin resistance by platelet aggregation in 110 healthy adult Japanese males using 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of nine genes involved in platelet aggregation/hemorrhage. Among SNPs involved in platelet aggregation, aspirin was less effective for 924T homozygote of a TXA2 receptor, 924T>C, and 1018C homozygote of a platelet membrane glycoprotein GPIbalpha, 1018C>T, suggesting that 924T and 1018C alleles are involved in aspirin resistance.

  10. Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Daiji; Imamura, Haruki; Sato, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ban, Noriko; Kawana, Hidetoshi; Ohira, Masahiro; Saiki, Atsuhito; Shirai, Kohji; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI). A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis. Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile) identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval): 0.804 (0.720-0.899)], older age [15.6 (14.0-17.4)], male gender [2.26 (2.03-2.51)], hypertension [2.28 (2.06-2.54)], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01-1.37)], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669-1.06)] as independent factors. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between CAVI and BMI in healthy Japanese subjects, suggesting that systemic accumulation of adipose tissue per se may lead to a linear decrease of arterial stiffness in nonobese and obese subjects without metabolic disorders.

  11. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  12. Pharmacological interactions between brivaracetam and ethanol in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruithof, Annelieke C; Watanabe, Shikiko; Peeters, Pierre Am; de Kam, Marieke L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Stevens, Jasper; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Stockis, Armel

    2017-07-01

    This double-blind, randomized, three-way crossover study explored the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between ethanol and brivaracetam in 18 healthy males, as required for the development of CNS-active drugs. Subjects received (A) ethanol+brivaracetam, (B) ethanol placebo+brivaracetam and (C) ethanol+brivaracetam placebo. Ethanol was infused as a 5.5-hour intravenous clamp with the first 0.5-hour as loading phase to a target level of 0.6 g/L, and brivaracetam was orally administered as a single 200 mg dose. No relevant pharmacokinetic interactions were observed. Co-administration of brivaracetam and ethanol resulted in decreased saccadic peak velocity, smooth pursuit, adaptive tracking and VAS alertness, and increased body sway, saccadic reaction time and VAS score for ethanol effect compared with brivaracetam alone or ethanol alone. Additionally, the immediate word recall scores were generally lower when brivaracetam was co-administered with ethanol, whereas the delayed word test did not show clear additional effects. A post-hoc exploratory analysis for supra-additivity suggested that most pharmacodynamic effects were likely to be additive in nature, except for adaptive tracking, which appeared to be slightly supra-additive. In conclusion, brivaracetam increased ethanol effects on psychomotor function, attention and memory in healthy males. Intake of brivaracetam with alcohol is not recommended.

  13. Obesity screening for young Japanese males and females using skin fold measurements: the classification revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Mori, Miki; Uchida, Hayato; Kerr, Deborah A; Binns, Colin W; Hills, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Anthropometric assessment is a simple, safe, and cost-efficient method to examine the health status of individuals. The Japanese obesity classification based on the sum of two skin folds (Sigma2SF) was proposed nearly 40 years ago, therefore its applicability to Japanese living today is unknown. The current study aimed to determine Sigma2SF cut-off values that correspond to percent body fat (%BF) and BMI values using two datasets from young Japanese adults (233 males and 139 females). Using regression analysis, Sigma2SF and height-corrected Sigma2SF (HtSigma2SF) values that correspond to %BF of 20, 25, and 30% for males and 30, 35, and 40% for females were determined. In addition, cut-off values of both Sigma2SF and HtSigma2SF that correspond to BMI values of 23 kg/m2, 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 were determined. In comparison with the original Sigma2SF values, the proposed values are smaller by about 10 mm at maximum. The proposed values show an improvement in sensitivity from about 25% to above 90% to identify individuals with > or =20% body fat in males and > or =30% body fat in females with high specificity of about 95% in both genders. The results indicate that the original Sigma2SF cut-off values to screen obese individuals cannot be applied to young Japanese adults living today and modification is required. Application of the proposed values may assist screening in the clinical setting.

  14. Behavioral response and gene expression changes in fipronil-administered male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Awad, Ashraf; Mohammed, Hesham H

    2017-04-01

    Fipronil is an important member of the phenylpyrazole group of insecticides and is widely used for various crops and vegetables to control insects, thereby exposing birds, animals, and humans to fipronil. Currently, there is limited information on the effects of fipronil exposure in Japanese quail. Therefore, our aim was to assess the reproductive toxicological effects of fipronil in the Japanese quail in a 15-day gavage study and then its recovery over a period of 60 days. Fipronil-administration led to significant losses in both feed intake and body weight. Whereas, the gonadosomatic index was not affected, and histological changes observed in the testes were reversible, particularly by day 45 and day 60 of recovery. Cloacal gland atrophy, reduced foam quantity and a reduction in fertility, sexual and aggressive behaviors, and serum testosterone with elevated estradiol (E2) hormone levels were also observed. All these changes gradually reversed during various recovery periods. Further, alterations in hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene expression, assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, were also observed. Specifically, ERα1 was induced after fipronil administration, while the Vtg transcript was elevated during both exposure and recovery periods. Our results showed that fipronil exposure has a profound negative influence on reproductive traits in the male Japanese quail and exhibits an estrogenic activity that can raise the incidence of infertility in males. Nevertheless, most of the changes could be reversed after a recovery period of 30-45 days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic correlates of Japanese expressions associated with voice quality of male adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Hideki

    2004-05-01

    Japanese expressions associated with the voice quality of male adults were extracted by a series of questionnaire surveys and statistical multivariate analysis. One hundred and thirty-seven Japanese expressions were collected through the first questionnaire and careful investigations of well-established Japanese dictionaries and articles. From the second questionnaire about familiarity with each of the expressions and synonymity that were addressed to 249 subjects, 25 expressions were extracted. The third questionnaire was about an evaluation of their own voice quality. By applying a statistical clustering method and a correlation analysis to the results of the questionnaires, eight bipolar expressions and one unipolar expression were obtained. They constituted high-pitched/low-pitched, masculine/feminine, hoarse/clear, calm/excited, powerful/weak, youthful/elderly, thick/thin, tense/lax, and nasal, respectively. Acoustic correlates of each of the eight bipolar expressions were extracted by means of perceptual evaluation experiments that were made with sentence utterances of 36 males and by a statistical decision tree method. They included an average of the fundamental frequency (F0) of the utterance, speaking rate, spectral tilt, formant frequency parameter, standard deviation of F0 values, and glottal noise, when SPL of each of the stimuli was maintained identical in the perceptual experiments.

  16. Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.

  17. Stress Underestimation and Mental Health Outcomes in Male Japanese Workers: a 1-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Yamada, Kosuke Chris

    2016-12-01

    Being appropriately aware of the extent of stress experienced in daily life is essential in motivating stress management behaviours. Excessive stress underestimation obstructs this process, which is expected to exert adverse effects on health. We prospectively examined associations between stress underestimation and mental health outcomes in Japanese workers. Web-based surveys were conducted twice with an interval of 1 year on 2359 Japanese male workers. Participants were asked to complete survey items concerning stress underestimation, depressive symptoms, sickness absence, and antidepressant use. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high baseline levels of 'overgeneralization of stress' and 'insensitivity to stress' were significantly associated with new-onset depressive symptoms (OR = 2.66 [95 % CI, 1.54-4.59], p stress underestimation, including stress insensitivity and the overgeneralization of stress, could exert adverse effects on mental health.

  18. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  19. Trp64Arg Polymorphism in Beta3-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Is Associated with Decreased Fat Oxidation Both in Resting and Aerobic Exercise in the Japanese Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Morita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate whether the Trp64Arg polymorphism in 3-AR gene and the −3826A/G polymorphism in the UCP1 gene were associated with the reduction in energy expenditure and fat oxidation both in resting and aerobic exercise in Japanese. Eighty-six nonobese young healthy Japanese were recruited. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. The subjects performed an aerobic exercise program at 60% of their maximal heart rate for 30 minutes. The level of fat oxidation at rest and aerobic exercise of the male subjects with Trp/Arg of the 3-AR gene was significantly lower than that of the Trp/Trp genotype. No difference in FO0−30 was observed in the female subjects. There was no association between UCP-1 polymorphism and energy expenditure during aerobic exercise. It was revealed that the Trp64Arg polymorphism in 3-AR gene is associated with reduction of fat oxidation both in resting and aerobic exercise in healthy, young Japanese males.

  20. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Cognitive Function Profile of Rupatadine 10, 20 and 40 mg in Healthy Japanese Subjects: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Fernandes, Sara; Lorch, Ulrike; Santamaría, Eva; Izquierdo, Iñaki

    2016-01-01

    Rupatadine is a marketed second generation antihistamine, with anti-PAF activity, indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and tolerability of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects after single and multiple oral doses. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 male and female healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different time points for PK measurements and subjects were assessed for safety and tolerability. The effect of rupatadine on cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of computerized cognitive tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP), reaction time (RT), spatial working memory (SWM) and visual analogue scales (VAS). Exposure to rupatadine as measured by Cmax and AUC was found to increase in a dose dependent manner over the dose range of 10-40 mg for both single and multiple dose administration. The safety assessments showed that all treatment related side effects were of mild intensity and there were no serious adverse events (SAEs) or withdrawals due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in this study. The therapeutic dose of rupatadine did not show any CNS impairment in any of the cognitive tests. This study demonstrated that rupatadine is safe and well tolerated by Japanese healthy subjects. The PK-PD profile confirmed previous experience with rupatadine.

  1. Amoxicillin-resistant oral streptococci identified in dental plaque specimens from healthy Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Katsuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Naka, Shuhei; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is known to be a life-threatening disease and invasive dental procedures are considered to be important factors. Oral amoxicillin (AMPC) is widely used for prophylaxis in patients with heart disorders who are at risk for IE. However, there is only limited information regarding the inhibition of oral bacteria by AMPC. Dental plaque specimens were obtained from 120 healthy Japanese adult subjects, then diluted and streaked onto selective medium for oral streptococci. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMPC was evaluated using a macro-dilution method by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2006). Seven strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more were isolated from 5 subjects. The bacterial species were confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from each strain, which demonstrated that most were Streptococcus sanguinis, followed by Streptococcus oralis. Dental plaque specimens collected from these 5 subjects again after an interval of 2-3 months possessed no strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more. These findings suggest that strains with a high MIC of AMPC are present in the oral cavities of Japanese adults, though they may be transient rather than inhabitants. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Male Japanese quails with female brains do not show male sexual behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.

    2003-01-01

    During embryonic development, gonadal steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens) are thought to organize the sexual differentiation of the brain in the heterogametic sexes of higher vertebrates (males in mammals, females in birds). Brain differentiation of the homogametic sexes is thought to proceed

  3. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  4. Gender and Linguistic Ideology: A Re-Examination of Directive Usage by Japanese Male Superiors in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junko

    2009-01-01

    This study examines Japanese male superiors' linguistic practices in an institutional setting in Japan, in particular focusing on directive usage. It quantitatively and qualitatively elucidates how seven male superiors in a workplace, which is located in the Tokyo area, employ diverse linguistic resources in directive discourse so as to persuade…

  5. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D. Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  6. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D; Eng, Katisha D; Bialowas, Todd A; Devita, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  7. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D.; Eng, Katisha D.; Bialowas, Todd A.; Devita, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening. PMID:23326701

  8. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  9. Association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in Japanese male workers with diabetes mellitus.

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    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Results of previous studies on the relationship between habitual alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in a general population are not consistent, and this relationship in patients with diabetes is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship of alcohol consumption with metabolic syndrome in patients with diabetes. Japanese male workers with diabetes (n = 1960) were divided into non-, light (alcohol consumption with visceral obesity evaluated by waist circumference, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol), hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome (3 or more of these risk factors by the NCEP-ATP III criteria) were investigated. Odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for high blood pressure was significantly high in all drinker groups, while odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for low HDL cholesterol was significantly low in all drinker groups. Odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for high triglycerides was significantly low in light drinkers and was significantly high in very heavy drinkers. Odds ratio vs. the nondrinker group for large waist circumference was not significant in any drinker groups. Odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for metabolic syndrome was significantly high in very heavy drinkers but was not significant in light and heavy drinkers. Excessive alcohol intake is associated with a higher risk for metabolic syndrome through elevations of blood pressure and triglycerides in Japanese male patients with diabetes.

  10. Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study

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    Nagayama D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Daiji Nagayama,1,2 Haruki Imamura,2 Yuta Sato,2 Takashi Yamaguchi,2 Noriko Ban,2 Hidetoshi Kawana,2 Masahiro Ohira,2 Atsuhito Saiki,2 Kohji Shirai,3 Ichiro Tatsuno2 1Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama-City, 2Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, Sakura-City, Japan Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Subjects and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2 who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis. Results: Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 0.804 (0.720–0.899], older age [15.6 (14.0–17.4], male gender [2.26 (2.03–2.51], hypertension [2.28 (2.06–2.54], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01–1.37], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669–1.06] as independent factors. Conclusion: We demonstrated an

  11. Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is now widely appreciated as a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as visceral obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. To date, incidence of metabolic syndrome is continuously increasing worldwide. In addition, low vegetable consumption has recently become a serious issue in Japan. Furthermore, Japan is facing a shortfall in places offering food that can help prevent metabolic syndrome in the first place. Our study is designed to influence these developments. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial by offering a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu to middle-aged men in a workplace cafeteria. This menu was designed to prevent and reduce metabolic syndrome. Methods This intervention study took the form of a non-randomized controlled trial. Participants chose the control or intervention group. The control group consumed their habitual lunches without restriction and only nutrient contents were assessed. The intervention group received a Japanese-style healthy lunch at a workplace cafeteria for 3 months. The participants worked in offices at a city hall and mostly had low levels of physical activity. Data of 35 males (control group: 7 males, intervention group: 28 males, mean age: 47.2 ± 7.9 years) were collected and analyzed. Results We obtained an effective outcome by demonstrating that ongoing intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch decreased blood pressure and serum lipids and increased plasma ghrelin levels. The results grew more pronounced as intake of Japanese-style healthy lunches increased in frequency. Conclusions This study presents new empirical data as a result of an original intervention program undertaken in Japan. A Japanese-style healthy lunch menu containing many vegetables consumed can help prevent and/or improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:24673894

  12. Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroko; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Aiso, Izumi; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2014-03-27

    Metabolic syndrome is now widely appreciated as a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as visceral obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. To date, incidence of metabolic syndrome is continuously increasing worldwide.In addition, low vegetable consumption has recently become a serious issue in Japan. Furthermore, Japan is facing a shortfall in places offering food that can help prevent metabolic syndrome in the first place. Our study is designed to influence these developments. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial by offering a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu to middle-aged men in a workplace cafeteria. This menu was designed to prevent and reduce metabolic syndrome. This intervention study took the form of a non-randomized controlled trial. Participants chose the control or intervention group. The control group consumed their habitual lunches without restriction and only nutrient contents were assessed. The intervention group received a Japanese-style healthy lunch at a workplace cafeteria for 3 months. The participants worked in offices at a city hall and mostly had low levels of physical activity. Data of 35 males (control group: 7 males, intervention group: 28 males, mean age: 47.2 ± 7.9 years) were collected and analyzed. We obtained an effective outcome by demonstrating that ongoing intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch decreased blood pressure and serum lipids and increased plasma ghrelin levels. The results grew more pronounced as intake of Japanese-style healthy lunches increased in frequency. This study presents new empirical data as a result of an original intervention program undertaken in Japan. A Japanese-style healthy lunch menu containing many vegetables consumed can help prevent and/or improve metabolic syndrome.

  13. Effects of Cottonseed Meal on Hematological, Biochemical and Behavioral Alterations in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica

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    M. Moazam Jalees, M. Zargham Khan*, M. Kashif Saleemi and Ahrar Khan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find toxico-pathological effects of cottonseed meal (CSM in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica. Male birds (n=48 were equally divided into four groups (A to D. Three isonitric and isocaloric experimental feeds were formulated by replacing soybean meal with three levels of CSM i.e., 13, 27 and 41%. The respective feed was offered to the birds ad libitum for the duration of experiment (42 days. Clinical signs, behavioral alterations, feed consumption, body weight, absolute and relative organ weight, hematological and biochemical parameters along with gross and histopathological lesions were studied. In group B and C, birds were temporarily depressed but later on became active. In group D, birds remained dull and depressed and 66.7% mortality was recorded. Body weight, absolute and relative organ weight was non-significantly different in treatment groups compared with control. Feed intake at week 1 was significantly low in group D while during remaining experiment; it differed non-significantly in all the treatment groups compared with control. Testicular volume at day 21 was significantly (P<0.05 low in group D. Significantly low serum total proteins and albumin in groups B and C and hematocrit values in all the groups and hemoglobin concentration in group D were recorded at day 42 of experiment. It was concluded that CSM 13% level did not have any deleterious effect on the feed conversion and body weight but the reproductive performance of the male Japanese quail was affected.

  14. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction study between overactive bladder drugs mirabegron and tolterodine in Japanese healthy postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yuki; Iitsuka, Hiromi; Toyoshima, Junko; Kuroishi, Kentaro; Hatta, Toshifumi; Kaibara, Atsunori; Katashima, Masataka; Moy, Selina; Sawamoto, Taiji

    2016-12-01

    Mirabegron, the first selective β 3 -adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), inhibits cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2D6. This study was performed in Japanese healthy postmenopausal female volunteers to assess any pharmacokinetic drug interaction between mirabegron and tolterodine, another OAB drug and a sensitive substrate of CYP2D6. Tolterodine 4 mg was orally administered from Days 1-7 and co-administered with mirabegron 50 mg from Days 8-14. Mirabegron 50 mg increased maximum concentration (C max ) and area under the concentration-time curve from zero to 24 h after dosing (AUC 24h ) of tolterodine by 2.06-fold (90% confidence interval [CI] 1.81, 2.34) and 1.86-fold (90% CI 1.60, 2.16), respectively, and increased C max and AUC 24h of the metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine by 1.36-fold (90% CI 1.26, 1.47) and 1.25-fold (90% CI 1.15, 1.37), respectively. This suggested a weak pharmacokinetic drug interaction between mirabegron and tolterodine. Mean change from baseline of Fridericia's QT correction formula (ΔQTcF) was slightly higher on Day 14 than on Day 7. No subject had QTcF >480 msec or ΔQTcF >60 msec. All the treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Mirabegron 50 mg was considered to be safe and well tolerated when coadministered with tolterodine 4 mg in healthy postmenopausal female volunteers. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin photoprotection and consumption of coffee and polyphenols in healthy middle-aged Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yoichi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Hori, Yusuke; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Shiga, Kaedeko; Tanaka, Yuiko; Masunaga, Erika; Tani, Mariko; Yokoyama, Mihoko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species are known to mediate skin photoaging, which results in the formation of pigmented spots and wrinkles. Coffee is the largest source of polyphenols, which supplies a large number of antioxidants in one's daily life. However, little is known about how much coffee and polyphenol consumption influences skin health. In this study, a cross-sectional survey of the diet, environmental factors, and skin conditions was conducted in healthy Japanese females to explore the influence of coffee and polyphenol consumption on skin conditions. Non-smoking, healthy female subjects with moderate sun exposure in their daily lives were recruited for this study (n = 131, age range: 30-60 years old) and recorded their food and beverage intake and life circumstances using questionnaires. The skin water content, transepidermal water loss, and elasticity were measured on the cheek of each subject using non-invasive methods: a Corneometer, a Tewameter, and a Cutometer, respectively. Wrinkles and pigmented spots were evaluated using digital photograph images. Consumption of coffee and total polyphenols from all sources and from coffee showed a statistically significant correlation towards a decrease in pigmented spot scores (P consumption from coffee or chlorogenic acids (the third tertile group) showed the lowest score of ultraviolet pigmented spots (P Coffee and polyphenol consumption was associated with low facial pigmented spots in Japanese middle-aged females. We speculated that coffee helps protect human skin from photoaging, and polyphenols, including chlorogenic acids, may contribute to the decreased hyperpigmentation of pigmented spots. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Resting heart rate predicts metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy non-obese Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2014-02-01

    Autonomic nervous dysfunction is considered to be one of the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study is to investigate whether resting heart rate, a marker of autonomic nervous dysfunction, is a predictor of MetS in apparently healthy non-obese [body mass index (BMI) healthy Japanese 1,265 men and 793 women without MetS and with no history of cardiovascular disease and no use of antihypertensive, antidiabetic, or antihyperlipidemic medication at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident MetS were calculated for each 1 SD increase in heart rate stratified by gender and obesity. Incidence of MetS for each tertile of heart rate and HRs of MetS for the highest tertile (T3) compared with the lowest tertile (T1) were calculated stratified by gender and obesity. The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of MetS for each 1 SD increase in heart rate were 1.319 (1.035-1.681) (p = 0.025) in non-obese men, 1.172 (0.825-1.665) (p = 0.377) in obese men, 1.115 (0.773-1.608) (p = 0.560) in non-obese women, and 1.401 (0.944-2.078) (p = 0.094) in obese women adjusted for BMI, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. The HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for T3 were 2.138 (1.071-4.269) (p = 0.031) in non-obese men and 1.341 (0.565-3.180) (p = 0.506) in obese men adjusted for pre-existing five components of MetS, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. In conclusion, an increase in resting heart rate was a significant predictor of MetS in non-obese Japanese men.

  17. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  18. Novel GUCY2D Gene Mutations in Japanese Male Twins with Leber Congenital Amaurosis

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    Katsuhiro Hosono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, is the earliest onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP and is the most severe of hereditary retinal dystrophies. This study was conducted to investigate genetic and clinical features of LCA in a set of Japanese male twins with LCA. Methods. To identify causative mutations, 74 genes known to cause RP or LCA were examined by targeted-next generation sequencing (NGS. Targeted-NGS was performed using a custom designed Agilent HaloPlex target enrichment kit with Illumina Miseq sequencer. Identified potential pathogenic mutations were confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Clinical analyses were based on ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, and electroretinography (ERG. Results. Compound heterozygous GUCY2D mutations of novel splicing mutation c.2113+2_2113+3insT and novel missense mutation p.L905P were detected in both twins. Their father and mother were heterozygous for c.2113+2_2113+3insT and p.L905P, respectively. The twins had phenotypic features similar to those previously reported in patients with GUCY2D mutations. This included early childhood onset of visual loss, nystagmus, unrecordable ERG, photophobia, and hyperopia. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic and clinical features of Japanese LCA twins with GUCY2D mutation, which were detected using targeted-NGS.

  19. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  20. The Role of the Japanese Traditional Diet in Healthy and Sustainable Dietary Patterns around the World.

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    Gabriel, Ana San; Ninomiya, Kumiko; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2018-02-03

    As incomes steadily increase globally, traditional diets have been displaced by diets that are usually animal-based with a high content of "empty calories" or refined sugars, refined fats, and alcohol. Dietary transition coupled with the expansion of urbanization and lower physical activity have been linked to the global growth in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and life style-related non-communicable diseases. The challenge is in how to reverse the trend of high consumption of less healthy food by more healthful and more environmentally sustainable diets. The increasing recognition that each individual has specific needs depending on age, metabolic condition, and genetic profile adds complexity to general nutritional considerations. If we were to promote the consumption of low-energy and low salt but nutritious diets, taste becomes a relevant food quality. The Japanese traditional diet (Washoku), which is characterized by high consumption of fish and soybean products and low consumption of animal fat and meat, relies on the effective use of umami taste to enhance palatability. There may be a link between Washoku and the longevity of the people in Japan. Thus Washoku and umami may be valuable tools to support healthy eating.

  1. Fish consumption is positively associated with social functioning: a cross-sectional study in male Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Pu, Shenghong; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hideaki; Kaneko, Koichi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2012-12-30

    This study investigated the association of fish consumption with social functioning. One hundred forty male Japanese workers completed the social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS) and their customary fish consumption was assessed. The total, interest, and motivation factor scores on SASS showed significant positive correlations with fish consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A tapetal-like fundus reflex in a healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, Patrik; Bregnhøj, Jesper; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2012-01-01

    To report on the retinal function and structure in a 37-year-old male who presented with a tapetal-like reflex (TLR) indistinguishable from that seen in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP)....

  3. A tapetal-like fundus reflex in a healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, Patrik; Bregnhøj, Jesper; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2012-01-01

    To report on the retinal function and structure in a 37-year-old male who presented with a tapetal-like reflex (TLR) indistinguishable from that seen in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP).......To report on the retinal function and structure in a 37-year-old male who presented with a tapetal-like reflex (TLR) indistinguishable from that seen in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP)....

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the fecal microbiota of healthy Japanese adults reveals a new bacterial lineage associated with a phenotype characterized by a high frequency of bowel movements and a lean body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kaihei; Toyama, Mutsumi; Banno, Taihei; Chonan, Osamu; Benno, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Koichi

    2016-11-28

    In Japan, a variety of traditional dietary habits and daily routines have developed in many regions. The effects of these behaviors, and the regional differences in the composition of the gut microbiota, are yet to be sufficiently studied. To characterize the Japanese gut microbiota and identify the factors shaping its composition, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from healthy Japanese adults residing in various regions of Japan. Each participant also completed a 94-question lifestyle questionnaire. We collected fecal samples from 516 healthy Japanese adults (325 females, 191 males; age, 21-88). Heatmap and biplot analyses based on the bacterial family composition of the fecal microbiota showed that subjects' region of residence or gender were not strongly correlated with the general composition of the fecal microbiota. Although clustering analysis for the whole cohort did not reveal any distinct clusters, two enterotype-like clusters were observed in the male, but not the female, subjects. In the whole subject population, the scores for bowel movement frequency were significantly correlated with the abundances of Christensenellaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, and Rikenellaceae in the fecal microbiota (P  30), which is consistent with previously published results. However, a previously reported correlation between BMI and bowel movement frequency was not observed. In addition, the abundances of these three families were positively correlated with each other and comprised a correlative network with 14 other bacterial families. The present study showed that the composition of the fecal microbiota of healthy Japanese adults at the national level was not strongly correlated with subjects' area of residence or gender. In addition, enterotype partitioning was ambiguous in this cohort of healthy Japanese adults. Finally, the results implied that the abundances of Christensenellaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, and Rikenellaceae, along with several

  5. Effects of chronic academic stress on mental state and expression of glucocorticoid receptor α and β isoforms in healthy Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Ken; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Murata, Akiho; Akaike, Yoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2011-07-01

    Chronic academic stress responses were assessed by measuring mental state, salivary cortisol levels, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression in healthy Japanese medical students challenging the national medical license examination. Mental states of 17 male and 9 female medical undergraduates, aged 25.0 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SD), were assessed by the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) 2 months before, 2 days before, and 1 month after the examination. At the same time points, saliva and blood were collected. STAI-state scores peaked 2 days before the examination. Scores on STAI-trait and SDS, and salivary cortisol levels were consistently higher during the pre-examination period. One month after the examination, all these measures had significantly decreased to baseline levels. Real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that this chronic anxious state did not change the expression of the functional GRα mRNA isoform in peripheral leukocytes, while it resulted in reduced expression of the GRβ isoform 2 days before the examination. Our results replicate and extend a significant impact of chronic academic stressors on the mental state of healthy Japanese medical students and suggest a possible association of GRβ gene in response to psychological stress.

  6. Gender Role Orientation with Health Literacy and Self-Efficacy for Healthy Eating among Japanese Workers in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Chizuru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masafumi; Kato, Mio; Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Gender role, independent of biological sex, affects health. However, research on healthy eating that considers the importance of gender norms is scarce. People who are androgynous and have high masculinity and femininity are reported to have better health practices than other people. The present study aimed to examine the differences in health literacy (HL) and self-efficacy for healthy eating by gender role in Japanese men and women. Participants were 629 men and women aged 25-34 years, recruited via a Japanese Internet research company database. Participants were categorized into four gender role groups using the Japanese Gender Role Index. HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed using the healthy eating literacy (HEL) scale and the healthy eating and weight self-efficacy (HEWSE) scale. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc tests and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the research hypotheses. We found that the Androgynous group had significantly higher HEL and HEWSE scores than the Feminine and Undifferentiated groups. The Masculine group scored significantly higher on both measures than the Undifferentiated group. Being Androgynous (HEL: β = 0.34, p < 0.001; HEWSE: β = 0.30, p < 0.001) was a strong predictor for higher scores even after considering other predictors. The results showed significant associations between gender role orientation and individual HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating. These findings may be relevant for promoting healthy eating from the perspective of gender norms.

  7. Healthy Aging and Concerns Among Elderly Japanese: A Text Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yoko; Shida, Naoki; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Machida, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Japan is facing an unprecedented aging society. In 2013, 25.1% of the total population in Japan was 65 years old and over. One third of the population in Japan will be at least 65 years old in 2035; healthy aging is crucial for public health and society in Japan. Under the budget limitations of social security, policies and frequent policy changes have created great uncertainty and concern for the elderly population. Given these circumstances, we conducted questionnaire surveys in 2010 to examine concerns in this age-group. In 2010, we sent questionnaires to university graduates 65 years old and older, randomly selected from a list of an alumni association of 11 universities. The questionnaires were open-ended and asked them to write any concerns that they had about health care, health policy, health systems, and their future. We received 344 responses. Among those who responded, 271 (78.8%) respondents said that they had concerns. We conducted a text analysis (Trend Search-Keyword Associator 2008) and extracted the keywords from their responses. The keywords that were extracted frequently included hospitals, doctors, health-care system, health care, Japanese government policies, government, medical insurance system for the elderly, support, increase, copayment, health (their own), scarcities, and burdens. In this study, many elderly people in Japan are concerned about health-care expenditures, health-care systems, and health policies. This may be caused by frequent health policy changes and uncertainty due to frequent administration changes such as the lack of clarity concerning raising the out of pocket payment rate from 10% to 20% for elderly people under budget constraints in Japan. Correct policy making and determination to eliminate the concerns from this vulnerable population in Japan are necessary for healthy aging. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miki; Yasuhara, Yuko; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Iwasa, Yukie; Miyake, Masafumi; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Tomotake, Masahito; Kobayashi, Haruo; Locsin, Rozzano C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were -0.62 (range -0.43 to -0.84) for good sleepers and -0.45 (range 0.003 to -0.64) for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=-2.11, Ppoor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, Psleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, Psleep time as measured by PSQI and the correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency (r=-0.460, Psleep-wake rhythms can be monitored efficiently with actigraphy, providing accurate data that can support the diagnosis of sleeping disorders. Furthermore, actigraphy data were associated with heart rate variability and PSQI findings, but only in subjects who were poor sleepers. Actigraphy is an accurate, efficient, rapid, and inexpensive test for determining objective and subjective sleeping problems, and can also be used in clinical tests for sleep assessment.

  9. Male-female and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of posture and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Paul L; Foroud, Afra; Duckworth, Nadine; Kovacovsky, Stefani D

    2006-04-01

    Mounting is generally considered to be a male-typical behavior. Female Japanese macaques, in certain populations, are unusual, in that they routinely mount other females. In this study, we examined to what extent female Japanese macaques mount same-sex partners in a male-typical manner. We compared the mount postures males and females adopt and their rate of pelvic thrusting. In addition, we employed a modified form of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to compare patterns of pelvic movement during mounts. LMA is a universal language for movement that describes quantitative features of movement, such as changes in the relation of the body segments, as well as qualitative features, such as the style of movements. Our results indicate that female Japanese macaques do not mount in a male-typical manner. Females exhibited a much greater variety of mount postures than did males. Some of the most common types of mount postures employed by females were never exhibited by males. Females performed fewer pelvic thrusts per mount than males, but they executed more pelvic movements per mount, as well as, greater variety and complexity of movement. In addition, the qualitative style of pelvic mounting that females employed differed, in general, from that of males. We argue that these sex differences in mounting can be explained by the fact that both sexes sought sexual reward via genital stimulation during mounting, but they did so in different ways owing to the constraints imposed by their genital architecture. This study raises the larger question as to what constitutes a male-typical or female-typical behavior.

  10. [Primary psoas abscess in a young healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, D.; Galbo, H.; Skovsgaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    A young male saw his general practitioner because of lower back pain, limpness, nightly sweating, subfebrilia, and weight loss. Further diagnostics showed that he had a primary psoas abscess. Psoas abscesses are categorized as primary and secondary. Primary psoas abscess is a rare disease in Europe...

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Bilastine, a Second-Generation Antihistamine, in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Togawa, Michinori; Yamaya, Hidetoshi; Rodr?guez, M?nica; Nagashima, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Bilastine is a novel second-generation antihistamine for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of bilastine following single and multiple oral doses in healthy Japanese subjects. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were compared with those reported in Caucasian subjects. Methods In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pa...

  12. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: Effects on memory activation in healthy males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, E.B.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Evers, E.A.T.; Nicolson, N.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cortisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were

  13. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: Effects on memory activation in healthy males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Elisabeth; Nicolson, Nancy; Veltman, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cor- tisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were

  14. Seasonal blood pressure variation and its relationship to environmental temperature in healthy elderly Japanese studied by home measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toshiaki; Senda, Shoichi; Masugata, Hisashi; Yamagami, Ayumu; Okuyama, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Takeaki; Hirao, Tomohiro; Fukunaga, Megumu; Okada, Hiroki; Goda, Fuminori

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine seasonal blood pressure variation and its relationship to environmental temperature in healthy elderly Japanese, as studied by home measurements. Fifteen healthy elderly Japanese (79.3 +/- 5.9 yrs) measured their blood pressure at home each morning for more than 25 times per month for 3 years. Monthly mean outdoor temperatures were obtained from the Takamatsu meteorological Observatory. The highest levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured at home were observed in February (129 +/- 14 and 81 +/- 13 mmHg). The lowest levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured at home were observed in August (117 +/- 11 and 73 +/- 10 mmHg). Likewise, the lowest and highest means of outdoor temperature were observed in February (5.0 degrees C) and August (29.2 degrees C), respectively. Hence, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure demonstrated a close inverse correlation with the means of outdoor temperature (r = -0.973, p blood pressure (SBP) and 0.29 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Seasonal variations in home blood pressure and outdoor temperature showed complete correspondence in healthy elderly Japanese, with the blood pressures being inversely related to the ambient temperature. These seasonal home blood pressure variations should be kept in mind when controlling blood pressure in elderly patients.

  15. Japanese butterbur (Petasites japonicus) leaves increase hepatic oxidative stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Lee, Chi-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the adverse effects of Japanese butterbur leaves (Petasites japonicus, Compositae) in male F344/DuCrj rats. The rats were fed a control diet or a treatment diet containing 5% butterbur leaf powder for 4 weeks. No differences were observed in body weight gain, food intake or feed efficiency between treatments, but relative liver weight in the butterbur group was significantly higher than that of the control group. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and glutathione levels in the serum and liver of the butterbur group were higher than those of the control group. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities and mRNA expression in the butterbur leaf group were higher than in the control group. Furthermore, hepatic cytochrome 2E1 mRNA expression was higher than in the control group. In vitro, an acetone extract of the butterbur leaf powder showed the strongest increase in TBARs level in a hepatic homogenate through 4 d. Our findings suggest that feeding 5% butterbur leaf powder to rats can cause adverse effects by increasing oxidative stress.

  16. Association Between Cortisol to DHEA-s Ratio and Sickness Absence in Japanese Male Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sickness absence were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders. Among 35 workers who took sickness absences, 31 had physical illness. A high cortisol to DHEA-s ratio increased the risk of sickness absence (crude HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.12-6.41; adjusted HR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.35-8.20). The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio was linearly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence (p for trend s levels were not associated with sickness absences. This trend did not change when limited to absences resulting from physical illness. Hormonal conditions related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and adrenal function should be considered when predicting sickness absence. The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio may be more informative than single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels.

  17. Analysis of ketone bodies in exhaled breath and blood of ten healthy Japanese at OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Naoko; Hinokio, Yoshinori; Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Koseki, Takeyoshi

    2014-11-24

    Ketone bodies including acetone are disease biomarkers for diabetes that sometimes causes severe ketoacidosis. The present study was undertaken to clarify the significance of exhaled acetone and plasma ketone bodies at bedside in a clinical setting. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 10 healthy Japanese volunteers (five females and five males). Exhaled breath acetone and volatile sulfide compounds (VSCs) in mouth air were measured simultaneously with blood sampling during the OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph equipped with an In2O3 thick-film type gas sensor and a VSC monitor. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) in blood plasma as well as glucose and insulin were examined. Oral conditions were examined based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) by one dentist. In addition, the same type of analysis was applied to two uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized at Tohoku University Hospital. Exhaled acetone was measured at the same time as blood withdrawal in the morning before breakfast and at night before bed at the beginning, the middle, and the end of hospitalization. All volunteers showed normal OGTT patterns with no ketonuria and periodontitis; however, there were significant correlations between breath acetone and plasma β-ΟΗΒ and between breath acetone and plasma AcAc under fasting conditions. Breath acetone of the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed positive correlations with plasma glucose when the level of plasma glucose tended to decrease during hospitalization. In spite of a very limited number of cases, our results support the idea that exhaled breath acetone may be related to plasma β-OHB and AcAc, which reflect glucose metabolism in the body.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of [14C]-lenalidomide following oral administration in healthy male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nianhang; Wen, Lian; Lau, Henry; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Kumar, Gondi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Assessment of the absorption, metabolism and excretion of [14C]-lenalidomide in healthy male subjects following a single oral dose. Methods Six healthy male subjects were administered a single 25 mg oral suspension dose of [14C]-lenalidomide. Blood (plasma), semen and excreta were collected. Mass balance assessments were done by radioactivity measurements. Metabolite profiling and quantitation were accomplished using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and radiochemical dete...

  19. Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Body Attitudes among Japanese Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In comparison to American adolescent data sets, Japanese adolescents are found to have lower self-esteem and less favorable views of their bodies' attractiveness and effectiveness. Sex differences in self-concept account for more variance in the Japanese cohorts than in comparative American ones. Types of self-concept differences are similar in…

  20. Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Intake on the Serum Cholesterol Levels of Healthy Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Yuuki; Suzuki, Naoko; Takara, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble quinone compound that has a strong anti-oxidant capacity. A previous study in rats fed a PQQ-depleted diet showed that elevated levels of serum triglyceride (TG) decreased after PQQ supplementation. However, there is only one study reporting the effects of PQQ on serum lipid levels, such as those of TG and cholesterol, in humans. In this study, the effects of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on serum TG and cholesterol levels in humans after 6 and 12 wk of treatment at an oral dosage of 20 mg/d were examined. This trial was conducted according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded protocol. A total of 29 healthy Japanese adults, ranging from 40 to 57 y old, with normal to moderately high TG levels (110-300 mg/dL) as measured by a recent blood examination, were included in this study. In eleven volunteers out of 29, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) levels at baseline were high (≥140 mg/dL). After 12 wk, the mean serum TG levels had not changed; however, a marginally significant decrease in the mean LDL-chol (from 136.1 to 127.0 mg/dL) was observed in the PQQ group. In the stratification analysis of the high LDL-chol subgroup (baseline LDL-chol level ≥140 mg/dL), the mean LDL-chol levels decreased significantly from the baseline values in the PQQ group compared to the placebo group. Our study findings suggest that PQQ suppressed the LDL-chol level, which is an important finding, because a high level of this lipid is a risk factor for various lifestyle-related diseases.

  1. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  2. Relationship Between the Relative Age Effect and Lengths of Professional Careers in Male Japanese Baseball Players: a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study focused on the relationship between the relative age effect and lengths of professional careers among professional male Japanese baseball players. The birth dates of players and lengths of professional careers were collected from an official publication, and data were divided into four quarters (Q1: April-June; Q2: July-September; Q3: October-December; Q4: January-March of the following year) grouped by 3 years. Based on the data for Q4, the expected numbers for the lengths of professional careers were calculated for Q1, Q2, and Q3. The number of players with professional careers of more than 19 years was significantly smaller in Q4 than in Q1, Q2, and Q3. The relative age effect among professional male Japanese baseball players was associated with the lengths of professional careers. Relative age appears to be a very important factor for the development of expertise among male Japanese baseball players and involves long-term disadvantages after becoming professional players.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Vortioxetine Following Single- and Multiple-Dose Administration in Healthy Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Kumi; Nakamura, Koki; Aritomi, Yutaka; Nishimura, Akira

    2017-09-21

    Three phase 1 randomized single-center studies assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Japanese adults. Study 1 assessed the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine after administration of single rising doses to men and multiple doses to men and women; study 2 evaluated vortioxetine pharmacokinetics in elderly adults; and study 3 assessed food effects on vortioxetine pharmacokinetics in healthy men. The primary end points included pharmacokinetic parameters of vortioxetine and incidence of adverse events (AEs). Across all studies, 130 participants were randomized and 128 participants completed the studies. Vortioxetine was absorbed and eliminated from plasma slowly, and exposure to vortioxetine increased in an almost dose-proportional manner. No clinically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine or its metabolites were observed between the sexes in young and elderly adults. Study 3 demonstrated that vortioxetine and its metabolites had similar pharmacokinetics when administered in the fasted and fed states. Importantly, vortioxetine was safe and tolerated, with incidence of AEs comparable to that of placebo. No deaths or serious AEs leading to trial discontinuation were observed. Overall, vortioxetine pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability in Japanese adults were comparable to reports in non-Japanese populations. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  5. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  6. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miki Sato,1 Yuko Yasuhara,2 Tetsuya Tanioka,2 Yukie Iwasa,2 Masafumi Miyake,3 Toshiyuki Yasui,2 Masahito Tomotake,2 Haruo Kobayashi,4 Rozzano C Locsin51Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shikoku University, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3Tokushima Prefectural Minami Health Care Center, Tokushima, 4Faculty of Medical Welfare, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; 5Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were −0.62 (range −0.43 to −0.84 for good sleepers and −0.45 (range 0.003 to −0.64 for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=−2.11, P<0.05. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and low frequency/high frequency were 0.54 (range 0.29–0.73 for good sleepers and 0.41 (range 0.11–0.63 for poor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, P<0.05 and sleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, P<0.05, and a negative correlation between sleep time as measured by PSQI and the

  7. [Thr arteries of the male sex organs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and their development after hatching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Vollmerhaus, B; Roos, H; Waibl, H; König, H E

    1992-06-01

    A total of 83 male Japanese quails of the following age groups were used for this study: 11, 18, 25, 32, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43 days, and 7, 9, 17 weeks after hatching. Neoprene-Latex, Tensol-Cement, and the china ink were injected via the aortic arch. In most of male Japanese quails, the testes are supplied by the A. testicularis originated from the Aorta descendens through a common trunk with the A. renalis cranialis. But in only 3 quails had this artery originated directly from the Aorta descendens on either side. In 9 quails had the A. testicularis accessoria originating independently from the Aorta descendens and running cranially or caudally in short distance to the normal A. testicularis. The arteries for the Ductus deferens were divided into 3 categories. The Rami ureterodeferentiales craniales were spread out from A. testicularis or Rami epididymales. The Rami ureterodeferentiales medii came from the A. renalis media and the A. renalis caudalis. The Rami ureterodeferentiales caudales originated from the A. caudae lateralis and A. pudenda. The Receptaculum ductus deferentis, the Corpus vasculare paracloacalis and the Phallus nonprotrudens in the Cloaca were supplied from the thick Ramus cloacalis of the A. pudenda. The Ramus bursalis of this artery supplied the Glandula proctodaealis and the Bursa cloacalis, and was also thick. The arteries to the genital organs were observed in the 11 day old male quail. The A. pudenda began developing at about 30 days after hatching when the quail's body matured. While the A. testicularis began developing at about 40 days after hatching when the male Japanese quail was full of the spermatogenic activity.

  8. Discovery and identification of a male-killing agent in the Japanese ladybird Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Michael EN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endosymbionts that manipulate the reproduction of their hosts have been reported widely in invertebrates. One such group of endosymbionts is the male-killers. To date all male-killers reported are bacterial in nature, but comprise a diverse group. Ladybirds have been described as a model system for the study of male-killing, which has been reported in multiple species from widespread geographic locations. Whilst criteria of low egg hatch-rate and female-biased progenic sex ratio have been used to identify female hosts of male-killers, variation in vertical transmission efficiency and host genetic factors may result in variation in these phenotypic indicators of male-killer presence. Molecular identification of bacteria and screening for bacterial presence provide us with a more accurate method than breeding data alone to link the presence of the bacteria to the male-killing phenotype. In addition, by identifying the bacteria responsible we may find evidence for horizontal transfer between endosymbiont hosts and can gain insight into the evolutionary origins of male-killing. Phylogenetic placement of male-killing bacteria will allow us to address the question of whether male-killing is a potential strategy for only some, or all, maternally inherited bacteria. Together, phenotypic and molecular characterisation of male-killers will allow a deeper insight into the interactions between host and endosymbiont, which ultimately may lead to an understanding of how male-killers identify and kill male-hosts. Results A male-killer was detected in the Japanese coccinellid, Propylea japonica (Thunberg a species not previously known to harbour male-killers. Families produced by female P. japonica showed significantly female-biased sex ratios. One female produced only daughters. This male-killer trait was maternally inherited and antibiotic treatment produced a full, heritable cure. Molecular analysis identified Rickettsia to be associated

  9. Semen characteristics and biochemical composition of cloacal foam of male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) fed diet incorporated with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A; Mohan, J; Mandal, A B; Lal, N

    2017-04-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on physical and cloacal gland size, foam production, biochemical composition of foam and semen biochemical characteristics of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Two hundred twenty-five (225)-day-old male Japanese quail were randomly distributed to three dietary treatment groups for a period of 20 weeks. Each treatment comprised of three replicates, each containing 25 chicks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg Se/kg (T 1 , T 2 and T 3, respectively), and diet T 1 was considered as control. Sodium selenite was used as the source of selenium. All the birds were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Cloacal foam characteristics, that is cloacal gland index and foam weight, were significantly higher in T 2 group. However, body weight, frequency of foam discharge and testes weight (left and right) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Physical characteristics of semen, that is semen volume and sperm concentration, did not differ (p > 0.05) among the Se-treated groups. The sperm motility, live-dead count and abnormality improved significantly (p foam in terms of total protein, acid phosphatase (ACP) and nitric oxide did not differ (p > 0.05), while the concentration of glucose was higher (p foam variables, biochemical composition of foam, semen characteristics and fertility in male Japanese quail. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers. M Usman, M Ahmad, AU Madni, NAW Asghar, M Akhtar, M Atif, M Qamar-uz-zaman. Abstract. Purpose: The study was aimed at evaluating the in vivo kinetics of silymarin tablets, a product with antihepatotoxic and free radical scavenging activities.

  11. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  12. The effects of morphine and methylnaltrexone on gastrointestinal pain in healthy male participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokjaer, A; Olesen, A E; Christrup, L L

    2015-01-01

    and after blocking opioid receptors outside the central nervous system with methylnaltrexone (MNTX). METHODS: In this randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study 15 healthy male participants received the following drugs at three separate sessions: (i) placebo, (ii) 30 mg morphine administered per...

