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Sample records for healthy irish postmenopausal

  1. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently he...

  2. Study of Comparison between Autonomic Dysfunction and Dyslipidemia in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamudi, Kavyach

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, physical inactivity, and altered estrogen levels play an important role in contributing to disease risk profile and autonomic dysfunction in healthy postmenopausal women. This study was conducted to test the correlation between autonomic dysfunction and dyslipidemia in healthy postmenopausal women. This study was carried out on sixty healthy postmenopausal women before the age of 65 years, without any gross systemic disease. The following five autonomic functional tests were performed on the study group: heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to Valsalva maneuver, heart rate response to standing up from supine position, blood pressure response to sustained hand grip, and blood pressure response to standing up from supine position. Fasting lipid profile of the study group was tested. In the present study, autonomic dysfunction was found in 67% of healthy postmenopausal women. Among the sixty female healthy postmenopausal women included in the study, 68% were found to have dyslipidemia. In our study, there is a statistically significant correlation between autonomic dysfunction and dyslipidemia in healthy postmenopausal women. In these healthy postmenopausal women with increased serum cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein, and serum triglycerides, there was autonomic dysfunction which is statistically significant. There is no statistical significance on comparing serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with autonomic dysfunction in healthy postmenopausal women.

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X......-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA......) (CLA-mix); 2) cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA); or 3) control (olive oil). We assessed all variables before and after the intervention. The CLA-mix group had less total FM (4%) and lower-body FM (7%) than the control (P = 0.02 and

  4. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum and black seeds (Nigella sativa in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa M Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  5. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds' consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  6. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Randa M. Mostafa; Moustafa, Yasser M.; Zien Mirghani; Ghader M AlKusayer; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds? consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ? 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) ...

  7. Postmenopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can learn more about Postmenopause and all stages of menopause by reading our guide. 1. Read our guide, Menopause Map™— ... try taking a few slow, deep breaths. This technique helps some women reduce the effects of hot flashes. Sleep Disturbances or Insomnia Problems with ...

  8. The effect of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Vakili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups. Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc., were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week. The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. Results: The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. More women in the intervention group consumed fish after intervention (P = 0.02. The consumption of green leafy vegetables showed a nonsignificant increase in the intervention group. Conclusion: Using mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.

  9. Effects of long-term vegetarian diets on cardiovascular autonomic functions in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chin-Hua; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Chin-Lon; Kuo, Terry B J

    2006-02-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease is higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. We hypothesized that long-term vegetarian diets might modulate cardiovascular autonomic functions measured by frequency-domain techniques in healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 35 healthy vegetarians (mean age +/- SEM 55.0 +/- 1.3 years) who had been vegetarians for > or =2 years and 35 omnivores (55.1 +/- 1.4 years) participated in this study. These subjects were all postmenopausal without hormone replacement therapy. Fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heart rate variability were diffracted into low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15 to 0.4 Hz) segments. Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures. The vegetarians had statistically lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lower serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin levels compared with the nonvegetarians. They also exhibited a significantly higher high-frequency power of heart rate variability and increased baroreflex sensitivity than did omnivores. No statistical differences were found in the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio or percentage of low frequency of heart rate variability between the 2 groups. In conclusion, in addition to the lower blood pressure and lipid concentrations in vegetarians, long-term vegetarian diets may facilitate vagal regulation of the heart and increase baroreflex sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women, without increasing the sympathetic modulations of the cardiovascular system.

  10. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston Molloy, Charlotte; Kearney, John; Hayes, Nóirín; Slattery, Corina Glennon; Corish, Clare

    2014-02-01

    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  11. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston

    2013-12-16

    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h\\/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years\\' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  12. [Microbiota of urine and vagina of healthy postmenopausal women (a pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, Yu L; Rymashevsky, A N; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Borovleva, O A; Jalagonia, K T; Zarutskiy, S A