  13. Characteristics and prognosis of Japanese male and female lung cancer patients: The BioBank Japan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Okada, Emiko; Hirata, Makoto; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Muto, Kaori; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-03-01

    In Japanese males and females, lung cancer is currently the second and fourth most common type of cancer, and the first and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, respectively. Of all Japanese male and female lung cancer patients aged ≥20 years whom the BioBank Japan Project originally enrolled between 2003 and 2008, 764 males and 415 females were registered within 90 days after their diagnosis. We described the lifestyle and clinical characteristics of these patients at study entry. Furthermore, we examined the effect of these characteristics on all-cause mortality. In the lung cancer patients registered within 90 days, the frequencies of occult or stage 0, stage I, II, III and IV were 0.4%, 55.8%, 10.8%, 22.0% and 11.0% for males and 0.3%, 62.4%, 9.9%, 17.1% and 10.2% for females, respectively. The proportions of histological types in males and females were 56.3% and 82.4% for adenocarcinoma, 26.9% and 8.2% for squamous cell carcinoma, 4.5% and 1.5% for large cell carcinoma, 7.7% and 4.1% for small cell carcinoma and 4.6% and 3.8% for others, respectively. Among 1120 participants who registered within 90 days, 572 participants died during 5811 person-years of follow-up. Low body mass index, ever smoker, more advanced stage, squamous cell or small cell carcinoma and high serum carcinoembryonic antigen level at study entry were crudely associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after adjustment for age. This study showed the association of several lifestyle and clinical characteristics with all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics and prognosis of Japanese male and female lung cancer patients: The BioBank Japan Project

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    Koshi Nakamura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Japanese males and females, lung cancer is currently the second and fourth most common type of cancer, and the first and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, respectively. Methods: Of all Japanese male and female lung cancer patients aged ≥20 years whom the BioBank Japan Project originally enrolled between 2003 and 2008, 764 males and 415 females were registered within 90 days after their diagnosis. We described the lifestyle and clinical characteristics of these patients at study entry. Furthermore, we examined the effect of these characteristics on all-cause mortality. Results: In the lung cancer patients registered within 90 days, the frequencies of occult or stage 0, stage I, II, III and IV were 0.4%, 55.8%, 10.8%, 22.0% and 11.0% for males and 0.3%, 62.4%, 9.9%, 17.1% and 10.2% for females, respectively. The proportions of histological types in males and females were 56.3% and 82.4% for adenocarcinoma, 26.9% and 8.2% for squamous cell carcinoma, 4.5% and 1.5% for large cell carcinoma, 7.7% and 4.1% for small cell carcinoma and 4.6% and 3.8% for others, respectively. Among 1120 participants who registered within 90 days, 572 participants died during 5811 person-years of follow-up. Low body mass index, ever smoker, more advanced stage, squamous cell or small cell carcinoma and high serum carcinoembryonic antigen level at study entry were crudely associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after adjustment for age. Conclusions: This study showed the association of several lifestyle and clinical characteristics with all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients.

  15. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

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    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  16. Is there a relationship between periodontal disease and smoking after adjusting for job classification in Japanese employed males?

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    Morita, Ichizo; Sheiham, Aubrey; Nakagaki, Haruo; Yoshii, Saori; Mizuno, Kinichiro; Sabbah, Wael

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine whether the well-known association between periodontal disease and smoking persists after adjusting for job classification. A sample of 16,110 employed Japanese males aged 20-69 years was included in the study. Periodontal examinations were conducted using the Community Periodontal Index. The association between periodontal disease and smoking status was examined using logistic regression adjusting for age, diabetes and job classification. Job classification was based on criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. There are nine major job groups: (1) Professional (professionals, specialists), (2) Managers, (3) Office workers (computer operators, clerks, secretaries), (4) Skilled worker (factory workers, construction workers), (5) Salesperson (shop assistants), (6) Service occupations (superintendents, cleaners or car park attendants), (7) Security (guards), (8) Farmers and fishermen, (9) Transport and telecommunication workers (truck drivers). Current and former smokers were more likely to have periodontal disease than non-smokers. Adjusting for job classification attenuated the association between smoking and periodontal disease but did not eliminate the association. The odds ratios for the association between smoking and Community Periodontal Index score 3 or 4 attenuated from 2.25 to 2.04 and from 2.62 to 2.52 for individuals aged 20 to 39 and 40 to 69 years, respectively. The effect of job classification on the association between periodontal disease and smoking was higher among younger participants aged 20 to 39 years. Smoking persisted as an important determinant of periodontal disease after adjusting for job classification in Japanese employed males.

  17. Three-dimensional analyses of aging-induced alterations in facial shape: a longitudinal study of 171 Japanese males.

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    Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Kei; Ogawa, Yoshinori; Matsuzaki, Kazutoshi; Nagata, Takeshi; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Kouchi, Makiko

    2015-03-01

    We sought to generate data to facilitate forensic facial comparisons. Specifically, we conducted a longitudinal study of alterations in face shape induced by aging. We obtained two three-dimensional facial shape measurements in 171 Japanese males at intervals of approximately 10 years. With this data, we created a homologous model consisting of 10,741 data points for each face based on 33 anatomical landmarks. We averaged the movements of corresponding data points between the two homologous models for each individual and used this data to predict up to 30 years of face aging in an average Japanese male. We clearly identified aging-induced shape changes, such as drooping and denting of the facial folds, drooping of the upper lip, and projection of the lower eyelid, in the virtually aged model. A quantitative comparison of aging-induced shape alterations among three age groups (individuals in their 20's, 30's, and 40-50's) showed that these alterations accelerated more quickly as age increased. Using our predictive model, we conducted a preliminary study focused on facial shape alterations induced by reductions in body weight. Our findings indicated that our proposed method would also be valid for this purpose.

  18. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

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    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  19. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is inversely associated with dietary total and coffee-derived polyphenol intakes in apparently healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Chie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kondo, Kazuo; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2017-10-07

    Serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress. Here, we examined the association between serum GGT and the dietary intake of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. A cross-sectional survey including 7960 apparently healthy Japanese men (aged 22-86 years) who participated in health checkups was conducted in Shizuoka, Japan. We analyzed these subjects' clinical serum parameters and lifestyle factors, including dietary polyphenol intake, which was evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire and by matching the subjects' food consumption data with our original polyphenol content database. The average intake of polyphenols was 1157 ± 471 mg/day, and green tea was the largest source of polyphenols at 40%, followed by coffee at 36%. Dividing the population according to quintiles of total polyphenol intake, the difference in polyphenol intake from coffee between the groups was much greater than the difference in polyphenol intake from green tea. The analysis of the association between polyphenol intake and biological parameters showed a significant negative association between polyphenol intake and the levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), GGT, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) after adjusting for age, smoking habit, energy intake and alcohol intake. The GGT levels were inversely associated with the polyphenol intake from coffee, but not with that from green tea. Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated that the subjects' GGT levels were negatively and independently associated with their polyphenol intake. The intake of total polyphenol including coffee as a major contributor is inversely associated with the serum GGT concentration in Japanese males.

  20. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  1. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption.

  2. Steroid receptor coactivator 2 modulates steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and neuroplasticity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Neville-Andrew; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Charlier, Thierry D

    2011-11-01

    Steroid receptor coactivators are necessary for efficient transcriptional regulation by ligand-bound nuclear receptors, including estrogen and androgen receptors. Steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2) modulates estrogen- and progesterone-dependent sexual behavior in female rats but its implication in the control of male sexual behavior has not been studied to our knowledge. We cloned and sequenced the complete quail SRC-2 transcript and showed by semi-quantitative PCR that SRC-2 expression is nearly ubiquitous, with high levels of expression in the kidney, cerebellum and diencephalon. Real-time quantitative PCR did not reveal any differences between intact males and females the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), optic lobes and cerebellum. We next investigated the physiological and behavioral role of this coactivator using in vivo antisense oligonucleotide techniques. Daily injections in the third ventricle at the level of the POM of locked nucleic acid antisense targeting SRC-2 significantly reduced the expression of testosterone-dependent male-typical copulatory behavior but no inhibition of one aspect of the appetitive sexual behavior was observed. The volume of POM, defined by aromatase-immunoreactive cells, was markedly decreased in animals treated with antisense as compared with controls. These results demonstrate that SRC-2 plays a prominent role in the control of steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and its associated neuroplasticity in Japanese quail. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Bilastine, a Second-Generation Antihistamine, in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togawa, Michinori; Yamaya, Hidetoshi; Rodríguez, Mónica; Nagashima, Hirotaka

    2016-12-01

    Bilastine is a novel second-generation antihistamine for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of bilastine following single and multiple oral doses in healthy Japanese subjects. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were compared with those reported in Caucasian subjects. In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single- and multiple-ascending dose study, bilastine tablets were administered at single doses of 10, 20, and 50 mg (Part I), and once daily for 14 days at 20 and 50 mg (Part II). After single oral doses, maximum plasma concentrations (C max ) were reached at 1.0-1.5 h postdose. Plasma exposure [C max and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)] increased dose-proportionally at single doses of 10-50 mg. In repeated-dose administration, no remarkable differences were observed between Day 1 and Day 14 for C max or AUC. For inhibitory effects on wheal and flare response, bilastine 20 and 50 mg showed significant inhibition from 1.5 h after administration as compared with placebo, and the significant effect persisted for 24 h after administration. The rates of adverse events (AEs) were comparable between bilastine and placebo in both Part I and Part II. In addition, no dose- or administration period-dependent tendency of increase in rate of AEs or worsening of severity was observed. Bilastine exhibits similar single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics in healthy Japanese subjects compared with those observed in Caucasian subjects in previous studies.

  4. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult males

    OpenAIRE

    Shen Z.; Rowlings C; Kerr B; Hingorani V; Manhard K; Quart B; Yeh LT; Storgard C

    2015-01-01

    Zancong Shen, Colin Rowlings, Brad Kerr, Vijay Hingorani, Kimberly Manhard, Barry Quart, Li-Tain Yeh, Chris Storgard Ardea Biosciences, Inc. (a member of the AstraZeneca group), San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor under investigation for the treatment of gout. Single and multiple ascending dose studies were conducted to evaluate pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad in healthy males. Lesinurad was administered as an or...

  5. Efficacy of a 3-month lifestyle intervention program using a Japanese-style healthy plate on body weight in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Katayama, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sakane, Naoki

    2014-11-24

    The portion size of food is a determinant of energy intake, linking with obese traits. A healthy plate for portion control has recently been made in a Japanese style. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate on weight reduction in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects. We randomized overweight and obese diabetic subjects (n = 19, 10 women) into an intervention group including educational classes on lifestyle modification incorporating the healthy plate (n = 10) or a waiting-list control group (n = 9). The intervention period was three months, and the educational classes using the healthy plate were conducted monthly in a group session for the intervention group. The body weight, blood glycemic and metabolic measures, and psychosocial variables were measured at the baseline and after the 3-month intervention in both groups. The impression of the intervention was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There was one drop-out in the control group. No adverse events were reported in the groups. Subjects in the intervention group had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period (-3.7 +/- 2.5 [SD] kg in the intervention group vs. -0.1 +/- 1.4 kg in the control group, P = 0.002). Most subjects recorded that the use of a healthy plate could be recommended to other people. The lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate, which was developed for portion control, may effectively reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects in Japan. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of this methodology on weight management.

  6. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou, Justin V; Caszo, Brinnell A; Khalil, Khalifah M; Abdullah, Shahidah L; Knight, Victor F; Bidin, Mohd Z

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes during the fasting phase of the fast-fed cycle. Ramadan fasting involves prolonged fasting for up to twelve hours and thus could lead to increased secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes. However, studies on the role of adiponectin on glucose and body weight homeostasis during Ramadan fasting is still a matter of controversy. Thus the specific aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the adiponectin levels, body weight and glucose homeostasis in healthy male Malaysian subjects. Twenty healthy male (19-23 years) Muslim subjects were followed up during the fasting month of Ramadan. Anthropometry and blood samples were taken one week before and during the fourth week of fasting. Plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin were estimated and insulin sensitivity indices were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in body weight (2.4 %, p Ramadan fasting in young healthy individuals has a positive impact on the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. It also shows that adiponectin levels dropped along with significant loss in weight. We feel caloric restriction during the Ramadan fasting is in itself sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.

  7. Associations of proteinuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate with incident hypertension in young to middle-aged Japanese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Naoki; Kondo, Takahisa; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Osugi, Shigeki; Shimokata, Keiko; Matsudaira, Kyoko; Yamashita, Kentaro; Maeda, Kengo; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the independent associations of proteinuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with incident hypertension. We investigated 29,181 Japanese males 18-59years old without hypertension in 2000 and examined whether proteinuria and the eGFR predicted incident hypertension independently over 10years. Incident hypertension was defined as a newly detected blood pressure of ≥140/90mmHg and/or the initiation of antihypertensive drugs. Proteinuria and the eGFR were categorized as dipstick negative (reference), trace or ≥1+ and ≥60 (reference), 50-59.9 or 50ml/min/1.73m(2), respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of incident hypertension. At baseline, 236 (0.8%) and 477 (1.6%) participants had trace and ≥1+ dipstick proteinuria, while 1416 (4.9%) and 129 (0.4%) participants had an eGFR of 50-59.9 and 50ml/min/1.73m(2), respectively. The adjusted HRs were significant for proteinuria ≥1+ (HRs 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.35) and an eGFR of 50ml/min/1.73m(2) (1.29, 1.03-1.61). When two non-referent categories were combined (dipstick≥trace vs. negative and eGFR<60 vs. ≥60ml/min/1.73m(2)), the association was more significant for proteinuria (1.15, 1.04-1.27) than for eGFR (0.99, 0.92-1.07). Proteinuria and a reduced eGFR are independently associated with future hypertension in young to middle-aged Japanese males. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoscopic assessment of reflux esophagitis concurrent with hiatal hernia in male Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenda, Takahiro; Hamazaki, Kei; Oka, Rie; Hagishita, Tomomi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shimizu, Junzo; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2014-09-01

    The pathogenetic relationship underlying the high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. In addition, GERD has not been adequately assessed by endoscopy in patients with OSA. The purpose of this study was to use endoscopy to investigate potential interactions among reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia (HH) and OSA. A total of 243 consecutive male Japanese participants who underwent both overnight ambulatory polygraphic monitoring and esophagogastroduodenoscopy were retrospectively evaluated in a cross-sectional study. The prevalence and severity of HH and reflux esophagitis were assessed according to the Los Angeles classification and the Makuuchi classification, respectively. Associations among reflux esophagitis, HH and OSA were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. OSA was diagnosed in 98 individuals (40.3%). Endoscopy-confirmed esophagitis (p = 0.027) and HH (p < 0.001) were significantly more prevalent among patients with OSA. Multivariate regression model analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, visceral obesity represented by waist circumference, presence of OSA, concurrence of OSA and HH, smoking, and alcohol consumption yielded OSA as the only variable significantly associated with HH (odds ratio [OR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-4.99; p = 0.004), while concurrence of OSA and HH was related to reflux esophagitis (OR, 3.59; CI, 1.87-6.92; p < 0.001). OSA was associated with HH and concurrent OSA and HH with reflux esophagitis in male Japanese patients with OSA. Our results support the hypothesis that complicating HH may link reflux esophagitis to OSA.

  9. Variations in Serum Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels with Gender, Age and Lifestyle Factors of Healthy Japanese Adults

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    Yingsong Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated serum or plasma Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1 levels have been linked to cancer and other diseases in numerous studies; however, very few studies have reported an association between circulating TGF-β1 and lifestyle factors in healthy people. We examined the association between serum TGF-β1 levels and gender, age, body mass index (BMI, smoking, and drinking in a large population-based cohort study (N = 9,142. Serum TGF-β1 levels were detected by the Quantikine enzyme-linked immunoassay kit (R&D Systems. The data indicated highly significant (p<0.0001 difference in serum TGF-β1 levels between men (mean value: 37.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, N = 4888 and women (mean value: 35.1 ± 0.12 ng/ml, N = 4254. Serum TGF-β1 levels decreased with age (trend p < 0.0001 and were positively associated with obesity (trend p < 0.0001 in both men and women. We observed a significant trend with increased serum TGF-β1 levels corresponding to increased amount of tobacco and alcohol consumption in men (trend p < 0.0001. These findings suggest that serum TGF-β1 levels appear to be modulated by gender, age and lifestyle factors such as obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking in healthy Japanese adults.

  10. Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mona Mohamed Ibrahim; Soon, S C

    2017-10-26

    Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF), visceral fat level (VF), and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF). We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18-25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (pfat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.

  11. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Otsuka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living, and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997–2000 who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013. Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0–4, 5–6, 7–8 groups were 1.00 (reference, 0.63 (0.44–0.92, and 0.54 (0.31–0.94. For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs were 1.00 (reference, 0.62 (0.40–0.97, and 0.46 (0.23–0.90, respectively (P for trend = 0.04. Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  12. Influence of different types of lamps on the reproductive development of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retes, Pâmela L; Espósito, Marcelo; das Neves, Danusa G; Viana, Arabela G A; Coelho, Louise M; Bobadilla-Mendez, Manuel F; Alvarenga, Renata R; Fassani, Edison J; Peixoto, Juliano V; Zangeronimo, Márcio G

    2017-05-01

    Reproductive tract development during puberty is critical to reproductive performance, and the light is crucial in this process in birds. However, in male quail, there is little information on the effects of types of lamps, more specifically the wavelength emitted. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of types of lamps on the reproductive performance of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Two hundred and forty male quail were exposed to six different types of lamp (incandescent, white fluorescent, or blue, white, red or green LED). The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and five replicates of one quail. Quail were slaughtered on days 35, 47, 57, 71 and 123 to evaluate the development of testes. On day 117, semen samples were analyzed and fertilized eggs were incubated. Body weight of the quails was influenced (P lamps only until the 47 days of age. Higher body weight until this age were observed with incandescent, blue and green LED bulbs. Fluorescent and red LED bulbs propitiated (P LED bulbs. Lower testicular development was observed (P LED. No influence of different types of lamps was observed (P > 0.05) on the quality of semen nor on the fertility rates of quail. It is concluded that lamps can influence the histological reproductive characteristics of male quails, but without influencing the semen quality. Fluorescent bulbs and red LED seem to anticipate the sexual maturity, but the white LED results in higher testicular development at 57 days of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energetic trade-offs between immunity and reproduction in male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Raoul K; Bridge, Eli S; Schoech, Stephan J

    2007-09-01

    We investigated a postulated trade-off between reproduction and immune function by comparing the energetic costs of an immune response with phytohemagglutinin challenge (or injection) in castrated (low testosterone [T]) and intact (high T) Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix). Intact birds had higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and significantly lower immune response than castrates. RMR of intact birds did not change in response to an immune challenge, suggesting that maintenance of reproductive tissues and associated high T is both immunosuppressive and energetically costly. Despite having a greater immune response than intact quail, castrates had a lower pre-challenge RMR than intact birds and paradoxically tended to decrease RMR during an immune challenge. This paradox may be because of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are released during immune responses. Cytokines promote energy conservation through malaise and soporific behaviors, possibly explaining the co-occurrence of a relatively strong immune response and a decrease in nocturnal RMR in castrates. The lower immune response in intact birds may not elicit as great a response of pro-inflammatory cytokines owing to an already elevated RMR from reproductive state, thus reducing any effect on RMR. The suppressed immune response and elevated RMR in intact birds may be because of T; however, we cannot separate the effects of T per se from the metabolic requirements of reproductive tissues. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Heart rate variability during sleep in detoxified alcohol-dependent males: A comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesha, Suhas; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Benegal, Vivek; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol dependence can lead to autonomic neuropathy resulting in increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. This has previously been evaluated using heart-rate variability. We compared sleep heart-rate variability of alcohol-dependent patients with that of healthy controls in this study. This study was conducted at NIMHANS, Bangalore. A case control study design was adopted. Sleep heart-rate variability of 20 male alcohol-dependent inpatients was recorded on the 5(th) day after detoxification. Sleep heart-rate variability was also recorded in 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The groups were compared using t-test for continuous variables and Chi-squared test for discrete variables. Both time and frequency domain measures were significantly lower in the patients as compared to the controls, indicating decreased HRV in alcohol-dependent individuals. Decreased HRV in alcohol dependence indicates potential autonomic neuropathy.

  15. White Western Male Teachers Constructing Academic Identities in Japanese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    In research on gender and teaching in higher education, the experiences of male teachers "as men", and of whiteness in a "non"-majority-white context have received little attention. As one step towards addressing this gap in the literature, this paper analyses interview accounts of white Western men working as English language…

  16. Dose-response relationship between tobacco or alcohol consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus in Japanese male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratani, Toshiyasu; Morimoto, Hideki; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Kumihiko; Nakada, Satoru; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dose-response relationships between tobacco or alcohol consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus. An 8-year prospective cohort study was conducted in 8423 male workers who received annual health check-ups between 2002 and 2010 at a Japanese steel company. The endpoints were defined as an HbA(lc)≥6.1% or taking any anti-diabetic medication. The dose-response relationships of tobacco or alcohol consumption were investigated using a proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates selected from baseline age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, total serum cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and uric acid, shift work or day work, and habitual exercise by stepwise selection method. A positive dose-response relationship between tobacco consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus was observed, with a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) seen with higher tobacco consumption (11-20 cigarettes/day, HR 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.59], ≥21 cigarettes/day, HR 1.54 [95%CI, 1.20-1.97]). In contrast, we observed a negative dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus, with a significantly lower HR with higher weekly alcohol consumption (7.0-13.9 gou/week [154-307 g/week], HR 0.73 [95% CI, 0.55-0.97], ≥14.0 gou/week [308 g/week], HR 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57-0.98]). The results indicated that decreasing tobacco consumption will achieve significant prevention of diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, we observed a significant, negative dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus, in contrast to previous studies that reported a positive relationship in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  19. Healthy lifestyle behaviours and cardiovascular mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanabe, Naohito; Wada, Yasuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2012-02-01

    To examine the combined impacts of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Asians. A total of 18 747 men and 24 263 women aged 40-79 without a history of stroke or coronary heart disease (CHD) at baseline in 1988-90 were followed up until 2006. Participants scored one point for each following lifestyle behaviour: consumption of fruits ≥1 intake per day, fish ≥1 intake per day, milk almost every day, exercise ≥5 h per week and/or walking ≥1 h per day, body mass index (BMI) of 21-25 kg/m(2), alcohol intake lifestyle score category was one-third in men and one-fourth in women of those in the lowest scores, suggesting that a large fraction of CVD could be prevented through lifestyle modification.

  20. Strenuous but not moderate exercise increases the thrombotic tendency in healthy sedentary male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadroy, Yves; Pillard, Fabien; Sakariassen, Kjell S; Thalamas, Claire; Boneu, Bernard; Riviere, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of moderate and strenuous exercise on experimental arterial thrombus formation in men. Thrombogenesis was measured in 15 sedentary healthy male volunteers at rest or immediately after two standardized exercise tests performed for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer. The exercises were performed at a constant load corresponding to either 50 or 70% maximal oxygen uptake. Thrombus formation was induced ex vivo by exposing a collagen-coated coverslip in a parallel plate perfusion chamber to native nonanticoagulated blood for 3 min. The shear rate at the collagen surface was 2,600 s(-1). Platelet and fibrin deposition was quantified by immunoenzymatic methods. The results show that moderate exercise did not affect arterial thrombus formation. In contrast, platelet thrombus formation on collagen was increased on the average by 20% after 30 min at 70% maximal oxygen uptake (P = 0.03). Fibrin deposition on collagen remained unchanged with exercise, regardless of its intensity. Thus, with the use of a clinically relevant human experimental model of thrombosis, the present study suggests that exercise of heavy intensity may increase the risk for arterial thrombogenesis in sedentary young healthy male volunteers.

  1. A bioequivalence study of two omeprazole formulations in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyong; Yoon, Seonghae; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Bo-Hyung; Yim, Sung-Vin

    2016-11-01

    This study had a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period, and 2-sequence crossover design to evaluate pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence between the test and reference formulations. Of the 34 healthy male volunteers enrolled, 4 were excluded owing to consent withdrawal before drug administration and the remaining 30 subjects were administered 20 mg each of the test and reference formulations of omeprazole. The blood samples for PK analysis were collected at the scheduled time-points, prior to dosing to 10 hours after dosing. Plasma concentrations of omeprazole were quantified by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Bioequivalence was assessed according to current guidelines issued by regulatory authorities. The plasma concentration-time profiles of omeprazole were similar between the reference and test drugs. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval: CI) of test to reference were 0.9104 (0.8538 - 0.9708) for peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and 0.9304 (0.8836 - 0.9796) for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time of last measureable concentration (AUC0-t). The results from the PK analysis suggested that the reference and test formulations of 20 mg omeprazole capsules were bioequivalent in healthy male subjects.

  2. Abdominal obesity and structure and function of the heart in healthy male Koreans: The ARIRANG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung-Woo; Sung, Joong Kyung; Lee, Jun-Won; Youn, Young Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-09-01

    Although central obesity is a more powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than general obesity, there is limited information on structural and functional changes of the heart in central obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the association between abdominal obesity and geometric and functional changes of the heart in healthy males. A total of 1460 healthy males aged 40 to 70 years without known CVD from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population were included. All individuals underwent conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging to measure left atrial (LA) and left ventricle (LV) geometry and function. Increasing tertiles of waist circumference (WC) were associated with stepwise increases in LA volume, LV end-diastolic dimension, LV mass to height, deceleration time of E wave, and lower E/A ratio (all P trends 89 cm) to the lowest tertile (obesity may be a stronger predictor than general obesity of geometric and functional changes in the LV and LA.

  3. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  4. Systemic and cavernous plasma levels of neuropeptide Y during sexual arousal in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ückert, S; Soyk, L; Trottmann, M; Stief, C G; Kuczyk, M A; Becker, A J

    2012-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to induce contraction of isolated human penile erectile tissue and potentiate the response to noradrenaline. The purpose of our study was to measure in the cavernous and systemic blood of healthy male volunteers the course of NPY through different stages of sexual arousal. Whole blood was drawn simultaneously from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein of 16 healthy male volunteers during penile flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence. Tumescence and erection were induced by applying audiovisual and tactile stimulation. Plasma levels of NPY (given in pmol l(-1)) were determined by means of an enzyme-linked immunoassay. NPY significantly decreased in the cavernous blood on sexual arousal, when the flaccid penis became tumescent and, finally, rigid (F: 88.8 ± 35.8, T: 62.4 ± 22.7, R: 62.3 ± 19.7), and only slightly rose in the phase of detumescence (64.8 ± 23). In the systemic circulation, no pronounced alterations in the concentration of NPY were registered (F: 64.4 ± 27, T: 65.8 ± 19, R: 59.6 ± 25, D: 67.6 ± 29.3). Our findings are in favour of the hypothesis that NPY could contribute to the maintenance of the resting state of cavernous smooth muscle. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zancong; Rowlings, Colin; Kerr, Brad; Hingorani, Vijay; Manhard, Kimberly; Quart, Barry; Yeh, Li-Tain; Storgard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor under investigation for the treatment of gout. Single and multiple ascending dose studies were conducted to evaluate pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad in healthy males. Lesinurad was administered as an oral solution between 5 mg and 600 mg (single ascending dose; N=34) and as an oral solution or immediate-release capsules once daily (qday) between 100 mg and 400 mg for 10 days under fasted or fed condition (multiple ascending dose; N=32). Following single doses of lesinurad solution, absorption was rapid and exposure (maximum observed plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve) increased in a dose-proportional manner. Following multiple qday doses, there was no apparent accumulation of lesinurad. Urinary excretion of unchanged lesinurad was generally between 30% and 40% of dose. Increases in urinary excretion of uric acid and reductions in serum uric acid correlated with dose. Following 400 mg qday dosing, serum uric acid reduction was 35% at 24 hours post-dose, supporting qday dosing. A relative bioavailability study in healthy males (N=8) indicated a nearly identical pharmacokinetic profile following dosing of tablets or capsules. Lesinurad was generally safe and well tolerated.

  6. Normative references of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiromitsu; Park, Bum-Jin; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-04-20

    This study aimed to present normative reference values of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase in a healthy young male population with a particular focus on their distribution and reproducibility. The short-term heart rate variability of 417 young healthy Japanese men was studied. Furthermore, salivary alpha-amylase was measured in 430 men. The average age of the subjects were 21.9 years with standard deviation of 1.6 years. Interindividual variations in heart rate variability indices and salivary alpha-amylase levels were plotted as histograms. Data are presented as the mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis, and fifth and 95th percentiles of each physiological index. Mean recorded values were heart period 945.85 ms, log-transformed high frequency component 9.84 ln-ms2, log-transformed low frequency component 10.42 ln-ms2, log-transformed low frequency to high frequency ratio 0.58 ln-ratio, standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval 27.17 ms and root mean square of successive difference 37.49 ms. The mean value of raw salivary alpha-amylase was 17.48 U/mL, square root salivary alpha-amylase 3.96 sqrt[U/mL] and log-transformed salivary alpha-amylase 2.65 ln[U/mL]. Log-transformed heart rate variability indices exhibited almost symmetrical distributions; however, time-domain indices of heart rate variability (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive difference) exhibited right-skewed (positive skewness) distributions. A considerable right-skewed distribution was observed for raw salivary alpha-amylase. Logarithmic transformation improved the distribution of salivary alpha-amylase, although square root transformation was insufficient. The day-to-day reproducibility of these indices was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Intraclass correlation coefficients of most heart rate variability and salivary indices were approximately 0.5 to 0.6. Intraclass correlation

  7. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  8. Effects of Oxytocin on Attention to Emotional Faces in Healthy Volunteers and Highly Socially Anxious Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Pradeep J.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Sule, Akeem; Müller, Ulrich; Dudas, Robert B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that individuals with social anxiety demonstrate vigilance to social threat, whilst the peptide hormone oxytocin is widely accepted as supporting affiliative behaviour in humans. Methods: This study investigated whether oxytocin can affect attentional bias in social anxiety. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-group study design, 26 healthy and 16 highly socially anxious (HSA) male volunteers (within the HSA group, 10 were diagnosed with generalized social anxiety disorder) were administered 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo to investigate attentional processing in social anxiety. Attentional bias was assessed using the dot-probe paradigm with angry, fearful, happy and neutral face stimuli. Results: In the baseline placebo condition, the HSA group showed greater attentional bias for emotional faces than healthy individuals. Oxytocin reduced the difference between HSA and non-socially anxious individuals in attentional bias for emotional faces. Moreover, it appeared to normalize attentional bias in HSA individuals to levels seen in the healthy population in the baseline condition. The biological mechanisms by which oxytocin may be exerting these effects are discussed. Conclusions: These results, coupled with previous research, could indicate a potential therapeutic use of this hormone in treatment for social anxiety. PMID:25552432

  9. Effects of oxytocin on attention to emotional faces in healthy volunteers and highly socially anxious males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Elford, Rebecca; Nathan, Pradeep J; Auyeung, Bonnie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Sule, Akeem; Müller, Ulrich; Dudas, Robert B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-10-31

    Evidence suggests that individuals with social anxiety demonstrate vigilance to social threat, whilst the peptide hormone oxytocin is widely accepted as supporting affiliative behaviour in humans. This study investigated whether oxytocin can affect attentional bias in social anxiety. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-group study design, 26 healthy and 16 highly socially anxious (HSA) male volunteers (within the HSA group, 10 were diagnosed with generalized social anxiety disorder) were administered 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo to investigate attentional processing in social anxiety. Attentional bias was assessed using the dot-probe paradigm with angry, fearful, happy and neutral face stimuli. In the baseline placebo condition, the HSA group showed greater attentional bias for emotional faces than healthy individuals. Oxytocin reduced the difference between HSA and non-socially anxious individuals in attentional bias for emotional faces. Moreover, it appeared to normalize attentional bias in HSA individuals to levels seen in the healthy population in the baseline condition. The biological mechanisms by which oxytocin may be exerting these effects are discussed. These results, coupled with previous research, could indicate a potential therapeutic use of this hormone in treatment for social anxiety. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of artemether and dihydroartemisinin in healthy Pakistani male volunteers treated with artemether-lumefantrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarning Joel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemether-lumefantrine is one of the most widely used anti-malarial drug combinations in the world with excellent tolerability and cure rates in adult and paediatric patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of artemether and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, in healthy Pakistani volunteers. Methods Twelve healthy male Pakistani subjects, aged 20 to 50, were recruited into the study. A fixed oral combination of artemether-lumefantrine (80-480 mg was given as a single oral dose. Frequent blood samples were collected and artemether and dihydroartemisinin were quantified in human plasma using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Drug concentration-time data were evaluated with non-compartmental analysis. Results Observed maximum concentrations (mean ± SD of artemether and dihydroartemisinin were 184 ± 100 ng/mL and 126 ± 46 ng/mL, respectively. These concentrations were reached at 1.56 ± 0.68 hr and 1.69 ± 0.59 hr, respectively, after drug intake. The terminal elimination half-life of artemether and dihydroartemisinin were 2.00 ± 0.71 hr and 1.80 ± 0.31 hr, respectively. Apparent volume of distribution and oral clearance for artemether were estimated to 666 ± 220 L and 257 ± 140 L/hr. The same parameters were estimated to 702 ± 220 L and 269 ± 57 L/hr for dihydroartemisinin. Conclusions The overall pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and dihydroartemisinin in healthy Pakistani subjects are comparable to healthy subjects and patients from other populations.

  11. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  12. Effects of perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on total development in 10-month-old Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J.; Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor and chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned to use in late 1960s and in early 1970s in Japan, because of their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment, their appearance in animal and human tissue, and their toxicity. However, these chemicals and their metabolites still have been contaminating our environment, food and human beings. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs), highly toxic organochlorine compounds and so-called dioxins, are also determined in human beings. Consequently, the chemicals mentioned above and their metabolites have been measured in Japanese breast milk, which indicates Japanese mothers are also contaminated with these compounds. These compounds in Japanese mothers may cause some deleterious effects on the developmental condition of Japanese infants. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between perinatal exposure to the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins and the total developmental condition at about 10 months of age in Japanese male and female infants.

  13. Ethnic difference of Helicobacter pylori gastritis: Korean and Japanese gastritis is characterized by male- and antrum-predominant acute foveolitis in comparison with American gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inchul; Lee, Hojung; Kim, Mijung; Fukumoto, Manabu; Sawada, Shinji; Jakate, Shriram; Gould, Victor E

    2005-01-07

    To investigate the clinicopathological factors underlying the ethnic differences of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and cancer. We analyzed clinicopathological parameters of gastric biopsies having H pylori infection that were randomly selected from different ethnic populations including 147 Americans, 149 Japanese, and 181 Koreans. Males were predominant in Japanese and Korean populations (77.9 and 67.4% respectively) in comparison with Americans (48.3%) (Pgastritis in Koreans and Japanese was characterized by the predominant antral involvement. In the antrum, neutrophilic infiltration into the proliferative zone of pit, i.e. acute foveolitis, was more frequent in Koreans (82%) than in Japanese (71%) (Pacute foveolitis was not significantly different among the populations while chronic interstitial inflammation and lymphoid follicles were more pronounced in the body of Americans than in the body of others (Pgastritis in Koreans and Japanese is compatible with the pattern of sex and topographical distribution of gastric cancer incidence. Our data suggest that persistent acute foveolitis at the proliferative zone is a crucial step in the gastric carcinogenesis.

  14. Oestrogen-induced activation of preoptic kisspeptin neurones may be involved in the luteinising hormone surge in male and female Japanese monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Uenoyama, Y; Suzuki, J; Takase, K; Suetomi, Y; Ohkura, S; Inoue, N; Maeda, K-I; Tsukamura, H

    2014-12-01

    The oestrogen-induced luteinising hormone (LH) surge is evident in male primates, including humans, whereas male rodents never show the LH surge, even when treated with a preovulatory level of oestrogen. This suggests that the central mechanism governing reproductive hormones in primates is different from that in rodents. The present study aimed to investigate whether male Japanese monkeys conserve a brain mechanism mediating the oestrogen-induced LH surge via activation of kisspeptin neurones. Adult male and female Japanese monkeys were gonadectomised and then were treated with oestradiol-17β for 2 weeks followed by a bolus injection of oestradiol benzoate. Both male and female monkeys showed an oestrogen-induced LH surge. In gonadectomised monkeys sacrificed just before the anticipated time of the LH surge, oestrogen treatment significantly increased the number of KISS1-expressing cells in the preoptic area (POA) and enhanced the expression of c-fos in POA KISS1-positive cells of males and females. The oestrogen treatment failed to induce c-fos expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) kisspeptin neurones in both sexes just prior to LH surge onset. Thus, kisspeptin neurones in the POA but not in the ARC might be involved in the positive-feedback action of oestrogen that induces LH surge in male Japanese monkeys, as well as female monkeys. The present results indicate that oestrogen-induced activation of POA kisspeptin neurones may contribute to the LH surge generation in both sexes. The conservation of the LH surge generating system found in adult male primates, unlike rodents, could be a result of the capability of oestrogen to induce POA kisspeptin expression and activation. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inoue, Hiroko; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Aiso, Izumi; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2014-01-01

    .... Our study is designed to influence these developments. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial by offering a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu to middle-aged men in a workplace cafeteria...

  16. The novel association between red complex of oral microbe and body mass index in healthy Japanese: a population based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kanae; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Toru; Asai, Keita; Yamori, Masashi; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Toda, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota has been thought to be one of important environmental factors for obesity or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among oral microbe, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannellera forsythia are known as risk factors, so called red complex, for periodontitis. Red complex could also be a risk factor for obesity. However, recent study indicated that obesity was not improved by periodontal therapy. Thus, we performed a cross sectional study to reveal the association of oral microbe with body mass index in a healthy population. Healthy individuals were randomly recruited. The infections of oral microbe were identified by Taqman polymerase chain reaction. The relationships between number of red complex and body mass index or waist circumference were analyzed. Two hundred and twenty-two apparently healthy Japanese were enrolled. BMI and waist circumference as well as age, periodontitis, number of brushing teeth were significantly associated with the number of red complex after adjusting covariance. The effect size of body mass index or waist circumference was 0.023 (p = 0.028) or 0.024 (p = 0.024), respectively. Body mass index and waist circumference were independently associated with the number of red complex among apparently healthy Japanese. The current observation implies the possibility that oral microbe was associated with obesity in healthy population. PMID:26388671

  17. Age-related changes in proximal humerus bone health in healthy, white males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantila Roosa, Sara M.; Hurd, Andrea L.; Xu, Huiping; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Warden, Stuart J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The proximal humerus is relatively under investigated despite being the fourth most common site for osteoporotic fracture. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess age-related changes in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) properties of the proximal humerus in a cohort of 170 healthy, white males. Results Regression models estimated considerable age-related loss of DXA measured bone quantity at the proximal humerus, with areal bone mineral density modeled to decline by 29% (95%CI, 17.5–35.0%) in the 50 years between ages 30 and 80 years (pproximal humerus bone strength in the 50 years between ages 30 and 80 years (pproximal humeral bone health which, when coupled with a traumatic event such as a fall, may contribute to osteoporotic fracture at this site. PMID:22258805

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1: effect on pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    The antihypertensive actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been linked to release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in mice. Whether a GLP-1 - ANP axis exists in humans is unknown. We examined twelve healthy young males in a randomised, controlled, double......-blinded, single-day, cross-over study to evaluate the effects of a two-hour native GLP-1 infusion. Plasma proANP concentrations were measured by an automated mid-region-directed proANP immunoassay and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on Roche Modular E170. Urine was collected for measurements...... of sodium excretion. Although GLP-1 infusion increased the urinary sodium excretion markedly there were no significant changes in either proANP or proBNP concentrations. When GLP-1 infusion was stopped, sodium excretion rapidly declined. Since proANP concentration reflects ANP secretion our data cannot...

  19. Mistaken Identity: Asthma and Croup in a Previously Healthy 9-Year-Old Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Sylvia; Badaki-Makun, Oluwakemi; Ngo, Thuy L

    2017-08-01

    Cough is one of the most common presenting complaints encountered in primary care settings and the emergency department. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported approximately 31 million visits to ambulatory care centers for cough, making cough the most frequent presenting complaint in ambulatory visits (2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey). Significant causes of cough can often be overlooked because it is a common symptom of a myriad of pathologies. We report the case of an otherwise healthy 9-year-old male who presented with worsening cough over a month and a half, subsequently noted to have a mediastinal mass, and diagnosed with lymphoma. We discuss the challenges of diagnosing life-threatening pathologies, which present with common symptoms.

  20. Evaluation of modified multicompartment models to calculate body composition in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, A H; Johansson, A G; Sjödin, A; Bryding, G; Ljunghall, S; Hambraeus, L

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop flexible and accurate multicompartment equations to calculate body composition and compare the results with methods using common two-compartment equations. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers 22-59 y of age were studied. Body volume was measured by underwater weighing (UWW) or with a skinfold caliper, bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The percentage of water and bone mineral in fat-free mass (FFM) had a significant effect on the difference in percentage fat obtained by the two-compartment model compared with a four-compartment model. FFM density was negatively (r = -0.76, P water in FFM was positively correlated with age (r = 0.75, P body fat correlated significantly with the more complex four-compartment model (UWW + BIA + DXA; r = 0.95, P body content of bone mineral and water.

  1. Eikenella corrodens endocarditis and liver abscess in a previously healthy male, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Vøgg, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta; Permin, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. CASE PRESENTATION...... on pneumonia treatment, a PET-CT scan was performed, which showed a large multiloculated abscess in the liver. The abscess was drained using ultrasound guidance. Culture demonstrated Eikenella corrodens. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic endocarditis. The patient was treated with antibiotics...... corrodens concurrent liver abscess and endocarditis. The case report highlights that Eikenella corrodens should be considered as a cause of liver abscess. Empirical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess will most often cover Eikenella corrodens, but the recommended treatment is a third generation...

  2. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during exercise following three months of endurance training in healthy overweight males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P

    2009-01-01

    Endurance training improves muscular and cardiovascular fitness, but the effect on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism remains unknown. We hypothesized that 3 mo of endurance training would reduce cerebral carbohydrate uptake with maintained cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Healthy...... overweight males were included in a randomized, controlled study (training: n = 10; control: n = 7). Arterial and internal jugular venous catheterization was used to determine concentration differences for oxygen, glucose, and lactate across the brain and the oxygen-carbohydrate index [molar uptake of oxygen...... with a lower plasma epinephrine concentration (P exercising at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (approximately 211 W). Before training, both OCI (3.9 +/- 0.9) and DeltaP(Mito)O(2) (-22 mmHg) decreased (P

  3. Gender Identity in a Second Language: The Use of First Person Pronouns by Male Learners of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucien; Cheek, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This is a qualitative sociocultural study examining how five advanced-level learners of Japanese from the United States use gendered first person pronouns to negotiate their identities. Japanese does not have a ubiquitous pronoun such as English "I." Instead, the language contains forms that are marked for formality and gender, including…

  4. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen, Colin Rowlings, Brad Kerr, Vijay Hingorani, Kimberly Manhard, Barry Quart, Li-Tain Yeh, Chris Storgard Ardea Biosciences, Inc. (a member of the AstraZeneca group, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor under investigation for the treatment of gout. Single and multiple ascending dose studies were conducted to evaluate pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad in healthy males. Lesinurad was administered as an oral solution between 5 mg and 600 mg (single ascending dose; N=34 and as an oral solution or immediate-release capsules once daily (qday between 100 mg and 400 mg for 10 days under fasted or fed condition (multiple ascending dose; N=32. Following single doses of lesinurad solution, absorption was rapid and exposure (maximum observed plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration–time curve increased in a dose-proportional manner. Following multiple qday doses, there was no apparent accumulation of lesinurad. Urinary excretion of unchanged lesinurad was generally between 30% and 40% of dose. Increases in urinary excretion of uric acid and reductions in serum uric acid correlated with dose. Following 400 mg qday dosing, serum uric acid reduction was 35% at 24 hours post-dose, supporting qday dosing. A relative bioavailability study in healthy males (N=8 indicated a nearly identical pharmacokinetic profile following dosing of tablets or capsules. Lesinurad was generally safe and well tolerated. Keywords: urinary excretion, urate lowering, URAT1, single and multiple doses, food effect, clearance 

  5. The Effect of Swimming on the Lung Functions in Healthy Young Male Population of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Shashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after  swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test

  6. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-02-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  7. Urodynamic Efficacy and Safety of Mirabegron Add-on Treatment with Tamsulosin for Japanese Male Patients with Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Naoki; Iuchi, Hiromichi; Kita, Masafumi; Hashizume, Kazumi; Matsumoto, Seiji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2016-09-01

    To investigate urodynamic efficacy and safety of mirabegron add-on treatment with tamsulosin for Japanese male patients with overactive bladder (OAB). A prospective study was conducted in 26 consecutive male patients with OAB who had been taking tamsulosin. OAB was diagnosed by overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS). Before and 8 weeks after mirabegron add-on treatment with preceding tamsulosin, we assessed OABSS, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), free uroflowmetry (UFM), filling cystometry and pressure-flow study (PFS). Mean age and prostate volume of the study patients were 75 ± 7 years and 32 ± 19 mL, respectively. Mirabegron significantly improved OABSS (from 8.5 ± 2.3 to 4.7 ± 2.5, P < 0.001). On free UFM, mirabegron significantly increased voided volume (from 135 ± 47 to 182 ± 102 mL, P = 0.01), maximum (from 10.7 ± 3.7 to 13.5 ± 6.4 mL/sec, P < 0.01) and average flow rate (from 5.5 ± 1.9 to 7.1 ± 3.3 mL/sec, P < 0.01), while postvoid residual urine volume did not change significantly (from 47 ± 38 to 63 ± 61 mL, P = 0.23). Before mirabegron, 24 patients (92%) had detrusor overactivity (DO). After mirabegron add-on, maximum cystometric capacity significantly increased from 170 ± 98 to 212 ± 95 mL (P = 0.01) and DO disappeared in six patients (25%). In the other 18 patients with persistent DO, amplitude of involuntary contraction decreased and bladder volume at first involuntary contraction increased with statistical significance. On PFS, detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate (from 79 ± 31 to 68 ± 19 cmH2 O, P = 0.10) or bladder contractility index (from 126 ± 39 to 120 ± 27, P = 0.45) did not change significantly. Mirabegron add-on treatment with tamsulosin has efficacy and safety because it improves storage symptom without impairment of bladder contractility during voiding in male patients with OAB. © 2015

  8. Neural Correlates of Impulsivity in Healthy Males and Females with Family Histories of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Elise E; Meda, Shashwath A; Jiantonio, Rachel; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2013-01-01

    Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use. Effects of family history and sex were investigated as were associations between neural correlates of impulse control and out-of-scanner measures of impulsivity and alcohol use. FHP individuals showed greater activation in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus during successful inhibitions, an effect that was driven primarily by FHP males. Higher self-reported impulsivity and behavioral discounting impulsivity, but not alcohol use measures, were associated with greater BOLD signal in the region that differentiated the FHP and FHN groups. Impulsivity factors were associated with alcohol use measures across the FHP and FHN groups. These findings are consistent with increased risk for addiction among FHP individuals being conferred through disrupted function within neural systems important for impulse control. PMID:23584260

  9. The Effects of Acute Arginine Vasopressin Administration on Social Cognition in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally similar neuropeptides and hormones oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP play significant and complex roles in modulating a range of social behaviours, including social recognition and bond formation. Although OT has well-known roles in facilitating prosocial behaviors and enhancing emotion recognition, AVP has received increasing interest for diverging effects on social cognition behaviour most notably in males. The current study aimed to determine whether AVP also modulates the ability to understand emotion. Using a randomised double blind procedure, 45 healthy young males received either an AVP or placebo nasal spray and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. In contrast to previous findings, there were no significant differences observed in performance on the RMET between AVP and placebo groups, even after examining items separated by task difficulty, emotional valence, and gender. This study provides diverging evidence from previous findings and adds to the growing body of research exploring the influence of neuropeptide hormones in social behaviour. It demonstrates that in this sample of participants, AVP does not enhance the ability to understand higher order emotion from others. Implications and suggestions for future AVP administration studies are discussed.

  10. Neural correlates of impulsivity in healthy males and females with family histories of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Elise E; Meda, Shashwath A; Jiantonio, Rachel; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2013-09-01

    Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use. Effects of family history and sex were investigated as were associations between neural correlates of impulse control and out-of-scanner measures of impulsivity and alcohol use. FHP individuals showed greater activation in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus during successful inhibitions, an effect that was driven primarily by FHP males. Higher self-reported impulsivity and behavioral discounting impulsivity, but not alcohol use measures, were associated with greater BOLD signal in the region that differentiated the FHP and FHN groups. Impulsivity factors were associated with alcohol use measures across the FHP and FHN groups. These findings are consistent with increased risk for addiction among FHP individuals being conferred through disrupted function within neural systems important for impulse control.

  11. The Effects of Ramadan Fasting on the Spirometric Data of Healthy Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiri, Imed; Sandid, Siwar; Fennani, Mohamed Amine; Hadrich, Mohamed; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Maatoug, Chiraz; Zammit-Chatti, Makrem; Chamari, Karim; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2017-07-01

    The few studies carried out on the effects of Ramadan fasting (RF) on spirometric values present contradictory conclusions. This study aimed at assessing whether RF affects healthy adults' spirometric values. Twenty-nine nonsmoking healthy males ( M ± standard error of mean [ SEM] of age: 27 ± 1 years) who fasted during Ramadan (June 29-July 28, 2014) volunteered to the study. Three periods (before-Ramadan [June 23-25], mid-Ramadan [July 14-16] and after-Ramadan [August 11-14]) were selected for spirometry measurements that were consistently performed 5.5 to 3.5 hours (between 15:00 and 17:00 hours) before fasting break. Assessment sessions comprised following: weight (kg), forced vital capacity (FVC), first second expiratory volume (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal mid expiratory flow (MMEF), and forced expiratory flow rate at the x% of FVC to be exhaled (FEF x%). Spirometric data were expressed in percentages of reference values. Results were analyzed by applying repeated measures analysis of variance. The M ± SEM of weight (before-R: 81.6 ± 2.8 kg, mid-R: 80.8 ± 2.9 kg, after-R: 81.2 ± 2.9 kg), FEV1 (before-R: 99 ± 2%, mid-R: 98 ± 2%, after-R: 98 ± 2%), FVC (before-R: 103 ± 2%, mid-R: 101 ± 2%, after-R: 101 ± 2%), PEF (before-R: 112 ± 3%, mid-R: 113 ± 2%, after-R: 114 ± 3%), MMEF (before-R: 83 ± 3%, mid-R: 83 ± 3%, after-R: 82 ± 3%), FEF25% (before-R: 90 ± 5%, mid-R: 89 ± 6%, after-R: 87 ± 6%), FEF50% (before-R: 94 ± 4%, mid-R: 91 ± 4%, after-R: 93 ± 3%), and FEF75% (before-R: 108 ± 3%, mid-R: 111 ± 2%, after-R:111 ± 3%) were not significantly influenced by RF. To conclude, RF did not bring about any significant changes in the spirometric values of nonsmoking healthy adult males.

  12. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  14. Benchmark dose of alcohol consumption for development of hyperuricemia in Japanese male workers: An 8-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinouchi, Takashi; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Kumihiko; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Miyuki; Suwazono, Yasushi

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the benchmark dose (BMD) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) of alcohol consumption as the reference level for the development of hyperuricemia based on the dose-response relationship. An 8-year prospective cohort study was conducted in 8097 male workers at a Japanese steel company who received annual health check-ups between 2002 and 2009. The endpoints for development of hyperuricemia were defined as a uric acid ≥7 mg/dL or taking any anti-hyperuricemic medication. The dose-response relationship of alcohol consumption was investigated using multivariate-pooled logistic regression analyses adjusted for other potential covariates. We estimated the BMD and BMDL of alcohol consumption for the development of hyperuricemia, using the parameters obtained by pooled logistic regression with a benchmark response (BMR) of 5% or 10%. Mean observed years per person was 3.86 years. The incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 61.1. The odds ratio calculated for the development of hyperuricemia was 1.29 [95% confidence interval, (1.22-1.36)] with an increase in alcohol consumption per 1 gou/day (1 gou/day = alcohol 22 g/day). The estimated BMDL/BMD with a BMR of 5% was 2.5/2.8 gou/day (54.5/61.8 g/day) and with a BMR of 10% was 4.0/4.6 gou/day (88.9/100.9 g/day). The present study showed that alcohol consumption of 2.5 gou/day (=ethanol 55 g/day) caused a distinct increase in the risk of hyperuricemia. Valuable information for preventing alcohol-induced hyperuricemia was obtained by a long-term follow-up study of a large cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingze Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN, proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters.

  16. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Omeprazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Rosuvastatin in Healthy Male Volunteers.

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    Shah, Yasar; Iqbal, Zafar; Ahmad, Lateef; Khuda, Fazli; Khan, Abad; Khan, Abbas; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ismail

    The current study aimed at the evaluation of, in vivo, the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. Omeprazole is an acid suppressant and CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 substrate and inhibitor, as well as inhibitor of transporters (like P-gp). This was a randomized, open-label, 2-period, crossover study. Healthy male volunteers (N = 20), divided into 2 groups, were given single oral doses of rosuvastatin 40 mg either alone (treatment period I) or concomitantly with omeprazole 40-mg capsule (treatment period II). Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin (rosuva) and its metabolite N-desmethyl rosuvastatin (NDM-rosuva) were quantified by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method developed in our laboratory. An insignificant decrease (P > 0.05) has been observed in the values of maximum plasma concentrations, clearance, and half-life of rosuva, whereas an insignificant increase (P > 0.05) has been observed in the area under the plasma concentration-time curves from zero time to the last measurable concentration(Equation is included in full-text article.), that extrapolated to infinity (Equation is included in full-text article.), and mean residence time values after concomitant administration with omeprazole. Although omeprazole concomitant administration altered the pharmacokinetics of NDM-rosuva metabolite significantly, rosuva's very little metabolism (10%) suggests that these changes are of no clinical significance. Concomitant administration of omeprazole with rosuva did not alter the pharmacokinetics of rosuva in healthy volunteers. These data are consistent with other reported studies, indicating that rosuva is not a good candidate for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Therefore, rosuva can be administered safely along with omeprazole.

  18. A bioequivalence study of two memantine formulations in healthy Chinese male volunteers
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ying; Zhuang, Jialang; Wu, Jingguo; Chen, Jiangying; Ding, Liang; Wang, Xueding; Huang, Lihui; Zeng, Guixiong; Chen, Jie; Ma, Zhongfu; Chen, Xiao; Zhong, Guoping; Huang, Min; Zhao, Xianglan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the bioequivalence between the test and reference formulations of memantine in a single-dose, two-period and two-sequence crossover study with a 44-day washout interval. A total of 20 healthy Chinese male volunteers were enrolled and completed the study, after oral administration of single doses of 10 mg test and reference formulations of memantine. The blood samples were collected at different time points and memantine concentrations were determined by a fully validated HPLC-MS/MS method. The evaluated pharmacokinetic parameters (test vs. reference) including Cmax (18 ± 3.2 vs. 17.8 ± 3.4), AUC0-t (1,188.5 ± 222.2 vs. 1,170.9 ± 135.7), and AUC0-∞ (1,353.3 ± 258.6 vs. 1,291.3 ± 136.7) values were assessed for bioequivalence based on current guidelines. The observed pharmacokinetic parameters of memantine test drug were similar to those of the reference formulation. The 90% confidence intervals of test/reference ratios for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80 - 125%. The results obtained from the healthy Chinese subjects in this study suggests that the test formulation of memantine 10 mg tablet is bioequivalent to the reference formulation (Ebixa®10 mg tablet).
.

  19. Comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of branded and generic formulations of meloxicam in healthy male volunteers

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    Del Tacca M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mario Del Tacca,1,2 Giuseppe Pasqualetti,3 Giovanni Gori,1 Pasquale Pepe,1 Antonello Di Paolo,2 Marianna Lastella,2 Ferdinando De Negri,1 Corrado Blandizzi2 1Clinical Pharmacology Centre for Drug Experimentation, Pisa University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 3Geriatrics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic bioequivalence between a generic formulation of meloxicam 15 mg tablets (Meloxicam Hexal and its respective brand product (Mobic, in order to verify whether the generic product conforms to the regulatory standards of bioequivalence in the postmarketing setting. As a secondary exploratory aim, the pharmacodynamic effects of the two formulations were also evaluated by means of rating scales following hyperalgesia induced by cutaneous freeze injury. Subjects and methods: A single 15 mg dose of generic or branded meloxicam tablets was administered to 24 healthy male volunteers in a crossover fashion. Plasma samples, collected for 24 hours after dosing, were assayed for meloxicam concentration by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results: The analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any significant difference between the two meloxicam formulations: the 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptance range of 80%–125% (0.84–1.16 for area under the curve [0–24], and 0.89–1.23 for peak concentration. No difference in the pharmacodynamic end point was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the two meloxicam formulations confirm the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence; pharmacodynamic data indicate a similar antihyperalgesic effect. The two formulations can be used interchangeably in the clinical setting. Keywords: meloxicam, pharmacokinetics, healthy volunteers, generic drug, bioequivalence, postmarketing

  20. Differential impact of glucose administered intravenously or orally on bone turnover markers in healthy male subjects.

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    Westberg-Rasmussen, Sidse; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Hermansen, Kjeld; Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Vestergaard, Peter; Gregersen, Søren

    2017-04-01

    Patients with type-1 (T1D) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of hip fracture. The underlying mechanisms may involve disturbances in the incretin hormones. Our aim was to clarify if glucose administration i.e. orally or intravenously differentially affects bone turnover markers in healthy males. 12 healthy males were included in a cross-over study consisting of three tests following an 8hour fast. First, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Subsequently, we carried out an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) that closely mimicked the glucose response curve to the oral glucose load. We analyzed blood samples for the bone turnover markers serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX) and serum procollagen type I N propeptide (s-P1NP), as well as insulin, glucose, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Finally, eight of the twelve participants underwent a control experiment where they fasted for 3h (Control). While OGTT induced a 50% reduction in s-CTX, only a ~30% reduction was seen during the IIGI and the Control. Neither intervention influenced s-P1NP. The concentration of insulin was highest during the OGTT. However, insulin was also increased significantly during the IIGI compared to the Control. Plasma concentrations of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-2 were higher under the OGTT than during the IIGI and Control. A linear regression indicated that peak p-GIP significantly predicts nadir s-CTX (p=0.03), and that peak p-GIP could explain 34% of the variability in nadir s-CTX (adjusted R2=0.34). This study indicates that glucose per se does not acutely affect bone turnover markers. However, gastrointestinal hormones, especially GIP, possibly in combination with hyperglycemia, may have an acute, uncoupling effect on bone turnover leading to a decrease in bone resorption but no change in bone formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Yokukansan, a Traditional Herbal Preparation Used for the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraoka, Hiromi; Oniki, Kentaro; Matsuda, Kazuki; Ono, Tatsumasa; Taharazako, Kosuke; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Kamihashi, Ryoko; Kita, Ayana; Takashima, Ayaka; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Miyata, Keishi; Saruwatari, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22.7±2.3 years) with no history of smoking. An 8-h urine sample was collected after a 150-mg dose of caffeine and a 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan before and after the administration of YKS (2.5 g, twice a day for 1 week). The activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) were assessed based on the urinary metabolic indices of caffeine and dextromethorphan, and the urinary excretion ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol. There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of the examined enzymes before or after the 7-d administration of YKS. Although further studies assessing the influence of YKS on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzymes are needed to verify the present results, YKS is unlikely that a pharmacokinetic interaction will occur with concomitantly administered medications that are predominantly metabolized by the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO and NAT2.

  2. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal.

  3. Differential cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary response to amphetamine in male pathological gamblers versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Martin; Boileau, Isabelle; Payer, Doris; Chugani, Bindiya; Lobo, Daniela S; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Warsh, Jerry J; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) disturbances have been observed in individuals who are pathological gamblers (PGs). These may partly derive from chronic exposure to gambling. Response to amphetamine (AMPH) may reveal such disturbances while controlling for differential conditioned responses to gambling in PGs vs healthy controls (HCs). This study assessed heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasma cortisol following oral AMPH (0.4 mg/kg) in male PGs (n=12) and HCs (n=11) who underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The Stop Signal Task enabled assessment of the link between physiological and behavioral dysregulation. Trait moderating effects were explored. The responses of PGs to AMPH differed from those of HCs on every index. PGs displayed persistent elevation in DBP and concomitant reduction in HR (i.e. baroreflex) compared to HCs beyond 90 min post-dose. PGs displayed deficits in cortisol compared to HCs that were partially reversed by AMPH. Impairment on the Stop Signal Task correlated positively with HR in controls, but negatively with HR in PGs, suggesting that strong initial and compensatory cardiac responses to a stimulant may each predict disinhibition. Extraversion predicted greater disinhibition in PGs. Noradrenergic disturbances may contribute to sensitized responses to stimulant challenge and disinhibition in PGs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Fat mass is negatively associated with cortical bone size in young healthy male siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taes, Youri E C; Lapauw, Bruno; Vanbillemont, Griet; Bogaert, Veerle; De Bacquer, Dirk; Zmierczak, Hans; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2009-07-01

    Body weight has been associated with bone mass and bone size through shared genetic determination and environmental influences. Whereas lean mass exerts a positive influence on bone size, the relationship between fat and bone remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the individual influence of fat mass and lean mass on volumetric bone density and size in young healthy male siblings at age of peak bone mass. This was a cross-sectional, population-based sibling pair study. A total of 677 men (25-45 yr) were included in this study with 296 independent pairs of brothers. Areal and volumetric bone parameters were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Body composition was determined by DXA. Sex steroids, leptin, and adiponectin were determined by immunoassay. Total and regional fat mass were found to be inversely associated with areal bone mass and bone size, independent from lean mass (radius periosteal circumference beta: -0.29 +/- 0.04; P bone size but inversely with cortical density at both tibia and radius (P fat mass and bone size was independent from sex steroid concentrations. Leptin but not adiponectin was inversely associated with bone size, but this was no longer significant after adjustment for body fat. Increased fat mass is associated with smaller bone size, challenging the view of a high bone mass index as a protective factor for osteoporosis, whereas lean mass was a consistent positive determinant of bone size.

  5. Walking economy at simulated high altitude in human healthy young male lowlanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We measured oxygen consumption during walking per unit distance (Cw values for 12 human healthy young males at six speeds from 0.667 to 1.639 m s−1 (four min per stage on a level gradient under normobaric normoxia, moderate hypoxia (15% O2, and severe hypoxia (11% O2. Muscle deoxygenation (HHb was measured at the vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy. Economical speed which can minimize the Cw in each individual was calculated from a U-shaped relationship. We found a significantly slower economical speed (ES under severe hypoxia [1.237 (0.056 m s−1; mean (s.d.] compared to normoxia [1.334 (0.070 m s−1] and moderate hypoxia [1.314 (0.070 m s−1, P0.05. HHb gradually increased with increasing speed under severe hypoxia, while it did not increase under normoxia and moderate hypoxia. Changes in HHb between standing baseline and the final minute at faster gait speeds were significantly related to individual ES (r=0.393 at 1.250 m s−1, r=0.376 at 1.444 m s−1, and r=0.409 at 1.639 m s−1, P<0.05, respectively. These results suggested that acute severe hypoxia slowed ES by ∼8%, but moderate hypoxia left ES unchanged.

  6. Effect of fructose and sucralose on flow-mediated vasodilatation in healthy, white European males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammad Qasim; Simpson, Elizabeth Jane; Macdonald, Ian Andrew

    2014-07-01

    To assess how acute consumption of fructose affects flow-mediated dilatation in brachial artery. The randomised cross-over study was conducted at the University of Nottingham's Medical School, Nottingham, United Kingdom in July 2009. Ten healthy, white European males visited the laboratory twice, on separate mornings. On each visit, the volunteers consumed water (3 ml/kg bodyweight) and rested semi-supine on the bed. After 30 minutes, baseline diastolic brachial artery diameter and blood velocity was measured. At 60 minutes, blood velocity and five scans of brachial artery diameter were recorded before a blood pressure cuff was inflated on the forearm for 5 minutes and at 50-60-70-80 and 90 sec after cuff deflation. Fifteen minutes later, the volunteers consumed 500 ml of test-drink containing either fructose (0.75 g/kg bodyweight) or sucralose (sweetness-matched with fructose drink); 45 minutes later, baseline and flow-mediated dilatation was re-measured. Pre-drink and post-drink baseline values were similar on two occasions (p > 0.05). Brachial artery diameter increased (p sucralose; a significant difference was noted in these flow-mediated dilatation responses (p sucralose were not different from those before and after fructose (p sucralose had no effect on flow-mediated dilatation measured at brachial artery.

  7. Effect of static neck flexion in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Khatir, Roghayeh; Talebian, Saeed; Maroufi, Nader; Olyaei, Gholam Reza

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, especially among skilled workers who must keep their necks in a flexed position frequently during the day. The present study investigated changes in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon parameters after sustained neck flexion. The participants were 40 healthy subjects grouped by gender (20 females, 20 males). They were exposed to static neck flexion at the full angle of cervical flexion for 10 min. Each subject underwent three trials of cervical flexion and re-extension before and after this period. Differences in onset and cessation angle of flexion-relaxation phenomenon, maximum neck flexion angle, amplitude of neck muscle activation and flexion-relaxation ratio were evaluated. The maximum neck flexion angle significantly increased after sustained flexion. The onset of flexion-relaxation was significantly delayed during flexion, but cessation angle remained unchanged. Myoelectric activity of the cervical erector spinae muscles increased significantly after maintaining flexion, especially in female subjects. The flexion-relaxation ratio also decreased significantly. It was concluded that 10 min of static flexion results in a delay in flexion-relaxation phenomenon and a shortened silence period. Also the cervical erector spinae muscles are required to be active longer and generate more activity. These neuromuscular changes may be a risk factor for neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  9. Relationship between joint motion and acceleration during single-leg standing in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Rie; Shirakura, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between acceleration and joint movement by synchronizing accelerometers and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and to show the utility of an accelerometer as a postural control assessment tool. [Subjects and Methods] Head, lumbar, shank accelerations and various joint angles during single-leg standing were measured of 20 healthy males. Root mean squares of acceleration and joint angle were calculated. Fast Fourier transform analysis was performed for head, lumbar, and shank accelerations, and the median frequencies were calculated. Then, principal component analysis was performed for the median frequency of each acceleration. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was also used to examine the relationship between joint angle and acceleration. [Results] The score of the first principal component was highest for shank acceleration, while that of the second principal component was highest for lumbar and head accelerations. In multiple regression analysis, hip flexion/extension and adduction/abduction were identified as variables associated with head acceleration. [Conclusion] We were able to confirm the aggregation of acceleration into two components, which we interpreted as postural control strategies using primarily the ankle and hip joints. Furthermore, though multiple regression analysis, we were able to clarify the joint movement indicated by acceleration of each segment.

  10. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults: A prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults.A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2).The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann-Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = -.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18.Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex.

  11. Serum uric acid is associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density in healthy Chinese males older than 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Chen, Weijun; Feng, Xinhui; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Zhenxing; He, Li; Ye, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of serum uric acid (UA) levels with bone mineral density (BMD) at all skeletal sites in healthy Chinese males >50 years of age. A cross-sectional study of 385 Chinese males >50 years of age who underwent health checkup in Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University in Shanghai, China, was conducted. Clinical and bone characteristics were compared in different UA tertiles (UA1: UA 50 years that serum UA levels are positively correlated with lumbar spine BMD and T-values, suggesting that UA may exert protective effect on bone density at the lumbar spine in Chinese males >50 years of age.

  12. Nigella sativa L. seeds modulate mood, anxiety and cognition in healthy adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Shams, Tahiatul; Fahim Hossain, Sarder; Rahman, Md Rezowanur; Mostofa, Agm; Fahim Kadir, Mohammad; Mahmood, Sharif; Asaduzzaman, Md

    2014-02-27

    Previous studies conducted on animals linked consumption of Nigella sativa L. seeds (NS) to decreased anxiety and improved memory. The present study, which was carried out at a boarding school in Bangladesh, was designed to examine probable effect of NS on mood, anxiety and cognition in adolescent human males. Forty-eight healthy adolescent human males aged between 14 to 17 years were randomly recruited as volunteers and were randomly split into two groups: A (n=24) and B (n=24). The treatment procedure for group A and B were one capsule of 500 mg placebo and 500 mg NS respectively once daily for four weeks. All the volunteers were assessed for cognition with modified California verbal learning test-II (CVLT-II), mood with Bond-Lader scale and anxiety with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning and after four weeks of either NS or placebo ingestion. No parameter showed statistically significant variation between A and B in measurements in the beginning, but after 4 weeks of one capsule of NS 500 mg intake, there was statistically significant variation of mood within group B but there was not statistically significant variation between group A and B. No significant variation was found in state anxiety within groups and between group A and B but in case of trait anxiety, significant variation was found within group B but not between group A and B. In case of CVLT II, there was significant variation within B in immediate short-term recall at trial 4 and 5 whereas this difference was found only in case of trial 5 between group A and B. Within group B, short term-free recall, long-term free recall and long-term cued recall had statistical difference whereas between group A and B long-term free recall and long-term cued recall had statistical difference. No parameters had significant variation within group A after placebo intake for 4 weeks. Over the 4 weeks study period, the use of NS as a nutritional supplement been observed to- stabilize mood, decrease

  13. Ethnic comparison of pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben, a PET tracer for beta-amyloid imaging, in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, Michio; Sasaki, Masahiro; Yamane, Tomohiko; Shimizu, Keiji [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, 2-2 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Patt, Marianne; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Nagasawa, Toshiki; Aitoku, Yasuko [Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka (Japan); Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus [Bayer HealthCare AG, Berlin (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger [Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    {sup 18}F-Florbetaben is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer indicated for imaging cerebral beta-amyloid deposition in adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for Alzheimer's disease and other causes of cognitive decline. The present study examined ethnic comparability of the plasma pharmacokinetics, which is the input to the brain, between Caucasian and Japanese subjects. Two identical phase I trials were performed in 18 German and 18 Japanese healthy volunteers to evaluate the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 300 MBq {sup 18}F-florbetaben, either of low (≤5 μg, LD) or high (50-55 μg, HD) mass dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated based on the total {sup 18}F radioactivity measurements in plasma followed by metabolite analysis using radio-HPLC. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben was characterized by a rapid elimination from plasma. The dose-normalized areas under the curve of {sup 18}F-florbetaben in plasma as an indicator of the input to the brain were comparable between Germans (LD: 0.38 min/l, HD: 0.55 min/l) and Japanese (LD: 0.35 min/l, HD: 0.45 min/l) suggesting ethnic similarity, and the mass dose effect was minimal. A polar metabolite fraction was the main radiolabelled degradation product in plasma and was also similar between the doses and the ethnic groups. Absence of a difference in the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben in Germans and Japanese has warranted further global development of the PET imaging agent. (orig.)

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with obesity, male gender, and symptoms in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Mohammad Reza; Martinez, Adolfo; Greaves, Jeff; Greaves, Seaneen; Morrell, Holly; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-03-01

    Obesity has been found to be associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH). However, the occurrence of LVH in obese teenagers who are involved in sport programs has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of LVH and its correlation with obesity, gender, and symptoms in teenage athletes. We used echocardiographic database of 1,500 adolescences between the ages of 12 and 20 years who were actively involved in school sport programs. We evaluated associations between obesity and LVH (defined as LV wall thickness (LVWT)) >12 mm, or LV mass (LVM) >215 g or relative wall thickness (RWT) >0.43) and physical symptoms. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, male gender was associated with increased LVWT (multivariate odds ratio (OR) 4.87, confidence interval (CI) 2.41-9.82). Obesity was associated with parameters of LVH using univariate and multivariate analysis. (LVM > 215 g) occurred in 10.32% of obese athletes vs. 0.2% (1/445) of controls, (OR 51.33, CI 6.05-433.8), P 12 mm occurred in 16.5% of obese students vs. 3.6% of controls (OR 5.2, CI 2.7-10.1, P 0.43 occurred in 41.4% of obese students vs. 15.7% of controls (OR 3.78, CI 2.11-6.76, P obese students and in students with LVH. In conclusion obesity is associated with LVH in a population of healthy teenagers actively involved in sport programs. Furthermore, the presence of LVH was independently associated with many physical symptoms suggesting negative effect of LVH on myocardial function.

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F T; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18-35 years, who declared taking 7-8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation ( SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+ SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8-12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. T. de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT is emerging as a potential strategy.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation.Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition, 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition, HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition, and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition. They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, were performed.Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids.Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  17. Effects of meal frequency on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjet J M Munsters

    Full Text Available The daily number of meals has an effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which may affect substrate partitioning and thus weight control. This study investigated the effects of meal frequency on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning.Twelve (BMI:21.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 healthy male subjects stayed after 3 days of food intake and physical activity standardization 2 × 36 hours in a respiration chamber to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received two isoenergetic diets with a Low meal Frequency (3 ×; LFr or a High meal Frequency (14 ×; HFr consisting of 15 En% protein, 30 En% fat, and 55 En% carbohydrates. Blood was sampled at fixed time points during the day to measure metabolic markers and satiety hormones.Glucose and insulin profiles showed greater fluctuations, but a lower AUC of glucose in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. No differences between the frequency diets were observed on fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Though, protein oxidation and RMR (in this case SMR + DIT were significantly increased in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. The LFr diet increased satiety and reduced hunger ratings compared with the HFr diet during the day.The higher rise and subsequently fall of insulin in the LFr diet did not lead to a higher fat oxidation as hypothesized. The LFr diet decreased glucose levels throughout the day (AUC indicating glycemic improvements. RMR and appetite control increased in the LFr diet, which can be relevant for body weight control on the long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034293.

  18. Acute hypobaric-hypoxia challenge and salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontremolesi, Sara; Biselli, Roberto; Ciniglio Appiani, Giuseppe; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Simona, Simeoni; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2012-07-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia is a stressful emergency situation that can cause a degradation of the sensory, motor, and higher cognitive functions necessary for safe flight. We studied the salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations of 12 healthy male military aviators (AV) exposed to an altitude-induced hypoxia challenge in a hypobaric chamber. A matched control group (C) of eight flight physiology instructors wearing oxygen masks during the challenge was studied. Salivary samples were collected every 2 h on 3 experimental days (the day before, the day of, and the day after the hypobaric chamber challenge). In the AV group, salivary cortisol concentrations showed a statistically significant increase from 5.42 +/- 0.15 measured at 08:30 to 11.37 +/- 1.86 ng ml(-1) during the hypobaric chamber challenge and a statistically significant increase in DHEA-S was also measured (from 3.15 +/- 0.42 ng x ml(-1) at 08:30 to 5.99 +/- 0.15 ng x ml(-1)). The day after the challenge, the concentrations of both hormones were comparable to those measured the day before; neither C nor AV showed any disturbances of the physiological diurnal fluctuations of cortisol and DHEA-S. No differences were found among the cortisol/DHEA-S ratios measured during the 3 experimental days in the AV group. In spite of having experienced a psycho-physical stress, the AVs did not show any dysregulation of the diurnal fluctuations of cortisol and DHEA-S, thus presenting a good level of stress resilience. Data presented in this paper are consistent with recent literature suggesting a stress-buffering role of DHEA-S.

  19. The association of diet and thrombotic risk factors in healthy male vegetarians and meat-eaters.

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    Li, D; Sinclair, A; Mann, N; Turner, A; Ball, M; Kelly, F; Abedin, L; Wilson, A

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess thrombosis tendency in subjects who were habitual meat-eaters compared with those who were habitual vegetarians. Cross-sectional comparison of habitual meat-eaters and habitual vegetarians. Free living subjects. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegans n = 18, ovolacto vegetarians n = 43, moderate-meat-eaters n = 60 and high-meat-eaters n = 18) aged 20-55 y who were recruited in Melbourne. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The parameters of thrombosis were measured by standard methods. Saturated fat and cholesterol intakes were significantly higher and polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was significantly lower in the meat-eaters compared with vegetarians. In the meat-eaters, the platelet phospholipids AA levels were significantly higher than in the vegetarians, but there was no increase in ex vivo platelet aggregation and plasma 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels. Vegetarians, especially the vegans, had a significantly increased mean collagen and ADP stimulated ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation compared with meat-eaters. The vegan group had a significantly higher mean platelet volume than the other three dietary groups. However, meat-eaters had a significantly higher cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared with vegetarians, including increased body mass index, waist to hip ratio, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol and LDL-C levels, ratio of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C and plasma factor VII activity. Consumption of meat is not associated with an increased platelet aggregation compared with vegetarian subjects.

  20. Eikenella corrodens endocarditis and liver abscess in a previously healthy male, a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Vøgg, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta; Permin, Henrik; Katzenstein, Terese

    2018-01-12

    Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. A 49-year-old Danish man was admitted because of one-month malaise, fever, cough and unintentional weight loss. On admission there was elevated white blood cell count and C-reactive protein, as well as affected liver function tests. Initially pneumonia was suspected, but due to lack of improvement on pneumonia treatment, a PET-CT scan was performed, which showed a large multiloculated abscess in the liver. The abscess was drained using ultrasound guidance. Culture demonstrated Eikenella corrodens. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic endocarditis. The patient was treated with antibiotics and abscess drainage, on which he slowly improved. He was discharged after 1.5 months of hospitalisation. On follow-up 2 months later, the patient was asymptomatic with normalized biochemistry and ultrasound showed complete regression of the abscess. This is the first case of documented Eikenella corrodens concurrent liver abscess and endocarditis. The case report highlights that Eikenella corrodens should be considered as a cause of liver abscess. Empirical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess will most often cover Eikenella corrodens, but the recommended treatment is a third generation cephalosporin or a fluoroquinolon. A multiloculated liver abscess may require drainage several times during treatment. The finding of Eikenella corrodens should elicit an echocardiography to diagnose endocarditis even in patients without clinical signs of endocarditis.

  1. Fat-free Mass and Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption in the 40 Minutes after Short-duration Exhaustive Exercise in Young Male Japanese Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakao, Rieko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has not been well researched because of the relatively small number of subjects studied. This study investigated the effects of FFM on EPOC and EPOC/maximum oxygen consumption. 250 Japanese male athletes between 16 and 21 years old from Nagasaki prefecture had their EPOC measured up to 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise. The value was named as EPOC_. The proportions of EPOC up to 1...

  2. A comparative study of heart rate variability tests and lipid profile in healthy young adult males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Kundu, D; Mandal, T; Bandyopadhyay, U; Ghosh, E; Ray, D

    2013-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in many developed countries. The relation between heart rate variability (HRV) and CHD was recently explored after the development of HRV techniques. Lower HRV was proven to be associated with a greater risk for developing hypertension among normotensive men, and hypertension is one of the major risk factors of CHD. Acute myocardial infarction is accompanied by decreased HRV, which is due to reduced vagal or increased sympathetic outflow to the heart. This study was designed to test the hypothesis of influence of gender and lipid profile difference on heart rate variability tests. Thirty healthy adult male and thirty healthy adult female subjects in the age group of 18- 25 years without any addictions and gross systemic disease were selected. Heart rate variability tests during Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and 30:15 R-R intervals ratio were carried and lipid profile of the subjects were analyzed. We found a decrease in values of HRV tests during the Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing in male individuals as compared with age- and Body Mass Index, BMI-matched females. VHeart Rate Variability tests during 30:15 R-R intervals Ratio in male individuals were significantly decreased as compared with females. Values of total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein, LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly increased and High Density Lipoprotein, HDL cholesterol significantly decreased in males. Healthy adult males may be at a higher risk of developing acute myocardial infarction and CHD due to decreased HRV and atherogenic lipid profile. Lower level of serum estrogen may be the cause of this difference in HRV among males. The difference in HRV tests among males and females disappears after menopause.

  3. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, drinking, and physical activity in apparently healthy Japanese men (1,803) and women (1,150). The odds ratio (OR) of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts, the OR of hypertriglyceridemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significant in men, and the OR of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, for lymphocyte count, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for eosinophil count were significant in women. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of hs-CRP in apparently healthy Japanese.

  4. A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    Study Design: Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Objectives: Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The

  5. Should different marketing communication strategies be used to promote healthy eating among male and female adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.

  6. Association between control to target blood pressures and healthy lifestyle factors among Japanese hypertensive patients: longitudinal data analysis from Fukushima Research of Hypertension (FRESH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Goto, Aya; Sanada, Hironobu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Yasumura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    To determine success rates in controlling target blood pressures longitudinally by measuring several factors, including lifestyle characteristics associated with uncontrolled blood pressures for target treatment goals. This prospective observational cohort study (September 2008-September 2010) collected information on blood pressure control status and healthy lifestyle factors listed in Breslow's seven health practices through medical records and self-administered questionnaires from 884 of the 1264 Japanese hypertensive patients initially registered in the FRESH study. Multivariate analysis adjusted for associated factors was performed to estimate the association between lifestyle change and "uncontrolled blood pressures" at the final follow-up survey. Median age and proportion of men were 73 years and 39.1%, respectively. All survey failure rates were 37.6% among non-elderly patients (myocardial infarction. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle was a protective factor against uncontrolled blood pressures in multivariate analysis. Obesity and smoking status were associated with uncontrolled blood pressures, and exercise frequency was borderline significance. The number of participants with healthy responses for these factors remained relatively low during follow up. Our study revealed low rates of controlled blood pressures, especially in non-elderly patients without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease, and patients with these diseases or myocardial infarction. Our data indicate the need to maintain a healthy lifestyle, in particular, ideal body weight and adequate exercise frequency, for better hypertension management according to treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia during sleep does not induce ventilatory long-term facilitation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Naomi L; McEvoy, R Doug; Stadler, Daniel L; Catcheside, Peter G

    2017-09-01

    Intermittent hypoxia-induced ventilatory neuroplasticity is likely important in obstructive sleep apnea pathophysiology. Although concomitant CO2 levels and arousal state critically influence neuroplastic effects of intermittent hypoxia, no studies have investigated intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia effects during sleep in humans. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate if intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia during sleep induces neuroplasticity (ventilatory long-term facilitation and increased chemoreflex responsiveness) in humans. Twelve healthy males were exposed to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (24 × 30 s episodes of 3% CO2 and 3.0 ± 0.2% O2) and intermittent medical air during sleep after 2 wk washout period in a randomized crossover study design. Minute ventilation, end-tidal CO2, O2 saturation, breath timing, upper airway resistance, and genioglossal and diaphragm electromyograms were examined during 10 min of stable stage 2 sleep preceding gas exposure, during gas and intervening room air periods, and throughout 1 h of room air recovery. There were no significant differences between conditions across time to indicate long-term facilitation of ventilation, genioglossal or diaphragm electromyogram activity, and no change in ventilatory response from the first to last gas exposure to suggest any change in chemoreflex responsiveness. These findings contrast with previous intermittent hypoxia studies without intermittent hypercapnia and suggest that the more relevant gas disturbance stimulus of concomitant intermittent hypercapnia frequently occurring in sleep apnea influences acute neuroplastic effects of intermittent hypoxia. These findings highlight the need for further studies of intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia during sleep to clarify the role of ventilatory neuroplasticity in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both arousal state and concomitant CO2 levels are known modulators of the effects of intermittent hypoxia on

  8. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  9. Bioequivalence of two formulations of pregabalin 150-mg capsules under fasting conditions in healthy male subjects
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun A; Lee, SeungHwan; Yim, Sung-Vin; Kim, Bo-Hyung

    2017-02-01

    Pregabalin binds to the α2δ auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, which are widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and modulate calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release. Pregabalin is indicated for the treatment of peripheral and central neuropathic pain, partial seizures with or without secondary generalization, and treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The purpose of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of two different formulations of pregabalin 150-mg capsules in healthy Korean male subjects under fasting conditions. This bioequivalence study was based on an open-label, single-dose, randomized, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design with a washout period of 7 days. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation were collected up to 24 hours postdose. Plasma concentrations of pregabalin were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. PK parameters were determined using noncompartmental analysis. Bioequivalence was assumed if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the test/reference ratios of log-transformed Cmax and AUClast values met the bioequivalence criteria specified by Korean regulatory guidelines (90% CI 0.8 - 1.25). The extent of exposure in terms of AUClast amounted to 26,018.3 - 3,580.8 µg×h/L for the test formulation and 25,680.2 ± 3,083.6 µg×h/L for the reference formulation. Cmax reached values of 4,782.7 ± 1,124.2 µg/L and 4,654.0 ± 911.4 µg/L for the test product and reference product, respectively. The geometric mean ratio and 90% CIs of the test product to the reference product were 1.0132 (0.9862 - 1.0351) for AUClast and 1.0153 (0.9351 - 1.1044) for Cmax, which were well within the range necessary to establish bioequivalence (90% CI 0.8 - 1.25). The bioequivalence between test and reference formulations under fasting conditions was confirmed both in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.
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  10. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-09-01

    Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade

  11. Comparison of the effects of levofloxacin on QT/QTc interval assessed in both healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yuji; Nishimura, Satomi; Adachi-Akahane, Satomi; Kumagai, Yuji; Gayed, Juleen; Naseem, Asif; Ferber, Georg; Taubel, Jorg; Camm, John

    2012-01-01

    AIMS There is no consensus as to what extent the results of thorough QT interval/corrected QT interval (QT/QTc) studies need to be bridged. METHODS The results of two studies using levofloxacin in Japanese and Caucasian subjects were compared in a post hoc analysis to investigate the similarity of dose–effect responses. RESULTS Concentration–response analysis based on the change of QT interval corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) from time-matched placebo was planned and performed in the combined data sets. At the geometric maximum mean concentration for the two doses in the Caucasian study, a predicted effect on QTcF comparable to the effects observed was found. For the Japanese study, the predicted effect was lower, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS No statistically significant differences in QTc-prolonging effect between Japanese and Caucasian subjects were observed following levofloxacin dosing. However, a trend suggests that Caucasian subjects may be more sensitive. Age and sex did not have an impact. PMID:22442827

  12. Trends in coronary risk factors and electrocardiogram findings from 1977 to 2009 with 10-year mortality in Japanese elderly males - The Tanushimaru Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Tsuru, Tomoko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-01

    An understanding of the trends in regard to coronary risk factors and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings has an important role in public health. We investigated the trends in coronary risk factors and main ECG findings in 1977, 1989, 1999, and 2009 in the Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town on Kyushu Island. A total of 1397 subjects (231 in 1977, 332 in 1989, 389 in 1999, and 445 in 2009) were enrolled in this study, and all of them were males aged over 65 years. In coronary risk factors, total cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and uric acid significantly increased during these 3 decades. The prevalence of smokers markedly decreased from 56.7% in 1977 to 16.8% in 2009. ECG changes during 3 decades were wider QRS interval, increased prevalence of major abnormality, reduced heart rate, shortened PR interval and corrected QT, and decreased prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Age, smoking habits, major and minor abnormalities in ECG were associated with mortality in 1977-1987. Age, total cholesterol levels (inversely) and corrected QT were associated with mortality in 1989-1999. Age, smoking habits, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure were associated with mortality in 1999-2009. Predictors of mortality have changed with the times. Coronary risk factors such as smoking, increased heart rate, and elevated blood pressure have been recently associated with mortalities in elderly male Japanese general population. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between Fish Consumption and Prefrontal Function during a Cognitive Task in Male Japanese Workers: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Pu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in male Japanese workers. The study included 208 male workers who underwent medical health examinations 3 months after a change in their work assignment. We measured the hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal region during working memory tasks using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The frequency of fish consumption was calculated on the basis of the subjects' self-reported customary intake frequency over the previous 3 months. A significant positive relationship was observed between fish consumption and left dorsolateral prefrontal function during a working memory task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fish consumption and functional cortical activity with an ample sample size, suggesting that fish consumption modulates functional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  14. Association between Fish Consumption and Prefrontal Function during a Cognitive Task in Male Japanese Workers: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Kaneko, Koichi; Kurosawa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in male Japanese workers. The study included 208 male workers who underwent medical health examinations 3 months after a change in their work assignment. We measured the hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal region during working memory tasks using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The frequency of fish consumption was calculated on the basis of the subjects' self-reported customary intake frequency over the previous 3 months. A significant positive relationship was observed between fish consumption and left dorsolateral prefrontal function during a working memory task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fish consumption and functional cortical activity with an ample sample size, suggesting that fish consumption modulates functional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  15. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Bruno Dias; Lima, Patricia Oliveira de; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Rolim, Gustavo Sattolo; Moraes, Antonio Bento Alves de; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects. Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument. The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p stressed group (p stressed subjects.

  16. The Effect of Aquatic and Land-Based Exercises on Static and Dynamic Balance of Healthy Male Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sohbatiha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise in and out of the water on balance level of healthy male older people. Methods & Materials: A total of 40 healthy and physically active males aged more than 65 years old, who had not previously experienced the study exercises were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned into three different groups: aquatic exercise group (n=13, land-based exercise group (n=12 and control group (n=15. The aquatic exercise and land-based exercise groups participated in a 6 weeks similar exercise program of 3 times per week and 60 minutes per session. Each exercise session consisted of three main phases (warm up, main exercise program and cool down. Both experimental groups were assessed before and after the exercises. The Sharpened Romberg Test and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT were used to measure changes in balance level of the subjects before and after exercise. SPSS software version 16. 00 was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was set as P0.05. Conclusion: The static and dynamic balance level improves in healthy male older people as a result of aquatic and land-based exercises. However, further evaluations are needed to assess the long-term effects of these exercises.

  17. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  18. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single Doses of TV-1106, a Long-Acting Growth Hormone, in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Barkay, Hadas; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Butler, Kathleen; Yamada, Kazumasa; Bassan, Merav; Yoon, Esther; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2017-07-01

    TV-1106 is a human serum albumin genetically fused to recombinant human growth hormone, designed to provide a long-acting alternative to daily growth hormone (GH) injections in patients with GH deficiency. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of single subcutaneous doses of TV-1106 (7.5, 15, 50, and 100 mg) in Japanese (n = 44) and caucasian (n = 44) healthy subjects. TV-1106 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were comparable in Japanese and caucasian populations. TV-1106 demonstrated relatively slow absorption (median tmax , 10-30 hours) and a mean elimination half-life of 26-36 hours. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution decreased with increasing TV-1106 doses in both populations and appeared to increase more than dose proportionality across the tested doses. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) increased in a dose-related manner, with maximum responses observed at 33-96 and 42-109 hours, respectively. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 returned to baseline values at 168 hours following 7.5 and 15 mg of TV-1106, and 336 hours following 50 and 100 mg of TV-1106. TV-1106 appeared safe in both populations. There was no evidence of differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or safety of TV-1106 between Japanese and caucasian populations. The data also demonstrate long-acting growth hormone properties of TV-1106 and support its potential for once-weekly dosing. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Ethnic diversity of gut microbiota: species characterization of Bacteroides fragilis group and genus Bifidobacterium in healthy Belgian adults, and comparison with data from Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Eiji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Fujimoto, Junji; Watanabe, Koichi; Watanuki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2013-08-01

    The composition of the human gut microbiota is related to host health, and it is thought that dietary habits may play a role in shaping this composition. Here, we examined the population size and prevalence of six predominant bacterial genera and the species compositions of genus Bifidobacterium (g-Bifid) and Bacteroides fragilis group (g-Bfra) in 42 healthy Belgian adults by quantitative PCR (qPCR) over a period of one month. The population sizes and prevalence of these bacteria were basically stable throughout the study period. The predominant g-Bifid species were Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium longum ss. longum, and the predominant g-Bfra species were Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis, and Bacteroides ovatus. The Belgian gut microbiota data were then compared with gut microbiota data from 46 Japanese subjects collected according to the same protocol (Matsuki et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 167-173, 2004). The population size and prevalence of Bifidobacterium catenulatum group were significantly lower in the Belgian gut microbiota than in the Japanese gut microbiota (P diversity of gut microbiota among ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of AMG 531, a thrombopoiesis-stimulating peptibody, in healthy Japanese subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yuji; Fujita, Tomoe; Ozaki, Machiko; Sahashi, Kunihiko; Ohkura, Masayuki; Ohtsu, Tomoko; Arai, Yoshihiro; Sonehara, Yusuke; Nichol, Janet L

    2007-12-01

    AMG 531 is a novel thrombopoiesis-stimulating peptibody being investigated for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. This double-blind, phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of AMG 531 in healthy Japanese men. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned 4:1 (AMG 531/placebo) to receive 1 dose of AMG 531 (0.3, 1, or 2 microg/kg) or placebo by subcutaneous injection; subjects were evaluated for 6 weeks. AMG 531 was generally well tolerated, with adverse events similar to placebo. Treatment-related adverse events (headache, "feeling hot," malaise) were reported for 5 of 24 AMG 531-treated subjects. Platelets generated after exposure to AMG 531 functioned normally. Four of 8 subjects receiving 1 microg/kg and 7 of 8 receiving 2 microg/kg had platelet count increases > or =1.5-fold over baseline, an effect similar to that seen in non-Japanese subjects. Serum AMG 531 concentrations were below the lower limit of quantification in all but 2 subjects receiving 2 microg/kg.

  1. A rare benign genitourinary tumor in a Japanese male: urinary retention owing to aggressive angiomyxoma of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayakazu Nakazawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Close examination of a 67-year-old Japanese man, who complained of persistent nocturia, revealed that a semitransparent polypoid tumor had developed from the bladder neck to the prostatic urethra obstructing the internal urethral meatus, which resulted in excessive urinary retention and post-renal dysfunction. The tumor was resected by a transurethral procedure and a pathological examination of specimens revealed aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM of the prostate. AAM usually develops in the intrapelvic and perineal organs of females. So far as we know, this is the second case of primary prostatic AAM reported in the English literature, and is the first case where the patient encountered urethral obstruction.