    2016-02-01

    Studying microbiota of different urogenital tract habitats in healthy postmenopausal women is of practical importance in deciding on the appropriateness of correction of dysbiotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the vaginal and urine microbiota of healthy postmenopausal women. The study included 20 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 59,0+/-2,1 years). Duration of menopause in all subjects was more than 8 years. Bacteriological testing of urine and vaginal specimen was carried out on the extended media (15) for cultivating facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) and nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) and included PCR of midstream morning urine. Among FAB in the urine and vagina dominated coagulase-negative staphylococci and NAB. Bacterial patterns of studied habitats turned out to be similar in many respects. In the urine Megasphaera spp., Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Mobiluncus spp., Fusobacterium spp. were found, whereas in the vagina these microorganisms were not present. Cluster analysis revealed no significant differences in the concentration of the same microorganisms isolated from the urine and vagina. When comparing the frequency of microorganism detection in urine by bacteriological method and by PCR, bacterial patterns were identical in 56% of cases.

  13. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L R; Ryan Borchers, T A; Robison, L M; Wiediger, M; Park, J S; Chew, B P; McGuire, M K; Sclar, D A; Skaer, T L; Beerman, K A

    2007-01-01

    The decline in estrogen concentrations in women after menopause can contribute to health related changes including impairments in cognition, especially memory. Because of the health concerns related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alternative approaches to treat menopausal symptoms, such as nutritional supplements and/or diet containing isoflavones, are of interest. This study investigated whether soy isoflavones (soy milk and supplement) could improve cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION AND DESIGN: A total of 79 postmenopausal women, 48-65 years of age, completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: cow's milk and a placebo supplement (control); soy milk and placebo supplement (soy milk, 72 mg isoflavones/day); or cow's milk and isoflavone supplement (isoflavone supplement, 70 mg isoflavones/day). Cognitive functioning was assessed using various cognitive tasks before the intervention (baseline) and after the intervention (test). In contrast to predictions, soy isoflavones did not improve selective attention (Stroop task), visual long-term memory (pattern recognition), short-term visuospatial memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), or visuo-spatial working memory (color match task). Also, the soy milk group showed a decline in verbal working memory (Digit Ordering Task) compared to the soy supplement and control groups. Soy isoflavones consumed as a food or supplement over a 16-week period did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women.

  14. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus species are the most often found inhabitants of vaginal ecosystem of fertile women. In postmenopausal women with low oestrogen levels, Lactobacillus flora is diminishing or absent. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between oestrogen levels and the lactobacilli in the gut. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation in healthy women between vaginal and rectal microbial flora as well as possible variations with hormone levels. Methods Vaginal and rectal smears were taken from 20 healthy fertile women, average 40 years (range 28-49 years), in two different phases of the menstrual cycle, and from 20 postmenopausal women, average 60 years (range 52-85 years). Serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Bacteria from the smears isolated on Rogosa Agar were grouped by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and identified by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Lactobacillus crispatus was more often found in the vaginal flora of fertile women than in that of postmenopausal (p = 0.036). Fifteen of 20 fertile women had lactobacilli in their rectal smears compared to 10 postmenopausal women (p = 0.071). There was no correlation between the number of bacteria in vagina and rectum, or between the number of bacteria and hormonal levels. Neither could any association between the presence of rectal lactobacilli and hormonal levels be found. Conclusion Lactobacillus crispatus was more prevalent in the vaginal flora of fertile women, whereas the Lactobacillus flora of rectum did not correlate to the vaginal flora nor to hormonal levels. PMID:21609500

  15. Independent predictors of all osteoporosis-related fractures among healthy Saudi postmenopausal women: the CEOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Al-Sibiani, Sharifa A; Al-Senani, Nawal S; Radaddi, Raja M; Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to identify independent predictors of all osteoporosis-related fractures (ORFs) among healthy Saudi postmenopausal women. We prospectively followed a cohort of 707 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age, 61.3±7.2 years) for 5.2±1.3 years. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, medical history, personal and family history of fractures, lifestyle factors, daily calcium intake, vitamin D supplementation, and physical activity score. Anthropometric parameters, total fractures (30.01 per 1000 women/year), special physical performance tests, bone turnover markers, hormone levels, and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed. The final model consisted of seven independent predictors of ORFs: [lowest quartile (Q(1)) vs highest quartile (Q(4))] physical activity score (Q(1) vs Q(4): ≤12.61 vs ≥15.38); relative risk estimate [RR], 2.87; (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.88-4.38); age≥60 years vs agewomen), having three or more clinical risk factors (4.8% of women) increased fracture risk by more than 4-fold, independent of BMD. Having three or more risk factors and being in the lowest tertile of T-score of [total hip/lumbar spine (L1-L4)] was associated with a 14.2-fold greater risk than having no risk factors and being in the highest T-score tertile. Several clinical risk factors were independently associated with all ORFs in healthy Saudi postmenopausal women. The combination of multiple clinical risk factors and low BMD is a very powerful indicator of fracture risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Tetens, Inge; Bugel, S.