  2. Validity of ultrasound muscle thickness measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass in healthy Japanese middle-aged and older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Yohei; Ohta, Megumi; Akagi, Ryota; Kato, Emika; Wakahara, Taku; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-09-25

    The skeletal muscle mass of the lower limb plays a role in its mobility during daily life. From the perspective of physical resources, leg muscle mass dominantly decreases after the end of the fifth decade. Therefore, an accurate estimate of the muscle mass is important for the middle-aged and older population. The present study aimed to clarify the validity of ultrasound muscle thickness (MT) measurements for predicting leg skeletal muscle mass (SM) in the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population. MTs at four sites of the lower limb and the bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM) of the right leg were determined using brightness-mode ultrasonography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively, in 44 women and 33 men, 52- to 78-years old. LTM was used as a representative variable of leg skeletal muscle mass. In the model-development group (30 women and 22 men), regression analysis produced an equation with R2 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.958 and 0.3 kg, respectively: LTM (kg) = 0.01464 × (MTSUM×L) (cm2) - 2.767, where MTSUM is the sum of the product of MTs at four sites, and L is length of segment where MT is determined. The estimated LTM (7.0 ± 1.7 kg) did not significantly differ from the measured LTM (7.0 ± 1.7 kg), without a significant systematic error on a Bland-Altman plot. The application of this equation for the cross-validation group (14 women and 11 men) did not yield a significant difference between the measured (7.2 ± 1.6 kg) or estimated (7.2 ± 1.6 kg) LTM and systematic error. The developed prediction equation may be useful for estimating the lean tissue mass of the lower extremity for the healthy Japanese middle-aged and older population.

  3. Effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 following exhaustive exercise in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazani, Mohammad; Fard, Ali Shadman; Baghi, Abbas Naghizadeh; Nemati, Ali; Mogadam, Reza Alipanah

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases2 and 9 serum levels and improving antioxidant function in young healthy males during exhaustive exercise. The study was conducted at Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2010-11 and comprised 28 healthy subjects in 18-24 age bracket. They were randomly divided into control and supplemented groups. One cup of pomegranate juice and one cup of tap water were given to supplemented and control groups daily for two weeks respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and at the end of two weeks of intervention. The subjects were given one exhaustive exercise and then fasting blood samples were taken for testing blood glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, zinc, ceruloplasmin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical tests, paired and independent sample t-test. The blood levels of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of total antioxidant capacity after exhaustive exercise in the supplemented group were significantly increased (p matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, ceruloplasmin and malondialdehyde showed a significant decrease in comparison to the control group (p matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9and serum levels of some inflammatory factors and thus protects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative injury in young healthy males.

  4. The effects of three different exercise modalities on markers of male reproduction in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity continuous training (HICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of male reproduction including seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in healthy human subjects. A total of 397 healthy male volunteers were screened and 280 were randomly assigned to one of the MICT (n = 70), HICT (n = 70), HIIT (n = 70) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 70) groups. Subjects had inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), oxidants (ROS, MDA and 8-isoprostane), antioxidants (SOD, catalase and TAC), semen parameters and sperm DNA damage measured at baseline (T1), the end of week 12 (T2), the end of week 24 (T3), and 7 (T4) and 30 days (T5) after training. Chronic MICT, HICT and HIIT attenuated seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with different kinetics for the three types of exercise (P reproductive function (P reproduction with different kinetics, suggesting intensity-, duration- and type-dependent adaptations to exercise training in healthy human subjects. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  5. Cardiac repolarization during hypoglycaemia and hypoxaemia in healthy males: impact of renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Andersen, Rikke; Høi-Hansen, Thomas; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Activity in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may influence the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. To study the effect of basal RAS activity on cardiac repolarization during myocardial stress induced by hypoglycaemia or hypoxaemia in healthy humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten subjects...

  6. Cardiac repolarization during hypoglycaemia and hypoxaemia in healthy males: Impact of renin-angiotensin system activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Due-Andersen (Rikke); T. Høi-Hansen (Thomas); N.V. Olsen; C.E. Larroude; J.K. Kanters; F. Boomsma (Frans); U. Pedersen-Bjergaard (Ullrik); B. Thorsteinsson (Birger)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: Activity in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may influence the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. To study the effect of basal RAS activity on cardiac repolarization during myocardial stress induced by hypoglycaemia or hypoxaemia in healthy humans. Methods and results: Ten

  7. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims We have established that acute intraduodenal infusion of the fatty acid, lauric acid (“C12”), markedly reduces energy intake in healthy subjects in the absence of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that increasing doses of orally ingested C...

  8. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial insulin release is lower in healthy aerobically trained (T) compared to untrained (UT) individuals. This may be mediated by a lower release of the two incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] in T. The aim of this stud...

  9. Effects of a neurodynamic sliding technique on hamstring flexibility in healthy male soccer players. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Martín-Martín, Lydia; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2013-08-01

    To compare the short-term effects of a neurodynamic sliding technique versus control condition on hamstring flexibility in healthy, asymptomatic male soccer players. Twenty-eight young male soccer players from Palencia, Spain (mean age 20.7 yrs ± 1.0, range 19-22) with decreased hamstring muscle flexibility. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: neurodynamic sliding intervention or no intervention control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) pre- and post-intervention. Subjects received interventions as per group allocation over a 1 week period. Data were analyzed with a 2 (intervention: neurodynamic and control) × 2 (time: pre and post) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and appropriate post-hoc analyses. A significant interaction was observed between intervention and time for hamstring extensibility, F(1,26) = 159.187, p sliding technique can increase hamstring flexibility in healthy, male soccer players. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Significant inverse association of equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification but not dietary isoflavones in healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Miura, Katsuyuki; Vishnu, Abhishek; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Evans, Rhobert; Zaid, Maryam; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Equol, a metabolite of the dietary isoflavone daidzein, is produced by the action of gut bacteria in some individuals who are termed as equol-producers. It is proposed to have stronger atheroprotective properties than dietary isoflavones. We examined a cross-sectional association of dietary isoflavones and equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis, among men in Japan. A population-based sample of 272 Japanese men aged 40-49 years recruited from 2004 to 2007 was examined for serum isoflavones, serum equol, CAC and other factors. Equol-producers were classified as individuals having a serum level of equol >83 nm. The presence of CAC was defined as a coronary Ca score ≥10 Agatston units. The associations of dietary isoflavones and equol-producers with CAC were analysed using multiple logistic regression. The median of dietary isoflavones, equol and CAC were 512·7 (interquartile range (IQR) 194·1, 1170·0), 9·1 (IQR 0·10, 33·1) and 0·0 (IQR 0·0, 1·0) nm, respectively. Prevalence of CAC and equol-producers was 9·6 and 16·0 %, respectively. Dietary isoflavones were not significantly associated with CAC. After multivariable adjustment, the OR for the presence of CAC in equol-producers compared with equol non-producers was 0·10 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·90, PEquol-producers had significantly lower CAC than equol non-producers, but there was no significant association between dietary isoflavones and CAC, suggesting that equol may be a key factor for atheroprotective properties of isoflavones in Japanese men. This finding must be confirmed in larger studies or clinical trials of equol that is now available as a dietary supplement.

  11. Decrease of serum level of gastrin in healthy Japanese adults by the change of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Tadashi; Chinda, Daisuke; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2014-12-01

    In Japan, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is decreasing and the number of patients who receive eradication therapy is increasing. Although the serum level of gastrin is affected by H. pylori infection, the normal level has been unchanged for more than 20 years. The aim of this study was to study whether the present normal range for the serum gastrin level is appropriate for Japanese at present or in the near future. We studied 810 adults (40-80 years old) who participated in a health survey in 2012. We measured H. pylori stool antigen, titer of serum antibody to H. pylori, and serum level of gastrin. The patient's H. pylori status was defined as positive or negative when the results of both stool antigen and serology were concordant. Subjects who were taking proton-pump inhibitor and had a previous history of gastric surgery were excluded. Mean serum level of gastrin was 66.2±49.6 pg/mL in 281 H. pylori-negative subjects and 69.7±42.2 pg/mL in 115 patients who had H. pylori eradicated at least 2 years ago. The level of gastrin was 134.4±145.6 pg/mL in 224 patients with H. pylori infection and the level was significantly higher when compared with those in uninfected subjects and eradicated patients (Pgastrin should be established using current Japanese populations. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Effects of low-protein diets supplemented with antioxidants on histopathology of testis and testosterone and performance of male Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahmoodpour

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study sought to examine the effects of low-protein diets supplemented with natural and synthetic antioxidants on reproductive traits and performance of male Japanese quail. A total of 144 one-day-old quail chicks were randomly assigned to receive four different treatments, including a control diet (a basal diet without antioxidant supplementation, low-protein diet without antioxidant supplementation, low-protein diet supplemented with the E-selenium antioxidant (a combination of vitamin E and selenium, and low-protein diet supplemented with the antioxidant Loxidan (a combination of propyl galat, ethoxyquin, and citric acid. Throughout the study, feed and water were provided ad libitum from one to 45 days of age. Performance values were calculated at the end of the experimental period. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein of six male birds randomly selected from each treatment group. Subsequently, blood samples were used to measure serum testosterone levels by ELISA. A total of 36 slides were prepared from testes of 12 adult quail for histological studies. Results from this study showed that there was a significant increase in blood testosterone levels of quail fed the antioxidant Loxidan. An increased number of spermatogonia was found in quail fed both antioxidants. In addition, a significant increase was found in the number of spermatid cells in quail fed a low-protein diet with antioxidants. Surprisingly, spermatozoa cells showed a significant elevation in quail fed antioxidants as compared with those fed low-protein diets. Interestingly, a significant increase was observed in the final body weight of the quail fed antioxidants. Therefore, it can be deduced that antioxidant intake not only can improve reproductive indices, such as testosterone levels and testicular tissue in Japanese quail, but is also useful for performance of quail fed low-protein diets.

  13. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  14. Healthy overweight male partners of subfertile couples should not worry about their semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, Floor H.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Gianotten, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen quality in a cohort of male partners in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A fertility center based in an academic hospital. Patient(s): Between January 2000 and January 2007, 1466 men visiting the Centre

  15. Pharmacokinetics of CS-023 (RO4908463), a Novel Parenteral Carbapenem, in Healthy Male Caucasian Volunteers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Shibayama, Takahiro; Matsushita, Yoko; Hirota, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Kuwahara, Shogo

    2006-01-01

    The CS-023 concentration in plasma after administration by infusion to healthy volunteers at a dose of 700 mg was decreased, with a half-life of 1.7 h, and the cumulative urinary excretion was 59.4% of the dose. The total clearance, renal clearance, and volume of distribution were 8.12 liters/h, 4.14 liters/h, and 17.2 liters, respectively.

  16. Idiopathic Thrombosis of the Inferior Vena Cava and Bilateral Femoral Veins in an Otherwise Healthy Male Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava is less common than deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, particularly in the absence of an obvious congenital caval abnormality or hypercoagulable state. We present a case of IVC thrombosis in an otherwise healthy and active 28-year-old male soldier secondary to dehydration and venous webbing. IVC thrombosis is an uncommon and underrecognized condition; in this case, the patient’s caval thrombosis was initially mistaken for acute back strain. Prompt recognition is necessary to minimize long-term sequelae.

  17. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  18. Japanese; Japanese Proverbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The proverbs and expressions listed in this supplementary Japanese language text are grouped as follows: (1) 161 general proverbs and expressions; (2) 42 slang expressions; and (3) 73 expressions concerning the body. Each entry appears in transliteration as well as in Japanese orthography, with its English gloss. (AMM)

  19. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, M; Fahlström, M; Bjordal, J M; Nielsen, D; Baun, M; Storgaard, M; Magnusson, S P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in both groups (P badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER strength. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...... (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side...... on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in young elite badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER...

  1. Lifestyle, nutritional status and physical fitness index among healthy male students of Private Medical College

    OpenAIRE

    Sindwani, Pooja; Kudachi, Padmashri; Jain, Piyush Kumar; Budhani, Diksha

    2016-01-01

    Aims & Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status, lifestyle factors and physical fitness index among male medical students.Material & Method: The present study was conducted among medical students aged 17-20. A total of 73 students completed the study. American dietetic society questionnaire was modified and was given to students. It included all the questions regarding 24 hour dietary recall, junk food consumption and few lifestyle factors. Calorie intake o...

  2. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  4. The effects of methylphenidate on cognitive performance of healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Rostron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH in healthy rats on two distinct radial maze tasks which rely on brain structures and neurotransmitters known to be affected by MPH: the Random Foraging Non-Delay Task (RFNDT and the Delay Spatial Win Shift Task (DSWT. Hooded Lister rats were trained to complete either the RFNDT or the DSWT having received oral treatment of either a vehicle or MPH (3.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg for RFNDT, 3.0 mg/kg for DSWT. We found no effect of MPH on the RFNDT relative to the control group. However, those treated with 5.0 mg/kg MPH did take significantly longer to reach criterion performance than those treated with the 3.0 mg/kg MPH, suggesting some doses of MPH can have detrimental effects. For the DSWT, if MPH was present in both phases, performance did not differ from when it was absent in both phases. However, when present in only one phase there was an increase in errors made, although this only reached significance for when MPH was present only in the test-phase. These data suggest that MPH may have detrimental effects on task performance and can result in state dependent effects in healthy individuals.

  5. Hemorrhagic Stroke in a Young Healthy Male Following Use of Pre-Workout Supplement Animal Rage XL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Brandon F; Winn, Coty; Ableman, Thomas B

    2017-09-01

    So-called "pre-workout" supplements are substances marketed as natural dietary supplements with claims of helping athletes achieve more focused and intense workouts. The use of such products remains popular among American youth as a whole, but is especially high among active duty service members. Supplements are minimally regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and unlike pharmaceuticals, supplements are often brought to market without any testing to show neither efficacy nor safety. Several case reports have documented serious adverse events and raise the question of whether supplement use was a causative factor. Reported events occurring after use of pre-workout supplements include, among others, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, hepatitis, and death. Here, we present the case of a healthy 25-year-old active duty male who experienced a bilateral cerebellar hemorrhagic stroke occurring shortly after taking a supplement named Animal Rage XL. Hemorrhagic stroke occurring in a healthy 25-year-old male with no risk factors is exceedingly rare. This is the first known case of stroke temporally associated with this particular supplement, which is currently available for purchase at military exchanges. Additionally, several of the active ingredients in this supplement have been shown to cause hypertension, tachycardia, and vasospasm. All of these effects could increase the likelihood and severity of a hemorrhagic stroke. The investigated ingredients in this abstract include β-phenethylamine, creatine-monophosphate, and caffeine. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Ethnic differences in thermal pain responses: a comparison of South Asian and White British healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paul J; Latif, R Khalid; Rowbotham, David J

    2005-11-01

    The expression and report of pain is influenced by social environment and culture. Previous studies have suggested ethnically determined differences in report of pain threshold, intensity and affect. The influence of ethnic differences between White British and South Asians has remained unexplored. Twenty age-matched, male volunteers in each group underwent evaluation. Cold and warm perception and cold and heat threshold were assessed using an ascending method of limits. Magnitude estimation of pain unpleasantness and pain intensity were investigated with thermal stimuli of 46, 47, 48 and 49 degrees C. Subjects also completed a pain anxiety questionnaire. Data was analysed using t-test, Mann-Whitney and repeated measures analysis of variance as appropriate. There were no differences in cold and warm perception between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups for heat pain threshold (P=0.006) and heat pain intensity demonstrated a significant effect for ethnicity (F=13.84, P=0.001). Although no group differences emerged for cold pain threshold and heat unpleasantness, South Asians demonstrated lower cold pain threshold and reported more unpleasantness at all temperatures but this was not statistically significant. Our study shows that ethnicity plays an important role in heat pain threshold and pain report, South Asian males demonstrated lower pain thresholds and higher pain report when compared with matched White British males. There were no differences in pain anxiety between the two groups and no correlations were identified between pain and pain anxiety Haemodynamic measures and anthropometry did not explain group differences.

  7. A single consumption of curry improved postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects: a randomized, controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Sawada, Hiroshi; Masamura, Noriya; Yamada, Shohei; Satomi, Shigeki; Higashi, Yukihito

    2014-06-28

    Curry, one of the most popular foods in Japan, contains spices that are rich in potentially antioxidative compounds, such as curcumin and eugenol. Oxidative stress is thought to impair endothelial function associated with atherosclerosis, a leading cause of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single consumption of curry meal would improve endothelial function in healthy men. Fourteen healthy male subjects (BMI 23.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; age 45 ± 9 years) were given a single serving of curry meal or spice-free control meal (180 g of curry or control and 200 g of cooked rice; approximately 500 kcal in total) in a randomized, controlled crossover design. Before and 1 hr after the consumption, fasting and postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses and other parameters were measured. The consumption of the control meal decreased FMD from 5.8 ± 2.4% to 5.1 ± 2.3% (P = 0.039). On the other hand, the consumption of the curry meal increased FMD from 5.2 ± 2.5% to 6.6 ± 2.0% (P = 0.001), and the postprandial FMD after the curry meal was higher than that after the control meal (P = 0.002). Presence of spices in the curry did not alter significantly the systemic and forearm hemodynamics, or any biochemical parameters including oxidative stress markers measured. These findings suggest that the consumption of curry ameliorates postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects and may be beneficial for improving cardiovascular health. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000012012.

  8. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Eslami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo. Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg and placebo (the same amount of lactose were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM, for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects′ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done

  9. Metformin improves performance in high-intensity exercise, but not anaerobic capacity in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learsi, S K; Bastos-Silva, V J; Lima-Silva, A E; Bertuzzi, R; De Araujo, G G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ergogenic effects of metformin in high-intensity exercise, as well as its effects on anaerobic capacity, in healthy and physically active men. Ten subjects (mean (± standard deviation) maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max ) 38.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg per min) performed the following tests in a cycle ergometer: (i) an incremental test; (ii) six submaximal constant workload tests at 40%-90% (V˙O2max ); and (iii) two supramaximal tests (110% (V˙O2max ). Metformin (500 mg) or placebo was ingested 60 min before the supramaximal test. There were no significant differences between the placebo and metformin groups in terms of maximum accumulated oxygen deficit (2.8 ± 0.6 vs 3.0 ± 0.8 L, respectively; P = 0.08), lactate concentrations (7.8 ± 2.6 vs 7.5 ± 3.0 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.75) or O2 consumed in either the last 30 s of exercise (40.4 ± 4.4 vs 39.9 ± 4.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.35) or the first 110 s of exercise (29.0 ± 2.5 vs 29.5 ± 3.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.42). Time to exhaustion was significantly higher after metformin than placebo ingestion (191 ± 33 vs 167 ± 32 s, respectively; P = 0.001). The fast component of V˙O2 recovery was higher in the metformin than placebo group (12.71 vs 12.18 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.025). Metformin improved performance and anaerobic alactic contribution during high-intensity exercise, but had no effect on overall anaerobic capacity in healthy subjects. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. [Development of a Japanese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), and examination of its validity and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimai, Satoshi; Otake, Keiko; Utsuki, Narisuke; Ikemi, Akira; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a Japanese version of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) and to examine its validity and reliability. The four items of the English SHS were translated into Japanese. These Japanese items were back-translated into English, and verified by one of the developers of the original SHS. The participants were 364 Japanese undergraduate students (158 males and 206 females). They were asked to answer the questionnaire including the Japanese SHS, five items concerning positive health and self-esteem, and the Japanese General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The stability of the Japanese SHS was examined over a five-week time period. It was shown that the Japanese SHS was highly internal consistent with alphas of .80 for males and .84 for females. As for the test-rest reliability, a high correlation (r = .86) was found after five-week. One factor structure and factor loadings emerged clearly from factor analysis. The scores of the Japanese SHS correlated positively with positive health and self-esteem. Furthermore, they were significantly greater in the healthy group than in the unhealthy one, from the GHQ scores, especially for depression. These findings suggest that the Japanese version of SHS has internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.

  11. An Exploratory Study in Healthy Male Subjects of the Mechanism of Mirabegron-Induced Cardiovascular Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Marcel; Stölzel, Matthias; Meijer, John; Kerbusch, Virginie; Collins, Christiane; Korstanje, Cees

    2017-12-01

    To explore the role of β1 -adrenoceptors (ARs) in the heart rate response to the selective β3 -adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron, 12 young male volunteers received single oral doses of the nonselective β1/2 -AR antagonist propranolol (160 mg), the selective β1 -AR antagonist bisoprolol (10 mg), or placebo on days 1 and 5 of each period in a 3-period crossover study. On day 5, dosing was followed by a supratherapeutic dose of mirabegron (200 mg). Vital signs, impedance cardiography, and plasma renin activity were collected. Mirabegron increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure and reduced stroke volume, whereas cardiac output and diastolic blood pressure were unaffected. Mirabegron-induced changes were attenuated by propranolol and bisoprolol. The data indicate that mirabegron has a positive chronotropic effect at supratherapeutic concentrations, which is at least partly mediated by stimulation of β1 -AR. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Balanoposthitis as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus in an apparently healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Saoji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanoposthitis inflammation of the glans penis, which often involves prepuce is a common condition and are usually managed symptomatically without considering a possible association diabetes. Acquired balanoposthitis may be the first clinical presentation of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods: We enrolled 100 subjects with balanoposthitis with no history of diabetes mellitus in the past. Random blood sugar was done in all subjects, those with random blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl underwent fasting and 2 hour post prandial blood sugar estimation. Result: Out of 100 patients having balanitis,7 patients were detected to have diabetes mellitus for the first time, while another 4 patients were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for the first time. Conclusion: In conclusion, we must bear in mind that balanoposthitis may be the first clinical sign of diabetes mellitus in males and hence appropriate blood glucose testing should be carried out when assessing men with balanoposthitis.

  13. STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR 2 (SRC-2) MODULATES STEROID-DEPENDENT MALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND NEUROPLASTICITY IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, Neville-Andrew; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.; Charlier, Thierry D.

    2011-01-01

    Steroid receptor coactivators are necessary for efficient transcriptional regulation by ligand-bound nuclear receptors, including estrogen and androgen receptors. SRC-2 modulates estrogen- and progesterone-dependent sexual behavior in female rats but its implication in the control of male sexual behavior has not been studied to our knowledge. We cloned and sequenced the complete quail SRC-2 transcript and showed by semi-quantitative PCR that SRC-2 expression is nearly ubiquitous, with high le...

  14. Effects of supplementation with selenium, as selenized yeast, in a healthy male population from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasinghe, Nishi; Han, Dug Yeo; Zhu, Shuotun; Duan, He; Ko, Yi-Ju; Yu, Jie Fu; Triggs, Christopher M; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) supplementation was tested in a group of healthy men from Auckland, New Zealnd with selenized yeast (Selplex, 200 μg/day) as the supplementation mode. A set of biomarkers, including DNA damage levels and seleno-antioxidant enzyme levels, were evaluated at pre- and postsupplementation time points. Supplementation produced significant increases in serum Se levels, red blood cell (RBC) thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity and peroxide-induced DNA damage, when the mean baseline serum Se level was 110 ng/ml. Those with higher baseline serum Se levels gained less serum Se and showed a significant reduction of RBC glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity by supplementation. The optimum benefits of supplementation on DNA stability are observed when the serum Se level reaches between >120 and supplementation, whereas those having lower baseline DNA damage are disadvantaged. A dose of 200 μg/day selenized yeast was also shown to be a safer supplementation option compared to a similar dose of selenomethionine (SeMet). This study highlights the requirement for prestratification of a population by standing serum Se level and baseline DNA damage level, before any Se supplementation is carried out.

  15. Serum uric acid is associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density in healthy Chinese males older than 50 years

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    Xiao J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jing Xiao, Weijun Chen, Xinhui Feng, Wenyi Liu, Zhenxing Zhang, Li He, Zhibin Ye Department of Nephrology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of serum uric acid (UA levels with bone mineral density (BMD at all skeletal sites in healthy Chinese males >50 years of age. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 385 Chinese males >50 years of age who underwent health checkup in Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University in Shanghai, China, was conducted. Clinical and bone characteristics were compared in different UA tertiles (UA1: UA <4.7 mg/dL, UA2: 4.7 mg/dL ≤ UA <6 mg/dL and UA3: UA ≥6 mg/dL. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to study the correlation of UA with BMD at various skeletal sites. Results: Serum UA levels were positively associated with higher BMD and T-values at the lumbar spine, but not at other skeletal sites, after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. Lumbar spine BMD; the T- and Z-values at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck; as well as intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels are higher in the highest tertile of UA than in the second tertile of UA. Conclusion: Our results provide epidemiological evidence in Chinese Han males aged >50 years that serum UA levels are positively correlated with lumbar spine BMD and T-values, suggesting that UA may exert protective effect on bone density at the lumbar spine in Chinese males >50 years of age. Keywords: T-value, Z-value, parathyroid hormone, bone turnover marker

  16. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  17. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

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    Rie eMizuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin (OT is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults.Method: Eighty-one adults (50 women and 31 men with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p=0.014. Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p=0.027. A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p=0.031. Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress.

  18. Vitamin D vitamers affect vitamin D status differently in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Wreford Andersen, Elisabeth Anne; Christensen, Tue

    2018-01-01

    Dietary intake of vitamin D includes vitamin D3 (vitD3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3), and vitamin D2 (vitD2). However, the bioactivity of the different species has not been scientifically established. The hypothesis in this study was that vitD3, 25OH-D3, and vitD2 have an equal effect on 25......-hydroxyvitamin D in serum (vitamin D status). To test our hypothesis, we performed a randomized, crossover study. Twelve young males consumed 10 µg/day vitD3 during a four-week run-in period, followed by 3 × 6 weeks of 10 µg/day vitD3, 10 µg/day 25OH-D3, and 10 µg/day vitD2. The content of vitD3, vitD2, 25OH-D3......, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OH-D2) in serum was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The hypothesis that the three sources of vitamin D affect vitamin D status equally was rejected. Based on the assumption that 1 µg vitD3/day will show an increase in vitamin D status...

  19. The effect of foot overpronation on Achilles tendon blood supply in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, K; Kalogeris, M; Mandalidis, D; Geladas, N; Karteroliotis, K; Athanasopoulos, S

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon blood flow in individuals with overpronated feet during non-weight- and weight-bearing positions. Achilles tendon blood flow was measured by means of the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistance index (RI) in 15 male individuals with overpronated feet and 15 counterparts with normal feet, using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDI). Achilles tendon ultrasonographic (US) assessment was performed at its musculo-tendinous junction (MTJ), mid-tendon (MT), and osseotendinous junction (OTJ) at a non-weight-bearing relaxed position (RP) and during two-leg stance (TLS) and one-leg upright stance (OLS). PI and RI indices were significantly greater in individuals with overpronated feet compared to individuals with normal feet at the OTJ in OLS position (P < 0.01), and at MT in both TLS (P < 0.001) and OLS positions (P < 0.001). All individuals demonstrated also greater PI and RI indices at MT followed by the OTJ and MTJ in all positions (P < 0.001), and in OLS compared to TLS and the RP at the OTJ (P < 0.01) as well as at MT and MTJ (P < 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that foot overpronation may affect Achilles tendon blood flow, particularly at mid-tendon, thus enhancing the possibility for injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Common SNP rs6564851 in the BCO1 Gene Affects the Circulating Levels of β-Carotene and the Daily Intake of Carotenoids in Healthy Japanese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suemi Yabuta

    Full Text Available The circulating levels of β-carotene are modulated not only by sex, but also by autosomal gene variations and fruit intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between β-carotene metabolism-related gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; genetic factors and nutrient intake (environmental factors relating to their effects on circulating β-carotene. The serum concentrations of β-carotene and the habitual food intake of 92 healthy Japanese adults were examined. All subjects were genotyped for three common SNPs: rs6564851 in the β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase 1 (BCO1 gene, rs2278986 in the scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1 gene and rs362090 in the intestine-specific homeobox (ISX gene. Univariate analysis revealed that the circulating β-carotene levels were significantly higher in rs6564851 GG homozygotes (p = 0.003. Additionally, the daily intake of β-cryptoxanthin was positively associated with the circulating β-carotene levels in female GG homozygotes of rs6564851 (p = 0.023, and the daily intake of α- and β-carotenes, and β-cryptoxanthin was significantly lower in female rs6564851 T allele carries than in female GG homozygotes (p = 0.009, 0.008, 0.009, respectively. The present study apparently indicates that higher circulating β-carotene levels in female rs6564851 GG homozygotes depend on carotenoid intake.

  1. Use of T-RFLP and seven restriction enzymes to compare the faecal microbiota of obese and lean Japanese healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Osaki, T; Oikawa, S

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of 92 healthy Japanese men was measured following consumption of identical meals for 3 days; terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms were then used to analyse the DNA content of their faeces. The obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were further analysed using seven restriction enzymes: 516f-BslI and -HaeIII, 27f-MspI and -AluI, and 35f-HhaI, -MspI and -AluI. Subjects were classified by their body mass index (BMI) as lean (25.0). OTUs were then analysed using data mining software. Pearson correlation coefficients on data mining results indicated only a weak relationship between BMI and OTU diversity. Specific OTUs attributed to lean and obese subjects were further examined by data mining with six groups of enzymes and closely related accession numbers for lean and obese subjects were successfully narrowed down. 16S rRNA sequences showed Bacillus spp., Erysipelothrix spp. and Holdemania spp. to be present among 30 bacterial candidates related to the lean group. Fifteen candidates were classified Firmicutes, one was classified as Chloroflexi, and the others were not classified. 45 Microbacteriaceae, 11 uncultured Actinobacterium, and 3 other families were present among the 119 candidate OTUs related to obesity. We conclude that the presence of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria may be related to the BMI of the subject.

  2. No causal impact of serum vascular endothelial growth factor level on temporal changes in body mass index in Japanese male workers: a five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imatoh, Takuya; Kamimura, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Motonobu

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that adipocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor. Therefore, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal epidemiological study to further elucidate the association between vascular endothelial growth factor levels and temporal changes in body mass index. Our study subjects were Japanese male workers, who had regular health check-ups. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were measured at baseline. To examine the association between vascular endothelial growth factor levels and overweight, we calculated the odds ratio using a multivariate logistic regression model. Moreover, linear mixed effect models were used to assess the association between vascular endothelial growth factor level and temporal changes in body mass index during the 5-year follow-up period. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were marginally higher in subjects with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) compared with in those with a body mass index less than 25 kg/m(2) (505.4 vs. 465.5 pg/mL, P = 0.1) and were weakly correlated with leptin levels (β: 0.05, P = 0.07). In multivariate logistic regression, subjects in the highest vascular endothelial growth factor quantile were significantly associated with an increased risk for overweight compared with those in the lowest quantile (odds ratio 1.65, 95 % confidential interval: 1.10-2.50). Moreover P for trend was significant (P for trend = 0.003). However, the linear mixed effect model revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor levels were not associated with changes in body mass index over a 5-year period (quantile 2, β: 0.06, P = 0.46; quantile 3, β: -0.06, P = 0.45; quantile 4, β: -0.10, P = 0.22; quantile 1 as reference). Our results suggested that high vascular endothelial growth factor levels were significantly associated with overweight in Japanese males but high vascular endothelial growth factor levels did not necessarily cause obesity.

  3. Assessing the Physiological Cost of Active Videogames (Xbox Kinect) Versus Sedentary Videogames in Young Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Gillian; Tough, Daniel; Sheerin, Phillip; Mattinson, Oliver; Dawe, Rachael; Board, Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to compare the physiological costs of active videogames (AVGs) and sedentary videogames (SVGs) and (2) to compare the exercise intensities attained during AVGs with the exercise intensity criteria for moderate and vigorous physical activity, as stated in current physical activity recommendations for improving public health. Nineteen young males participated in the study (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 178 ± 6 cm; weight, 78 ± 15 kg). Participants completed a maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) test and a gaming session, including AVGs ("Reflex Ridge," "River Rush," and "Boxing" for the Microsoft [Redmond, WA] Kinect™) and SVGs ("FIFA 14" [Electronic Arts, Burnaby, BC, Canada] and "Call of Duty" [Activision, Santa Monica, CA]). Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake [Formula: see text]) were recorded continuously during all videogames. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken every 3 minutes during AVGs and SVGs. Energy expenditure (EE), expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), was calculated. One MET was defined as the volume of oxygen consumed at rest in a seated position and is equal to 3.5 mL of O2/kg of body mass/minute. The exercise intensity for each game was expressed as a percentage of [Formula: see text] and percentage of age-predicted maximum HR (HRmax). Exercise intensity (percentage HRmax, percentage [Formula: see text], and RPE) and EE (METs) were significantly higher during active gaming compared with sedentary gameplay (P < 0.01). AVGs elicited moderate levels of exercise intensity (64-72 percent HRmax) in line with current recommended physical activity guidelines. Our results indicate AVGs provoke physiological responses equivalent to a moderate-intensity physical activity.

  4. Additive Effects of Heating and Exercise on Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Claudia Lucia de Moraes; Low, David Andrew

    2017-08-31

    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25±1 yrs, 23.8±0.5 kg/m(2)) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole-body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a: pre-intervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; post-intervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HRreserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HRreserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRSSEQ) and transfer function (cBRSTF) methods. HRV was assessed using the indices SDNN (standard deviation of RR intervals) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR intervals). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e. matched heart rate conditions: EX1=116±3 vs. 114±3, EX2=143±4 vs. 142±3 bpm; but different workloads: EX1=50±9 vs. 114±8, EX2=106±10 vs. 165±8 Watts; for HS and NT, respectively; Pheart rates), cBRS and HRV were significantly reduced in HS (cBRSSEQ = 1.6±0.3 vs. 0.6±0.1 ms/mmHg, P<0.01; SDNN = 2.3±0.1 vs. 1.3±0.2 ms, P<0.01). In conclusion, in conditions matched by HR, the addition of heat stress to exercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared to exercise in normothermia. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  5. The impact of an acute oral phosphate load on endothelium dependent and independent brachial artery vasodilation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Brendan M; Adams, Michael A; Pyke, Kyra E

    2017-12-01

    Serum phosphate levels are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population and endothelial dysfunction may be mechanistically involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute phosphate supplementation on endothelial-dependent (flow-mediated dilation; FMD) and -independent (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN)) vasodilation in young, healthy males. Seventeen healthy male participants (age, 23 ± 3 years) were exposed to an oral load of phosphate (PHOS; liquid supplement containing 1200 mg of phosphorous) and placebo (PLAC) over 2 experimental days. A brachial artery FMD test was performed pre-ingestion and at 20 min, 60 min, and 120 min following the ingestion of the phosphate load or the placebo. GTN tests were performed pre- and 140 min post-ingestion. Serum phosphate was not impacted differently by phosphate versus placebo ingestion (p = 0.780). In contrast, urinary phosphate excretion was markedly increased in the PHOS (p < 0.001) but not in the PLAC condition (p = 0.130) (Δ fractional excretion of phosphate in PHOS (29.2%) vs. PLAC (9.3%)). This indicates that circulating phosphate levels were homeostatically regulated. GTN-mediated vasodilation was not significantly affected by phosphate ingestion. In primary analysis no impact of phosphate ingestion on FMD was detected. However, when the shear stress stimulus was added as a covariate in a subset of participants, exploratory pairwise comparisons revealed a significantly lower FMD 20 min post-phosphate ingestion versus placebo (p = 0.024). The effects of phosphate ingestion on FMD and serum phosphate are in contrast with previous findings and the mechanisms that underlie the disparate results require further investigation.

  6. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

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    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  7. A phase I dose-escalation and bioequivalence study of a trastuzumab biosimilar in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisman, Liselijn A B; De Cock, Eduard P M; Reijers, Joannes A A; Kamerling, Ingrid M C; Van Os, Sandra H G; de Kam, Marieke L; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Voortman, Gerrit

    2014-12-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and is used in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancer. FTMB is being developed as a biosimilar of trastuzumab. In this combined dose-escalation and bioequivalence study of parallel design, the pharmacokinetic profile of FTMB was compared with Herceptin(®). Healthy male volunteers received single doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg FTMB, or placebo, in consecutive dose-escalation cohorts to assess the safety profile. Thereafter, the 6 mg/kg cohort was expanded to establish bioequivalence between FTMB (Test) and Herceptin(®) (Reference) based on an acceptance interval of 80.0-125.0 %. In total, 118 subjects were enrolled in the study. The mean area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) was 1,609 µg·day/mL (Test) and 1,330 µg·day/mL (Reference). The log-transformed geometric mean Test/Reference (T/R) ratio for AUC∞ was 89.6 % (90 % confidence interval [CI] 85.1-94.4), demonstrating bioequivalence. For the secondary endpoint, the maximum concentration observed (Cmax), the geometric mean T/R ratio was 89.4 % (90 % CI 83.4-95.9). Non-linear, target-mediated pharmacokinetics were also observed. Adverse events other than the documented side effects of Herceptin(®) (fever, influenza-like illness, and fatigue) did not occur. No signs of cardiotoxicity were observed. This bioequivalence study with a trastuzumab biosimilar in healthy male volunteers demonstrated bioequivalence of FTMB with Herceptin(®). FTMB was well tolerated in doses up to 6 mg/kg. Non-linear target elimination was also observed in the pharmacokinetic profile of trastuzumab.

  8. Effect of Moxonidine on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf H; Gordon, Richard D; Ward, Gregory; Wolley, Martin; McWhinney, Brett C; Ungerer, Jacobus P; Stowasser, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The most popular screening test for primary aldosteronism is the plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR). Medications, dietary sodium, posture, and time of day all affect renin and aldosterone levels and can result in false-negative or false-positive ARRs if not controlled. Most antihypertensive medications affect the ARR and can interfere with interpretation of results. To our knowledge, no study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of moxonidine on the ARR. Normotensive, nonmedicated male volunteers (n = 20) underwent measurement (seated, midmorning) of plasma aldosterone (by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry), direct renin concentration (DRC), plasma renin activity (PRA), cortisol, electrolytes and creatinine; and urinary aldosterone, cortisol, electrolytes and creatinine at baseline and after 1 week of moxonidine at 0.2 mg/d and a further 5 weeks at 0.4 mg/d. Compared with baseline, despite the expected significant falls in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, levels of plasma aldosterone [median, 134 (range, 90 to 535) pmol/L], DRC [20 (10 to 37) mU/L], PRA [2.2 (1.0-3.8) ng/mL/h], and ARR using either DRC [8.0 (4.4 to 14.4)] or PRA [73 (36 to 218)] were not significantly changed after either 1 [135 (98-550) pmol/L, 20 (11-35) mU/L, 2.0 (1.2-4.1) ng/mL/h, 8.8 (4.2 to 15.9), and 73 (32-194), respectively] or 6 weeks [130 (90-500) pmol/L, 22 (8 to 40) mU/L, 2.1 (1.0 to 3.2) ng/mL/h, 7.7 (4.3 to 22.4), and 84 (32 to 192), respectively] of moxonidine. There were no changes in any urinary measurements. Moxonidine was associated with no significant change in the ARR and may therefore be a good option for maintaining control of hypertension when screening for primary aldosteronism.

  9. The open window of susceptibility to infection after acute exercise in healthy young male elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakanis, M W; Peake, J; Brenu, E W; Simmonds, M; Gray, B; Hooper, S L; Marshall-Gradisnik, S M

    2010-01-01

    The 'open window' theory is characterised by short term suppression of the immune system following an acute bout of endurance exercise. This window of opportunity may allow for an increase in susceptibility to upper respiratory illness (URI). Many studies have indicated a decrease in immune function in response to exercise. However many studies do not indicate changes in immune function past 2 hours after the completion of exercise, consequently failing to determine whether these immune cells numbers, or importantly their function, return to resting levels before the start of another bout of exercise. Ten male 'A' grade cyclists (age 24.2 +/- 5.3 years; body mass 73.8 +/- 6.5 kg; VO2peak 65.9 +/- 7.1 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) exercised for two hours at 90% of their second ventilatory threshold. Blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post-, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours post-exercise. Immune variables examined included total leukocyte counts, neutrophil function (oxidative burst and phagocytic function), lymphocyte subset counts (CD4+, CD8+, and CD16+/56+), natural killer cell activity (NKCA), and NK phenotypes (CD56dimCD16+, and CD56(bright)CD16-). There was a significant increase in total lymphocyte numbers from pre-, to immediately post-exercise (p hours post-exercise (p hours post- (p hours post-exercise (p numbers decreased significantly from pre-exercise to 4 h post-exercise (p hours post-exercise (p hours post-exercise (p hours post-exercise, to 6 hours post- (p hours post-exercise (p hours post to 6 hours post- (p hours post-exercise (p study to show changes in immunological variables up to 8 hours post-exercise, including significant NK cell suppression, NK cell phenotype changes, a significant increase in total lymphocyte counts, and a significant increase in eosinophil cell counts all at 8 hours post-exercise. Suppression of total lymphocyte counts, NK cell counts and neutrophil phagocytic function following exercise may be

  10. Cardiac troponin T and echocardiographic dimensions after repeated sprint vs. moderate intensity continuous exercise in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Divchev, Dimitar; Schmidt, Paul; Gettel, Hannes; Neugebauer, Antina; Behrens, Kristin; Wolfarth, Bernd; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2016-04-19

    Regular physical exercise can positively influence cardiac function; however, investigations have shown an increase of myocardial damage biomarkers after acute prolonged endurance exercises. We investigated the effect of repeated sprint vs. moderate long duration exercise on markers of myocardial necrosis, as well as cardiac dimensions and functions. Thirteen healthy males performed two different running sessions (randomized, single blinded cross-over design): 60 minutes moderate intensity continuous training (MCT, at 70% of peak heart rate (HRpeak)) and two series of 12 × 30-second sprints with set recovery periods in-between (RST, at 90% HRpeak). Venous blood samples for cardiac troponin T (cTnT), creatine kinase (CK) and MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) were taken 1 and 4 hours after exercise sessions. After each session electrocardiographic (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) data were recorded. Results showed that all variables - average heart rate, serum lactate concentration during RST, subjective exertion and cTnT after RST - were significantly higher compared to MCT. CK and CK-MB significantly increased regardless of exercise protocol, while ECG and TTE indicated normal cardiac function. Our results provide evidence that RST contributes significantly to cTnT and CK release. This biomarker increase seems to reflect a physiological rather than a pathological phenomenon in healthy, exercising subjects.

  11. Morphometric analysis of osteonal architecture in bones from healthy young human male subjects using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Pienazza, Alberto; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gnecchi, Michele; Dell'orbo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    The shape and structure of bones is a topic that has been studied for a long time by morphologists and biologists with the goal of explaining the laws governing their development, aging and pathology. The osteonal architecture of tibial and femoral mid-diaphyses was examined morphometrically with scanning electron microscopy in four healthy young male subjects. In transverse sections of the mid-diaphysis, the total area of the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial cortex sectors was measured and analysed for osteonal parameters including osteon number and density, osteon total and bone area and vascular space area. Osteons were grouped into four classes including cutting heads (A), transversely cut osteons (B), longitudinally cut osteons (C) and sealed osteons (D). The morphometric parameters were compared between the inner (endosteal) and outer (periosteal) half of the cortex. Of 5927 examined osteons, 24.4% cutting heads, 71.1% transversely cut osteons, 2.3% longitudinally cut osteons and 2.2% sealed osteons were found. The interosteonic bone (measured as the area in a lamellar system that has lost contact with its own central canal) corresponded to 51.2% of the endosteal and 52.4% of the periosteal half-cortex. The mean number of class A cutting heads and class B osteons was significantly higher in the periosteal than in the endosteal half-cortex (P healthy human bone for studies on bone aging and metabolic bone diseases. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  12. Flavonoid-rich orange juice is associated with acute improvements in cognitive function in healthy middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Mudi H; Lamport, Daniel J; Dodd, Georgina F; Saunders, Caroline; Harkness, Laura; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic consumption of fruit-based flavonoids is associated with cognitive benefits; however, the acute effects of flavonoid-rich (FR) drinks on cognitive function in the immediate postprandial period require examination. The objective was to investigate whether consumption of FR orange juice is associated with acute cognitive benefits over 6 h in healthy middle-aged adults. Males aged 30-65 consumed a 240-ml FR orange juice (272 mg) and a calorie-matched placebo in a randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced order on 2 days separated by a 2-week washout. Cognitive function and subjective mood were assessed at baseline (prior to drink consumption) and 2 and 6 h post consumption. The cognitive battery included eight individual cognitive tests. A standardized breakfast was consumed prior to the baseline measures, and a standardized lunch was consumed 3 h post-drink consumption. Change from baseline analysis revealed that performance on tests of executive function and psychomotor speed was significantly better following the FR drink compared to the placebo. The effects of objective cognitive function were supported by significant benefits for subjective alertness following the FR drink relative to the placebo. These data demonstrate that consumption of FR orange juice can acutely enhance objective and subjective cognition over the course of 6 h in healthy middle-aged adults.

  13. Effects of different protein and glycemic index diets on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Marjet J; Geraedts, Maartje C; Saris, Wim H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary glycemic index (GI) and protein affects postprandial insulin responses and consequently 24 h glucose metabolism and therefore substrate partitioning. This study investigated the mechanistic effects of different protein and GI diets on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning. After 3 days of diet and physical activity standardization, 10 healthy male subjects (BMI: 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) stayed in a respiration chamber 4 times for 36 h each time to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received four isoenergetic diets: a normal (15En%) dairy protein and low GI (60 units) (NDP-HGI) diet. During the day, blood was sampled at fixed time points for the measurement of metabolic markers and satiety hormones. The HDP-LGI diet increased 24 h protein oxidation and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p carbohydrate and fat oxidation (day and night) were found between all intervention diets. Net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) of 24 h plasma glucose decreased in the HDP-LGI diet compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p insulin levels. No difference in appetite profiles were observed between all intervention diets. The lower 24 h glycemic profile as a result of a high dairy protein diet did not lead to changes in 24 h substrate partitioning in lean healthy subjects with a normal insulin sensitivity.