    2008-01-01

    /d of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, on inflammatory markers. Methods and results: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 22) completed a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Women consumed daily a Low-fat muffin, with or without a lignan complex, for 6 weeks, separated by a 6-week washout period...... chemoattractant protein-1 were found between the lignan complex intervention period and placebo period. Conclusion: Daily consumption for 6 week of a low-fat muffin enriched with a lignan complex may reduce CRP concentrations compared to a low-fat muffin with no lignans added....

  17. Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong Da; Li, Guan Wu; Liu, Yong; Qiu, Yu You; Yao, Jian Hua; Tang, Guang Yu

    2015-09-01

    The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P relationship with anthropometric parameters (P relationship with those parameters. The correlation between LM, ALM, FM, PLM, ALM, age, and YSM was not significant. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the hip bone strength was observed to have a consistent and unchanged positive association with AFM and a negative association with AOI, whereas its association with other variables of body composition was not significant after adjusting for age, years since menopause, height, body weight, and BMI. AFM may be a positively protective effect for hip

  18. Daily consumption for six weeks of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Tetens, Inge; Bügel, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    function. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 22) completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Women consumed daily a low-fat muffin, with or without a lignan complex, for 6 wk, separated by a 6-wk washout period. Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (FMD...... on endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women....

  19. Coronary endothelial function is better in healthy premenopausal women than in healthy older postmenopausal women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Mathews

    Full Text Available Premenopausal women have fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD events than postmenopausal women and age-matched men, but the reasons are not fully understood. Coronary endothelial function (CEF, a barometer of coronary vascular health, promises important insights into age and sex differences in atherosclerotic CVD risk, but has not been well characterized in healthy individuals because of the invasive nature of conventional CEF measurements. Recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI methods were used to quantify CEF (coronary area and flow changes in response to isometric handgrip exercise (IHE, an endothelial-dependent stressor to test the hypothesis that healthy women have better CEF compared to men particularly at a younger age.The study participants were 50 healthy women and men with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD or traditional CV risk factors and Agatston coronary calcium score (on prior CT <10 for those ≥ 50 years. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA measurements and flow-velocity encoded images (CBF were obtained at baseline and during continuous IHE using 3T breath-hold cine MRI-IHE. CEF (%change in CSA and CBF with IHE comparisons were made according to age and sex, and all women ≥50 years were post-menopausal.In the overall population, there were no differences in CEF between men and women. However, when stratified by age and sex the mean changes in CSA and CBF during IHE were higher in younger premenopausal women than older postmenopausal women (%CSA: 15.2±10.6% vs. 7.0±6.8%, p = 0.03 and %CBF: 59.0±37.0% vs. 30.5±24.5% p = 0.02. CBF change was also nearly two-fold better in premenopausal women than age-matched men (59.0±37.0% vs. 33.6±12.3%, p = 0.03.Premenopausal women have nearly two-fold better mean CEF compared to postmenopausal women. CEF, measured by CBF change is also better in premenopausal women than age-matched men but there are no sex differences in CEF after menopause. Fundamental age and sex

  20. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction study between overactive bladder drugs mirabegron and tolterodine in Japanese healthy postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yuki; Iitsuka, Hiromi; Toyoshima, Junko; Kuroishi, Kentaro; Hatta, Toshifumi; Kaibara, Atsunori; Katashima, Masataka; Moy, Selina; Sawamoto, Taiji

    2016-12-01

    Mirabegron, the first selective β 3 -adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), inhibits cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2D6. This study was performed in Japanese healthy postmenopausal female volunteers to assess any pharmacokinetic drug interaction between mirabegron and tolterodine, another OAB drug and a sensitive substrate of CYP2D6. Tolterodine 4 mg was orally administered from Days 1-7 and co-administered with mirabegron 50 mg from Days 8-14. Mirabegron 50 mg increased maximum concentration (C max ) and area under the concentration-time curve from zero to 24 h after dosing (AUC 24h ) of tolterodine by 2.06-fold (90% confidence interval [CI] 1.81, 2.34) and 1.86-fold (90% CI 1.60, 2.16), respectively, and increased C max and AUC 24h of the metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine by 1.36-fold (90% CI 1.26, 1.47) and 1.25-fold (90% CI 1.15, 1.37), respectively. This suggested a weak pharmacokinetic drug interaction between mirabegron and tolterodine. Mean change from baseline of Fridericia's QT correction formula (ΔQTcF) was slightly higher on Day 14 than on Day 7. No subject had QTcF >480 msec or ΔQTcF >60 msec. All the treatment-emergent adverse events were mild. Mirabegron 50 mg was considered to be safe and well tolerated when coadministered with tolterodine 4 mg in healthy postmenopausal female volunteers. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Circulating leptin and adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance in healthy postmenopausal women with hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Yu; Chang, Chia-Chu; Chen, Dar-Ren; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chen, Ting-Yu; Wu, Hung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Hot flashes have been postulated to be linked to the development of metabolic disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between hot flashes, adipocyte-derived hormones, and insulin resistance in healthy, non-obese postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 151 women aged 45-60 years were stratified into one of three groups according to hot-flash status over the past three months: never experienced hot flashes (Group N), mild-to-moderate hot flashes (Group M), and severe hot flashes (Group S). Variables measured in this study included clinical parameters, hot flash experience, fasting levels of circulating glucose, lipid profiles, plasma insulin, and adipocyte-derived hormones. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of hot flashes with adipocyte-derived hormones, and with insulin resistance. The study was performed in a hospital medical center. The mean (standard deviation) of body-mass index was 22.8(2.7) for Group N, 22.6(2.6) for Group M, and 23.5(2.4) for Group S, respectively. Women in Group S displayed statistically significantly higher levels of leptin, fasting glucose, and insulin, and lower levels of adiponectin than those in Groups M and N. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that hot-flash severity was significantly associated with higher leptin levels, lower adiponectin levels, and higher leptin-to-adiponectin ratio. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed that hot-flash severity was strongly associated with a higher HOMA-IR index (% difference, 58.03%; 95% confidence interval, 31.00-90.64; p hot flashes and HOMA-IR index was attenuated after adjusting for leptin or adiponectin and was no longer significant after simultaneously adjusting for leptin and adiponectin. The present study provides evidence that hot flashes are associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. It further suggests that hot flash association with insulin resistance is dependent on

  2. Comparison of spinal alignment, muscular strength, and quality of life between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, N; Kudo, D; Hongo, M; Kasukawa, Y; Ishikawa, Y; Shimada, Y

    2017-11-01

    This study compared spinal alignment, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers. The results indicated that lower QOL in osteoporosis patients may be associated with increased thoracic kyphosis, reduced lean muscle mass, and generalized muscle weakness. Increased spinal kyphosis is common in patients with osteoporosis and negatively impacts quality of life (QOL). Muscular strength is also important for QOL in patients with osteoporosis. However, spinal kyphosis and muscle weakness also occur in healthy individuals with advancing age. The purposes of this study were thus to compare spinal alignment, muscular strength, and QOL between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers. Participants comprised 236 female patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age, 68.7 years) and 93 healthy volunteer women (mean age, 71.0 years). Body mass index (BMI), angles of spinal kyphosis, back extensor strength, grip strength, and QOL were compared between groups. BMI, back extensor strength, and grip strength were significantly higher in the volunteer group than in the osteoporosis group (p osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p osteoporosis group (p osteoporosis patients may be associated with increased thoracic kyphosis, reduced lean muscle mass, and generalized muscle weakness.