  14. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

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    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  15. A Japanese Male Patient with ‘Fibular Aplasia, Tibial Campomelia and Oligodactyly’: An Additional Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Taichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kim, Ji Yoo; Kubota, Takuo; Miura, Kohji; Miyoshi, Yoko; Hirai, Haruhiko; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    We report a male infant with FATCO syndrome, an acronym for fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia, and oligosyndactyly. Courtens et al. reported an infant with oligosyndactyly of the left hand, complete absence of the right fibula, bowing of the right tibia, and absence of the right fifth metatarsal and phalanges. They noted 5 patients with similar clinical features, and proposed the FATCO syndrome. Our patient had a left-sided cleft lip, cleft palate, oligosyndactyly of the right hand and bilateral feet, and bilateral anterior bowing of the limbs associated with overlying skin dimpling. Radiographs showed a short angulated tibia with left fibular aplasia and right fibular hypoplasia. We consider our case the 6th patient with FATCO syndrome, and the cleft lip and palate, not reported in the previous 5 patients, may allow us to further understand the development of the extremities and facies. PMID:23926365

  16. Time-Course Analysis of the Neuroanatomical Correlates of Sexual Arousal Evoked by Erotic Video Stimuli in Healthy Males

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    Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Gwang Won; Baek, Han Su; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

  17. A multi-ingredient, pre-workout supplement is apparently safe in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Falcone, Paul H; Vogel, Roxanne M; Mosman, Matt M; Tai, Chih-Yin; Carson, Laura R; Kimber, Dylan; Choate, David; Kim, Michael P; Wilson, Jacob M; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Pre-workout supplements (PWS) have become increasingly popular with recreational and competitive athletes. While many ingredients used in PWS have had their safety assessed, the interactions when combined are less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of 1 and 2 servings of a PWS. Forty-four males and females (24.4±4.6 years; 174.7±9.3 cm; 78.9±18.6 kg) from two laboratories participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either one serving (G1; n=14) or two servings (G2; n=18) of PWS or serve as an unsupplemented control (CRL; n=12). Blood draws for safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist before and after the supplementation period. Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group×time interactions (p<0.05) for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; CRL: 30.9±0.8-31.0±0.9 pg; G1: 30.7±1.1-30.2±0.7 pg; G2: 30.9±1.2-30.9±1.1 pg), MCH concentration (CRL: 34.0±0.9-34.4±0.7 g/dL; G1: 34.1±0.9-33.8±0.6 g/dL; G2: 34.0±1.0-33.8±0.8 g/dL), platelets (CRL: 261.9±45.7-255.2±41.2×10(3)/µL; G1: 223.8±47.7-238.7±49.6×10(3)/µL; G2: 239.1±28.3-230.8±34.5×10(3)/µL), serum glucose (CRL: 84.1±5.2-83.3±5.8 mg/dL; G1: 86.5±7.9-89.7±5.6 mg/dL; G2: 87.4±7.2-89.9±6.6 mg/dL), sodium (CRL: 137.0±2.7-136.4±2.4 mmol/L; 139.6±1.4-140.0±2.2 mmol/L; G2: 139.0±2.2-138.7±1.7 mmol/L), albumin (CRL: 4.4±0.15-4.4±0.22 g/dL; G1: 4.5±0.19-4.5±0.13 g/dL; G2: 4.6±0.28-4.3±0.13 g/dL), and albumin:globulin (CRL: 1.8±0.30-1.8±0.28; G1: 1.9±0.30-2.0±0.31; G2: 1.8±0.34-1.8±0.34). Each of these variables remained within the clinical reference ranges. The PWS appears to be safe for heart, liver, and kidney function in both one-serving and two-serving doses when consumed daily for 28 days. Despite the changes observed for select variables, no variable reached clinical significance.

  18. A multi-ingredient, pre-workout supplement is apparently safe in healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Joy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-workout supplements (PWS have become increasingly popular with recreational and competitive athletes. While many ingredients used in PWS have had their safety assessed, the interactions when combined are less understood. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of 1 and 2 servings of a PWS. Design: Forty-four males and females (24.4±4.6 years; 174.7±9.3 cm; 78.9±18.6 kg from two laboratories participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either one serving (G1; n=14 or two servings (G2; n=18 of PWS or serve as an unsupplemented control (CRL; n=12. Blood draws for safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist before and after the supplementation period. Results: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group×time interactions (p<0.05 for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; CRL: 30.9±0.8–31.0±0.9 pg; G1: 30.7±1.1–30.2±0.7 pg; G2: 30.9±1.2–30.9±1.1 pg, MCH concentration (CRL: 34.0±0.9–34.4±0.7 g/dL; G1: 34.1±0.9–33.8±0.6 g/dL; G2: 34.0±1.0–33.8±0.8 g/dL, platelets (CRL: 261.9±45.7–255.2±41.2×103/µL; G1: 223.8±47.7–238.7±49.6×103/µL; G2: 239.1±28.3–230.8±34.5×103/µL, serum glucose (CRL: 84.1±5.2–83.3±5.8 mg/dL; G1: 86.5±7.9–89.7±5.6 mg/dL; G2: 87.4±7.2–89.9±6.6 mg/dL, sodium (CRL: 137.0±2.7–136.4±2.4 mmol/L; 139.6±1.4–140.0±2.2 mmol/L; G2: 139.0±2.2–138.7±1.7 mmol/L, albumin (CRL: 4.4±0.15–4.4±0.22 g/dL; G1: 4.5±0.19–4.5±0.13 g/dL; G2: 4.6±0.28–4.3±0.13 g/dL, and albumin:globulin (CRL: 1.8±0.30–1.8±0.28; G1: 1.9±0.30–2.0±0.31; G2: 1.8±0.34–1.8±0.34. Each of these variables remained within the clinical reference ranges. Conclusions: The PWS appears to be safe for heart, liver, and kidney function in both one-serving and two-serving doses when consumed daily for 28 days. Despite the changes observed for select variables, no variable reached clinical significance.

  19. Bioequivalence study of two formulations of flupirtine maleate capsules in healthy male Chinese volunteers under fasting and fed conditions

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    Liu YF

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yanfang Liu, Hua Huo, Zhibo Zhao, Wenli Hu, Yujia Sun, Yunbiao Tang Technical Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Drug Clinical Trail Management Agency, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang, China Aim: This study developed a high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method to simultaneously determine the concentrations of flupirtine and its major active metabolite D-13223 in human plasma in order to assess the bioequivalence (BE of two flupirtine maleate capsules among healthy male Chinese volunteers under fasting and fed conditions. Materials and methods: There were two single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, laboratory-blinded, two-period, cross-over studies which included 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers under fasting and fed conditions, respectively. Plasma samples were collected prior to and up to 48 h after dosing. The concentrations of flupirtine and its major active metabolite D-13223 in plasma samples were determined by a validated method, that is, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry detector. Pharmacokinetic metrics of area from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t, area under the plasma concentration–time curve from administration to infinite time (AUC0-∞, and Cmax were used for BE assessment. Results: Forty-eight healthy volunteers who met the criteria were enrolled and completed the study. According to the observation of vital signs and laboratory measurement, no volunteers had any adverse reactions. Under fasting condition, the geometric mean ratios (90% CI of the test/reference drug for flupirtine were 103.0% (98.1%–108.2% for AUC0-t, 102.9% (98.2%–107.9% for AUC0-∞, and 97.0% (85.9%–109.5% for Cmax. Under fed condition, the geometric mean ratios (90% CI of the test/reference drug for flupirtine were 101.7% (98.4%–105.1% for AUC0-t, 101.6% (98.5%–104.8% for AUC0-∞, and 103.5% (94.7%

  20. Pharmacokinetic interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine: a randomized, open-labeled crossover study in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hae Sun Jeon,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Mi Young Bahng,2 Kyun-Seop Bae1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 2Clinical Development Department, Dong-A ST Co, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: “Udenafil” is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor indicated for erectile dysfunction. “Dapoxetine” is a serotonin transport inhibitor indicated for premature ejaculation. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine in healthy male subjects. Methods: An open-label, three-treatment, six-sequence, three-period crossover study was performed in healthy male subjects. In varying sequences, each subjects received single oral doses of udenafil 200 mg, dapoxetine 60 mg, and both treatments. The periods were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing. The plasma concentrations of udenafil and dapoxetine were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: Twenty-three healthy subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for udenafil were 0.923 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.863–0.987 and 0.864 (90% CI: 0.789–0.947, respectively. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for dapoxetine were 1.125 (90% CI: 1.044–1.213 and 0.837 (90% CI: 0.758–0.925, respectively. There were no serious adverse events reported, and none of the subjects dropped out due to adverse events

  1. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

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    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  2. Cardiac Safety of Rupatadine in a Single-Ascending-Dose and Multiple-Ascending-Dose Study in Healthy Japanese Subjects, Using Intensive Electrocardiogram Assessments-Comparison With the Previous White Caucasian Thorough QT Study.

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    Täubel, J; Ferber, G; Fernandes, S; Santamaría, E; Izquierdo, I

    2017-08-01

    A thorough QT/QTc study in healthy white Caucasian subjects demonstrated that rupatadine has no proarrhythmic potential and raised no cardiac safety concerns. The present phase 1 study aimed to confirm the cardiac safety of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg or placebo. Triplicate electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were performed on days -1, 1, and 5 at several points, and time-matched pharmacokinetic samples were also collected. Concentration-effect analysis based on the change in the QT interval corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) from average baseline was performed. Data from the formal TQT study in white Caucasian subjects was used for a comparison analysis. The ECG data for rupatadine at doses up to 40 mg did not show an effect on the QTc interval of regulatory concern. The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a significant shortening of QTcF on days 1 and 5 four hours after a standardized meal. The data from this study exhibited no statistically significant differences in the QTc effect between Japanese and white Caucasian subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet is associated with reduced hepatic sympathetic innervation in one-year old male Japanese macaques.

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    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available Our group recently demonstrated that maternal high-fat diet (HFD consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increased apoptosis, and changes in gluconeogenic gene expression and chromatin structure in fetal nonhuman primate (NHP liver. However, little is known about the long-term effects that a HFD has on hepatic nervous system development in offspring, a system that plays an important role in regulating hepatic metabolism. Utilizing immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR, we quantified sympathetic nerve fiber density, apoptosis, inflammation, and other autonomic components in the livers of fetal and one-year old Japanese macaques chronically exposed to a HFD. We found that HFD exposure in-utero and throughout the postnatal period (HFD/HFD, when compared to animals receiving a CTR diet for the same developmental period (CTR/CTR, is associated with a 1.7 fold decrease in periportal sympathetic innervation, a 5 fold decrease in parenchymal sympathetic innervation, and a 2.5 fold increase in hepatic apoptosis in the livers of one-year old male animals. Additionally, we observed an increase in hepatic inflammation and a decrease in a key component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in one-year old HFD/HFD offspring. Taken together, these findings reinforce the impact that continuous exposure to a HFD has in the development of long-term hepatic pathologies in offspring and highlights a potential neuroanatomical basis for hepatic metabolic dysfunction.

  4. Fat-free mass and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in the 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise in young male Japanese athletes.

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    Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakao, Rieko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2008-05-01

    The relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has not been well researched because of the relatively small number of subjects studied. This study investigated the effects of FFM on EPOC and EPOC/maximum oxygen consumption. 250 Japanese male athletes between 16 and 21 years old from Nagasaki prefecture had their EPOC measured up to 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise. The value was named as EPOC40 min. The proportions of EPOC up to 1, 3, 6, 10, and 25 minutes to EPOC40 min were calculated and named as P1, P3, P6, P10, and P25, respectively. Body size and composition, VO2max and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were also measured. Mean EPOC40 min was 9.04 L or 158 ml/kg FFM. EPOC40 min was related to FFM (r=0.55, pEPOC40 min to VO2max was related to FFM (r=0.28, pEPOC40 min/FFM, EPOC40 min/VO2max, and FFM. Athletes who had larger FFM had larger EPOC40 40 min and EPOC40 40 min/VO2max, and smaller P1, P3, P10, and P25.

  5. Association between lifestyle-related disorders and visceral fat mass in Japanese males: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

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    Sanada, Hironobu; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yatabe, Junichi; Williams, Scott M; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Takenosita, Seiichi

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between lifestyle-related disorders and visceral fat mass, and to estimate an appropriate cutoff value for visceral fat mass that correlated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). This cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2012 and August 2013 at Bange Kosei General Hospital, in Fukushima, Japan. All study participants were adult males who had completed voluntary medical check-ups that included estimation of visceral fat mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Participants were without past histories of atherosclerotic complications or were not currently taking medications for lifestyle-related disorders. Multivariate analysis was performed to estimate the association between lifestyle-related disorders and quartiles of visceral fat mass. Of 536 total respondents, 442 were included in the analysis. Mean participant age was 56 years, and mean values of BMI, WC, and visceral fat mass were 24.1 kg/m(2), 85.9 cm, and 2.1 kg, respectively. Visceral fat mass ≥1.8 kg was positively associated with an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and impaired glucose tolerance. Cutoff values that correlated with visceral fat mass (≥1.8 kg) were 85.3 cm for WC and 23.25 kg/m(2) for BMI. Visceral fat mass ≥1.8 kg was positively associated with lifestyle-related disorders and closely related to WC and BMI cutoff values used to diagnose obesity. BIA may be a useful method for assessing visceral fat mass, and these findings provide important evidence for the use of BIA in the early detection of central obesity for preventing lifestyle-related disorders.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

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    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  7. The Effects of a Yoga Exercise and Nutritional Guidance Program on Pregnancy Outcomes Among Healthy Pregnant Japanese Women: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Matsuzaki, Masayo; Kusaka, Momoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Shiraishi, Mie; Kobayashi, Risa; Watanabe, Sachi; Haruna, Megumi

    2018-02-14

    This report provides an experimental protocol for a study designed to verify the effects of yoga exercise and a nutritional guidance program during pregnancy on several key pregnancy and birth outcomes among Japanese women. This is a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. This intervention will be carried out in a university hospital in Tokyo. Healthy primiparous women will be recruited at 18-23 gestational weeks in the hospital. A total of 400 participants will be randomly assigned to one of four groups in this trial, with 100 participants in each group-group with yoga exercise, with nutritional guidance, with both yoga and nutritional guidance, and with standard care alone, as the control group. Yoga exercise consists of yoga classes held at the hospital 3 or 5 days a month, duration 60 min, and home practice using a digital video disk, duration 30 or 60 min per session. We recommend participants do yoga at least 3 days a week for a total of 60 min per day. Nutritional guidance is based on individual dietary intake assessed using a brief-type diet history questionnaire. The primary outcome is rate of pregnant women with adequate gestational weight gain. Secondary outcomes include physiologic and psychologic status assessed via biomarkers and health-related scales, dietary nutrition intake, and birth outcomes. This study shows the effects of a yoga exercise and nutritional intervention. If the intervention is found to be effective, our results will be useful for healthcare providers and pregnant women.

  8. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males.

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    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine or placebo. Participants underwent task-related fMRI prior to and after the three-week intervention while performing a card gambling task. The task required participants to choose between two decks of cards. Choices were associated with different risk levels and potential reward magnitudes. Relative to placebo, the SSRI intervention did not alter individual risk-choice preferences, but modified neural activity during decision-making and reward processing: During the choice phase, SSRI reduced the neural response to increasing risk in lateral orbitofrontal cortex, a key structure for value-based decision-making. During the outcome phase, a midbrain region showed an independent decrease in the responsiveness to rewarding outcomes. This midbrain cluster included the raphe nuclei from which serotonergic modulatory projections originate to both cortical and subcortical regions. The findings corroborate the involvement of the normally functioning 5HT-system in decision-making under risk and processing of monetary rewards. The data suggest that prolonged SSRI treatment might reduce emotional engagement by reducing the impact of risk during decision-making or the impact of reward during outcome evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An investigation into the relationship between heart rate variability and the ventilatory threshold in healthy moderately trained males.

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    Grannell, Andrew; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2017-05-04

    During incremental exercise, heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to display distinct stabilization and inflection points, which have been used to indirectly detect the ventilatory threshold (VT). Ten moderately trained males (26·5 ± 5·9 years: VO2peak 48·7 ± 4·1 ml min(-1 ) kg(-1) ) performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer until volitional exhaustion with both R-R intervals and respiratory indices recorded. HRV was quantified using both nonlinear (Poincare plot; short-term variability SD1) and spectral analysis of the R-R intervals (high-frequency component; HFp). The VT was identified using the V-slope method. The relationship between HRV parameters and the VT was assessed using both a paired t-test and Pearson's product correlation. In addition, Bland and Altman plots were used to quantify the mean difference along with a 95% confidence interval. When expressed as the corresponding heart rate values, both the SD1 and the HFp stabilization points revealed a strong (r = 0·86 and 0·087, respectively) correlation with the VT. However, only for SD1 this relationship was different to the VT (t-test). The Bland-Altman plots supported these findings showing wide limits of agreement present for SD1 and the VT whilst the relationship between HFp and the VT revealed narrower limits. There does not appear to be a relationship present between the VT and the SD1 stabilization point in moderately trained healthy males, whereas the HFp stabilization point revealed a strong relationship with the VT when expressed as heart rate. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Variance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) concentrations in activated, concentrated platelets from healthy male donors.

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    Hire, Justin M; Evanson, J Lee; Johnson, Peter C; Zumbrun, Steven D; Guyton, M Kelly; McPherson, James C; Bojescul, John A

    2014-04-26

    The use of autologous blood concentrates, such as activated, concentrated platelets, in orthopaedic clinical applications has had mixed results. Research on this topic has focused on growth factors and cytokines, with little directed towards matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are involved in post-wound tissue remodeling. In this study, the authors measured the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13), in activated platelets derived from blood of healthy, male volunteers (n = 92), 19 to 60 years old. The levels of the natural inhibitors of these proteases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 were also assessed. Notably, there was no significant change in concentration with age in four of six targets tested. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 demonstrated a statistically significant increase in concentration for subjects older than 30 years of age compared to those 30 years and younger (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 are global inhibitors of MMPs, including MMP-2 (Gelatinase A). MMP-2 targets native collagens, gelatin and elastin to remodel the extracellular matrix during wound healing. A decreased availability of pharmacologically active MMP-2 may diminish the effectiveness of the use of activated, concentrated platelets from older patients, and may also contribute to longer healing times in this population.

  11. Anodal Stimulation of the Left DLPFC Increases IGT Scores and Decreases Delay Discounting Rate in Healthy Males

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    Qinghua He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS, the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC task. Three experiments were conducted: Exp. 1 (N = 41 to study the left DLPFC, Exp. 2 (N = 49 to study the right DLPFC, and Exp. 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Exp. 1 to switch the experimental and control conditions. All participants were healthy male college students. For Exps. 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to either the HD- tDCS or the sham stimulation condition. For Exp. 3, participants were assigned to the condition they were not in during Exp. 1. Results showed that HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC increased IGT score, decreased the recency parameter in IGT, and lowered delay discounting rate (k in the ITC task. We discussed the potential roles of impulse control and time perception in mediating the effect of tDCS stimulation of left DLPFC on decision making. Our results have clinical implications for the treatment of disorders involving poor decision-making, such as addictions.

  12. Impact of eight weeks of repeated ischaemic preconditioning on brachial artery and cutaneous microcirculatory function in healthy males.

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    Jones, Helen; Nyakayiru, Jean; Bailey, Tom G; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy; Sprung, Victoria S; Hopkins, Nicola D; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2015-08-01

    Ischaemic preconditioning has well-established cardiac and vascular protective effects. Short interventions (one week) of daily ischaemic preconditioning episodes improve conduit and microcirculatory function. This study examined whether a longer (eight weeks) and less frequent (three per week) protocol of repeated ischaemic preconditioning improves vascular function. Eighteen males were randomly allocated to either ischaemic preconditioning (22.4 ± 2.3 years, 23.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) or a control intervention (26.0 ± 4.8 years, 26.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)). Brachial artery endothelial-dependent (FMD), forearm cutaneous microvascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed at zero, two and eight weeks. A greater improvement in FMD was evident following ischaemic preconditioning training compared with control at weeks 2 (2.24% (0.40, 4.08); p=0.02) and 8 (1.11% (0.13, 2.10); p=0.03). Repeated ischaemic preconditioning did not change cutaneous microcirculatory function or fitness. These data indicate that a feasible and practical protocol of regular ischaemic preconditioning episodes improves endothelial function in healthy individuals within two weeks, and these effects persist following repeated ischaemic preconditioning for eight weeks. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  13. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers.

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    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  14. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

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    Zahid Sadek Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  15. Studies of interaction of a low-molecular-weight heparinoid (Org 10172) with cloxacillin and ticarcillin in healthy male volunteers.

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    de Boer, A; Stiekema, J C; Danhof, M; van Dinther, T G; Boeijinga, J K; Cohen, A F; Breimer, D D

    1991-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between Org 10172 (intravenous bolus injection of 3,250 anti-Xa units), which is a low-molecular-weight heparinoid, cloxacillin (500 mg orally four times daily for 3 days), and ticarcillin (4,000 mg intravenously four times daily for 2 days) were evaluated in two separate studies with healthy male volunteers (n = 18). Both cloxacillin and ticarcillin caused a significant increase in elimination half-life of anti-Xa activity, i.e., from 31 +/- 10 to 54 +/- 23 h and from 27 +/- 6 to 42 +/- 13 h, respectively (P less than 0.05). Ticarcillin decreased clearance (11%) and increased apparent volume of distribution (35%) (P less than 0.05), while for cloxacillin, these differences did not reach statistical significance. These changes in disposition of Org 10172 by the penicillins were not accompanied by important pharmacodynamic changes as evaluated by coagulation tests, platelet aggregation, and bleeding time. Cloxacillin appeared to influence blood coagulation (prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time and shortening of thrombin time; P less than 0.05) and facilitated thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, which coincided with a shorter bleeding time during the combined treatment in comparison with the time during treatment with Org 10172 alone (P less than 0.05). In conclusion, the disposition of Org 10172 was slightly changed by cloxacillin and ticarcillin, and, unexpectedly, cloxacillin appeared to have mild procoagulant effects. PMID:1759835

  16. THE EFFECTS OF PROLONGED PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN HEALTHY MALE PARTICIPANTS

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    Petra Dolenc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that physical activity beneficially influences cognitive functioning. Less thoroughly investigated are the cognitive outcomes of reduced physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity induced by bed rest on the participant’s cognitive functioning. Bed rest is a well-accepted method by which an acute stage of human adaptation to weightlessness in space flights is simulated, as well as an important model to study the consequences of extreme physical inactivity in humans. The subjects participating in the study consisted of fifteen healthy males aged between 19 and 65 years who were exposed to 14-day horizontal bed rest in a strict hospital environment. To assess the cognitive functions of the participants, a neuropsychological test battery was administered before and after the bed rest experiment. There was no significant impairment in cognitive performance after the 14-day bed rest on all tests, except in the measurements of delayed recall in the group of older adults. The results suggest that cognitive functions remained relatively stable during the period of physical immobilization. The obtained results have been discussed taking the possible contributing factors into account such as the practice effect, the relatively short duration of bed rest, and the choice of the cognitive measures administered. The study also provides evidence that favourable living and psychosocial conditions can protect one against cognitive decline in the case of extreme physical inactivity.

  17. Exenatide acutely increases heart rate in parallel with augmented sympathetic nervous system activation in healthy overweight males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tonneijck, Lennart; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2016-04-01

    Clinical use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) is consistently associated with heart rate (HR) acceleration in type 2 diabetes patients. We explored the mechanisms underlying this potential safety concern. Ten healthy overweight males (aged 20-27 years) were examined in an open label, crossover study. Automated oscillometric blood pressure measurements and finger photoplethysmography were performed throughout intravenous administration of placebo (saline 0.9%), exenatide (targeting therapeutic concentrations) and a combination of exenatide and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(G) -monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA). Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was measured by heart rate variability and rate-pressure product. Exenatide increased HR by a mean maximum of 6.8 (95% CI 1.7, 11.9) beats min(-1) (P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 9.8 (95% CI 3.5, 16.1) mmHg (P < 0.01) and markers of SNS activity (P < 0.05). No changes in total peripheral resistance were observed. Increases in HR, SBP and sympathetic activity were preserved during concomitant L-NMMA infusion. Our data argue against exenatide-induced reflex tachycardia as a response to vasodilation and rather suggest the involvement of SNS activation in humans. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. CYP2C19 genotype has a major influence on labetalol pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Ko, Sara Shun Wah; Tam, Catherine Wing Yan; Fok, Benny Siu Pong; Yin, Ophelia Qi Ping; Chow, Moses Sing Sum; Tomlinson, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of labetalol show wide inter-subject variability, but the genetic causes for this are largely undetermined. This study was performed to examine whether common polymorphisms in UGT1A1, UGT2B7, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 affect the PK of labetalol. The PK of labetalol were determined in 37 Chinese healthy male subjects who took a single oral dose of 200 mg labetalol. Plasma concentrations of labetalol were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Subjects were genotyped for the CYP2C19 2 and 3, UGT1A1 6, 28 and 60, UGT2B7 2 and ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms. Subjects with the CYP2C19 2/ 2 genotype had a higher peak concentration (255.5 ± 80.1 vs. 156.0  ±  66.3 ng/mL; P labetalol concentrations, accounting for approximately 60 % of the total variance in the AUC0-∞. Our results suggest that the PK of labetalol are significantly affected by the common CYP2C19 polymorphisms in individuals of Chinese ethnicity. Future larger studies are needed to evaluate the effect of CYP2C19 and UGT1A1 polymorphisms on the PK of labetalol stereoisomers and the pharmacodynamic effects.

  19. Effects of smoking and drinking habits on the incidence of periodontal disease and tooth loss among Japanese males: a 4-yr longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Tsuboi, S; Suzuki, S; Nakagaki, H; Ogura, Y; Maeda, K; Tokudome, S

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the risk of periodontal disease and tooth loss, associated with habits of smoking and alcohol consumption, in a longitudinal study. The subjects were 1332 Japanese males, 30-59 yr of age, who were free from periodontal disease at the baseline check-up, and who underwent a second check-up 4 yr later. Periodontal disease was diagnosed using the community periodontal index score, based on the clinical probing of pocket depth (> or = 4 mm). Smoking and alcohol consumption patterns were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire. A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount of smoking and the incidence of periodontal disease in each age group. The overall odds ratios (95% confidence intervals), adjusted for age and alcohol, were 1.51 (0.95-2.22), 1.58 (1.13-2.22) and 2.81 (1.96-4.03), among smokers consuming 1-19, 20 or 21 or more cigarettes per day, respectively, with a significant linear trend (p smoking and tooth loss, except for the 50-59-yr-old age group. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.26 (0.60-2.64), 2.01 (1.21-2.32) and 2.06 (1.23-3.48), respectively. A significant linear trend between smoking and tooth loss was also observed (p = 0.01). Ex-smokers showed no significant difference compared with nonsmokers. We also found a significant linear trend between alcohol consumption and tooth loss among 30-39-yr-old subjects, while no relationship was observed between alcohol consumption and periodontal disease. Cigarette smoking was found to be an independent risk factor for periodontal disease and tooth loss. Alcohol consumption was a limited risk factor for tooth loss in the younger age group, but was unrelated to periodontal disease. To prevent periodontal disease and tooth loss, health practitioners need to encourage people to stop smoking or not to start.

  20. Marital status and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged Japanese male workers: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study.

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    Kamon, Yuko; Okamura, Tomonori; Tanaka, Taichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kusaka, Yukinori; Urano, Sumio; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kadowaki, Takashi; Miyoshi, Yuji; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2008-01-01

    Marital status is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Western countries. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between marital status and CVD risk factors in other populations. We investigated lifestyle and CVD risk factors relative to marital status among middle-aged Japanese men. We analyzed baseline data of 40-59-yr-old male workers who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors between men who were married (Group M; n=1,419, mean age 47.9 +/- 5.1 yr) and those who had never married (Group N; n=163, mean age 46.7 +/- 4.3 yr). Men in Group N were more likely to skip breakfast, work more shifts and exercise less. Current smoking rates, as well as average values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose were also higher in Group N than in Group M. The proportion of participants with three or more CVD risk factors, namely smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia was higher in Group N, than in Group M (12.9% vs. 5.0%, p<0.01). The difference between Groups M and N was more evident in the subgroup of living with others, than in the subgroup of living alone. Since men who have never married might be at higher risk for CVD, effort should be made to educate this population about decreasing lifestyle-related risk factors.

  1. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

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    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  2. KH176 under development for rare mitochondrial disease: a first in man randomized controlled clinical trial in healthy male volunteers.

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    Koene, Saskia; Spaans, Edwin; Van Bortel, Luc; Van Lancker, Griet; Delafontaine, Brant; Badilini, Fabio; Beyrath, Julien; Smeitink, Jan

    2017-10-16

    Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of multi-system diseases, with an unmet medical need for treatment. KH176 is an orally bio-available small molecule under development for the treatment of mitochondrial(-related) diseases. The compound is a member of a new class of drugs, acting as a potent intracellular redox-modulating agent essential for the control of oxidative and redox pathologies. The aim of this randomized, placebo controlled, double-blinded phase 1 study was to test safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of KH176 in healthy male volunteers. Putative effects on redox related biomarkers were explored. KH176 was well tolerated up to and including a single dose of 800 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d. for 7 Days. However, when the QT interval was corrected for heart rate, administration of single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and at a multiple dose of 400 mg KH176 had marked effects. Post-hoc analysis of the ECGs showed clear changes in cardiac electrophysiology at single doses of 800 and 2000 mg and multiple doses of 400 mg b.i.d.. At lower doses, detailed ECG analysis showed no changes in electrophysiology compared to placebo. Exposure-response modelling of the cardiac intervals revealed an exposure range of KH176 without effects on cardiac conduction and provided a threshold of 1000 ng/mL above which changes in intervals could occur. After single- and multiple-dose administration, the pharmacokinetics of KH176 was more than dose proportional. KH176 accumulated to a small extent and food only slightly affected the pharmacokinetics of KH176, which was considered clinically irrelevant. Renal excretion of unchanged KH176 and its metabolite represents a minor pathway in the elimination of KH176. As expected in healthy volunteers no effects on redox biomarkers were observed. The study deemed that KH176 is well tolerated up to single doses of 800 mg and multiple

  3. The correlations of glycated hemoglobin and carbohydrate metabolism parameters with heart rate variability in apparently healthy sedentary young male subjects.

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    Cherkas, Andriy; Abrahamovych, Orest; Golota, Sergii; Nersesyan, Armen; Pichler, Christoph; Serhiyenko, Victoria; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Zarkovic, Neven; Eckl, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular and many other age-related diseases. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the function of regulatory systems of internal organs and may sensitively indicate early metabolic disturbances. We hypothesize that quantitative and qualitative changes of HRV in young subjects may reflect early metabolic derangements responsible for further development of clinically significant disease. The aim of our study was to determine whether the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (fasting blood glucose, HBA1c and surrogate insulin sensitivity/resistance indices) correlate with anthropometric data and HRV. The study group consisted of 30 healthy sedentary male subjects aged 20-40, nonsmokers, mainly office and research employees, medical staff and students. Athletes, actively training more than one hour per week, severely obese and men of physical work were excluded from the study. HRV parameters were derived from short term ECG records (five minutes intervals) in supine position and during orthostatic test. Anthropometric data included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and body composition (estimation by bioelectric impedance method). The fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated. Linear correlation coefficient (r) was calculated using Statistica 10.0 software. HOMA-IR index correlated positively with body weight, visceral fat and BMI (p=0.047, 0.027 and 0.017 respectively). In supine position pNN50 positively correlated with glucose/insulin ratio (p=0.011) and heart rate with HOMA-IR (p=0.006). In orthostatic test negative correlations of HBA1c with standard deviation, total and low frequency power were determined (p=0.034, 0.400 and 0.403 respectively), which indicates a gradual worsening of functional capacity of cardiovascular system with low-grade increase (under the conventional threshold) of HBA1c

  4. A population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of regadenoson, an adenosine A2A-receptor agonist, in healthy male volunteers.

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    Gordi, Toufigh; Frohna, Paul; Sun, Hai-Ling; Wolff, Andrew; Belardinelli, Luiz; Lieu, Hsiao

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of regadenoson (CVT-3146) in healthy, male volunteers. Thirty-six healthy, male volunteers aged 18-50 years were included in this randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study to evaluate single intravenous bolus doses of regadenoson that ranged from 0.1 to 30.0 micro g/kg. Subjects received one dose of regadenoson or placebo on successive days while supine, then the same dose of regadenoson or placebo on successive days while standing. As part of the safety evaluation, vital signs and adverse events were monitored and recorded throughout the course of the study in all subjects. Up to 20 plasma samples were collected for regadenoson concentration determination within the 24 hours after each supine dosage. All urine was collected during the 24-hour time period post-dose and an aliquot was used for the determination of the regadenoson concentration. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at many of the same timepoints that the samples for the pharmacokinetic analysis were taken. A non linear mixed-effect modelling approach, using the software NONMEM, was utilised in modelling the plasma and urine concentration-time profiles and temporal changes in heart rate after regadenoson administration in the supine position. The influences of several covariates, including bodyweight, body mass index and age, on pharmacokinetic model parameters were investigated. Adverse events were more prevalent at regadenoson doses above 3 micro g/kg, and the increase in the occurrence of adverse events was dose-related. Most of the adverse events were related to vasodilation and an increase in heart rate and were generally of mild to moderate severity. Based on the severity and frequency of adverse events, the maximum tolerated doses of regadenoson were deemed to be 10 micro g/kg in the standing position and 20 micro g/kg in the supine position. The pharmacokinetics

  5. Awakening responses and diurnal fluctuations of salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase in healthy male subjects.

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    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Cozma-Dima, Corina Lucia; Pasquali, Vittorio; Renzi, Paolo; Simeoni, Simona; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2011-01-01

    Because the cortisol awakening response (CAR) has received increasing attention as a useful index of adrenocortical activity, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the presence of an awakening response for various salivary biomarkers of adrenocortical activity, including dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), which acts as a cortisol antagonist, and α-amylase, which is a predictor of circulating catecholamine activity. Salivary biological indicators are considered to be valuable markers of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis diurnal activity. In an attempt to overcome problems associated with non-adherence to the requested sampling protocol, only young, healthy males with a physiological CAR value (defined as a 50% increase in salivary cortisol within 30 min after waking) were included in the study (67 out of 102 who initially enrolled met this criterion). Our results suggested that, as is already known for cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase have significant awakening responses. In addition, daily profile of salivary cortisol, α-amylase and DHEA-S fluctuations were analysed. Significant correlations were found between salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase levels. The results showed that cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations were inversely correlated with α-amylase levels. This correlation confirmed the distinctiveness of the two regulatory systems: salivary cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations reflect the activity of the HPA axis, whereas α-amylase activity is more closely related to sympathetic activity. In addition, the present study emphasizes the potential value of saliva collection (which is both easy and stress-free) in monitoring changes of adrenal function, confirming that multiple sampling (especially within 1 h after awakening) is necessary to reliably characterise biomarker activity when investigating neuroendocrine changes under various conditions.

  6. Autonomic responses to ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis of the patellar tendon in healthy male footballers.

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    de la Cruz Torres, Blanca; Albornoz Cabello, Manuel; García Bermejo, Paula; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach, which involves the application of a galvanic current via an acupuncture needle. As in any procedure involving needling, vagal reactions have been reported during PNE. To examine for changes in autonomic activity during the US-guided PNE technique on healthy patellar tendons by measurement and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty-two male footballers were randomly allocated to: a control group (11 players), for whom HRV was recorded for 10 min, both at rest and during an exhaustive US examination of the patellar tendon and adjacent structures; and an experimental group (11 players), for whom HRV was recorded for 10 min, both at rest and during application of US-guided PNE on the patellar tendon. The following HRV parameters were assessed: mean NN interval, mean heart rate, time domain parameters (SDNN, rMSSD, pNN50), diameters of the Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2), stress score, and sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio. There were no differences between groups in any baseline measurements, nor were there any significant differences between control group measurements (baseline vs intervention). The experimental group exhibited statistically significant increases in SDNN/SD1 (p=0.02/p=0.03) and SD2 (p=0.03), indicating increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic activity, respectively. US-guided PNE was associated with an autonomic imbalance characterised by greater parasympathetic activity, which could potentially result in a vasovagal reaction. Care should be taken to monitor for adverse reactions during US-guided PNE and simple HRV indicators may have a role in early detection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Oxytocin and social pretreatment have similar effects on processing of negative emotional faces in healthy adult males

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    Anna eKis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin has been shown to affect several aspects of human social cognition, including facial emotion processing. There is also evidence that social stimuli (such as eye-contact can effectively modulate endogenous oxytocin levels.In the present study we directly tested whether intranasal oxytocin administration and pre-treatment with social stimuli had similar effects on face processing at the behavioural level. Subjects (N=52 healthy adult males were presented with a set of faces with expressions of different valence (negative, neutral, positive following different types of pretreatment (oxytocin – OT or placebo – PL and social interaction – Soc or no social interaction – NSoc, N=13 in each and were asked to rate all faces for perceived emotion and trustworthiness. On the next day subjects’ recognition memory was tested on a set of neutral faces and additionally they had to again rate each face for trustworthiness and emotion.Subjects in both the OT and the Soc pretreatment group (as compared to the PL and to the NSoc groups gave higher emotion and trustworthiness scores for faces with negative emotional expression. Moreover, 24 h later, subjects in the OT and Soc groups (unlike in control groups gave lower trustworthiness scores for previously negative faces, than for faces previously seen as emotionally neutral or positive.In sum these results provide the first direct evidence of the similar effects of intranasal oxytocin administration and social stimulation on the perception of negative facial emotions as well as on the delayed recall of negative emotional information.

  8. Elevated cortisol awakening response associated with early life stress and impaired executive function in healthy adult males.

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    Butler, Kevin; Klaus, Kristel; Edwards, Laura; Pennington, Kyla

    2017-09-01

    Experiencing early life stress (ELS) and subsequent dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the aetiology of mental health disorders. However, the exact mechanisms linking HPA-axis dysregulation with the development of psychopathology have not been fully delineated. Progress in this area is hampered by the complex and often conflicting associations found between markers of HPA-axis function and risk factors for mental health disorders such as impaired executive function (EF) and ELS. This study investigated the association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with ELS and EF in a healthy adult male population (n=109, aged 21-63). As previous inconsistencies in CAR and ELS association studies may be the result of not considering ELS-related factors such as cumulative exposure, type of stressor and developmental timing of ELS, these were also investigated. The main findings were that the CAR was significantly elevated in individuals reporting ELS compared to those reporting no ELS (p=0.007) and that an elevated CAR predicted poorer problem solving/planning (p=0.046). Cumulative exposure, type of stressor and developmental timing of ELS were also found to impact significantly on the CAR. These results suggest that ELS is associated with chronic changes in HPA-axis function and that these changes may be associated with impairments in problem solving/planning. Future work should investigate further the neurobiological mechanisms linking ELS, the CAR and EF and their role in conferring risk for the development of mental health disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of male hormonal contraception on prostate androgens and androgen action in healthy men: a randomized, controlled trial.

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    Mostaghel, Elahe A; Lin, Daniel W; Amory, John K; Wright, Jonathan L; Marck, Brett T; Nelson, Peter S; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Page, Stephanie T

    2012-08-01

    Male hormonal contraception (MHC) combines hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis blockade with exogenous androgen delivery to maintain extragonadal androgen end-organ effects. Concern exists that MHC may adversely impact prostate health. The objective of the study was to determine the molecular impact of MHC on intraprostatic androgen concentrations and androgen action. This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. 32 healthy men aged 25-55 yr participated in the study. Interventions included placebo, daily transdermal testosterone (T) (T-gel), T-gel + depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (T+DMPA), or T-gel + dutasteride daily (T+D) for 12 wk, and prostate biopsy during treatment wk 10. Serum and prostate androgen concentrations and prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were measured. Thirty men completed the study. Serum T levels were significantly increased in T-gel and T+D groups compared with baseline (P < 0.05) but were decreased with the addition of DMPA. Intraprostatic androgens were no different from placebo with T-gel treatment. Addition of DMPA to T resulted in 40% lower intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration (P = 0.0273 vs. placebo), whereas combining dutasteride with T resulted in a 90% decrease in intraprostatic DHT (P = 0.0012), 11-fold increased intraprostatic T (P = 0.0011), and 7-fold increased intraprostatic androstenedione (P = 0.0011). Significant differences in global or androgen-regulated prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were not observed. Androgen-regulated gene expression correlated with epithelial-cell androgen receptor and prostatic DHT in placebo, T-gel, and T+DMPA arms and with T and androstenedione levels in the T+D arm. MHC regimens do not markedly alter gene expression in benign prostate epithelium, suggesting they may not alter risk of prostate disease. Longer-term studies examining the impact of MHC on prostate health are needed.

  10. Comparable effects of breakfast meals varying in protein source on appetite and subsequent energy intake in healthy males.

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    Dougkas, Anestis; Östman, Elin

    2017-02-27

    The satiating effect of animal vs plant proteins remains unknown. The present study examined the effects of breakfasts containing animal proteins [milk (AP)], a blend of plant proteins [oat, pea and potato (VP)] or 50:50 mixture of the two (MP) compared with a carbohydrate-rich meal (CHO) on appetite, energy intake (EI) and metabolic measures. A total of 28 males [mean age 27.4 (±SD 4.2) years, BMI 23.4 (±2.1) kg/m(2)] consumed three isoenergetic (1674 kJ) rice puddings matched for energy density and macronutrient content as breakfast (25% E from protein) in a single-blind, randomised, cross over design. Appetite ratings and blood samples were collected and assessed at baseline and every 30 and 60 min, respectively, until an ad libitum test meal was served 3.5 h later. Free-living appetite was recorded hourly and EI in weighed food records for the remainder of the day. No differences in subjective appetite ratings were observed after consumption of the AP, VP and MP. Furthermore, there were no differences between the AP, VP, MP and CHO breakfasts in ad libitum EI and self-reported EI during the remainder of the day. Although insulin metabolism was not affected, CHO induced a higher glucose response (P = 0.001) and total amino acids concentration was in the order of AP = MP > VP > CHO breakfast (P = 0.001). Manipulating the protein source of foods consumed as breakfast, elicited comparable effects on appetite and EI at both laboratory and free-living environment in healthy men.

  11. A Novel Dopamine Transporter Inhibitor CE-123 Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Maintains Impulsivity in Healthy Male Rats

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    Agnieszka Nikiforuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced cognitive abilities are often characterized by an impairment of flexibility, i.e., the ability to switch from learned rules or categories that were important in certain contexts to different new modalities that rule the task. Drugs targeting the dopamine transporter (DAT are widely used for their potential to enhance cognitive abilities. However, commercially available drugs are of limited specificity for DAT, blocking also noradrenaline and serotonine transporters, that can lead to unwanted side effects in healthy subjects. Therefore, we tested a newly synthetized compound (CE-123 with higher specificity for DAT in male rats in an attentional set-shifting task (ASST, that proves for cognitive flexibility and a 5-choice serial-reaction time task (5-CSRTT assessing visuospatial attention and impulsivity. Treated rats at a dose of 0.3 and 1.0 but not 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight showed reduced extra-dimensional shifts in the ASST compared to controls indicating increased cognitive flexibility. Rats treated with R-Modafinil, a commercially available DAT inhibitor at a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight showed increased premature responses, an indicator of increased impulsivity, during a 10 s but not a 2.5, 5, or 7.5 s intertrial interval when compared to vehicle-treated rats in the 5-CSRTT. This was not found in rats treated with CE-123 at the same dose as for R-Modafinil. Visuospatial attention, except premature responses, did not differ between R-Modafinil and CE-123-treated rats and their respective controls. Thus, CE-123 increased cognitive flexibility with diminished impulsivity.

  12. Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry

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    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Sakurai, Kiyoko; Kunieda, Etsuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on each side; the models are segmented into 51 anatomic regions. The adult female model is the first of its kind in the world and both are the first Asian voxel models (representing average Japanese) that enable numerical evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry at high frequencies of up to 3 GHz. In this paper, we will also describe the basic SAR characteristics of the developed models for the VHF/UHF bands, calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  13. [Assessment of the validity and reliability of the processes of change scale based on the transtheoretical model of vegetable consumption behavior in Japanese male workers].

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    Kushida, Osamu; Murayama, Nobuko

    2012-12-01

    A core construct of the Transtheoretical model is that the processes and stages of change are strongly related to observable behavioral changes. We created the Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior and examined the validity and reliability of this scale. In September 2009, a self-administered questionnaire was administered to male Japanese employees, aged 20-59 years, working at 20 worksites in Niigata City in Japan. The stages of change (precontempration, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance stage) were measured using 2 items that assessed participants' current implementation of the target behavior (eating 5 or more servings of vegetables per day) and their readiness to change their habits. The Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior comprised 10 items assessing 5 cognitive processes (consciousness raising, emotional arousal, environmental reevaluation, self-reevaluation, and social liberation) and 5 behavioral processes (commitment, rewards, helping relationships, countering, and environment control). Each item was selected from an existing scale. Decisional balance (pros [2 items] and cons [2 items]), and self-efficacy (3 items) were also assessed, because these constructs were considered to be relevant to the processes of change. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Its construct validity was examined using a factor analysis of the processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy variables, while its criterion-related validity was determined by assessing the association between the scale scores and the stages of change. The data of 527 (out of 600) participants (mean age, 41.1 years) were analyzed. Results indicated that the Processes of Change Scale had sufficient internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: cognitive processes=0.722, behavioral processes=0.803). The processes of change were divided into 2 factors: "consciousness raising

  14. Biomonitoring of Urinary Cotinine Concentrations Associated with Plasma Levels of Nicotine Metabolites after Daily Cigarette Smoking in a Male Japanese Population

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    Hiroshi Yamazaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring of plasma and urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine was conducted after daily cigarette smoking in a population of 92 male Japanese smokers with a mean age of 37 years who had smoked an average of 23 cigarettes per day for 16 years. Members of the population were genotyped for the nicotine-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6. The mean levels of nicotine, the levels of its metabolites cotinine and 3′-hydroxycotinine, and the sum of these three levels in subjects one hour after smoking the first cigarette on the sampling day were 20.1, 158, 27.7, and 198 ng/mL in plasma and 846, 1,020, 1,010, and 2,870 ng/mL in urine under daily smoking conditions. Plasma levels of 3'-hydroxycotinine and urinary levels of nicotine and 3′-hydroxycotinine were dependent on the CYP2A6 phenotype group, which was estimated from the CYP2A6 genotypes of the subjects, including those with whole gene deletion. Plasma cotinine levels were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked on the day before sampling (r = 0.71, the average number of cigarettes smoked daily (r = 0.58, and the Brinkman index (daily cigarettes × years, r = 0.48 under the present conditions. The sum of nicotine, cotinine, and 3′-hydroxycotinine concentrations in plasma showed a similar relationship to that of the plasma cotinine levels. Urinary concentrations of cotinine and the sum of nicotine metabolite concentrations also showed significant correlations with the plasma levels and the previous day’s and average cigarette consumption. The numbers of cigarettes smoked per day by two subjects with self-reported light smoking habits were predicted by measuring the urinary cotinine concentrations and using linear regression equations derived from above-mentioned data. These results indicate that biomonitoring of the urinary cotinine concentration is a good, easy-to-use marker for plasma levels of cotinine and the sum of

  15. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

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    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells is a central mechanism in the regulation of vascular tone and vascular remodelling Mechanotransduction and vascular function may be affected by high sugar levels in plasma because of a resulting increase in oxidative stress and increased levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In healthy young subjects, 2 weeks of daily supplementation with 3 × 75 g of sucrose was found to reduce blood flow in response to passive lower leg movement and in response to 12 W of knee extensor exercise. This vascular impairment was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression, an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. There were no measurable changes in AGE levels. The findings of the present study demonstrate that daily high sucrose intake markedly affects mechanotransduction proteins and has a detrimental effect on vascular function. Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, 12 young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperaemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement to allow assessment of protein amounts and the phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow

  16. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic interaction between cetirizine and ritonavir, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, in healthy male volunteers.