  3. Long-term effects of combined hormone replacement therapy on markers of endothelial function and inflammatory activity in healthy postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baal, W.M. van; Kenemans, P.; Emeis, J.J.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Mijatovic, V.; Mooren, M.J. van der; Vischer, U.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of combined hormone replacement therapy on markers of endothelial function and inflammatory activity. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting: Academic hospital. Patient(s): Healthy postmenopausal women with an intact uterus. Intervention(s): For

  4. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index and body composition on endometrial thickness and bone mass. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study that included 531 healthy postmenopausal women aged 48 to 65 years. Endometrial thickness was measured...... of variance. RESULTS: Endometrial thickness and total body bone mass were correlated, respectively, to body mass index (r = 0.14, P ... endometrial thickness and bone mass....

  5. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy fertile and postmenopausal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Daroczy, Katalin; Xiao, Bingbing; Yu, Li; Chen, Rui; Liao, Qinping

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and quantity of Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy Chinese women. Vaginal samples from 92 fertile and 22 postmenopausal healthy Chinese women were analysed using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and species-specific PCR followed by sequencing and real-time PCR. A total of 13 different Lactobacillus species were detected. Species-specific PCR showed that 3% of the fertile women were colonized by one species of Lactobacillus and 97% were colonized by two or more species. Among the postmenopausal women, 91% were colonized by one species of Lactobacillus and 9% were colonized by two species. In the fertile women, L. iners (82.61%), L. crispatus (70.65%) and L. gasseri (67.39%) were more prevalent than L. jensenii (40.22%), L. acidophilus (39.13%), L. brevis (23.91%), L. plantarum (5.43%), L. johnsonii (3.26%), L. fermentum (2.17%), L. salivarius (2.17%), L. rhamnosus (1.09%), L. reuteri (1.09%) and L. paracasei (1.09%); L. delbrueckii was not detected. In the postmenopausal women, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii were not detected, and the other 10 species were detected in just a few samples. The prevalence of these species according to the clone library differed from the prevalence indicated by the species-specific PCR. According to the semiquantitative analysis, the total Lactobacillus DNA concentrations were higher in fertile women than in postmenopausal women. Sixty-one per cent of the fertile women were predominantly colonized by L. iners, 35% by L. crispatus, and 2% by L. gasseri. Associations between pairs of Lactobacillus species in fertile women were significant (Pvaginas of healthy Chinese fertile and postmenopausal women. The study also showed that the diversity of Lactobacillus species in fertile women was higher than in postmenopausal women. According to our study, different techniques, such as species-specific PCR and comparison against a 16S rRNA gene clone library

  6. Cytokine RNA levels in transiliac bone biopsies from healthy early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Shalhoub, V; Larson, E K

    2000-01-01

    The cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-6 induce osteoclast formation and may contribute to the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cross-sectional studies have suggested that both IL-1 and IL-1ra secretion increase on estrogen withdrawal......, and that postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with an inadequate increase in monocyte IL-1ra secretion with age. We measured cytokine mRNA (IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) directly in bone biopsies from early postmenopausal women to determine if a lower compensatory increase in IL-1ra mRNA could...... be demonstrated in women with rapid bone loss after the menopause. Biopsies were obtained from 23 early postmenopausal women (mean age 53.9 years) who participated in a randomized study of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk factors for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was assessed by duel energy X...

  7. The Effect of Tibolone on Climacteric Symptoms of Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moghassemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Menopause is related to many symptoms that have an effect on women’s life quality. HRT and its alternatives such as Tibolone are some of the routes for enhancement of different aspects of QoL in menopause. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effects of Tibolone and placebo on climacteric symptoms of healthy menopausal women. Materials & Methods: This is a randomized, prospective clinical study. A total of 96 women with no absolute contraindication for hormone replacement therapy (HRT that reffered to selected clinics (gynecologic clinics in Fajr and Avesina Hospitals, Aboraihan and Shahid Haidari Polyclinic and an individual clinic during 2007-2008 were divided into two groups: 41 women in the Tibolone group received Tibolone 2.5 mg/day + Ca-D (500 mg +200 IU and 45 women in the placebo group received only Ca-D (500 mg +200 IU for six months. At baseline and after six months, climacteric symptoms were assessed by Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 15. Paired and independent t-test, Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney were used for analyzing the collected data. Results: Thirty two women in the Tibolone group and 43 women in the placebo completed the study. Comparing the baseline and placebo values, the Tibolone group significantly improved on all of GCS subscales which include: depression, anxiety, somatic, vasomotor symptoms and libido (P<0.05. Conclusion: In postmenopausal women, Tibolone significantly improved all aspects of climacteric symptoms and increased their quality of life. Keywords: Tibolone, menopausal women, Greene Climacteric Scale

  8. Dietary patterns, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and plasma sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Barbieri, Robert L; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2007-08-15

    To evaluate the association between overall diet and sex hormones concentrations, we collected blood from 578 postmenopausal women ages 43 and 69 years in 1989 or 1990. Food intake was measured in 1990 via a food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The cross-sectional association between diet and estrogens, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated with linear regression and adjusted for energy and other potential confounders. We found a higher AHEI score was associated with lower concentrations of estradiol, free estradiol, and higher concentrations of SHBG. The prudent pattern, with higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, was not associated with any sex hormones. The Western pattern, which represents higher intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, was associated with a higher level of estradiol and lower concentrations of SHBG. Further adjustment for BMI attenuated these results except for free estradiol (5th vs. 1st quintile = 0.09 vs. 0.11 pg/mL, p for trend = 0.03). In addition, the AHEI was inversely associated with estradiol among those with BMI > 25, and Western pattern with SHBG among those with BMI < 25. In conclusion, we observed inverse associations between the AHEI score and several estrogens, and it was positively associated with plasma levels of SHBG. In contrast, the Western pattern was positively associated with estrogen levels and inversely with SHBG. However, these associations appeared to be largely accounted for by BMI.

  9. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  10. Does aging increase vitamin D serum level in healthy postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Asadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is the most under-diagnosed medical condition in postmenopausal women. There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in postmenopausal women living in Tehran, capital of Iran. In this cross sectional study, 110 women were selected via convenience sampling method from menopause clinic of Tehran Women General Hospital between 2011 and 2012. For each woman, a questionnaire was completed, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by chemiluminescence's immunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency has been considered as a 25(OHD of less than 20ng/ml. Vitamin D insufficiency has been defined as a 25(OHD of 21-29ng/ml, and sufficiency as a 25(OHD of 30-100ng/ml. The data was analyzed by using Pearson correlation test in SPSS version 16. The mean age of women was 52.67±5 years. The mean age at natural menopause onset was 47.66±4.44 years, and the median menopause age was 49.00. The median 25(OHD level was 19.28 (Inter Quartile Range=26.08. We found vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency 52.7% and17.3% respectively. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were significantly correlated with age(r=0.21, P=0.024. These findings indicate that 25(OHD level in postmenopausal women from Tehran is low. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between vitamin D concentration and age in late postmenopausal period.

  11. Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Zamzam K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Lykken, Glenn I; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-04-01

    Calcium balance is decreased by an increased intake of purified proteins, although the effects of common dietary sources of protein (like meat) on calcium economy remain controversial. We compared the effects of several weeks of controlled high and low meat diets on body calcium retention, using sensitive radiotracer and whole body scintillation counting methodology. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 15) consumed diets with similar calcium content (approximately 600 mg), but either low or high in meat (12 vs. 20% of energy as protein) for 8 wk each, in a randomized crossover design. After 4 wk of equilibration of each diet, calcium retention was measured by extrinsically labeling the 2-d menu with (47)Ca, followed by whole body scintillation counting for 28 d. Urinary and blood indicators of bone metabolism were also determined for each diet. Calcium retention was not different during the high and low meat dietary periods (d 28, mean +/- pooled SD: 17.1 and 15.6%, +/-0.6%, respectively; P = 0.09). An initially higher renal acid excretion in subjects consuming the high meat compared with the low meat diet decreased significantly with time. The diets did not affect urinary calcium loss or indicators of bone metabolism. In conclusion, under controlled conditions, a high meat compared with a low meat diet for 8 wk did not affect calcium retention or biomarkers of bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Calcium retention is not reduced when subjects consume a high protein diet from common dietary sources such as meat.