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    Peytavin, G; Gautran, C; Otoul, C; Cremieux, A C; Moulaert, B; Delatour, F; Melac, M; Strolin-Benedetti, M; Farinotti, R

    2005-06-01

    Serious adverse effects have been observed with some non-sedative H1-antihistamines (terfenadine and astemizole) when they were associated with drugs known to inhibit their metabolism. However, this is not a class effect, and this interaction should be considered on a case-by-case basis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of pharmacokinetic interaction between cetirizine and ritonavir, the most potent cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. An open-label, single-center, one-sequence crossover pharmacokinetic study was conducted in three running periods: cetirizine (CTZ) alone, ritonavir (RTV) alone and then CTZ plus RTV. For each period, steady-state pharmacokinetics were obtained. RTV and CTZ plasma concentrations were determined using validated liquid chromatography methods. The statistical method was based on a 90% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of population geometric means (combination/drug alone) for each drug and for each parameter [area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC(0-tau,ss)), value of maximum plasma concentration (C(max,ss))] and compared to bioequivalence ranges 80-125% and 70-143% for AUC(0-tau,ss) and C(max,ss), respectively. Among the 17 male subjects enrolled (26.4 +/- 8.6 years), 16 completed the study (1 withdrawal after the first period). The RTV pharmacokinetic parameter values were not affected by CTZ co-treatment. With RTV, a 42% increase in the CTZ AUC(0-tau,ss) (3406 versus 4840 microgh/l, 90% CI of 128-158%), a 53% increase in the CTZ elimination half-life (7.8 h versus 11.9 h, P = 0.001), a slight increase (15%) in the CTZ apparent volume of distribution (V(d,ss)/f) (34.7 l versus 39.8 l, P = 0.035), a 29% decrease in the CTZ apparent total body clearance (49.9 ml/min versus 35.3 ml/min, P CTZ does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of RTV, and the association does not, thus, require a modification of the dosage of the protease inhibitor. The increased extent of exposure to CTZ

  17. Daily consumption of tea catechins improves aerobic capacity in healthy male adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Noriyasu; Soga, Satoko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with tea catechins combined with exercise improved endurance capacity in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of daily tea catechin consumption on aerobic capacity in humans. Sixteen Japanese non-athlete male subjects (aged 25-47 years) took 500 mL of a test beverage with or without tea catechins (570 mg) daily for 8 weeks and attended a training program twice a week. Aerobic capacity was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and near-infrared spectroscopy during graded cycle exercise. Catechin beverage consumption was associated with a significantly higher ventilation threshold during exercise and a higher recovery rate of oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin levels after graded cycle exercise when compared to subjects receiving the placebo beverage. These results indicate that daily consumption of tea catechins increases aerobic capacity when combined with semiweekly light exercise, which may be due to increased skeletal muscle aerobic capacity.

  18. Single-dose evaluation of safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of newly formulated hydromorphone immediate-release and hydrophilic matrix extended-release tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Kaoru; Uchida, Naoki; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Sambe, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    This single dose, open-label study investigated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of newly formulated immediate-release (IR) and hydrophilic matrix extended-release (ER) hydromorphone tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist under fasting and fed conditions. Plasma and urinary concentrations of hydromorphone and metabolites were measured by liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectroscopy. Following administration of the ER tablet, plasma concentrations of hydromorphone slowly increased with a median tmax of 5.0 h and the Cmax decreased to 37% of the IR tablet, while the AUC0-inf was comparable with that of the IR tablet when administered at the same dose. The degree of fluctuation in the plasma concentration for the ER tablet was much lower than that of the IR tablet and certain levels of plasma concentrations were maintained after 24 h of ER dosing. The AUC0-inf and Cmax increased with food for both IR and ER tablets. The AUC0-inf of hydromorphone-3-glucoside was one-tenth of that of hydromorphone-3-glucuronide. A single oral administration of the hydromorphone tablets would be well-tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects despite a lack of co-administration of an opioid antagonist and the newly developed ER hydromorphone tablets may have the appropriate PK characteristics for once-daily dosing. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Low docosahexaenoic acid status is associated with reduced indices in cortical integrity in the anterior cingulate of healthy male children: A 1H MRS Study

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Weber, Wade; Chu, Wen-Jang; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is the principal omega-3 fatty acid in mammalian brain gray matter, and emerging preclinical evidence suggests that DHA has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated relationships among DHA status, neurocognitive performance, and cortical metabolism measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in healthy developing male children (aged 8–10 years, n = 38). Subjects were segregated into low-DHA (n = 19) and high-DHA...

  20. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and watching an erotic video for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively. We performed frequency-domain analysis using the EEGs with a distributed model of current-source analysis. The statistical nonparametric maps were obtained from the sessions of watching erotic and music videos (p<0.05). The erotic stimuli decreased the current-source density of the high beta frequency band in the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in the baseline EEGs taken before sertraline intake (p<0.05). The erotic stimuli did not induce any changes in current-source distribution of the brain 4 hours after sertraline intake. It is speculated that erotic stimuli may decrease the function of the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in healthy adult males. This change may debase the inhibitory control of the brain against erotic stimuli. Sertraline may reduce the decrement in inhibitory control.

  1. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used...

  2. Unexpected combined effects of NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 Leu/Met polymorphism and green tea consumption on renal function in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Yoshida, Masao; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka

    2013-11-20

    NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met) polymorphism is associated with longevity in Japanese. A previous study has shown that ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism modulates the effects of green tea consumption on risk of hypertension. For men with ND2-237Leu, habitual green tea consumption may reduce the risk of hypertension. Moreover, there is a combined effect of ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism and alcohol consumption on risk of mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (consumption on risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese health check-up examinees. For ND2-237Leu genotypic men, after adjustment for confounding factors, green tea consumption may increase the risk of mildly decreased eGFR (P for trend = 0.016). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for mildly decreased eGFR was significantly higher in subjects with ND2-237Leu who consume ≥6 cups of green tea per day than those who consume ≤1 cup of green tea per day (adjusted OR = 5.647, 95% confidence interval: 1.528-20.88, P = 0.009). On the other hand, for ND2-237Met genotypic men, green tea consumption does not appear to determine the risk of mildly decreased eGFR. The present results suggest that ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism unexpectedly modifies the effects of green tea consumption on eGFR and the risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese subjects.

  3. The white blood cell count : its relationship to plasma insulin and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Targher, G; Seidell, J C; Tonoli, M; Muggeo, M; de Sandre, G; Cigolini, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationships of total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count to the components of the so-called insulin resistance syndrome. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: The study population consisted of a random sample of 90 38-year-old healthy men with normal glucose tolerance.

  4. The age-specific reference intervals for tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA in healthy Han ethnic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Tang, Aiguo; Zhang, Shijie; Sun, Xiaoxu; Ming, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common malignancies in male, and has become the fastest growing malignancy in recent years. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a tumor marker to screen for PC. Many studies have been performed to define the reference intervals (RIs) for total circulating PSA (tPSA). The results were different among different nations and races, even in the same race. Few researches have been performed on the RIs of free PSA (fPSA) and the ratio of free to total PSA (%fPSA). In this study, we aimed to simultaneously determine the age-specific RIs for tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA in the healthy Han ethnic male. A total of 1862 apparently healthy male aged from 21 to 94 years were included in our study. Nonparametric 95th percentile intervals were used to define the RIs. The reference limits in different age groups (21-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, and ≥81 years) were 2.07, 3.59, 4.93, 6.83, and 7.73 ng/mL for tPSA, and 0.60, 0.76, 0.83, 1.30, and 2.41 ng/mL for fPSA. The RIs of %fPSA were ≥0.16 for 21-50 years and ≥0.13 for male over 50 years old. We established age-specific RIs for tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA. The newly established RIs should be more suitable for Chinese Han ethnic male. It will be valuable for physicians to make exact medical decision and appropriate medical intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan 20 mg compared with esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg in healthy adult male subjects--a randomised open-label cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Mori, Y; Okamoto, H; Nishimura, A; Komura, E; Araki, T; Shiramoto, M

    2015-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of acid-related diseases. Vonoprazan is a member of a new class of acid suppressants; potassium-competitive acid blockers. Vonoprazan may thus be an alternative to PPIs. To evaluate efficacy, rapidity and duration of acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan vs. two control PPIs, esomeprazole and rabeprazole, in 20 healthy Japanese adult male volunteers with CYP2C19 extensive metaboliser genotype. In this randomised, open-label, two-period cross-over study, vonoprazan 20 mg and esomeprazole 20 mg (Study V vs. E) or rabeprazole 10 mg (Study V vs. R) were orally administered daily for 7 days. Primary pharmacodynamic endpoint was gastric pH over 24 h measured as percentage of time pH ≥3, ≥4 and ≥5 (pH holding time ratios; HTRs) and mean gastric pH. Acid-inhibitory effect (pH4 HTR) of vonoprazan was significantly greater than that of esomeprazole or rabeprazole on both Days 1 and 7; Day 7 difference in pH4 HTR for vonoprazan vs. esomeprazole was 24.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.2-33.1] and for vonoprazan vs. rabeprazole 28.8% [95% CI: 17.2-40.4]. The Day 1 to Day 7 ratio of 24-h pH4 HTRs was >0.8 for vonoprazan, compared with 0.370 for esomeprazole and 0.393 for rabeprazole. Vonoprazan was generally well tolerated. One vonoprazan subject withdrew due to a rash which resolved after discontinuation. This study demonstrated a more rapid and sustained acid-inhibitory effect of vonoprazan 20 mg vs. esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg. Therefore, vonoprazan may be a potentially new treatment for acid-related diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism modulates the effects of coffee consumption on elevated levels of serum liver enzymes in male Japanese health check-up examinees: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaze, Akatsuki; Yoshida, Masao; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Mitsui, Kiyomi; Hoshimo, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka

    2016-06-04

    Longevity-associated mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism modulates the effects of coffee consumption on the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormal glucose tolerance. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of coffee consumption on abnormally elevated levels of serum liver enzymes in male Japanese health check-up examinees. A total of 421 male subjects (mean age ± SD, 54.1 ± 7.7 years) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and coffee consumption on elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was then conducted. For men with Mt5178C, after adjustment for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, habitual smoking, green tea consumption, antihypertensive treatment, and antidiabetic treatment, elevated levels of serum AST, as defined as ≥30 U/L; those of serum ALT, as defined as ≥25 U/L; or those of serum GGT, as defined as ≥60 or >51 U/L, may depend on coffee consumption (P for trend = 0.013, P for trend coffee consumption on elevated levels of serum liver enzymes were observed. The present results suggest that Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of coffee consumption on abnormally elevated levels of serum liver enzymes in male Japanese health check-up examinees.

  8. Serum Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Concentrations Are Positively and Independently Associated with Blood Pressure and Abdominal Fat among Parameters in Health Check-Ups in Ordinary Middle-Aged Japanese Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masami; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Honma, Kazue; Miyauchi, Rie; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    We wished to examine potential associations among blood concentrations of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 and parameters in health check-ups such as abdominal fat area (AFA) and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged Japanese males. We conducted a cross-sectional study of males who participated in health check-ups in Japan. We excluded participants diagnosed with metabolic diseases by the time of their check-up. A total of 305 subjects (30-64 [mean±standard deviation, 47.3±8.5] y) were recruited. Areas of total-abdominal, visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured using computed tomography. We compared the association of serum concentrations of FABP4 with various clinical parameters by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) analyses, and by step-wise multivariate linear regression analyses (MLRA). PPMCC analyses showed that blood concentrations of FABP4 were positively associated with: body mass index; areas of fat (total abdominal, visceral, subcutaneous); systolic BP; diastolic BP; total cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; triacylglycerol; activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase; white blood cell count; and levels of creatinine. Step-wise MLRA showed that AFAs (visceral and subcutaneous) and diastolic BP were positively and independently associated with serum concentrations of FABP4 among the parameters tested. These data suggest that serum concentrations of FABP4 are independently and positively associated with BP and AFA among parameters measured in health check-ups in middle-aged Japanese males.

  9. Transdermal Nicotine Patch Effects on EEG Power Spectra and Heart Rate Variability During Sleep of Healthy Male Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong-Bae; Lee, Yu-Jin G.; Jeong, Do-Un

    2017-01-01

    Objective The effect of transdermal nicotine patch on sleep physiology is not well established. The current study aimed to examine the influence of nicotine patch on homeostatic sleep propensity and autonomic nervous system. Methods We studied 16 non-smoking young healthy volunteers with nocturnal polysomnography in a double blind crossover design between sleep with and without nicotine patch. We compared the sleep variables, sleep EEG power spectra, and heart rate variability. Results The ni...

  10. Rhythmic 24-hour variations of frequently used clinical biochemical parameters in healthy young males - The Bispebjerg study of diurnal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Gøtze, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours, nine time points in total. At each time point, the parameters' concentrations were measured. The data were analyzed by rhythmometric statistical methods and in addition the biological variations were calculated. Results. Significant...... oscillation of melatonin with an amplitude (amp) of 19.84 pg/ml and a peak at 03:34 h confirmed the normal 24-hour rhythms of the participants. Potassium (p...

  11. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J; Eskesen, D C; Andersen, P W

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers...... of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8...

  12. A Case Study of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a Healthy 21-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of a healthy 21-year-old male, with no significant past medical history, who was found to have an incidental nonocclusive deep vein thrombosis in the right internal jugular vein detected on a head MRI previously ordered for work-up of headaches. A follow-up upper extremity venous Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a partially occlusive deep vein thrombosis in the right jugular vein. The case presented is unique for the reason that the patient is young and has no prior risk factor, personal or familial, for venous thrombosis except for associated polycythemia on clinical presentation.

  13. Identification of Characteristic Components and Foodstuffs in Healthy Japanese Diet and the Health Effects of a Diet with Increased Use Frequency of these Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagaki, Yui; Sakamoto, Yu; Sugawara, Saeko; Mizowaki, Yui; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    Our recent study showed that the 1975 Japanese diet exhibited strong health benefits. In the current study, we aimed to develop a diet with even higher health benefits. First, to determine the characteristic components in the 1975 diet, we used mass spectrometry for analysis of Japanese diets from several years and performed principal component analysis. Next, a diet with an increased use frequency of foodstuffs contained characteristic components (the modified diet) was prepared and fed to mice. Performed principal component analysis revealed that the 1975 diet contained 14 characteristic components that were found in fish, fruits, vegetables, seaweed, soybean foods, soup stock "dashi", and fermented seasoning. Based on these, the modified diet was prepared and fed to mice. The liver total cholesterol and serum LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in mice fed the modified diet and serum total cholesterol showed a downward trend, compared to mice fed the 1975 diet. There was no difference between the modified diet and the control groups. In addition, serum adiponectin level increased in mice fed the modified diet and serum TBARS and IL-6 levels decreased. By modifying the 1975 diet, it was possible to make a diet with more benefit. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced Anti-Müllerian Hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, Jan; Faber, J

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers...... of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) were measured. During GH treatment, IGF-I increased [(median (IQR)] 166 (162-235) vs. 702 (572-875) μg/L, p .../IGF-I stimulates aromatase activity in vivo. As a novel observation, we found that high GH activity was associated with reduced levels of the Sertoli cell marker AMH. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effects of GH on Sertoli cell function and/or spermatogenesis....

  15. Japanese nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Going, Dawn Renee

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis addresses the phenomenon of Japanese nationalism, its changing place in Japanese life, and its influence on Japan's international relations. This study uses a theoretical-psychological approach to nationalism. After tracing the historical development of nationalist thought beginning in Tokugawa Japan, current social trends in the areas of politics, economics, women and family, and youth and education are examined to determ...

  16. "It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine": a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-05-29

    Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002-7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as 'gender appropriate', 'gender anomalous' or 'gender neutral'. A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as 'a young woman's illness', serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently 'female' and so 'anomalous' for men. Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying help-seeking, gaining late access to treatments and reducing chances of

  17. Combined effect of mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokaze Akatsuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major public health issue. Although several studies have been performed on the association between alcohol consumption and CKD or renal function, it remains controversial. Numerous genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with CKD and kidney function. Mitochondrial DNA cytosine/adenine (Mt5178 C/A polymorphism is associated with longevity in Japanese. This polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on blood pressure, risk of hypertension, serum triglyceride levels, risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and serum uric acid levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on renal function in male Japanese health check-up examinees. Methods A total of 394 male subjects aged 29–76 years were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the combined effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and habitual drinking on the risk of mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (2 was conducted. Results For Mt5178A genotypic men, habitual drinking may increase eGFR (P for trend = 0.003 or reduce the risk of mildly decreased eGFR (P for trend = 0.003. Daily drinkers had a significantly higher eGFR than non-drinkers (P = 0.005. The crude odds ratio for decreased eGFR was significantly lower in daily drinkers than in non-drinkers (odds ratio = 0.092, 95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.727, P = 0.024. On the other hand, for Mt5178C genotypic men, habitual drinking does not appear to affect eGFR. Conclusion The present results suggest a joint effect of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on eGFR and the risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese subjects.

  18. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype determines effect of reboxetine on emotional memory in healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ayana A.; Bautista, Carla E.; Mowlem, Florence D.; Naudts, Kris H.; Duka, Dora T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholamines in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). A common polymorphism in the COMT gene (COMT val158met) has pleiotropic effects on cognitive and emotional processing. The met allele has been associated with enhanced cognitive processing but impaired emotional processing relative to the val allele. Methods We genotyped healthy, white men in relation to the COMT val158met polymorphism. They were given a single 4 mg dose of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine or placebo in a randomized, double-blind between-subjects model and then completed an emotional memory task 2 hours later. Results We included 75 men in the study; 41 received reboxetine and 34 received placebo. In the placebo group, met/met carriers did not demonstrate the usual memory advantage for emotional stimuli that was observed in val carriers. Reboxetine restored this emotional enhancement of memory in met/met carriers, but had no significant effect in val carriers. Limitations We studied only men, thus limiting the generalizability of our findings. We also relied on self-reported responses to screening questions to establish healthy volunteer status, and in spite of the double-blind design, participants were significantly better than chance at identifying their intervention allocation. Conclusion Emotional memory is impaired in healthy met homozygotes and selectively improved in this group by reboxetine. This has potential translational implications for the use of reboxetine, which is currently licensed as an antidepressant in several countries, and edivoxetine, a new selective NRI currently in development. PMID:24467942

  20. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour use of Kinesiotaping (KT on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old were randomly allocated into two groups: 1 Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation; 2 Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension. Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1 familiarization; 2 baseline measurement without tape (BL; 3 immediately post-tape application (T0; 4 24h (T24; and 5 48h (T48 post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT and triple hop tests (THT, vertical jump height (VJH, vertical jump power (VJP, and rate of force development (RFD. A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. Results No significant (p >0.05 differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05. Conclusion The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance.

  2. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Freitas, João R; Carmo, Jake; Matheus, João P C; Carregaro, Rodrigo L

    2016-03-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour) use of Kinesiotaping (KT) on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old) were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation); 2) Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension). Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1) familiarization; 2) baseline measurement without tape (BL); 3) immediately post-tape application (T0); 4) 24h (T24); and 5) 48h (T48) post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT) and triple hop tests (THT), vertical jump height (VJH), vertical jump power (VJP), and rate of force development (RFD). A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. No significant (p >0.05) differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05). The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h) effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance.

  3. Basal plasma leptin levels in healthy elderly males are related to physical fitness without impact on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, L; Simar, D; Caillaud, C; Coste, O; Puech, A-M; Jaussent, A; Mariano-Goulart, D; Sultan, C

    2011-03-01

    Investigated the relationship between leptin levels or bone remodelling and physical fitness level in healthy elderly participants. Twenty women and 18 men (mean age 72.7 years, range 59-90) performed a maximal incremental exercise test to evaluate their maximal oxygen uptake (VOmax). Basal blood concentrations of bone biochemical markers (BM) and leptin were analysed. Women presented higher values of leptin than men (+34.7%, P=0.024), but no difference related to gender was observed for the other biological parameters. Leptin levels were positively correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in both genders. Whether adjusted or not for BMI, leptin was negatively correlated with VOmax only in men (r=-0.55, P=0.02 and r=-0.57, P=0.01, respectively). No relationship between VOmax or leptin and BM was observed, except for leptin and osteocalcin in men (r=-0.66, P=0.015). Our data suggest that neither physical fitness nor leptin level seems to have a noticeable effect in the regulation of bone cell activity in healthy elderly participants. In this specific population, physical fitness plays a crucial role on leptin secretion, independently of BMI variation, and this action appears to be sex-dependent.

  4. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  5. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  6. Effect of Oral Coadministration of Ascorbic Acid with Ling Zhi Preparation on Pharmacokinetics of Ganoderic Acid A in Healthy Male Subjects: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawasri, Patcharanee; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Tharatha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-phase crossover study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acid A, an important biologically active triterpenoid compound with anticancer activities, following oral administration of water extract of fruiting bodies of Ling Zhi in 12 healthy male subjects. Each subject was randomized to receive either one of the two regimens: (1) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation or (2) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation in combination with 2,500 mg of ascorbic acid. After a washout period of at least two weeks, subjects were switched to receive the alternate regimen. Blood samples were collected in each phase immediately before dosing and at specific time points for 8 hours after dosing. Plasma ganoderic acid A concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (C max), time to reach peak concentration (T max), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t 1/2). An oral coadministration of ascorbic acid with Ling Zhi preparation did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of ganoderic acid A in healthy male subjects. PMID:27747224

  7. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B; Pedersen, Per Ø; Quraishi, Sophia H; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F; Groote, Inge R; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A; Westlye, Lars T

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  8. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  9. Optimization of the Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for male hockey fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Wendy; Gill, Dawn P; Sibbald, Shannon L; Riggin, Brendan; Pulford, Roseanne W; Scott, Ryan; Danylchuk, Karen; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2017-11-28

    The health outcomes of men continue to be poorer than women globally. Challenges in addressing this problem include difficulties engaging men in weight loss programs as they tend to view these programs as contrary to the masculine narrative of independence and self-reliance. Researchers have been turning towards sports fans to engage men in health promotion programs as sports fans are typically male, and tend to have poor health habits. Developed from the highly successful gender-sensitized Football Fans in Training program, Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) recruited 80 male hockey fans of the London Knights and Sarnia Sting who were overweight or obese into a weekly, 90-minute classroom education and group exercise program held over 12 weeks; a 40-week minimally-supported phase followed. A process evaluation of the Hockey FIT program was completed alongside a pragmatic randomized controlled trial and outcome evaluation in order to fully explore the acceptability of the Hockey FIT program from the perspectives of coaches delivering and participants engaged in the program. Data sources included attendance records, participant focus groups, coach interviews, assessment of fidelity (program observations and post-session coach reflections), and 12-month participant interviews. Coaches enjoyed delivering the program and found it simple to deliver. Men valued being among others of similar body shape and similar weight loss goals, and found the knowledge they gained through the program helped them to make and maintain health behaviour changes. Suggested improvements include having more hockey-related information and activities, greater flexibility with timing of program delivery, and greater promotion of technology support tools. We confirmed Hockey FIT was an acceptable "gender-sensitized" health promotion program for male hockey fans who were overweight or obese. Minor changes were required for optimization, which will be evaluated in a future definitive trial

  10. Bioequivalence of generic lamotrigine 100-mg tablets in healthy Thai male volunteers: a randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichaiya, Arunee; Longchoopol, Chaowanee; Oo-Puthinan, Sarawut; Sayasathid, Jarun; Sripalakit, Pattana; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2008-10-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug which has been used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A search of the literature did not find previously published bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluations of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between 2 brands of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. A randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in healthy Thai males. Subjects were randomized to receive either the test or reference formulation in the first period. All subjects were required to be nonsmokers and without a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Plasma samples were collected over a 120-hour period after 100-mg lamotrigine administration in each period. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet method was used to analyze lamotrigine concentration in plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. Bioequivalence between the test and reference products, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is determined when the ratio for the 90% CIs of the difference in the means of the log-transformed AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), and C(max) of the 2 products are within 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were determined by measuring vital signs after dosing. Subjects were also asked if they suffered from undesirable effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. This bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy Thai males (mean [SD] age, 20.5 [1.3] years; range, 19-24 years; weight, 62.5 [7.4] kg; height, 172.8 [6.9] cm; body mass index, 20.9 [2.0] kg/m(2)). The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the test formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.2 (0.9) hours, respectively. The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the reference formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.4 (1.0) hours, respectively. The mean

  11. Associations of sex steroids with bone maturation, bone mineral density, bone geometry, and body composition: a cross-sectional study in healthy male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, S; Taes, Y; Fiers, T; Toye, K; Van Caenegem, E; Roggen, I; De Schepper, J; Kaufman, J-M

    2014-07-01

    Although both testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) are considered essential in the regulation of the male skeleton, there are few data concerning the relative contribution of T and E2 on bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry, and bone maturation in healthy boys. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between T and E2 and BMD, bone geometry, skeletal maturation, and body composition. This is a cross-sectional study in 199 healthy boys (aged 6-19 y). T and E2 were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Whole-body and lumbar areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone area, lean mass, and fat mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular (distal site) and cortical (proximal site) volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry were assessed at the nondominant forearm and leg using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Skeletal age was determined by an X-ray of the left hand. T was positively associated with lean mass (P bone area (P bone age advancement (P bone maturation and aBMD and vBMD and negatively with endosteal circumference in healthy boys, whereas T is a determinant of lean mass and bone size. These findings underscore the important role of E2 in skeletal development in boys.

  12. Serum uric acid levels are associated with increased risk of newly developed diabetic retinopathy among Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study (diabetes distress and care registry at Tenri [DDCRT 13]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Hirohito; Okamura, Shintaro; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Tsujii, Satoru; Ishii, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    We assessed the prospective association between baseline serum uric acid levels and consequent risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. Data for 1839 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy were obtained from a Japanese diabetes registry. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying exposure information by sex was used and adjusted for potential confounders to assess the independent correlations between baseline serum uric acid levels and incidence rate of diabetic retinopathy. Newly developed diabetic retinopathy was recognized in 188 patients (10.2%) during the observation period of 2 years. Compared to the first serum uric acid quartile level, the multivariate adjusted hazards ratio for diabetic retinopathy development in male patients was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.14-3.41; P = .015), 1.92 (95% CI, 1.18-3.13; P = .008), and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.40-3.37; P = .001) for the second, third, and fourth serum uric acid quartile levels, respectively. But this was not the case with female patients. Higher serum uric acid levels were associated with increased risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes, but not in female patients. Serum uric acid may be a useful biomarker for predicting the future risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. No Effect of SLCO1B1 and CYP3A4/5 Polymorphisms on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ticagrelor in Healthy Chinese Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mupeng; Hu, Yaodong; Li, Huilan; Wen, Zhipeng; Hu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Daoyu; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xiao, Jian; Tang, Jie; Chen, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Ticagrelor is a direct-acting P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It is rapidly absorbed and partly metabolized to the active metabolite AR-C124910XX by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Three genetic loci (SLCO1B1, CYP3A4, and UGT2B7) were reported to affect ticagrelor pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of SLCO1B1 and CYP3A4/5 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor in healthy Chinese male volunteers. Eighteen healthy male volunteers who participated in pharmacogenetics study of ticagrelor were genotyped for SLCO1B1 rs113681054, SLCO1B1*5 (rs4149056), CYP3A4*1G (rs2242480), and CYP3A5*3 (rs776746). All subjects received a single 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor and then series blood samples were collected from 0 to 48 h. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Inhibition in platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed and the area under the time-effect curve (AUEC) for the IPA was calculated as pharmacodynamic parameters. No significant difference in ticagrelor pharmacokinetics among genotypes of the two genes was observed. The AUEC did not differ significantly among genotypes of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our data suggest that common genetic variants in SLCO1B1 and CYP3A4/5 may have no effect on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  14. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  15. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  16. Abuse liability assessment of eslicarbazepine acetate in healthy male and female recreational sedative users: A Phase I randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Schoedel, Kerri A; Chakraborty, Bijan; Blum, David; Cheng, Hailong

    2016-08-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily oral antiepileptic drug for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Adverse events such as dizziness and somnolence reported in clinical studies suggest that ESL has detectable central nervous system (CNS) effects in addition to its antiepileptic effects. This Phase I study evaluated the abuse liability of ESL compared with that of alprazolam (ALP) and placebo (PBO) in recreational CNS depressant users. In this single-dose, randomized, double-blind, PBO- and active-controlled crossover study, healthy recreational CNS depressant users who could discern between ALP 2mg and PBO received single oral doses of each of the following treatments with a washout interval of ≥7days between each treatment: ESL (800mg, 1600mg, 2000mg, and 2400mg); ALP (1.5mg and 3.0mg); and PBO. Subjective measures, including visual analog scales (VASs) e.g., Drug-Liking (primary endpoint), and Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG), Pentobarbital Chlorpromazine Alcohol Group (PCAG), and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Group scales were evaluated at multiple time points up to 24h postdose. Cognitive effects were evaluated using the Choice Reaction Time (CRT), Divided Attention (DAT) and Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-Revised tests. Peak scores for Drug-Liking VAS (maximum effect [Emax]) were significantly higher for both ALP doses than for PBO (peslicarbazepine, increased with increasing ESL dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated for eslicarbazepine were generally comparable with results from previous studies in healthy volunteers. This study demonstrated that single doses of ESL may have less abuse liability than ALP in recreational sedative users. Although ESL had detectable subjective effects and showed some drug-'liking' at higher doses, the magnitude of these effects was small. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy Session Dampens Acute Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to Mental Stress in Healthy Male Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Mauro; Carnevali, Luca; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) is supported by observational data and patient feedback, but there is still a need for objective, quantitative biomarkers that allow measurement of the underlying mechanisms. No study exploring the protective potential of OMTh for mental stress has been published, to the authors' knowledge. To explore the modulating effect of OMTh on autonomic neural regulation of the heart and verifiy its ability to influence the activity of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Healthy young adult men who had never received OMTh were exposed to either a brief protocol using craniosacral techniques or sham therapy (control) involving the same anatomical areas. A laboratory stress episode consisting of a 5-minute arithmetic task participants were required to perform in front of a committee preceded the therapy sessions. Continuous electrocardiograph recordings were done before, during, and after the stress episode. Heart rate and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability (specifically, high-frequency component power in normalized units and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power) were measured to quantify the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and the state of sympathovagal balance at the level of the heart, respectively. Saliva samples were also collected at points throughout the study to determine cortisol levels. Osteopathic manipulative therapy reduced the overall chronotropic effect of the stressor (t=-2.9, Pcontrol participants. Moreover, OMTh participants had a much lower overall cortisol level during the mental stressor compared with control participants (t=-2.3, Pcontrol counterparts after the stress episode (control: t=2.7, Psession to healthy participants induced a faster recovery of heart rate and sympathovagal balance after an acute mental stressor by substantially dampening parasympathetic withdrawal and

  18. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    fallout of FDNPP. • Japanese cedar leaves and male cones were good indicators for this evaluation. • A higher proportion of ionic {sup 137}Cs was found distributed along eastern Fukushima. • Variations in the ionic ratio of {sup 137}Cs affect its translocation in Japanese cedar. • High uncertainties were found in the calculated values in some sampling sites.

  19. Tumor Biomarker Glycoproteins in the Seminal Plasma of Healthy Human Males Are Endogenous Ligands for DC-SIGN*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gary F.; Grassi, Paola; Pang, Poh-Choo; Panico, Maria; Lafrenz, David; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Baldwin, Michael R.; Morris, Howard R.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Sun, Wei; Dell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    DC-SIGN is an immune C-type lectin that is expressed on both immature and mature dendritic cells associated with peripheral and lymphoid tissues in humans. It is a pattern recognition receptor that binds to several pathogens including HIV-1, Ebola virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence is now mounting that DC-SIGN also recognizes endogenous glycoproteins, and that such interactions play a major role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans and mice. Autoantigens (neoantigens) are produced for the first time in the human testes and other organs of the male urogenital tract under androgenic stimulus during puberty. Such antigens trigger autoimmune orchitis if the immune response is not tightly regulated within this system. Endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN could play a role in modulating such responses. Human seminal plasma glycoproteins express a high level of terminal Lewisx and Lewisy carbohydrate antigens. These epitopes react specifically with the lectin domains of DC-SIGN. However, because the expression of these sequences is necessary but not sufficient for interaction with DC-SIGN, this study was undertaken to determine if any seminal plasma glycoproteins are also endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN. Glycoproteins bearing terminal Lewisx and Lewisy sequences were initially isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. Protein sequencing established that three tumor biomarker glycoproteins (clusterin, galectin-3 binding glycoprotein, prostatic acid phosphatase) and protein C inhibitor were purified by using this affinity method. The binding of DC-SIGN to these seminal plasma glycoproteins was demonstrated in both Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. These findings have confirmed that human seminal plasma contains endogenous glycoprotein ligands for DC-SIGN that could play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis both in the male urogenital tract and the vagina after coitus. PMID:21986992

  20. Japanese dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2018-01-01

    in contemporary Dutch- and Japanese-language sources, I argue that changing claims and public perceptions of Japan reflected the country’s shifting economic fortunes and international position during the period. The sources consistently framed the Japanese-designed building within a language of dreams. However......, the dreams gradually transformed from desires and nostalgic projections to sleepiness and inactivity. Japan, and the annex as its symbolic embodiment, remained a ‘place of dreams’, but the nature of those ‘dreams’ changed dramatically over the period studied....

  1. Brain oxidative stress: detection and mapping of anti-oxidant marker 'Glutathione' in different brain regions of healthy male/female, MCI and Alzheimer patients using non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pravat K; Tripathi, Manjari; Sugunan, Sreedevi

    2012-01-06

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as an important anti-oxidant in the brain by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species that are generated during different molecular processes. The GSH level in the brain provides indirect information on oxidative stress of the brain. We report in vivo detection of GSH non-invasively from various brain regions (frontal cortex, parietal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) in bilateral hemispheres of healthy male and female subjects and from bi-lateral frontal cortices in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AD patients who participated in this study were on medication with cholinesterase inhibitors. Healthy young male (age 26.4±3.0) and healthy young female (age 23.6±2.1) subjects have higher amount of GSH in the parietal cortical region and a specific GSH distribution pattern (parietal cortex>frontal cortex>hippocampus ~ cerebellum) has been found. Overall mean GSH content is higher in healthy young female compared to healthy young male subjects and GSH is distributed differently in two hemispheres among male and female subjects. In both young female and male subjects, statistically significant (p=0.02 for young female and p=0.001 for young male) difference in mean GSH content is found when compared between left frontal cortex (LFC) and right frontal cortex (RFC). In healthy young female subjects, we report statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content between RFC and LFC (r=0.641, p=0.004) as well as right parietal cortex (RPC) and left parietal cortex (LPC) (r=0.797, p=0.000) regions. In healthy young male subjects, statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content was observed between LFC and LPC (r=0.481, p=0.032) regions. This statistical analysis implicates that in case of a high GSH content in LPC of a young male, his LFC region would also contain high GSH and vice versa. The difference in mean of GSH content between healthy young female control and female AD

  2. Transdermal Nicotine Patch Effects on EEG Power Spectra and Heart Rate Variability During Sleep of Healthy Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Bae; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Jeong, Do-Un

    2017-07-01

    The effect of transdermal nicotine patch on sleep physiology is not well established. The current study aimed to examine the influence of nicotine patch on homeostatic sleep propensity and autonomic nervous system. We studied 16 non-smoking young healthy volunteers with nocturnal polysomnography in a double blind crossover design between sleep with and without nicotine patch. We compared the sleep variables, sleep EEG power spectra, and heart rate variability. The night with nicotine patch showed significant increase in sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and stage 1 sleep; and decrease in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and percentage of REM sleep. Also, spectral analysis of the sleep EEG in the night with nicotine patch revealed decreased slow wave activity in stage 2 and REM sleep and increased alpha activity in the first NREM-REM sleep cycle. Heart rate variability showed no differences between the 2 nights, but the low to high ratio (a parameter indicative of sympathetic nervous system activity) positively correlated with wake after sleep onset in night with nicotine patch. Transdermal nicotine patch significantly disrupts sleep continuity, sleep architecture, and homeostatic sleep propensity. The overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system may be responsible for these changes.

  3. Bioequivalence evaluation of two capsule formulations of amoxicillin in healthy adult male bangladeshi volunteers: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ashik; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Sultana, Rebeka; Akbor, Maruf Mohammad; Hasan, Ahasanul; Latif, Mahbub; Hasnat, Abul

    2008-12-01

    Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic penicillin antibiotic, is widely prescribed in Bangladesh due to its extended spectrum and its rapid and extensive oral absorption with good tolerability. Although a number of generic oral formulations of amoxicillin are available in Bangladesh, a study of the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations has not yet been conducted in a Bangladeshi population. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of 2 formulations of amoxicillin 500-mg capsules (test, SK-mox(®); reference, Amoxil-Bencard(®)) using serum data. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Subjects were assigned to receive the test or the reference drug as a single-dose, 500-mg capsule under fasting conditions after a 1-week washout period. After oral administration, blood samples were collected and analyzed for amoxicillin concentration using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log-transformed ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirement. Twenty-four healthy adult male Bangladeshi volunteers (mean [SD] age, 26.92 [3.37] years; age range, 23-34 years; mean [SD] body mass index, 23.O9 [1.58] kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Using serum data, the values obtained for the test and reference formulations, respectively, were as follows: Cmax, 9.85 (2.73) and 10.63 (2.12) μg/mL; Tmax, 1.29 (0.58) and 1.33 (0.49) hours; and AUC0-12, 27.09 (7.62) and 28.56 (6.30) μg/mL · h(-1). No period, sequence, or formulation effects were observed; however, significant

  4. Evaluation of the absolute bioavailability of pegylated interferon alfa-2a after subcutaneous administration to healthy male volunteers: an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Barbara J; Xu, Zhi-Xin; Grippo, Joseph F

    2012-09-01

    Interferon (IFN)-based therapy is the recommended treatment for hepatitis C virus. Because pegylated IFN (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a is administered subcutaneously, it is of interest to determine the proportion of the dose that is absorbed from the subcutaneous (SC) tissue and ultimately reaches systemic circulation. The goal of this study was to characterize the absolute bioavailability of PEG-IFN alfa-2a (40 kDa) after SC dosing (180 μg) and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of PEG-IFN alfa-2a after intravenous (IV) and SC administration. In this parallel-group study, 18 participants were given a single IV dose of PEG-IFN alfa-2a 90 μg and 18 participants received PEG-IFN alfa-2a 180 μg SC. Serum concentrations of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were measured predose and serially until 312 hours after the first dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters (CL/F, volume of distribution, C(max), and T(max)) were estimated using noncompartmental methods. Bioavailability was calculated by using the following formula: (AUC(SC)/AUC(IV)) · (dose(IV)/dose(SC)). Eighteen healthy males received IV PEG-IFN alfa-2a, and an additional 18 healthy males received SC PEG-IFN alfa-2a. Subjects in each group had comparable mean weight, height, and body mass index. After IV administration of PEG-IFN alfa-2a (90 μg), there was a slow decline in serum concentration, the mean rate of systemic clearance was low at 126 mL/h, and the estimated mean volume of distribution at steady state was 9 L. After SC administration of PEG-IFN alfa-2a 180 μg, absorption was sustained, with mean T(max) occurring 102 hours after administration. The mean absolute bioavailability was 84%. A higher rate of influenza-like symptoms was observed after IV administration, along with decreased neutrophil counts, compared with subjects who underwent SC dosing. Approximately 84% of a SC-administered dose of PEG-IFN alfa-2a reached the systemic circulation in these male healthy volunteers. The slow absorption, restricted distribution, and slow

  5. Supplementation of arachidonic acid-enriched oil increases arachidonic acid contents in plasma phospholipids, but does not increase their metabolites and clinical parameters in Japanese healthy elderly individuals: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakutani Saki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of arachidonic acid (ARA among the elderly has recently gained increased attention. The effects of ARA supplementation in the elderly are not fully understood, although ARA is considered to be associated with various diseases. We investigate whether ARA supplementation to Japanese elderly subjects affects clinical parameters involved in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. We also examine the levels of ARA metabolites such as prostanoids during intervention. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group intervention trial. ARA-enriched oil (240 or 720 mg ARA per day or placebo was administered to Japanese healthy men and women aged 55-70 years for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The fatty acid contents of plasma phospholipids, clinical parameters, and ARA metabolites were determined at baseline, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results The ARA content in plasma phospholipids in the ARA-administrated groups increased dose-dependently and was almost the same at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks. The elevated ARA content decreased to nearly baseline during a 4-week washout period. During the supplementation and washout periods, no changes were observed in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. There were no changes in clinical blood parameters related to cardiovascular, inflammatory and allergic diseases. ARA supplementation did not alter the level of ARA metabolites such as urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin (PG F1α and 9,15-dioxo-11α-hydroxy-13,14-dihydro-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostan-1,20-dioic acid (tetranor-PGEM, and plasma PGE2 and lipoxin A4. ARA in plasma phospholipids was not correlated with ARA metabolite levels in the blood or urine. Conclusion These results indicate that ARA supplementation, even at a relatively high dose, does not increase ARA metabolites, and suggest that it does not induce cardiovascular

  6. In vivo assessment of the diaphragm in young male healthy adults: occupation-based activity-related differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogugua Augustine Egwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Very little attention has been paid to the thickness of the diaphragm (DT as an important aspect of architecture of the respiratory muscle and the possible effect of occupation-related unregulated physical activity on it. Aim of the research : This study aimed at assessing the effect of occupation-based physical activity on the thickness of the thoracic diaphragm. Material and methods : Eighty (80 males between the ages of 18 and 30 years were recruited for the study and divided into two (2 groups: a control group of forty (40 relatively inactive subjects and a quasi-experimental group of forty (40 peasant labourers. The peasant labourers were recruited from a settlement of local craftsmen and motor-mechanic artisans. B-mode ultrasound was used to measure the thickness of the diaphragm (DT. Results: The mean DT of the quasi-experimental group was higher than that of the control group (p > 0.05 – not significant, even though the control group presented significantly greater weight and body mass index (p < 0.05 than the age-matched Labourers. Conclusions: These findings indicate that occupation-based unregulated physical activity increases DT and may initiate the setting in of diaphragmatic hypertrophy induced by occupation-associated strength and anaerobic training. The findings will also serve as a guidepost in the biomechanical aspects of the muscle during respiration in our sub-Saharan African population.

  7. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Sontam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  8. Effect of deafferentation from spinal anesthesia on pain sensitivity and resting-state functional brain connectivity in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesters, Marieke; Sitsen, Elske; Oudejans, Linda; Vuyk, Jaap; Aarts, Leon P H J; Rombouts, Serge A R B; de Rover, Mischa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Dahan, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Patients may perceive paradoxical heat sensation during spinal anesthesia. This could be due to deafferentation-related functional changes at cortical, subcortical, or spinal levels. In the current study, the effect of spinal deafferentation on sensory (pain) sensitivity was studied and linked to whole-brain functional connectivity as assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) imaging. Deafferentation was induced by sham or spinal anesthesia (15 mg bupivacaine injected at L3-4) in 12 male volunteers. RS-fMRI brain connectivity was determined in relation to eight predefined and seven thalamic resting-state networks (RSNs) and measured before, and 1 and 2 h after spinal/sham injection. To measure the effect of deafferentation on pain sensitivity, responses to heat pain were measured at 15-min intervals on nondeafferented skin and correlated to RS-fMRI connectivity data. Spinal anesthesia altered functional brain connectivity within brain regions involved in the sensory discriminative (i.e., pain intensity related) and affective dimensions of pain perception in relation to somatosensory and thalamic RSNs. A significant enhancement of pain sensitivity on nondeafferented skin was observed after spinal anesthesia compared to sham (area-under-the-curve [mean (SEM)]: 190.4 [33.8] versus 13.7 [7.2]; pbrain regions involved in affective and sensory pain processing and areas involved in descending control of pain.

  9. Different short-term mild exercise modalities lead to differential effects on body composition in healthy prepubertal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontam, D M; Vickers, M H; O'Sullivan, J M; Watson, M; Firth, E C

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON), bipedal stance (BPS), or wheel exercise (WEX) groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  10. The effect of time of day and exercise on platelet functions and platelet-neutrophil aggregates in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Hatice; Kiliç, Nedret

    2005-12-01

    Platelet activation state changes by exercise. The effect of exercise time on platelet activation state and formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates are not known yet. In this study the effect of exercise and time of day were examined on platelet activity with platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Ten moderately active males aged 27+/- 1.63 (mean+/-S.D.) years completed sub-maximal (70% VO(2max)) exercise trials for 30 min. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded. Venous blood samples were obtained at rest, immediately post-exercise and after 30 min of recovery. Whole blood was analysed for haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean platelet count (MPV) and platelet aggregation (PA). Platelet-neutrophil aggregates and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) levels were assayed. Platelet count showed significant increase after morning exercise ((236+/- 32)x10(9) l(-1) versus (202+/- 34)x10(9) l(-1) baseline, p Exercise resulted in significantly lower MPV after the evening exercise (9.16+/- 0.5 fl versus 9.65+/- 0.36 fl, p exercise and the recovery aggregation levels were significantly different at two different times of the day (68+/- 20% a.m. versus 80+/- 12% p.m., p exercises. Exercise-induced platelet-neutrophil aggregates were higher in the evening (10.7+/- 1.3% p.m. versus 6.4+/- 1.8% a.m., p exercise can cause platelet- neutrophil aggregates. In addition, time of day has an effect on platelet activation related events. Circadian variations of physiological parameters may have an effect on thrombus formation by platelet activation.

  11. Weightbearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and sagittal plane kinematics during single leg drop jump landing in healthy male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Brittany; McPherson, April L; Paci, James M

    2017-06-21

    Passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) measures have been identified as a risk factor for injury during landings. However, passive measurements might not be indicative of dynamic ankle movement, whereas a weightbearing ROM might be a better tool when evaluating movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between weightbearing DROM and sagittal plane landing mechanics in a single leg drop jump task. 73 male athletes (22.1 ± 3.9 years old, height 186.2 ± 11 cm, and weight 100.2 ± 21.8 kg) performed bilateral modified-lunge tasks and bilateral single leg drop jump landings while 3D kinematic data were collected. Hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were calculated at initial contact (IC) maximum knee flexion (MKF), and total excursion (TE) during a single leg drop jump landing. No bilateral differences in DROM and single leg landing mechanics existed. Decreased ankle DROM was correlated to decreased ankle dorsiflexion at MKF (p=0.00) and TE (p=0.00) for both dominant and non-dominant limbs. Decreased ankle DROM was also correlated to decreased knee flexion at IC (p=0.00), MKF(p=0.00), and TE (p=0.1), for both dominant and non-dominant limbs. Ankle DROM correlated to hip flexion at MKF (r=0.25) and TE (r=0.30) in the dominant limb. Restrictions in DROM may contribute to a stiff landing with less flexion at the ankle and knee. These findings may be useful in designing training programs aimed at increasing DROM in order to improve an athlete's landing mechanics and decrease risk of injury.