  12. Circulating interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α are associated with hot flashes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Yu; Hsin, I-Lun; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chen, Ting-Yu; Wu, Hung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Hot flashes have been postulated to be linked to systemic inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hot flashes, pro-inflammatory factors, and leukocytes in healthy, non-obese postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 202 women aged 45-60 years were stratified into one of four groups according to their hot-flash status: never experienced hot flashes (Group N), mild hot flashes (Group m), moderate hot flashes (Group M), and severe hot flashes (Group S). Variables measured in this study included clinical parameters, hot flash experience, leukocytes, and fasting plasma levels of nine circulating cytokines/chemokines measured by using multiplex assays. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of hot flashes with these pro-inflammatory factors. The study was performed in a hospital medical center. The mean values of leukocyte number were not different between these four groups. The hot flash status had a positive tendency toward increased levels of circulating IL-6 (P-trend = 0.049), IL-8 (P-trend hot-flash severity was significantly associated with IL-8 (P-trend hot flashes were strongly associated with a higher IL-8 (% difference, 37.19%; 95% confidence interval, 14.98,63.69; P hot flashes are associated with circulating IL-8 and TNF-α in healthy postmenopausal women. It suggests that hot flashes might be related to low-grade systemic inflammation.

  13. Soy isoflavones increase preprandial peptide YY (PYY, but have no effect on ghrelin and body weight in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Duncan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soy isoflavones show structural and functional similarities to estradiol. Available data indicate that estradiol and estradiol-like components may interact with gut "satiety hormones" such as peptide YY (PYY and ghrelin, and thus influence body weight. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with 34 healthy postmenopausal women (59 ± 6 years, BMI: 24.7 ± 2.8 kg/m2, isoflavone-enriched cereal bars (50 mg isoflavones/day; genistein to daidzein ratio 2:1 or non-isoflavone-enriched control bars were consumed for 8 weeks (wash-out period: 8-weeks. Seventeen of the subjects were classified as equol producers. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin and PYY, as well as energy intake and body weight were measured at baseline and after four and eight weeks of each intervention arm. Results Body weight increased in both treatment periods (isoflavone: 0.40 ± 0.94 kg, P Conclusion Soy isoflavone supplementation for eight weeks did not significantly reduce energy intake or body weight, even though plasma PYY increased during isoflavone treatment. Ghrelin remained unaffected by isoflavone treatment. A larger and more rigorous appetite experiment might detect smaller differences in energy intake after isoflavone consumption. However, the results of the present study do not indicate that increased PYY has a major role in the regulation of body weight, at least in healthy postmenopausal women.

  14. Modulation of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on resting-state EEG power in postmenopausal healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eSolis-Ortiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism impacts cortical dopamine levels and may influence cortical electrical activity in the human brain. This study investigated whether COMT genotype influences resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG power in the frontal, parietal and midline regions in healthy volunteers. EEG recordings were conducted in the resting-state in 13 postmenopausal healthy woman carriers of the Val/Val genotype and 11 with the Met/Met genotype. The resting EEG spectral absolute power in the frontal (F3, F4, F7, F8, FC3 and FC4, parietal (CP3, CP4, P3 and P4 and midline (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, Pz and Oz was analyzed during the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The frequency bands considered were the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2. EEG data of the Val/Val and Met/Met genotypes, brain regions and conditions were analyzed using a general linear model analysis. In the individuals with the Met/Met genotype, delta activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition, theta activity was increased in the eyes-closed and in the eyes-open conditions, and alpha1 band, alpha2 band and beta1band activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition.A significant interaction between COMT genotypes and spectral bands was observed. Met homozygote individuals exhibited more delta, theta and beta1 activity than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. No significant interaction between COMT genotypes and the resting-state EEG regional power and conditions were observed for the three brain regions studied. Our findings indicate that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism does not directly impact resting-state EEG regional power, but instead suggest that COMT genotype can modulate resting-state EEG spectral power in postmenopausal healthy women.

  15. Positive impact of hormone replacement therapy on the fibrinolytic system: a long-term randomized controlled study in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J S; Kristensen, S R; Gram, J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may influence risk of cardiovascular disease are still unclear. Impaired fibrinolytic function is associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease and therefore the effect of HRT on fibrinolysis may...... be of importance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prolonged effect of HRT on the fibrinolytic system and to determine whether two common polymorphisms in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) genes modulate this effect. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n...