  12. Brothers Leading Healthy Lives: Outcomes from the pilot testing of a culturally and contextually congruent HIV prevention intervention for black male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Robert E; Rulison, Kelly L; Graham, Louis F; Pulliam, Regina McCoy; McGee, Warner L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Dingman, Deirdre; Rhodes, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    We used a treatment group-only design to pilot test a newly developed intervention to increase condom use among higher risk heterosexually active African American/black male college students. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention called Brothers Leading Healthy Lives. Following an initial screening of 245 men, 81 eligible men were contacted for participation. Of the 64 men who agreed to participate, 57 completed the intervention and 54 of those completed the 3-month follow-up assessment, for a 93% completion rate. Results show significant changes between the baseline and 3-month follow-up assessments in behavioral outcomes, including reductions in unprotected sex, increase in protection during last intercourse, and fewer condom use errors. Most potential mediators (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and condom use self-efficacy) also changed significantly in the expected direction. These demonstrated changes provide good evidence that men exposed to this intervention will see changes that reduce their risk for HIV.

  13. Bioavailability and bioequivalence of two oral formulations of alendronate sodium 70 mg: an open-label, randomized, two-period crossover comparison in healthy Korean adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Si-Youn; Park, Jin-Hee; Park, Yoo-Sin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Dong-Sun; Shaw, Leslie M; Yang, Seok-Chul; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2009-05-01

    Alendronate sodium is a Bisphosphonate drug used to treat and prevent osteoporosis and several other bone diseases. A new formulation has been developed and is currently awaiting regulatory approval, pending findings on bioequivalence. The aims of the present study were to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and to determine the bioequivalence, of a test and reference formulation of alendronate sodium 70 mg in a healthy Korean adult male population. This open-label, randomized, 2-sequence, 2-period crossover study was carried out at Hanyang University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Healthy Korean adult male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a single 70-mg dose of the test or reference formulation of alendronate sodium, administered with 240 mL of water, followed by a 7-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. Serial blood samples were collected and adverse events were monitored by a clinical investigator via observation, personal interview, and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) over a 7-hour period (at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 hours) after drug administration. Plasma alendronate sodium concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic-postcolumn fluorescence derivatization method, with visible detection in the range of 2 to 100 ng/mL and lower limit of quantification set at 2 ng/mL. PK properties, including AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), C(max), T(max), t(1/2), and the elimination constant (k(e)), were determined using non-compartmental analysis. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined interval of 80% to 125%, the regulatory definition set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Twenty-three healthy male volunteers (mean [SD] age, 23.5 [2.0] years [range, 19

  14. Short-term treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A decreases HPA axis activity and plasma noradrenaline levels in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albring, Antje; Wendt, Laura; Harz, Nino; Engler, Harald; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2014-11-01

    Treatment with the selective calcineurin inhibitor and immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) is associated with neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairments. Whether and to what extent CsA is inducing alterations of the neuroendocrine status is unknown so far. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of short-term CsA treatment on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and catecholamine release as well as state anxiety in healthy male subjects. Treatment with CsA significantly reduced plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and noradrenaline whereas adrenaline levels and state anxiety remained unaffected. Future studies should analyze the mechanisms of CsA-induced effects on neuroendocrine variables, neurocognitive functions and mood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males. Part III: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation: standardization of a technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per

    2002-01-01

    a characteristic course, which could be described by a double exponential function of the form: P(t) = P(equ) + P(alpha)e(-t/tau(alpha) + P(beta)e(-t/tau(beta) where P(t) is pressure at time t, P(equ) is equilibrium pressure after dilation, P(alpha) and P(beta) are pressure decay, and tau(alpha) and tau......(beta) are time constants. The size and velocity of dilation, as well as the degree of distension before dilation, proved of significance for the magnitude of the pressure response. The characteristics of the pressure response are given by the properties of the periluminal structures strained during dilation......The urethral response to a sudden forced dilation was studied in ten healthy male volunteers aged from 27 to 71 years. Measurements were performed from the bladder neck and beyond the region of high pressure using a specially designed probe. The pressure response after dilation showed...

  16. Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post

  17. [Changes in core temperature during snow shoveling among healthy young males in heavy-snowfall area of Chugoku region in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yusuke; Wakuri, Hisashi; Onodera, Sho; Ono, Mitsu

    2011-09-01

    There are several recommendations on the prevention of hypothermia during snow shoveling. However, there seemed to be insufficient evidence supporting these recommendations because they are not based on data from actual snow shoveling research. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in brain temperature (tympanic temperature) and visceral temperature (rectal temperature) during snow shoveling among healthy young males. Eight healthy young males (age, 23.6 ± 2.4 years; weight, 69.7 ± 6.1 kg; height, 172.8 ± 7.3 cm) performed snow shoveling with an ordinary-size shovel for 15 min at their own pace in a rural snowfall area in December, 2009. Rectal temperature (Tre) and tympanic temperature (Tty) were measured 5 times (at rest, 5th (Ex5), 10th (Ex10), and 15th (Ex15) minute of snow shoveling; and 5th (Rec5) minute of recovery phase). The room temperature was 18.6 ± 0.7°C and the atmospheric temperature was 3.8 ± 2.6°C. Tre continued to increase from at rest to Ex15. Tre at Ex15 (37.7 ± 0.3°C) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that at rest (37.2 ± 0.3°C). Tty at rest (36.7 ± 0.2°C) and Tty at Ex5 (36.6 ± 0.3°C) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at Ex10 (36.2 ± 0.6°C). A significant negative correlation between changes in Tre and Tty were observed during snow shoveling (r = -0.49, p < 0.05). Discrepancy between changes in brain temperature (tympanic temperature) and visceral temperature (rectal temperature) should be taken into consideration in the prevention of disease development during snow shoveling in a cold environment.

  18. Velcalcetide (AMG 416), a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces serum parathyroid hormone and FGF23 levels in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kevin J; Bell, Gregory; Pickthorn, Karen; Huang, Saling; Vick, Andrew; Hodsman, Peter; Peacock, Munro

    2014-02-01

    Velcalcetide, also known as AMG 416, is a novel, long-acting selective peptide agonist of the calcium sensing receptor. It is being developed as an intravenous treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of velcalcetide in healthy male volunteers. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation study in healthy males aged 18-45 years conducted at a single center. Each cohort included eight subjects randomized 6:2 to velcalcetide or placebo. Velcalcetide at 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 mg or placebo was administered intravenously. Measurements included plasma ionized calcium (iCa), serum total calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcitonin and urine creatinine, calcium and phosphorus and plasma pharmacokinetics for velcalcetide. Vital signs, safety biochemical and hematological indices, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Intravenous administration of velcalcetide was well tolerated with no adverse reaction of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea reported. Velcalcetide mediated dose-dependent decreases in serum iPTH at 30 min, FGF23 at 24 h and iCa at 12 h post dose (P<0.05) and in urine fractional excretion of phosphorus and increases in tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Velcalcetide plasma exposure increased in a dose-related manner and the terminal elimination of half-life was comparable across the dose range evaluated and ranged from 18.4 to 20.0 h. Single IV doses of velcalcetide were well tolerated and associated with rapid, sustained, dose-dependent reductions in serum PTH. The results support further evaluation of velcalcetide as a treatment for SHPT in hemodialysis patients.

  19. Systemic, cerebral and skeletal muscle ketone body and energy metabolism during acute hyper-D-β-hydroxybutyratemia in post-absorptive healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H; Grøndal, Thomas; van Hall, Gerrit

    2015-02-01

    Ketone bodies are substrates during fasting and when on a ketogenic diet not the least for the brain and implicated in the management of epileptic seizures and dementia. Moreover, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (HOB) is suggested to reduce blood glucose and fatty acid levels. The objectives of this study were to quantitate systemic, cerebral, and skeletal muscle HOB utilization and its effect on energy metabolism. Single trial. Hospital. Healthy post-absorptive males (n = 6). Subjects were studied under basal condition and three consecutive 1-hour periods with a 3-, 6-, and 12-fold increased HOB concentration via HOB infusion. Systemic, cerebral, and skeletal muscle HOB kinetics, oxidation, glucose turnover, and lipolysis via arterial, jugular, and femoral venous differences in combination with stable isotopically labeled HOB, glucose, and glycerol, infusion. An increase in HOB from the basal 160-450 μmol/L elicited 14 ± 2% reduction (P = .03) in glucose appearance and 37 ± 4% decrease (P = .03) in lipolytic rate while insulin and glucagon were unchanged. Endogenous HOB appearance was reduced in a dose-dependent manner with complete inhibition at the highest HOB concentration (1.7 mmol/L). Cerebral HOB uptake and subsequent oxidation was linearly related to the arterial HOB concentration. Resting skeletal muscle HOB uptake showed saturation kinetics. A small increase in the HOB concentration decreases glucose production and lipolysis in post-absorptive healthy males. Moreover, cerebral HOB uptake and oxidation rates are linearly related to the arterial HOB concentration of importance for modifying brain energy utilization, potentially of relevance for patients with epileptic seizures and dementia.

  20. A randomized, single-blind, single-dose study evaluating the pharmacokinetic equivalence of proposed biosimilar ABP 980 and trastuzumab in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Vladimir; Chow, Vincent; Zhang, Nan; Markus, Richard

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the proposed biosimilar ABP 980 and trastuzumab in healthy males. In this single-blind study, 157 healthy males were randomized 1:1:1 to a single 6 mg/kg intravenous infusion of ABP 980, FDA-licensed trastuzumab [trastuzumab (US)], or EU-authorized trastuzumab [trastuzumab (EU)]. Primary endpoints were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf) and maximum observed serum concentration (C max). To establish equivalence, the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and 90% confidence interval (CI) for C max and AUCinf had to be within the equivalence criteria of 0.80-1.25. The GMRs and 90% CIs for C max and AUCinf, respectively, were: 1.04 (0.99-1.08) and 1.06 (1.00-1.12) for ABP 980 versus trastuzumab (US); 0.99 (0.95-1.03) and 1.00 (0.95-1.06) for ABP 980 versus trastuzumab (EU); and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) and 0.95 (0.90-1.01) for trastuzumab (US) versus trastuzumab (EU). All comparisons were within the equivalence criteria of 0.80-1.25. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in 84.0, 75.0, and 78.2 of subjects in the ABP 980, trastuzumab (US), and trastuzumab (EU) groups, respectively. There were no deaths or TEAEs leading to study discontinuation and no binding or neutralizing anti-drug anti-bodies were detected. This study demonstrated the PK similarity of ABP 980 to both trastuzumab (US) and trastuzumab (EU), and of trastuzumab (US) to trastuzumab (EU). No differences in safety and tolerability between treatments were noted; no subject tested positive for binding anti-bodies.

  1. The acute effects of the thermogenic supplement Meltdown on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamic responses in young, healthy males

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    Cooke Matt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic supplement, Meltdown, on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamics before and after maximal treadmill exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 12 male participants underwent two testing sessions after consuming either the Meltdown or placebo supplement. While in a fasted state, participants rested for one hour, orally ingested either Meltdown or placebo and rested for another hour, performed a maximal treadmill exercise test, and then rested for another hour. Throughout the testing protocol, resting energy expenditure (REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were assessed. In addition, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed before and after exercise. Meltdown increased REE significantly more than placebo at 45 min (1.44 ± 0.25 vs. 1.28 ± 0.23 kcal/min; p = 0.003, 60 min (1.49 ± 0.28 vs. 1.30 ± 0.22 kcal/min; p = 0.025, and 120 min (1.51 ± 0.26 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 kcals/min; p = 0.014 post-ingestion. Meltdown significantly decreased RER at 30 min (0.84 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04; p = 0.022 and 45 min post-ingestion (0.82 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05; p = 0.042, and immediately post-exercise (0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.90 ± 0.07; p = 0.009. Furthermore, over the course of the evaluation period, area under the curve assessment demonstrated that REE was significantly increased with Meltdown compared to placebo (992.5 ± 133.1 vs. 895.1 ± 296.1 kcals; p = 0.043, while RER was significantly less than placebo (5.55 ± 0.61 vs. 5.89 ± 0.44; p = 0.002 following ingestion. HR and BP were not significantly affected prior to exercise with either supplement (p > 0.05 and the exercise-induced increases for HR and BP decreased into recovery and were not different between supplements (p > 0.05. These data suggest that Meltdown enhances REE and fat oxidation more than placebo for several hours after ingestion in fully rested and

  2. Complete Workplace Indoor Smoking Ban and Smoking Behavior among Male Workers and Female Nonsmoking Workers’ Husbands: A Pseudo Cohort Study of Japanese Public Workers

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    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo cohort study using national cross-sections (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010 was conducted to examine differences in smoking prevalence under different smoking ban policies such as a complete workplace indoor smoking ban (early or recent implementation and a partial smoking ban among male public workers and husbands of female nonsmoking public workers. The effectiveness of smoking bans was estimated by difference-in-differences (DID with age group stratification. The results varied considerably by age and implementation period. Although DID estimates (positive value of DID estimate represents smoking cessation percentage for both smoking bans on total male smoking were not significant, the over-40 age group indicated a significant DID estimate of 5.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8 for the recent smoking ban. For female workers' husbands' smoking, the over-40 age group indicated positive, but not significant, DID estimates for the early and recent smoking bans of 7.2 (−4.7, 19.2 and 8.4 (−2.0, 18.7, respectively. A complete indoor workplace smoking ban, particularly one recently implemented among public office workers aged over 40, may reduce male workers' smoking and female workers' husbands' smoking compared with a partial smoking ban, but the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the study.

  3. Reproducibility of and correspondence among different hepcidin forms in blood and urine and their relationships to iron status in healthy, male Guatemalan volunteers observed over 9 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuemann, Klaus; Solomons, Noel W; Laarakkers, Coby M; Romero-Abal, María-Eugenia; Kroll, Sylvia; Weiss, Guenter; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2011-01-01

    Prohepcidin and the active form hepcidin-25 are two variants of the peptide hormone hepcidin for iron homoeostasis. Their regulatory role and usefulness as biomarkers of the iron status are uncertain. Our aim is to describe the intra-individual variance of serum and urinary hepcidin-25 and prohepcidin concentrations, the mutual associations of the 4 hepcidin formats, and their correspondence with iron status variables in male Guatemalan volunteers. Eight healthy adult males provided serial samples of serum and urine without previous iron dosing over 6 intervals during a 9-week protocol period. Prohepcidin was assayed by a commercial enzyme immunoassay, and hepcidin-25 species in serum and urine were analysed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry after prior enrichment procedures. Serum hepcidin-25 levels correlated significantly with urinary hepcidin-25 concentrations, whereas serum and urinary prohepcidin were not associated with one another or with the homologous or converse formats for hepcidin-25. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were significantly correlated with serum hepcidin-25 concentrations, but not with urine hepcidin-25 or with either format of prohepcidin. Hepcidin-25 shows correspondence across biological fluids, and the background 'status' of hepcidin activation may be related to the host's iron stores, whereas prohepcidin concentrations showed no promise in this regard. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Bioequivalence Study of a New Fixed-dose Combination Tablet Containing S-Amlodipine Nicotinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Jin; Hwang, Hyun Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Geun Hyeog; Cho, Yun-Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Soo Yeon; Cho, Kyung Hee; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Yun Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2017-07-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety profile and the bioequivalence of two different FDC formulations [amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg (reference product) and S-amlodipine nicotinate/olmesartan medoxomil 5/40 mg (test product)]. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way, and 2-period crossover study, including a 3-week washout period, was performed in 32 healthy Korean male volunteers. To analyze the concentration of S-amlodipine or olmesartan, plasma samples were collected up to 144 hours after the dose for S-amlodipine and 48 hours after the dose for olmesartan. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the Cmax and the area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) for the time versus concentration plot, were calculated. Analysis of variance for bioequivalence was conducted using Cmax and AUC0-last converted to log scale, and the mean ratios and 90% CIs were determined. Safety data included analysis of adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory test, and 12-lead ECGs. Of the 32 enrolled participants, 29 healthy volunteers completed the study. For both S-amlodipine and olmesartan, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were all within the acceptable range for regulatory bioequivalence. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of Cmax and AUC0-last were 0.8766 to 0.9760 and 0.8288 to 0.9224, respectively, for S-amlodipine and 0.9097 to 1.1229 and 0.8904 to 1

  5. Differential effects of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype on the cognitive function of schizophrenia patients and healthy Japanese individuals.

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    Shoko Tsuchimine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The functional polymorphism Val158Met in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene has been associated with differences in prefrontal cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Several studies have indicated that the Met allele is associated with better performance on measures of cognitive function. We investigated whether the COMT Val158Met genotype was associated with cognitive function in 149 healthy controls and 118 patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Cognitive function, including verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function and verbal fluency, was assessed by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J. We employed a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and a multiple regression analysis to determine the associations between the COMT Val158Met genotype and the BACS-J measurements. RESULTS: The one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the scores on the Tower of London, a measure of executive function, between the different Val158Met genotypes in the healthy controls (p = 0.023, and a post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the scores on the Tower of London in the val/val genotype group (18.6 ± 2.4 compared to the other two groups (17.6 ± 2.7 for val/met and 17.1 ± 3.2 for met/met; p = 0.027 and p = 0.024, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive function was significantly correlated with the Val158Met genotype (p = 0.003. However, no evidence was found for an effect of the COMT on any cognitive domains of the BACS-J in the patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: These data support the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met genotype maintains an optimal level of dopamine activity. Further studies should be performed that include a larger sample size and include patients on and off medication, as these patients would help to confirm our findings.

  6. Relative bioavailability of levodropropizine 60 mg capsule and syrup formulations in healthy male Korean volunteers: a singledose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Jo, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Cho, Young-Wuk; Yim, Sung-Vin; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-02-01

    Levodropropizine is an oral non-opioid anti-tussive drug used in treatment of cough. A new generic 60 mg capsule formulation of levodropropizine has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the test (capsule) formulation and reference (syrup) formulation of levodropropizine (60 mg) in healthy, fasted, male Korean volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study conducted in healthy male Korean volunteers in the fasted state at Kyung Hee University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 1-week washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after study drug administration. Plasma concentration of levodropropizine was determined using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS) method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for C(max), AUC(0-12h) and AUC(0-∞) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (80 - 125%, according to the guidelines of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea FDA)). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital sign measurements, laboratory analysis (blood biochemistry, hematology, hepatic function and urinalysis) and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). A total of 36 male Korean subjects (mean (SD) age, 23.9 (2.4) years (range 19 - 30 years); height, 176.2 (6.1) cm (range 161 - 190 cm); weight, 69.8 (9.1) kg (range 54.0 - 92.2 kg); body mass index, 22.4 (2.1) kg/m2 (range 19.1 - 28.3 kg/m2)) was enrolled and completed the study. The mean values for C(max), t(max), AUC(0-12h), and AUC(0-∞) with the test formulation of levodropropizine were 331.51 ng/ml, 0.60 hours, 784.32 ng×h/ml, and 825.82 ng×h/ml, respectively; for the reference

  7. Relationship of dietary habits and obesity to oxidative stress in Palauan people: compared with Japanese and Mongolian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Kiyomi

    2009-12-01

    The Republic of Palau belongs to Micronesia, and obese people and lifestyle-related diseases are prevalent there. We investigated the relationship of dietary habits and obesity to oxidative stress in Palauan people, as compared with those of Japanese and Mongolian people. A total of 126 healthy Palauan subjects were enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by serum level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by serum level of biological antioxidant potential (BAP). In Palauan subjects, BMI> or =30 was observed in 45.0% of males and 59.1% of females (Japanese: males 1.3%, females 0.8%, Mongolian: males 6.3%, females 14.7%). Palauan subjects consumed 2553 kcal per day (Japanese 2121 kcal, Mongolians 2534 kcal). The ratios of carbohydrate energy to total energy were 59.8 % (Japanese 54.7 %, Mongolians 50.2%). The ratios of fat energy to total energy were 22.9% (Japanese 26.7%, Mongolians 34.5%). ROM levels in Palauan subjects showed higher than those in Japanese subjects, while BAP levels of Palauan subjects did not decrease compared to those of Japanese. ROM levels correlated with body fat ratio, and showed a reverse correlation with handgrip strength. Handgrip strength decreased in the subjects of more than forty years of age. These findings suggest that the obesity in Palauan people may have a connection with high intake of calories through carbohydrate eating rather than through fat eating. Their high oxidative stress may be induced by obesity, and contribute to an early decline of handgrip strength, ultimately in early aging.

  8. Seasonal Variability in Blood Platelet 5-HT2 Receptor Binding in Healthy Male Subjects as Studied by [3H]-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide ([3H]-LSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal Variability in Blood Platelet 5-HT2 Receptor Binding in Healthy Male Subjects as Studied by [3H]-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide ([3H]-LSD) In studies on platelet 5-HT2 receptor binding in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, there has been a marked variability and a considerable overlap of values between patients and controls. In the present study binding of [3H]-LSD to blood platelet membranes was determined twelve times (three times each season) in 32 healthy male volunteers, ...

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Face Recognition Memory and the Volume of Medial Temporal Lobe Structures in Healthy Young Males

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    Clare E. Mackay

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous new methodology was applied to the study of structure function relationships in the living human brain. Face recognition memory (FRM and other cognitive measures were made in 29 healthy young male subjects (mean age = 21.7 years and related to volumetric measurements of their cerebral hemispheres and of structures in their medial temporal lobes, obtained using the Cavalieri method in combination with high resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Greatest proportional variability in volumes was found for the lateral ventricles (57% for the cerebral hemispheres (8% in the mean volumes of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, temporal pole and temporal lobe on the right and left sides of the brain. The volumes of the right and left parahippocampal gyrus, temporal pole, temporal lobe, and left hippocampus were, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 12 multiple comparisons, significantly correlated with the volume of the corresponding hemisphere (p < 0.05. The volumes of all structures were highly correlated (p < 0.0002 for all comparisons between the two cerebral hemispheres. There were no positive relationships between structure volumes and FRM score. However, the volume of the right amygdala was, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 38~multiple comparisons, found to be significantly smaller in the five most consistent high scorers compared to the five most consistent low scorers (t = 2.77, p = 0.025. The implications for possible relationships between healthy medial temporal lobe structures and memory are discussed.

  10. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  11. Bioavailability and tolerability of combination treatment with revaprazan 200 mg + itopride 150 mg: a randomized crossover study in healthy male Korean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Youn; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Jin, Seok-Joon; Kim, Yo Han; Kim, Mi-Jo; Sung, Hyeryoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Sung Jae; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2012-09-01

    To date, no definitive treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD) has been proven to be effective and reasonably well-tolerated. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) combined with prokinetic agents are considered an effective option. Revaprazan is a selective potassium-competitive acid blocker that reversibly inhibits gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and shows effective acid suppression comparable to PPIs. Itopride is a prokinetic agent that has anticholinesterase activity as well as dopamine D(2) receptor antagonistic activity. For this reason, revaprazan and itopride have been prescribed for FD; however, no available studies have reported the pharmacokinetic interactions of these 2 drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of revaprazan and itopride combination therapy to those of equally dosed monotherapies to acquire basic drug-drug interaction information about revaprazan. This multiple-dose, randomized crossover study was conducted in healthy male Korean subjects. Subjects received, in randomized sequence, a 7-day oral dose of revaprazan 200 mg once daily, itopride 50 mg TID, or both. Each treatment period was separated by a 7-day washout period. Blood samples were collected for up to 24 hours following the last dose at steady state, and drug concentrations were determined using validated LC/MS-MS. Pharmacokinetic properties were obtained using noncompartmental analysis. Drug tolerability was assessed throughout the study, using measurements of vital signs, clinical chemistry testing, and interviews. A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in the study. Among them, 28 subjects completed revaprazan treatment, and 27 completed the study (3 subjects were withdrawn). The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CI) of C(max,ss), and AUC(τ,ss) with revaprazan were 0.92 (0.84-1.00) and 0.96 (0.89-1.03), respectively. The GMRs of C(max,ss) and AUC(τ,ss) with itopride were 1.07 (0.96-1.20) and 1.12 (1.06-1.18), respectively. A total of 15 adverse

  12. A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial to Examine the Effect of Kiwifruit on Satiety and Measures of Gastric Comfort in Healthy Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wallace

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ and kiwifruit without actinidin (A. chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ on digestion of a large protein meal. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited. The participants attended the clinic three times, having fasted overnight. They consumed a test meal consisting of 400 g lean steak and two ‘Hort16A’ or two ‘Hayward kiwifruit’. Subjects completed visual analogue scales (VAS by rating feelings of hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and comfort and swallowed a SmartPill™ before completing further VAS scales. After 5 h, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch to assess satiety. SmartPill™ transponders were worn for five days. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel, or colonic transit time between the two kiwifruit arms of the study measured by SmartPill™. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in VAS satiety measures or energy consumption at the ad libitum meal. However, the measurement of overall gastric comfort tended to be lower, and bloating was significantly reduced following the consumption of the steak meal with ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit (p < 0.028. Conclusions: The SmartPill™ is marketed as a diagnostic tool for patients presenting with gastrointestinal disorders and is usually used with a standard ‘SmartBar’. This small pilot study suggests that it is less likely to measure gastric emptying effectively following a high protein meal, as it may be delayed because of the meal’s physical consistency. However, green kiwifruit, containing actinidin, may reduce bloating and other measures of gastric discomfort in healthy

  13. Investigation of the Brain Biodistribution of the Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitor [(18)F]GSK2647544 in Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiban, Mickael; Coello, Christopher; Wu, Kai; Xu, Yanmei; Lewis, Yvonne; Brown, Andrew P; Buraglio, Mauro; Guan, Chenbing; Shabbir, Shaila; Fong, Regan; Passchier, Jan; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Lockhart, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    GSK2647544 is a potent and specific inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), which was in development as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to refine therapeutic dose predictions and confirm brain penetration, a radiolabelled form of the inhibitor, [(18)F]GSK2647544, was manufactured for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) biodistribution study. [(18)F]GSK2647544 was produced using a novel, copper iodide (Cu(I)) mediated, [(18)F]trifluoromethylation methodology. Healthy male subjects (n = 4, age range 34-42) received an oral dose of unlabelled GSK2647544 (100 mg) and after 2 h an intravenous (iv) injection of [(18)F]GSK2647544 (average injected activity and mass were 106 ± 47 MBq and 179 ± 55 μg, respectively) followed by dynamic PET scans for 120 min. Defined regions of interest (ROI) throughout the brain were used to obtain regional time-activity curves (TACs) and compartmental modelling analysis used to estimate the primary outcome measure, whole brain volume of distribution (VT). Secondary PK and safety endpoints were also recorded. PET dynamic data were successfully obtained from all four subjects and there were no clinically significant variations of the safety endpoints. Inspection of the TACs indicated a relatively homogenous uptake of [(18)F]GSK2647544 across all the ROIs examined. The mean whole brain VT was 0.56 (95 % CI, 0.41-0.72). Secondary PK parameters, Cmax (geometric mean) and Tmax (median), were 354 ng/ml and 1.4 h, respectively. Metabolism of GSK2647544 was relatively consistent across subjects, with 20-40 % of the parent compound [(18)F]GSK2647544 present after 120 min. The study provides evidence that GSK2647544 is able to cross the blood brain barrier in healthy male subjects leading to a measurable brain exposure. The administered doses of GSK2647544 were well tolerated. Exploratory modelling suggested that a twice-daily dose of 102 mg, at steady state, would

  14. C allele of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene A1166C polymorphism affects plasma adiponectin concentrations in healthy young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaga, Katsuko; Fukuo, Keisuke; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Fukada, Rumi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2009-10-01

    Angiotensin II and its type 1 receptor (AT1R) are both expressed in the adipose tissue and involved in the genesis of atherosclerosis as well as hypertension. However, the influence of the AT1R gene A1166C polymorphism on atherosclerosis risk factors and on the development of early atherosclerosis is not clear. We evaluated 416 healthy young women to investigate the effects of this genotype on atherosclerosis risk factors and on carotid intima-media thickness as a validated marker of early atherosclerosis. After adjusting for confounding factors including body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in carriers of the C allele compared with non-carriers. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the C allele was the strongest and most independent determinant of lower plasma adiponectin concentrations. It is noted that the participants with the lowest quartile of plasma adiponectin concentrations had thicker levels of carotid intima-media thickness, lower plasma HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein lipase levels, as well as higher trunk fat mass compared with the highest quartile. In addition, a weak but significant positive correlation was observed between percentages of fat in the diet and plasma adiponectin concentrations in non-carriers of the C allele. In conclusion, AT1R A1166C was associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations and influenced the correlations between dietary fat intake and plasma concentrations of adiponectin. These findings may help to identify vulnerable populations that are susceptible to the development of atherosclerosis and require early dietary recommendations for young women.

  15. Low docosahexaenoic acid status is associated with reduced indices in cortical integrity in the anterior cingulate of healthy male children: a 1H MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Weber, Wade; Chu, Wen-Jang; Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Delbello, Melissa P

    2013-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is the principal omega-3 fatty acid in mammalian brain gray matter, and emerging preclinical evidence suggests that DHA has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated relationships among DHA status, neurocognitive performance, and cortical metabolism measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in healthy developing male children (aged 8-10 years, n = 38). Subjects were segregated into low-DHA (n = 19) and high-DHA (n = 19) status groups by a median split of erythrocyte DHA levels. Group differences in 1H MRS indices of cortical metabolism, including choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), glutamine + glutamate + γ-aminobutyric acid (Glx), myo-inositol (mI), and n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), were determined in the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (R/L-DLPFC, BA9) and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA32/33). Group differences in neurocognitive performance were evaluated with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and identical-pairs version of the continuous performance task (CPT-IP). Subjects in the low-DHA group consumed fish less frequently (P = 0.02), had slower reaction times on the CPT-IP (P = 0.007), and exhibited lower mI (P = 0.007), NAA (P = 0.007), Cho (P = 0.009), and Cr (P = 0.01) concentrations in the ACC compared with the high-DHA group. There were no group differences in ACC Glx or any metabolite in the L-DLPFC and R-DLPFC. These data indicate that low-DHA status is associated with reduced indices of metabolic function in the ACC and slower reaction time during sustained attention in developing male children.

  16. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p < 0.05), except for TV, when compared to pre training results, which were the same as those in the standard device training group. No statistical difference was shown between these groups after the training period had been performed. Furthermore, results of applying artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device

  17. Reasons for smoking cessation attempts among Japanese male smokers vary by nicotine dependence level: a cross-sectional study after the 2010 tobacco tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Shinichi; Momose, Yoshito

    2015-03-20

    To examine the association between smoking cessation attempts during the previous 12 months, motivators to quit smoking and nicotine dependence levels among current male smokers after Japan's massive 2010 tobacco tax increase. Cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire about smoking habits, nicotine dependence levels and factors identified as motivators to quit smoking was administered to 9378 employees working at a company located in Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan (as of 1 October 2011). A total of 2251 male current smokers 20-69 years old. Nicotine dependence level assessed by Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), smoking cessation attempts during the previous 12 months and motivators for smoking cessation. The proportion of current smokers who had attempted to quit smoking within the previous 12 months was 40.6%. Nicotine dependence level of current smokers was negatively associated with cessation attempts during the previous 12 months. Motivators for smoking cessation differed by nicotine dependence levels. 'The rise in cigarette prices since October 2010' as a smoking cessation motivator increased significantly at the medium nicotine dependence level (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.90); however, this association was not statistically significant for individuals with high nicotine dependence (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.92). 'Feeling unhealthy' was significantly negatively associated for medium (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.65) and high (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.71) nicotine dependence levels. Trend associations assessed by assigning ordinal numbers to total FTCD score for those two motivators were statistically significant. The efficacy of smoking cessation strategies can be improved by considering the target group's nicotine dependence level. For smokers with medium and high nicotine dependence levels, more effective strategies aimed at encouraging smoking cessation, such as policy interventions including increasing tobacco taxes, are

  18. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms of the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in a Japanese male patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaiyama, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Motofumi; Morikawa, Teppei; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takeshima, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

    2014-09-22

    Owing to recent advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques for cancer, a patient diagnosed with two or more neoplasms is not rare. We report on the case of a 58-year-old male with multiple primary malignant neoplasms, who suffered from three histological types of malignant neoplasm in six organs, namely the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in chronological order. The first neoplasm was a squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis diagnosed in 2006. The second and third neoplasms were urothelial carcinomas of the right renal pelvis and urinary bladder, respectively, diagnosed in 2008. The remaining three neoplasms were diagnosed in 2010, namely a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor, an adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The glottic cancer and esophageal cancer were treated by external radiation therapy. The malignant neoplasms of the oral floor and those which originated in the urinary tract were surgically resected. All neoplasms except the malignant neoplasm of the oral floor were well controlled. The patient died of cervical lymph node metastasis from the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor in January 2011. As far as we know, the present report is the first one on this combination of primary malignant neoplasms.

  19. Western and Japanese Discourse Style in a Consensus-Building Task Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Haruma; Long, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The current study analyzes discourse style differences between western and Japanese interlocutors in a group consensus-building task discussion. Four discussants (American male, Japanese male, German female and Japanese female) first created a ranking of 5 life values and then participated in a group discussion to arrive at a common group ranking.…

  20. Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) pilot study protocol: a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese male hockey fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Blunt, Wendy; De Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Hunt, Kate; Zou, Guangyong; Sibbald, Shannon; Danylchuk, Karen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-10-19

    . Hockey FIT is a gender-sensitive program designed to engage overweight/obese male hockey fans to improve physical activity and healthy eating choices, thereby leading to weight loss and other positive changes in health outcomes. We expect this study to provide evidence for a full-scale confirmatory pRCT. NCT02396524 (Clinicaltrials.gov). Date of registration: Feb 26, 2015.

  1. Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT pilot study protocol: a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese male hockey fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn P. Gill

    2016-10-01

    analyzed to inform program optimization. Discussion Hockey FIT is a gender-sensitive program designed to engage overweight/obese male hockey fans to improve physical activity and healthy eating choices, thereby leading to weight loss and other positive changes in health outcomes. We expect this study to provide evidence for a full-scale confirmatory pRCT. Trial registration NCT02396524 (Clinicaltrials.gov. Date of registration: Feb 26, 2015.

  2. Evaluation of drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, and metformin in healthy Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liupeng; Wu, Chunyong; Shen, Lu; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Ying; Liu, Fang; Wang, Youqun; Yang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    1. Henagliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor and presents a complementary therapy to metformin for patients with T2DM due to its insulin-independent mechanism of action. This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin and metformin in healthy Chinese male subjects. 2. In open-label, single-center, single-arm, two-period, three-treatment self-control study, 12 subjects received 25 mg henagliflozin, 1000 mg metformin or the combination. Lack of PK interaction was defined as the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence interval (CI) for combination: monotherapy being within the range of 0.80-1.25. 3. Co-administration of henagliflozin with metformin had no effect on henagliflozin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) (GRM: 1.08; CI: 1.05, 1.10) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (GRM: 0.99; CI: 0.92, 1.07). Reciprocally, co-administration of metformin with henagliflozin had no clinically significant on metformin AUC0-24 (GRM: 1.09, CI: 1.02, 1.16) although there was an 11% increase in metformin Cmax (GRM 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23). All monotherapies and combination therapy were well tolerated. 4. Henagliflozin can be co-administered with metformin without dose adjustment of either drug.

  3. Effects of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition on glycemic, gut hormone, triglyceride, energy expenditure, and energy intake responses to fat in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heruc, Gabriella A; Horowitz, Michael; Deacon, Carolyn F; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Rayner, Christopher K; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Little, Tanya J

    2014-11-01

    Fat is the most potent stimulus for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The aims of this study were to determine whether dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition would enhance plasma active incretin [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), GLP-1] concentrations and modulate the glycemic, gut hormone, triglyceride, energy expenditure, and energy intake responses to intraduodenal fat infusion. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, 16 healthy lean males received 50 mg vildagliptin (V), or matched placebo (P), before intraduodenal fat infusion (2 kcal/min, 120 min). Blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon, active GLP-1, and GIP and peptide YY (PYY)-(3-36) concentrations; resting energy expenditure; and energy intake at a subsequent buffet meal (time = 120-150 min) were quantified. Data are presented as areas under the curve (0-120 min, means ± SE). Vildagliptin decreased glycemia (P: 598 ± 8 vs. V: 573 ± 9 mmol·l⁻¹·min⁻¹, P fat to enhance active GLP-1 and GIP, stimulate insulin, and suppress glucagon, thereby reducing glycemia and 2) increases energy expenditure. These observations suggest that the fat content of a meal, by enhancing GLP-1 and GIP secretion, may contribute to the response to DPP-IV inhibition. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. A Novel Method for Studying the Pharmacokinetics of [14C]Umeclidinium After Application to the Axilla or Palm of Healthy Male Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, LL; Hughes, SC; Pereira, AI; Young, GC; Hussey, E; Charlton, P; Baptiste‐Brown, S; Stuart, JS; Vincent, V; van Marle, SP; Schmith, VD

    2016-01-01

    Umeclidinium (UMEC), a long‐acting muscarinic antagonist approved for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was investigated for primary hyperhidrosis as topical therapy. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of [14C]UMEC applied to either unoccluded axilla (UA), occluded axilla (OA), or occluded palm (OP) of healthy males. After 8 h the formulation was removed. [14C]UMEC plasma concentrations (Cp) were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. Occlusion increased systemic exposure by 3.8‐fold. Due to UMEC absorption‐limited pharmacokinetics, Cp data from the OA were combined with intravenous data from a phase I study. The data were described by a two‐compartment population model with sequential zero and first‐order absorption and linear elimination. Simulated systemic exposure following q.d. doses to axilla was similar to the exposure from the inhaled therapy, suggesting that systemic safety following dermal administration can be bridged to the inhaled program, and offering the potential for a reduced number of studies and/or subjects. PMID:27304394

  5. A Novel Method for Studying the Pharmacokinetics of [(14) C]Umeclidinium After Application to the Axilla or Palm of Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Santos, L L; Hughes, S C; Pereira, A I; Young, G C; Hussey, E; Charlton, P; Baptiste-Brown, S; Stuart, J S; Vincent, V; van Marle, S P; Schmith, V D

    2016-08-01

    Umeclidinium (UMEC), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist approved for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was investigated for primary hyperhidrosis as topical therapy. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of [(14) C]UMEC applied to either unoccluded axilla (UA), occluded axilla (OA), or occluded palm (OP) of healthy males. After 8 h the formulation was removed. [(14) C]UMEC plasma concentrations (Cp) were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. Occlusion increased systemic exposure by 3.8-fold. Due to UMEC absorption-limited pharmacokinetics, Cp data from the OA were combined with intravenous data from a phase I study. The data were described by a two-compartment population model with sequential zero and first-order absorption and linear elimination. Simulated systemic exposure following q.d. doses to axilla was similar to the exposure from the inhaled therapy, suggesting that systemic safety following dermal administration can be bridged to the inhaled program, and offering the potential for a reduced number of studies and/or subjects. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Test-re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Chris; Egerton, Tim; Skinner, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81-0.88), test-re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88-0.95), and test-re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65) and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85). Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test-re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test-re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  7. The effect of a high-fat breakfast on the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in healthy male subjects: a randomized phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Parks, Virginia; Chalon, Stephan; Gourley, Ian; Matschke, Kyle; Cailleux, Karine; Fitoussi, Serge; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin. Healthy male subjects were randomized to receive single oral 8 mg doses of moxidectin after an overnight fast or high-fat breakfast. In fasted subjects (N = 27), mean [SD] parameters were C(max): 58.9 [12.5] ng/mL; t(max): 3.7 [1.5] h; area under concentration-time curve (AUC): 3,387 [1,328] ng/h/mL; Vλ(z)/F: 2,829 [1,267] L; CL/F: 2.76 [1.28] L/h; and t(1/2): 784 [347] h. Compared with fasted subjects, fed subjects (N = 27) exhibited a 34% increase in C(max), delay in t(max) to 5.3 [2.1] h, 44% increase in AUC, 40% decrease in Vλ(z)/F, and a 35% decrease in CL/F. There was no significant change in t(1/2). The changes are consistent with an increase in moxidectin bioavailability following administration with food. There were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs, laboratory tests, or electrocardiograms.

  8. Job stressors and long-term sick leave due to depressive disorders among Japanese male employees: findings from the Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Haratani, Takashi; Kobayashi, Fumio; Ishizaki, Masao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Fujita, Osamu; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hiro, Hisanori; Masumoto, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Araki, Shunichi

    2010-03-01

    Research on the association between job strain or other job stressors and depressive disorders is still limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of job strain, role stressors and job insecurity with long-term sick leave due to depressive disorders. A prospective study was conducted of a total of 15 256 men aged 18-67 years with no previous history of mental disorders employed in six manufacturing factories located in several regions of Japan. At baseline, they were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire, including self-reported measures of job strain, as well as its components (job overload and job control), role stressors (role ambiguity and role conflict), social support at work, job insecurity and other demographic and psychological covariates. During the follow-up, a long-term sick leave of 30 days or more due to depressive disorders was recorded. During 5.14 years of follow-up on average, 47 incident cases of sick leave of 30 days or more due to depressive disorders were observed. High job control at baseline was associated with a lower risk of long-term sick leave due to depressive disorders, after adjusting for demographic variables, depressive symptoms and neuroticism at baseline (hazard ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.71); high role ambiguity was associated with the higher risk (hazard ratio 3.49, 95% CI 1.43 to 8.49). Job control and role ambiguity may be important predictors of long-term sick leave due to depressive disorders among male employees, independent of depressive symptoms and neuroticism.

  9. Association between kidney function and genetic polymorphisms in atherosclerotic and chronic kidney diseases: A cross-sectional study in Japanese male workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kubo

    Full Text Available Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been implicated in the predisposition to chronic kidney disease (CKD. Atherosclerotic disease is deeply involved in the incidence of CKD; however, whether SNPs related to arteriosclerosis are involved in CKD remains unclear. This study aimed to identify SNPs associated with CKD and to examine whether risk allele accumulation is associated with CKD.We conducted a cross-sectional study using data of 4814 male workers to examine the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and 59 candidate polymorphisms (17 CKD, 42 atherosclerotic diseases. We defined the genetic risk score (GRS as the total number of risk alleles that showed a significant association in this analysis and examined the relationship with CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. Multivariate logistic regression, discrimination by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI, and category-free net reclassification improvement (cNRI were evaluated.In total, 432 participants were categorized as having CKD. We found eight candidate SNPs with P value < 0.05 (CX3CR1 rs3732379, SHROOM3 rs17319721, MTP rs1800591, PIP5K1B rs4744712, APOA5 rs662799, BRAP rs3782886, SPATA5L1 rs2467853, and MCP1 rs1024611 in the multivariate linear regression adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. Among these eight SNPs, BRAP rs3782886 and SPATA5L1 rs2467853 were significantly associated with eGFR (false discovery rate < 0.05. GRS was significantly associated with CKD (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.26. C-statisics improved from 0.775 to 0.780 but showed no statistical significance. However, adding GRS significantly improved IDI and cNRI (0.0057, P = 0.0028, and 0.212, P < 0.001, respectively.After adjustment for clinical factors, kidney function was associated with BRAP rs3782886 and SPATA5L1 rs2467853 and the GRS for CKD that we

  10. Heat pain detection threshold is associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization: a study of healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen MS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morten Sejer Hansen,1 Jørn Wetterslev,2 Christian Bressen Pipper,3 Mohammad Sohail Asghar,1 Jørgen Berg Dahl4 1Department of Anesthesiology, 4231, Centre of Head and Orthopedics, Rigshospitalet, 2Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, Department 7812, 3Section of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, 4Department of Anesthesiology, Department Z, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Introduction: The area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization (BTS of the skin and heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT may both have predictive abilities in regards to pain sensitivity and clinical pain states. The association between HPDT and secondary hyperalgesia, however, remains unsettled, and the dissimilarities in physiologic properties suggest that they may represent 2 distinctively different pain entities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPDT and BTS-induced secondary hyperalgesia. Methods: A sample of 121 healthy male participants was included and tested on 2 separate study days with BTS (45°C, 3 minutes, HPDT, and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C, 1 minute. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were quantified after monofilament pinprick stimulation. The pain catastrophizing scale (PCS and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS were also applied. Results: A significant association between HPDT and the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia (p<0.0001 was found. The expected change in area of secondary hyperalgesia due to a 1-degree increase in HPDT was estimated to be −27.38 cm2, 95% confidence interval (CI of −37.77 to −16.98 cm2, with an R2 of 0.19. Likewise, a significant association between HADS-depression subscore and area of secondary hyperalgesia (p=0.046 was found, with an estimated expected change in secondary hyperalgesia to a 1-point increase in HADS-depression subscore of 11 cm2, 95% CI (0.19–21.82, and with

  11. Comparison of a Novel Formulation of Abiraterone Acetate vs. the Originator Formulation in Healthy Male Subjects: Two Randomized, Open-Label, Crossover Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Ronald; Hussaini, Azra; Bosch, Bill; Nemeth, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Abiraterone acetate is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The originator abiraterone acetate (OAA) formulation is poorly absorbed and exhibits large pharmacokinetic variability in abiraterone exposure. Abiraterone acetate fine particle (AAFP) is a proprietary formulation (using SoluMatrix Fine Particle Technology™) designed to increase the oral bioavailability of abiraterone acetate. Here, we report on two phase I studies in healthy male subjects aged 18-50 years. In Study 101, 20 subjects were randomized in a crossover design to single doses of AAFP 100, 200, or 400 mg or OAA 1000 mg taken orally under fasting conditions. Results suggested that AAFP 500 mg would be bioequivalent to OAA 1000 mg in the fasted state. To confirm the bioequivalence hypothesis and to further expand the AAFP dose range, in Study 102, 36 subjects were randomized in a crossover design to single doses of AAFP 125, 500, or 625 mg or OAA 1000 mg. Both studies included a 7-day washout period between administrations. Dose-dependent increases in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration with AAFP were observed in both studies. The AAFP 500-mg bioavailability relative to OAA 1000 mg measured by the geometric mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration was 93.4% (90% confidence interval 85.3-102.4), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was 91.0% (90% confidence interval 83.3-99.4), and maximum plasma concentration was 99.8% (90% confidence interval 86.3-115.5). Dose proportionality was seen across all AAFP dose levels (100-625 mg). Abiraterone acetate fine particle was found to be safe and well tolerated in this study. Abiraterone acetate fine particle 500 mg was demonstrated to be bioequivalent to OAA 1000 mg in healthy volunteers under fasted conditions.

  12. Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of 2 formulations of valsartan 160-mg tablets: A randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eon; Ki, Min-Hyo; Yoon, In-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Ree-Sun; Tae Kim, Geun; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2014-02-01

    The solubility of valsartan is dependent on pH and thus may cause patient variability in drug absorption and failure in bioequivalence studies; thus, increasing the solubility and release of valsartan at low pH has been suggested for a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile. However, due to this pH dependence, the change in the formulation process could alter the disintegration and/or dissolution profile of the drug, possibly making the results of bioequivalence studies misleading. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability and tolerability of a newly developed oral formulation of valsartan 160 mg (wet-granulation tablet) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This study was performed with the subjects under fasted conditions, using a randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover design. Subjects were assigned to receive, in randomized order, a single dose of the test formulation and a reference formulation (valsartan 160-mg dry-granulation tablet), with a washout period of 7 days between the administrations. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after the plasma valsartan concentration was analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. The dissolution studies of both formulations were conducted using USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm with 1000 mL of phosphate buffer solution (pH, 6.8) at 37°C ± 0.5°C. Bioequivalence was defined per Korean Food and Drug Administration's regulatory criteria as 90% CIs of the geometric mean test/reference ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax within the range of 0.8 to 1.25. Tolerability was assessed using physical examination and subject interviews. Sixty subjects were enrolled (mean [SD] age [range], 23.6 [2.4] years [21-31]; height, 173.7 [6.6] cm [161-190]; and weight, 68.0 [8.7] kg [54-85]). The mean AUC0-∞ values with the test and reference tablets were 31,784 (13,844) and 32,714 (14,512) ng · h/mL, respectively; Cmax, 5094 (2061) and 5064 (1864) ng/mL; Tmax, 2.92 (1.04) and 3.08 (1

  13. Neural Correlates of Antidepressant-Related Sexual Dysfunction: A Placebo-Controlled fMRI Study on Healthy Males Under Subchronic Paroxetine and Bupropion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Seeringer, Angela; Hartmann, Antonie; Grön, Georg; Metzger, Coraline; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like paroxetine in the treatment of depression, imposing a considerable risk on medication adherence and hence therapeutic success. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is recommended as an alternative treatment without adverse effects concerning sexual arousal and libido. We investigated the neural bases of paroxetine-related subjective sexual dysfunction when compared with bupropion and placebo. We scanned 18 healthy, heterosexual males in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject design while watching video clips of erotic and nonerotic content under steady-state conditions after taking 20 mg of paroxetine, 150 mg of bupropion, and placebo for 7 days each. Under paroxetine, ratings of subjective sexual dysfunction increased compared with placebo or bupropion. Activation along the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including subgenual, pregenual, and midcingulate cortices, in the ventral striatum and midbrain was decreased when compared with placebo. In contrast, bupropion let subjective ratings and ACC activations unchanged and increased activity of brain regions including posterior midcingulate cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and extended amygdala relative to placebo and paroxetine. Brain regions that have been related to the processing of motivational (ventral striatum), emotional, and autonomic components of erotic stimulation (anterior cingulate) in previous studies showed reduced responsiveness under paroxetine in our study. Drug effects on these regions may be part of the mechanism underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. Increased activation under bupropion may point to an opposite effect that may relate to the lack of impaired sexual functioning. PMID:21544071

  14. A novel finasteride 0.25% topical solution for androgenetic alopecia: pharmacokinetics and effects on plasma androgen levels in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserini, Maurizio; Radicioni, Milko; Leuratti, Chiara; Annoni, Ottavia; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-10-01

    Finasteride, a selective inhibitor of type 2 5-α reductase isoenzyme, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and is indicated in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia. The study objective was to evaluate a newly developed finasteride 0.25% topical solution in comparison to the marketed finasteride 1 mg tablet, with respect to finasteride pharmacokinetics and suppressive effects on plasma DHT. 24 healthy men with androgenetic alopecia were randomized in a single center, open-label, parallel-group, exploratory study, and received either multiple scalp applications of the topical solution b.i.d. or oral doses of the reference tablet o.d. for 7 days. Plasma finasteride, testosterone and DHT concentrations were determined. After multiple doses, mean (± SD) finasteride C(max) and AUC(0-t) corresponded to 0.46 ± 0.28 ng/mL and 6.64 ± 7.50 ng/mL x h for the topical solution and to 6.86 ± 1.78 ng/mL and 57.93 ± 29.38 ng/mL x h for the tablet. Plasma DHT was reduced by ~ 68 - 75% with the topical solution and by ~ 62 - 72% with the tablet. No relevant changes occurred for plasma testosterone with either treatment. No clinically significant adverse events occurred. A strong and similar inhibition of plasma DHT was found after 1 week of treatment with the topical and tablet finasteride ormulations, albeit finasteride plasma exposure was significantly lower with the topical than with the oral product (p < 0.0001).

  15. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  16. Pharmacokinetic interaction study of a fixed combination of 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid/30 mg pseudoephedrine versus each of the single active ingredients in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Peter Wolfgang; Birkel, Manfred; Hey, Bernhard; Loose, Irene; Schaefer, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2, ASA) and pseudoephedrine (CAS 90-82-4, PSE) both are remedies given together for the treatment of the symptoms of a common cold, i.e. mainly nasal congestion, running nose, sore throat and headache. The aim of this open, randomized, three-factorial (three-treatment, three-period, six-sequence) Latin Square clinical study was to investigate if there were any pharmacokinetic interactions between ASA and PSE when given as fixed combination of 500 mg ASA/30 mg PSE.HCl. Lack of interaction was assessed by determination of pharmacokinetic characteristics and relative bioavailability of both substances and salicylic acid (CAS 69-72-7, SA), administered in combination and as equally single dosed drugs. In total, the data of 12 healthy male volunteers were included into the pharmacokinetic evaluation. Primary target parameters were ratios combination/equally dosed single drugs of AUCnorm and Cmax, norm of ASA, its metabolite SA and PSE. The primary target parameters were analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) after logarithmic transformation of the data. 90% confidence intervals were calculated for the geometric means of ratios using the mean square error term of the ANOVA. Bioequivalence was given for AUCnorm and Cmax, norm for all ratios calculated. No interaction was found for AUCnorm and Cmax, norm between the fixed combination ASA/PSE and the equally single dosed drugs as reference. The supplementary evaluation for the non-normalized original parameters AUC and Cmax also revealed bioequivalence. All treatments were safe and well tolerated.

  17. The endotoxin-induced increase of cytokines is followed by an increase of cortisol relative to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, R H; Schuld, A; Mullington, J; Haack, M; Schölmerich, J; Pollmächer, T

    2002-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) inhibit T-helper lymphocyte type 2 immune reactions and exert anti-inflammatory effects in some chronic inflammatory diseases. Both DHEA and, in particular, DHEAS levels are dramatically decreased in chronic inflammatory diseases whereas cortisol levels remain stable or are elevated. However, the time course of cortisol relative to DHEA production is not known. We tested whether administration of endotoxin to healthy male subjects can induce an early predominance of cortisol relative to DHEA and DHEAS. It is demonstrated that endotoxin induces a dose-dependent increase of cortisol in relation to DHEA (no effect at 0.2 ng endotoxin/kg body weight (b.w.), clear effect at 0.4 and 0.8 ng/kg b.w., pDHEAS (tested at 0.4 ng/kg b.w., P=0.014). The increase of cortisol relative to DHEA appears 4 h after endotoxin injection and 2 h after a strong increase of interleukin (IL)-6 relative to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). In addition, an increase of cortisol relative to 17OH-progesterone was observed. The ratio of serum IL-6/TNF was positively correlated with the ratio of serum cortisol/DHEA (R(Rank)=0.472, P=0.041) and serum cortisol/17OH-progesterone (R(Rank)=0.514, P=0.048). In conclusion, dissociation of cortisol relative to DHEA, DHEAS or 17OH-progesterone appears very early during a systemic inflammatory response which is associated with an increase of IL-6 relative to TNF. As in chronic inflammatory diseases, during an acute inflammatory response with endotoxin, these physiological hormone changes are probably necessary to achieve adequate cortisol levels at the expense of adrenal androgens.

  18. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicioni, Milko; Castiglioni, Chiara; Giori, Andrea; Cupone, Irma; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA) was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra®) after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years) in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax) and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t) of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film and film-coated tablet were nearly superimposable. The bioequivalence test was fully satisfied for sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil in terms of rate and extent of bioavailability. Adverse events occurred at similar rates for the two formulations and were of mild-to-moderate severity. The results suggest that the new orodispersible film

  19. Bioequivalence of 2 Formulations of Sildenafil Oral Soluble Film 100 mg and Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) 100 mg Oral Tablets in Healthy Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadey, Eric

    Sildenafil citrate tablets (VIAGRA; Pfizer Inc) have been used since 1998 as an oral therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, in some cases, patients may have difficulty in swallowing tablets, and the need to use water to aid in the oral administration of the tablets has the potential to interrupt the sexual encounter, reduce spontaneity, and therefore decrease the quality of the experience. Two oral soluble film (OSF) formulations of sildenafil were developed using MonoSol Rx's proprietary PharmFilm technology. Both films were formulated to dissolve rapidly on the tongue, thereby releasing the drug into the oral cavity, whereupon it is swallowed without the use of water. From a patient perspective, it is anticipated that the film formulations of sildenafil citrate will provide a more compliant and discreet dosage form. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the bioequivalence of the 2 sildenafil OSF 100 mg formulations (MonoSol Rx, LLC) with the sildenafil citrate 100 mg tablets. The design was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence, 3-treatment, single-center, crossover study conducted in 18 healthy, nonsmoking male volunteers under fasting conditions, with each treatment period separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma sildenafil concentrations were measured predose and then periodically to 24 hours after dosing. The 90% confidence intervals for plasma sildenafil AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax for both sildenafil OSF formulations as compared with sildenafil citrate tablets were all within the 80%-125% range, indicating bioequivalence of both film formulations to sildenafil citrate tablets. Overall, the demonstrated bioequivalence coupled with the performance advantages of an OSF dosage form (ie, rapid dissolution in the mouth, can be taken without water, and can be dosed discreetly) suggest that the sildenafil OSF may provide an attractive alternative to sildenafil citrate oral tablets.

  20. Morphological and histopathological study of Air Sacs (Sacci pneumatic in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Sawad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the anatomical and histological features of air sacs in Japanese quail. Twenty healthy birds from Japanese quail (10 Males and 10 Females were obtained for routine anatomical and histological study, 2 ml of 10% chloral hydrate was injected directly into the heart and then they were injected via trachea with a cold cure plastic mixture for corrosion cast making. The birds were immersions in 3% potassium hydroxide 40c for maceration, washing by tap water. Grossly, the quail had eight air sacs , four of these were paired, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic, and abdominal air sacs, while the singular air sacs were the interclavicular and cervical. Histological investigation confirmed that the wall of air sack composed of a delicate single layer of squamous or cuboidal epithelial cells supported by a delicate layer of connective tissue.

  1. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Jared Denman

    2009-01-01

    The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintai...

  2. The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takehiro; Mitsuya, Nodoka; Kogawara, Osamu; Sumino, Shuji; Takanami, Yohei; Sugizaki, Kayoko

    2016-08-31

    Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study. Additionally, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety profiles of a diphtheria-tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) combination vaccine when concomitantly administered with either PRP-CRM197 or PRP-T vaccines. The primary endpoint was the "long-term seroprotection rate", defined as the group proportion with anti-PRP antibody titers ⩾1.0μg/mL, after the primary series. Long-term seroprotection rates were 99.3% in the PRP-CRM197 group and 95.6% in the PRP-T group. The intergroup difference (PRP-CRM197 group - PRP-T group) was 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.099-7.336), demonstrating that PRP-CRM197 vaccine was non-inferior to PRP-T vaccine (pvaccination was higher in the PRP-CRM197 group than in PRP-T. Concomitant administration of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with DTaP vaccine showed no differences in terms of immunogenicity compared with concomitant vaccination with PRP-T vaccine and DTaP vaccine. Although CRM197 vaccine had higher local reactogenicity, overall, both Hib vaccines had acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The immunogenicity of PRP-CRM197 vaccine administered subcutaneously as a three-dose primary series in children followed by a booster vaccination 1year after the primary series induced protective levels of Hib antibodies with no safety or tolerability concerns. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01379846. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  4. A randomised, controlled, two-Centre open-label study in healthy Japanese subjects to evaluate the effect on biomarkers of exposure of switching from a conventional cigarette to a tobacco heating product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nathan; McEwan, Mike; Eldridge, Alison C; Sherwood, Neil; Bowen, Edward; McDermott, Simon; Holmes, Emma; Hedge, Andrew; Hossack, Stuart; Camacho, Oscar M; Errington, Graham; McAughey, John; Murphy, James; Liu, Chuan; Proctor, Christopher J; Fearon, Ian M

    2017-08-22

    Smoking is a leading cause of numerous human disorders including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The development of modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) has been suggested as a possible way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking by reducing exposure to cigarette smoke toxicants. This study is designed to investigate whether biomarkers of such exposure are reduced when smokers switch from smoking commercial cigarettes to using either a novel or a commercially-available tobacco heating product (THP). This study will assess biomarkers of exposure in current smokers who either remain smoking, switch to THP use, or quit all tobacco use completely, for 5 days. The study is an in-clinic (confinement) two-centre, randomised controlled clinical study with a forced-switching design. Subjects of either gender will be aged 23-55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 3 years), of Japanese origin and with a verified smoking status (assessed by exhaled breath carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine levels). Subjects will have a usual brand cigarette within the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar band of 6-8 mg and will be judged to be healthy by medical history, physical examination, vital signs, electrocardiography (ECG), clinical biochemistry and lung function tests. The primary objective of this study is to assess changes within groups in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and of biological effect (BoBE) after a forced switch from a commercial control cigarette to either a menthol or a non-menthol THP. Secondary objectives are to assess between-group differences, to determine nicotine pharmacokinetics for cigarettes and THPs, to assess subject's satisfaction with the study products, and to monitor additional endpoints related to safety and product use. Data from this study will advance our scientific understanding of the changes in exposure to cigarette smoke toxicants in smokers who

  5. A randomised, controlled, two-Centre open-label study in healthy Japanese subjects to evaluate the effect on biomarkers of exposure of switching from a conventional cigarette to a tobacco heating product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Gale

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a leading cause of numerous human disorders including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The development of modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs has been suggested as a possible way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking by reducing exposure to cigarette smoke toxicants. This study is designed to investigate whether biomarkers of such exposure are reduced when smokers switch from smoking commercial cigarettes to using either a novel or a commercially-available tobacco heating product (THP. Design and Methods This study will assess biomarkers of exposure in current smokers who either remain smoking, switch to THP use, or quit all tobacco use completely, for 5 days. The study is an in-clinic (confinement two-centre, randomised controlled clinical study with a forced-switching design. Subjects of either gender will be aged 23–55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 3 years, of Japanese origin and with a verified smoking status (assessed by exhaled breath carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine levels. Subjects will have a usual brand cigarette within the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO tar band of 6-8 mg and will be judged to be healthy by medical history, physical examination, vital signs, electrocardiography (ECG, clinical biochemistry and lung function tests. The primary objective of this study is to assess changes within groups in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE and of biological effect (BoBE after a forced switch from a commercial control cigarette to either a menthol or a non-menthol THP. Secondary objectives are to assess between-group differences, to determine nicotine pharmacokinetics for cigarettes and THPs, to assess subject’s satisfaction with the study products, and to monitor additional endpoints related to safety and product use. Discussion Data from this study will advance our scientific understanding of the

  6. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicioni M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Milko Radicioni,1 Chiara Castiglioni,1 Andrea Giori,2 Irma Cupone,3 Valeria Frangione,4 Stefano Rovati4 1CROSS Research S.A., Phase I Unit, Arzo, Switzerland; 2IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy; 3Bouty S.p.A., Strada Padana Superiore, Cassina De’ Pecchi, Italy; 4IBSA Institut Biochimique S.A., Pambio-Noranco, Switzerland Abstract: A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra® after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg

  7. Effect of sub-chronic treatment with Jarsin (extract of St John's wort, Hypericum perforatum) at two dose levels on evening salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M; Hafizi, S; Reed, A; Hockney, R; Murck, H

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the effect of two doses of extracts from Hypericum perforatum (HP), Jarsin, on evening salivary cortisol and NA-mediated melatonin in healthy male volunteers. Twenty healthy male volunteers were randomly given a low or high dose of Jarsin for 7 days. Saliva samples for cortisol and melatonin, and overnight urine samples were collected for cortisol and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Treatment significantly increased salivary cortisol throughout the whole collection period in the low dose group but had no discernable effect in the high dose group. Salivary melatonin was not increased in either dose group following treatment. Salivary cortisol was enhanced in the low dose group only and melatonin was not affected by either treatment. We suggest that HP may enhance salivary cortisol via a U-shaped dose-response relationship and that this may be mediated through a 5-HT2 mechanism.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous pan-class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor [14C]copanlisib (BAY 80-6946) in a mass balance study in healthy male volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerisch, Michael; Schwarz, Thomas; Lang, Dieter; Rohde, Gabriele; Reif, Stefanie; Genvresse, Isabelle; Reschke, Susanne; van der Mey, Dorina; Granvil, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled copanlisib (BAY 80-6946) in healthy male volunteers and to investigate the disposition and biotransformation of copanlisib. Methods A single dose of 12?mg copanlisib containing 2.76?MBq [14C]copanlisib was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion to 6 volunteers with subsequent sampling up to 34?days. Blood, plasma, urine and feces were collected to monitor total radioactivity, parent compound and metabolites. Results Copanlisib trea...

  9. The dilemma for Japanese students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....

  10. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  11. Pharmacokinetic interaction of finasteride with tamsulosin hydrochloride: an open-label, randomized, 3-period crossover study in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nannan; Xu, Hongrong; Wang, Guoqin; Wang, Jiangdian; Chen, Weili; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Mengjie; Li, Xuening

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between finasteride and tamsulosin in healthy Chinese male subjects. This was an open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover study. Subjects received single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride alone, single and multiple doses of 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release capsule alone, and single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride with 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride, in an order determined by a computerized randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing on study day 1 and up to 24 hours after dosing on study day 9 for determination of plasma concentrations with a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated via noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assays, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG. Fifteen subjects were enrolled, and 14 completed the study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CIs) of AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of finasteride at steady state between coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.14 (1.05-1.23) and 1.06 (0.99-1.14), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of finasteride for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.02 (0.94-1.11) and 1.06 (1.01-1.11), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of tamsulosin at steady-state for coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.18 (1.05-1.33) and 1.23 (1.06-1.43), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of tamsulosin for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.04 (0.97-1.10) and 1.04 (0.98-1.11), respectively. Statistical analyses

  12. An open label, dose response study to determine the effect of a dietary supplement on dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and estradiol levels in healthy males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwafor, Fru; Anderson, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Background Maintaining endogenous testosterone (T) levels as men age may slow the symptoms of sarcopenia, andropause and decline in physical performance. Drugs inhibiting the enzyme 5α-reductase (5AR) produce increased blood levels of T and decreased levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, symptoms of gynecomastia have been reported due to the aromatase (AER) enzyme converting excess T to estradiol (ES). The carotenoid astaxanthin (AX) from Haematococcus pluvialis, Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE) from Serenoa repens and the precise combination of these dietary supplements, Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™)), have been reported to have inhibitory effects on both 5AR and AER in-vitro. Concomitant regulation of both enzymes in-vivo would cause DHT and ES blood levels to decrease and T levels to increase. The purpose of this clinical study was to determine if patented Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™)) could produce these effects in a dose dependent manner. Methods To investigate this clinically, 42 healthy males ages 37 to 70 years were divided into two groups of twenty-one and dosed with either 800 mg/day or 2000 mg/day of Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™)) for fourteen days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 and assayed for T, DHT and ES. Body weight and blood pressure data were collected prior to blood collection. One-way, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA-RM) was performed at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences from baseline within each group. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA-2) was performed after baseline subtraction, at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences between dose groups. Results are expressed as means ± SEM. Results ANOVA-RM showed significant within group increases in serum total T and significant decreases in serum DHT from baseline in both dose groups at a significance level of alpha = 0.05. Significant decreases in serum ES are reported for the 2000 mg/day dose

  13. An open label, dose response study to determine the effect of a dietary supplement on dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and estradiol levels in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mark L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining endogenous testosterone (T levels as men age may slow the symptoms of sarcopenia, andropause and decline in physical performance. Drugs inhibiting the enzyme 5α-reductase (5AR produce increased blood levels of T and decreased levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. However, symptoms of gynecomastia have been reported due to the aromatase (AER enzyme converting excess T to estradiol (ES. The carotenoid astaxanthin (AX from Haematococcus pluvialis, Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE from Serenoa repens and the precise combination of these dietary supplements, Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™, have been reported to have inhibitory effects on both 5AR and AER in-vitro. Concomitant regulation of both enzymes in-vivo would cause DHT and ES blood levels to decrease and T levels to increase. The purpose of this clinical study was to determine if patented Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™ could produce these effects in a dose dependent manner. Methods To investigate this clinically, 42 healthy males ages 37 to 70 years were divided into two groups of twenty-one and dosed with either 800 mg/day or 2000 mg/day of Alphastat® (Mytosterone(™ for fourteen days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 and assayed for T, DHT and ES. Body weight and blood pressure data were collected prior to blood collection. One-way, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA-RM was performed at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences from baseline within each group. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA-2 was performed after baseline subtraction, at a significance level of alpha = 0.05 to determine differences between dose groups. Results are expressed as means ± SEM. Results ANOVA-RM showed significant within group increases in serum total T and significant decreases in serum DHT from baseline in both dose groups at a significance level of alpha = 0.05. Significant decreases in serum ES are reported for the 2000

  14. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Eating Healthy Eating Healthy Contact Us Resources Eating Healthy Eating healthy is part of living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, ...

  15. Analysis of the Effect of Chronic and Low-Dose Radiation Exposure on Spermatogenic Cells of Male Large Japanese Field Mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Sachio; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Sugano, Yukou; Fujishima, Yohei; Nakata, Akifumi; Kasai, Kosuke; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Miura, Tomisato; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2017-02-01

    In this study we analyzed the effect of chronic and low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation on spermatogenic cells of large Japanese field mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. In March 2014, large Japanese field mice were collected from two sites located in, and one site adjacent to, the FNPP ex-evacuation zone: Tanashio, Murohara and Akogi, respectively. Testes from these animals were analyzed histologically. External dose rate from radiocesium (combined (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in these animals at the sampling sites exhibited 21 μGy/day in Tanashio, 304-365 μGy/day in Murohara and 407-447 μGy/day in Akogi. In the Akogi group, the numbers of spermatogenic cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells per seminiferous tubule were significantly higher compared to the Tanashio and Murohara groups, respectively. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells tended to be detected at a lower level in the Murohara and Akogi groups compared to the Tanashio group. These results suggest that enhanced spermatogenesis occurred in large Japanese field mice living in and around the FNPP ex-evacuation zone. It remains to be elucidated whether this phenomenon, attributed to chronic exposure to LDR radiation, will benefit or adversely affect large Japanese field mice.

  16. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  17. Crosscultural differences in frontalis muscle tension levels: an exploratory study comparing Japanese and Westerners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, K; Lutterjohann, M; Shah, M D

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes a comparison between Japanese (N = 20) and Westerners (N = 20) in their respective frontal EMG levels and their ability to relax during one 5-minute biofeedback training session. The data indicated a significantly lower baseline muscle tension level in Japanese than in Westerners. After EMG biofeedback, however, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Japanese females showed significantly higher tension levels both during baseline and biofeedback phases than did japanese males.

  18. Relationship between the three kinds of healthy habits and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takashi; Fukumoto, Tsutomu; Ito, Kyoko; Hasegawa, Yasutaka; Osaki, Takanobu

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, the diagnostic criteria for Japan-specific metabolic syndrome were published. The representative health habits are Breslow's seven healthy practices, Morimoto's eight items and Ikeda's six healthy habits. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome related with life-style strongly among these three sets of healthy habit. Cross-sectional study was conducted for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by practicing these healthy habits. 20,776 Japanese individuals visited the Health Science Center at Jikei University Hospital in Japan for medical check-ups. Subjects were divided into 8 groups based on gender and age (females in their 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s, and males in their 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s). Participants completed a simple, self-administered lifestyle questionnaire based on the three sets of healthy habits. Subjects were divided into three groups (poor, moderate and favorable) according to each of the healthy habit criteria. Significant differences were observed among 10 groups for Breslow's seven healthy practices, 4 groups for Morimoto's eight items, and 13 groups for Ikeda's six healthy habits. Ikeda's six healthy habits showed the most significant differences among the three sets of habits. Among the three methods tested, to practice more Ikeda's healthy habits were the most useful for metabolic syndrome. © 2009 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An open label study to determine the effects of an oral proteolytic enzyme system on whey protein concentrate metabolism in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shil C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that protein intake of 1.5 – 2.8 g/kg/day (3.5 times the current recommended daily allowance is effective and safe for individuals trying to increase or maintain lean muscle mass. To achieve these levels of daily protein consumption, supplementing the diet with processed whey protein concentrate (WPC in liquid form has become a popular choice for many people. Some products have a suggested serving size as high as 50 g of protein. However, due to possible inhibition of endogenous digestive enzymes from over-processing and rapid small intestine transit time, the average amount of liquid WPC that is absorbed may be only 15 g. The combined effect of these factors may contribute to incomplete digestion, thereby limiting the absorption rate of protein before it reaches the ceacum and is eliminated as waste. The purpose of this study was to determine if Aminogen®, a patented blend of digestive proteases from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, would significantly increase the in-vivo absorption rate of processed WPC over control values. It also investigated if any increase would be sufficient to significantly alter nitrogen (N2 balance and C-reactive protein (CRP levels over control values as further evidence of increased WPC absorption rate. Methods Two groups of healthy male subjects were assigned a specified balanced diet before and after each of two legs of the study. Subjects served as their own controls. In the first leg each control group (CG was dosed with 50 g of WPC following an overnight fast. Nine days later each test group (TG was dosed following an overnight fast with 50 g of WPC containing either 2.5 g (A2.5 or 5 g (A5 of Aminogen®. Blood samples were collected during each leg at 0 hr, 0.5 hr, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 3.5 hr and 4 hr for amino acid (AA and CRP analyses. The following 18 AAs were quantified: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine

  20. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... recruited from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and were without cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, or medication and without cardiovascular events during 5 to 12 years before and 3 to 5 years after admission. The specificity, that is, the probability of displaying a negative test result...

  1. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  2. The effect of acute exogenous melatonin on P50 suppression in healthy male volunteers stratified for low and high gating levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Ebru; Lehtinen, Emilia K; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2012-01-01

    Sensory gating is frequently found to be disturbed in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, a disruption of the circadian rhythm together with a low nocturnal melatonin output is regularly found in these patients. Since there is some evidence that a brief period of sleep normalizes sensory......'s ability to restore basic sleep rhythms and its subsequent effects on sensory gating, in both healthy volunteers and patients with schizophrenia....

  3. [Mexico and Japanese emigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaguida, T; Akagui, T

    1995-08-01

    "Japanese immigration to Mexico began in the last decade of the 19th century with a coffee growing project, and proved a failure. Subsequent attempts [at] sending contract labor migrants by emigration agencies, which involved 10,000 Japanese emigrants in 1901-1908, were also unsuccessful, and Mexico turned for Japanese emigrants into a short step on their way to the United States. The evolution of those who remained in Mexico and the different developments of the Japanese communities in Mexico [are] analyzed here until the period after World War II." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  4. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts ...

  5. Generation of a human control PBMC derived iPS cell line TUSMi001-A from a healthy male donor of Han Chinese genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year old healthy man of Han Chinese genetic background donated his peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. The non-integrating episomal vector system was used to reprogram his PBMCs with the human OSKM (Oct4, Sox2, Kl4 and c-Myc transcription factors. The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and by the ability of the iPSCs to differentiate spontaneously into 3 germ layers in vitro. In addition, the iPSC line displayed a normal karyotype. In the studies of disease mechanism, the iPSC line can be used as a control.

  6. Genitalia morphometry and testicular characteristics of male white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to evaluate genitalia morphometry of the male white Japanese quails at three different age groups. Fifty-four male Japanese quails were allotted to 3 treatment groups (Pubertal, Mature and Adult) in a completely randomized design. Pubertal (7-10 weeks), mature (15-20 weeks) and the adults ...

  7. [The low content of apolipoprotein E as a risk factor of increasing of ratio apolipoprotein B/A-1 in healthy males with normal lipemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneva, A M; Potolitsyna, N N; Liudinina, A Iu; Alisultanova, N Zh; Boĭko, E R

    2014-12-01

    The relationship of ratio of apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoA-1 with other indicators of lipid metabolism in healthy people with normal lipemia was analyzed. The dependence of ratio of apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoA-1 from content of apoE (X2=8.20; p=0.042) was established. Under low indicators of apoE risk of detection of unfavorable ratio apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoA-1 (higher than 0.9) increases (probability ratio 0.61, CI 95% 0.41-0.88, p=0.009). It is possible that low content of apoE results in deceleration of elimination and accumulation of lipoproteins in blood. This occurrence is followed by alteration of balance between apoE and apoA-1. In general, among patients with unfavorable ratio apoB/apoA-1 in spite of normal lipemia were detected higher indicators of triglycerides and atherogenic index of plasma and lower values of ratio of cholesterol lipoproteins of low density and apoB. This observation indicates on increasing of quantity triglyceride-reach lipoproteins and little solid lipoproteins of low density. Therefore, low content of apoE in blood can be considered as a predictor of increasing of ratio apoB/apoA-1 in healthy persons.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  9. Bioequivalence of two formulations of glucosamine sulfate 500-mg capsules in healthy male Chinese volunteers: an open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, fasting, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, YuBing; Zou, JianJun; Xiao, DaWei; Fan, HongWei; Yu, CuiXia; Zhang, JingJing; Yang, Jing; Guo, DaQing

    2009-07-01

    Glucosamine sulfate is used for the treatment of arthrosis, especially osteoarthritis of the knee joint. The available evidence suggests differences in its pharmacokinetics in Chinese subjects compared with non-Chinese subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of glucosamine sulfate 500 mg after single oral administration in healthy Chinese volunteers. This open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, 2-way crossover study was performed at the First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 500-mg dose of the test or reference capsule formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. Glucosamine sulfate was assayed using a liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were obtained at intervals over a 14-hour period after study drug administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (70%-143% for C(max) and 80%-125% for AUC) as established by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis), and by questioning subjects about adverse events (AEs). Twenty-two healthy male Chinese subjects were enrolled (mean [range] age, 24 [22-26] years; weight, 63.9 [58.5-69.3] kg; height, 172 [167-177] cm); all completed the study. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity)) were 93.4 to 127.3, 92.4 to 114

  10. Colonization of the Tongue Surface in Japanese Independent Elders: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral care is important to decrease oral bacteria, especially in the dependent elders. There have been some reports on oral microflora in the dependent elders. However, investigations involving healthy independent elders are limited. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information on the microflora in Japanese independent elders. One hundred Japanese independent elders aged 65 years or older participated in this study. Eighty-one independent elders (male: 44, female: 37, mean age: 72.7 ± 5.8 participated in this study. Their mean Barthel Index was 99.1 ± 3.1, and mean score of MMSE was 28.0 ± 2.3. The tongue bacterial flora was examinved to identify microorganisms by the culture method. The predominant aerobic organisms were Streptococcus spp. (detection rate: 100%, Neisseria spp. (96%, and Corynebacterium spp. (56%. Candida spp. was also isolated (32%. In this study, the oral microflora of the tongue in Japanese independent elders was clarified. The results of this investigation may contribute to research on oral bacteria in elder persons in the future.

  11. Japanese Media in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  12. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  13. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  14. Trait Anxiety among Japanese Massage Practitioners with Visual Impairment: What Is Required in Japanese Rehabilitation Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoyama, Nozomi; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2009-01-01

    This questionnaire-based study of Japanese massage practitioners with visual impairment (n = 155, 126 males, 29 females, mean age = 41 years) found that measures of self-repression, helplessness and "daily hassles" were positively correlated to measures of trait anxiety. Also, trait anxiety was negatively associated with measures of…

  15. Relative bioavailability of generic and branded acetylcysteine effervescent tablets: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen

    2010-11-01

    Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and

  16. Single-dose bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of polysaccharide iron complex capsules in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers: A sequence-randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Hong; Su, Feng; Lui, Ying-Tao; Li, Jun-Feng

    2009-04-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common nutritional disease worldwide. Iron supplementation is an efficient method for treating patients with IDA. Polysaccharide iron complex is an oral iron supplement that is associated with generally good tolerability and good bioavailability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of 2 branded formulations of polysaccharide iron complex in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers by determining the pharmacokinetic parameters after single-dose oral admi ni strati on. This sequence-randomized, double-blind, 2-way crossover study was carried out in the Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Healthy adult male Chinese volunteers were enrolled and evenly randomized to receive 1 of 2 formulations on day 1. Subjects received an oral dose of 150 mg (1 capsule) of polysaccharide iron complex with 150 mL of warm water in the morning. Capsules were of similar size, shape, and color to ensure blinding. Four hours after administration, the subjects were given standardized meals. After a 1-week washout period, the subjects were crossed over to receive the other formulation in a similar manner. The serum iron concentration 12 hours after study drug administration was determined using atomic-absorption spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were obtained and analyzed using the Schuir mann 2 one-sided t test. The 2 formulations were considered bioequi valent if the test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and their 90% CIs were within the range of 70% to 143% for Cmax and within 80% to 125% for AUC0-t. Tolerability was monitored by inquiring whether the subjects had experienced adverse events (AEs), with a focus on gastrointestinal AEs, during the clinic visits during the 24-hour period after drag administration and subsequently via telephone throughout the study. Thirty adult male Chinese volunteers were assessed for inclusion. Twenty healthy

  17. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L

    2007-04-01

    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  18. The 100-meter timed test: Normative data in healthy males and comparative pilot outcome data for use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Lindsay N; Miller, Natalie F; Berry, Katherine M; Yin, Han; Rolf, Kimberly E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Mendell, Jerry R; Lowes, Linda P

    2017-05-01

    Timed walking tests are often used to measure function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our objective was to evaluate the 100 meter timed test (100m), a fixed distance test of maximal performance, for use in DMD. To this end, we sought to establish normative 100m performance in healthy controls, compare DMD performance to controls, and evaluate the reliability of 100m. Seventy-two boys with DMD (18 steroid-naïve, 54 on steroids) and 599 controls (4-14 years) completed the 100m as speedily as possible on a 25-meter track. Repeat testing was completed between 1 and 42 days later and again at 1 year in a subgroup of 96 control boys. Additionally 35 DMD boys were followed longitudinally (5-19 months). Descriptive statistics are presented by age and cohort. There was a significant difference in performance between groups (p  0.90, p < 0.001). Normative data can be used to determine percent-predicted 100m times to quantify the severity of running impairment in children with a motor deficit. Performance of 100m follows the natural history established by other outcome measures in DMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects of naloxegol at peripheral and central nervous system receptors in healthy male subjects: A single ascending-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, Michael A; Kugler, Alan R; Medve, Robert A; Bui, Khanh; Butler, Kathleen; Sostek, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose, crossover study evaluated single oral doses of naloxegol (NKTR-118; 8, 15, 30, 60, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg), a PEGylated derivative of naloxone, for safety and tolerability, antagonism of peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) effects of intravenous morphine, and pharmacokinetics. Healthy men were randomized 1:1 to naloxegol or naloxegol-matching placebo administered with morphine and lactulose in a 2-period crossover design. Periods were separated by a 5- to 7-day washout. Assessments included safety, tolerability, orocecal transit time (OCTT), pupillary miosis, and pharmacokinetics. The study was completed by 46 subjects. The most common adverse events were somnolence, dizziness, headache, and nausea. Greater reversal of morphine-induced delay in OCTT occurred with increasing naloxegol dose, demonstrating dose-ordered antagonism of morphine's peripheral gastrointestinal effects. Forty-four subjects showed no reversal of pupillary miosis; 2 showed potential partial reversal at 250 and 1000 mg, indicating negligible antagonism of morphine's CNS effects at doses ≤ 125 mg. Rapid absorption, linear pharmacokinetics up to 1000 mg, and low to moderate between-subject pharmacokinetic variability was observed. The pharmacokinetics of morphine or its glucuronide metabolites were unaltered by concurrent naloxegol administration. Naloxegol was generally safe and well tolerated at single doses up to 1000 mg. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Voxel-specific brain arterial input functions from dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and blind deconvolution in a group of healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordli, Håkon; Taxt, Torfinn; Moen, Gunnar; Grüner, Renate

    2010-04-01

    Arterial input functions may differ between brain regions due to delay and dispersion effects in the vascular supply network. Unless corrected for, these differences may degrade quantitative estimations of cerebral blood flow in dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (DSC-MRI). To investigate in a healthy population (n=44) the properties of voxel-specific arterial input functions that were obtained using a recently published blind estimation approach. The voxel-specific arterial input functions were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed, through visual inspection or by comparing time-to-peak (delays) and peak amplitude (dispersion) values between eight regions of the brain. Furthermore, they were compared to arterial input functions selected manually in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), where normally no delay or dispersion of the contrast agent was expected. The estimated voxel-specific arterial input functions varied between brain regions. Differences in delays and dispersion were larger within one brain region among all participants than between regions in one participant. A good correlation was typically found between the estimated voxel-specific arterial input functions and the manually selected arterial input functions in the MCA region. Given knowledge of neurovascular anatomy, the current blind approach seemingly produced reasonable estimates of voxel-specific arterial input functions. In addition to potentially reducing quantification errors in DSC-MRI, these user-independent voxel-specific arterial input functions could be useful for visualizing abnormal blood supply patterns in patients.

  1. Body Image and Westernization Trends among Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Hailey E.; Reel, Justine J.; Galli, Nick A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The purpose of this project was to examine body dissatisfaction and the degree of acculturation to Western media body ideals among Japanese adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in body esteem were examined between male and female participants. Methods: Male and female participants (N=158) aged 15 to 18 years in Okinawa,…

  2. The Japanese adaptation of the STAI Form Y in Japanese working adults--the presence or absence of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, N; Mishima, N; Shimizu, T; Mizoue, T; Fukuhara, M; Hidano, T; Spielberger, C D

    1998-01-01

    Symptom endorsements and response patterns of 1,862 Japanese adult workers (1,509 males and 353 females) to the Japanese adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-JY) items, were examined in this study. The mean STAI-JY State and Trait anxiety scores of Japanese workers were substantially higher than those of American workers reported in the Manual, due primarily to the much higher scores of Japanese workers in responding to the anxiety-absent items. The correlations between the State and Trait anxiety-present scales and those of their anxiety-absent scales' counterparts were higher than those between the State anxiety-present and -absent scales and those of their Trait scales' counterparts. These findings suggested that responses to anxiety-present and -absent items should be considered independently in scoring the STAI-JY scales in Japanese working adults.

  3. Bioequivalence and comparison of pharmacokinetic properties of 4-mg tablet formulations of rosiglitazone hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Ma, Ke; Qi, Jinwen; Jin, Ge; Wang, Yan; Fang, Shungan; Li, Gonghua

    2008-12-01

    Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing oral thiazolidinedione used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are 9 oral generic and branded formulations of rosiglitazone available in the People's Republic of China (PRC); however, a literature search did not identify any published data concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Chinese population. The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and determine the bioequivalence of 2 formulations of rosiglitazone 4-mg tablets-rosiglitazone hydrochloride (test) and rosiglitazone maleate (reference)-in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers. This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, PRC. Healthy adult male Chinese volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a single 4-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 7-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a >or=12-hour (overnight) fast. Plasma was analyzed for rosiglitazone concentration using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity), blood samples were drawn before (0 hour; baseline) and at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the logarithm-normal (ln)-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80% to 125%, as established by the US Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was assessed using physical examination, including monitoring of vital signs, laboratory testing (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, renal function, and urinalysis), and questioning subjects about adverse events (AEs). Twenty subjects were enrolled and completed the study (mean [SD] age, 21.1 [1.4] years

  4. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of avanafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor: a single- and multiple-dose, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinah; Choi, Sangmin; Cho, Sang Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Hwang, Aekyung; Kim, Unjib; Kim, Bong Sik; Koguchi, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Shinji; Okabe, Hirotaka; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2010-06-01

    Avanafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor being developed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. This study was conducted to meet Korean regulatory requirements for the marketing of avanafil. To this end, tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties of single and multiple oral doses of avanafil in healthy Korean male volunteers were assessed. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-escalation study was conducted at the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). Subjects were randomized to receive either drug or placebo in blocks according to each dose. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive 50-, 100-, or 200-mg tablets of avanafil or placebo once daily for 7 days (avanafil:placebo, 8:2 in each dose group). Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and results of laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, and color discrimination tests. Blood samples of approximately 6 mL were collected in heparinized tubes before and 0.1, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration on days 1 and 7. Plasma concentrations of avanafil were measured using LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters of avanafil on days 1 and 7 were determined by noncompartmental analysis and compared among the 3 dose groups. Of the 32 healthy male subjects initially enrolled, 30 completed the study. The mean (SD) age, height, and weight of the participants were 23.4 (1.7) years, 175.0 (5.4) cm, and 70.3 (8.9) kg, respectively. Adverse events were reported by 20 of 25 subjects (80%) taking avanafil and by 4 of 6 (67%) taking placebo. No serious adverse events were reported, and there were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs, ECG recordings, physical examination findings, or color discrimination test results. All the adverse events resolved spontaneously. Avanafil reached a mean T(max) at 0.33 to 0.52 hour after dosing and then declined, with a mean apparent t1/2 of 5.36 to 10.66 hours. AUC and C(max) were proportional

  5. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  6. Genome-wide scan identifies variant in TNFSF13 associated with serum IgM in a healthy Chinese male population.

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    Ming Yang

    Full Text Available IgM provides a first line of defense during microbial infections. Serum IgM levels are detected routinely in clinical practice. And IgM is a genetically complex trait. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic variants affecting serum IgM levels in a Chinese population of 3495, including 1999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1496 independent individuals in the second stage. Our data show that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs11552708 located in the TNFSF13 gene was significantly associated with IgM levels (p = 5.00×10(-7 in first stage, p = 1.34×10(-3 in second stage, and p = 4.22×10(-9 when combined. Besides, smoking was identified to be associated with IgM levels in both stages (P0.05. It is suggested that TNFSF13 may be a susceptibility gene affecting serum IgM levels in Chinese male population.

  7. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  8. Subgingival microflora and antibody responses against periodontal bacteria of young Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Nishimura, F; Kurihara, M; Iwamoto, Y; Takashiba, S; Miyata, T; Murayama, Y

    2001-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a complication of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), although the mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine oral manifestations and the prevalence of periodontal pathogens from subgingival plaque samples and serum IgG antibody levels against them in young Japanese type 1 diabetic subjects. One hundred and seventeen Japanese T1DM subjects (53 male, 64 female, mean age +/- SD, 16 +/- 6.5 years) participated in this study. Thirty-nine periodontally healthy, age-matched nondiabetics served as controls. T1DM subjects were clinically assigned into three groups: 12 periodontitis, 32 gingivitis and 73 periodontally healthy. Microbiological tests for four periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Capnocytophaga ochracea were performed using 16S ribosomal RNA-based polymerase chain reaction methods. Serum IgG antibody levels against 12 periodontal bacteria including the four species assessed by polymerase chain reaction were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the T1DM subjects, the Periodontitis group had a significantly longer mean duration of diabetes and a higher percentages of subjects harbouring P. gingivalis and P. intermedia than the Periodontally Healthy group. Serum IgG antibody levels against P. gingivalis were significantly elevated in the Periodontitis group compared with Gingivitis and Periodontally Healthy groups. These results indicate that Japanese T1DM subjects are a high-risk group for periodontal disease and both P. gingivalis infection and duration of T1DM are risk factors for the progression of periodontitis in patients with T1DM.

  9. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bó, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Brambilla, Ada; Rizzolo, Anna; Porrini, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly reduced (P < .01) H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  11. Impact of a male-only weight loss maintenance programme on social-cognitive determinants of physical activity and healthy eating: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effect of a gender-tailored, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based weight loss maintenance (WLM) intervention on men's physical activity and healthy eating cognitions and behaviours in the 12 months after completing a weight loss programme. A two-phase, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Ninety-two overweight/obese men (mean [SD] age: 49.2 years [10.1], BMI: 30.7 [3.3] kg/m(2) ) who lost at least 4 kg after completing the 3-month SCT-based SHED-IT Weight Loss Program were randomly allocated to receive (1) the SCT-based SHED-IT WLM Program; or (2) no additional resources (self-help control group). The 6-month gender-tailored SHED-IT WLM Program was completely self-administered and operationalized SCT behaviour change principles to assist men to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decrease energy-dense, nutrient-poor (discretionary) food consumption after initial weight loss. After randomization (WLM baseline), men were reassessed at 6 months (WLM post-test) and 12 months (6-month WLM follow-up). SCT cognitions (e.g., self-efficacy, goal setting), MVPA, and discretionary food consumption were assessed with validated measures. Following significant improvements in cognitions, MVPA and discretionary food consumption during the weight loss phase, intention-to-treat, linear mixed models revealed no significant group-by-time differences in cognitions or behaviours during the WLM phase. Initial improvements in MVPA and some cognitions (e.g., goal setting, planning, and social support) were largely maintained by both groups at the end of the study. Dietary effects were not as strongly maintained, with the intervention and control groups maintaining 57% and 75% of the Phase I improvements in discretionary food intake, respectively. An additional SCT-based WLM programme did not elicit further improvements over a self-help control in the cognitions or behaviours for MVPA or discretionary food intake of men who had lost weight

  12. Teaching Japanese Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shamoon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.

  13. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  14. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people.

  15. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  16. Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence comparison of a single 100-mg dose of cefteram pivoxil powder suspension and tablet formulations: a randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianjun; Di, Bin; Wu, Chun Yong; Hu, Qin; Li, Jian Hua; Zhu, Yubing; Fan, Hongwei; Xiao, DaWei; Wang, Guang Ji

    2008-04-01

    Cefteram pivoxil (CFTM-PI) is an oral antibiotic available in powder suspension and tablet formulations indicated in China for the treatment of bacterial infections. Although these 2 formulations are marketed in China, published information regarding their pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence in the Chinese population is not available. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the powder suspension (test) and tablet (reference) formulations of CFTM-PI 100 mg available in China. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was performed at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 100-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. Plasma was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to 6 hours (AUC(0-6)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were obtained at intervals over the 6-hour period after study drug administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (80%-125%) as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis), and by questioning subjects about adverse events (AEs). Twenty-four Chinese male subjects (mean [range] age,24.2 [23-32] years;weight,64.3 [58-67] kg; height, 172 [167-185] cm) enrolled; all completed the study. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of C(max), AUC(0-6;), and

  17. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  18. Impaired fasting glucose as an independent risk factor for hypertension among healthy middle-aged Japanese subjects with optimal blood pressure: the Yuport Medical Checkup Centre retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Masaaki; Inoue, Machiko; Inoue, Kazuo; Akimoto, Kimihiko

    2013-12-20

    This study aimed at investigating whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an independent risk factor for incident hypertension among middle-aged Japanese subjects with optimal blood pressure (OBP). This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2943 non-diabetic and non-hypertensive subjects aged 40-64 years, who participated in a voluntary health check-up program during the baseline (1998-2002) and follow-up