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Rejnmark, Lars; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome.......To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome....

  17. Association between lumbar bone mineral density and serum uric acid in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study of healthy Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen; Bai, Xiaojuan; Wang, Nan; Han, Lulu; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-12-01

    Partial correlation and regression analyses were used in this study. We showed that there is a linear relationship between bone mineral density and serum uric acid within the normal physiologic range, and higher serum uric acid levels had a protective effect on bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The significance of the relationship between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and serum uric acid (SUA) levels is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate on a population-level the association between lumbar BMD and SUA within the normal physiologic range and to determine whether SUA plays a protective role in bone loss in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This was a community-based cross-sectional study involving 390 healthy postmenopausal women, 47-89 years of age, conducted in Shenyang, China. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The SUA levels were obtained at each DXA visit. Partial correlation and regression analyses were applied to determine the associations. The SUA levels were significantly different between the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups. The lumbar BMD was positively correlated with SUA in postmenopausal women after adjustment for age (r = 0.212). After adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hip circumference, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, milk intake, physical exercise, fracture history, total protein, total bilirubin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum calcium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, the lumbar BMD was associated with SUA and the odds ratio of the third SUA quartile was 0.408 (95%CI, 0.198-0.841, P = 0.015), compared to the first quartile of SUA levels. The lumbar BMD was linearly associated with SUA levels within the normal physiologic range of postmenopausal women. Higher SUA levels had a protective effect on bone loss

  18. Temporal reproducibility of taurine measurements in frozen serum of healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Oktawia P; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2010-09-01

    Animal studies and small clinical trials have shown that taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), a sulphur-containing molecule mainly obtained from the diet in human subjects, has a variety of biological actions that are related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular functions. However, epidemiological studies of taurine and CHD risk are lacking. We evaluated whether a single measurement of serum taurine could serve as an estimate for long-term serum levels. Serum taurine was measured using HPLC in three annual samples from thirty postmenopausal women selected from the New York University Women's Health Study. Overall, serum taurine values ranged from 62.8 to 245.3 nmol/ml, with a mean of 140 nmol/ml. The intraclass correlation coefficient of a single measurement of serum taurine was 0.48 (95 % CI 0.26, 0.68), which can be improved to 0.65 by using the mean of two annual measurements. The CV was 7 %. These results indicate that the mean of two or more annual measurements of serum taurine is a sufficiently reliable measure of long-term serum levels that can be used in epidemiological studies.

  19. Peripheral skeleton bone strength is positively correlated with total and dairy protein intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosier-Izart, Claire; Biver, Emmanuel; Merminod, Fanny; van Rietbergen, Bert; Chevalley, Thierry; Herrmann, François R; Ferrari, Serge L; Rizzoli, René

    2017-02-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively correlated with dietary protein intakes, which account for 1-8% of BMC and BMD variances. However, the relation between bone strength and microstructure, which are variables that are not captured by areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and dietary protein intakes, particularly from specific dietary sources, has not been clearly established. We investigated the association between the peripheral skeleton-predicted failure load and stiffness, bone microstructure, and dietary protein intakes from various origins (animal, divided into dairy and nondairy, and vegetable origins) in healthy postmenopausal women. In a cross-sectional study in 746 Caucasian women aged 65.0 ± 1.4 y, we measured the aBMD with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the distal radius and tibia bone microstructures with the use of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, and bone strength with the use of a finite element analysis, and we evaluated dietary protein and calcium with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Mean dietary calcium and protein intakes were greater than recommended amounts for this class of age. The predicted failure load and stiffness at the distal radius and tibia were positively associated with total, animal, and dairy protein intakes but not with vegetable protein intake. Failure load differences were accompanied by modifications of the aBMD and of cortical and trabecular bone microstructures. The associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for weight, height, physical activity, menopause duration, calcium intake, and the interaction between calcium and protein intake. A principal component analysis of the volumetric BMD and bone microstructure indicated that trabecular bone mainly contributed to the positive association between protein intakes and bone strength. These results, which were recorded in a very homogeneous population of

  20. The Effect of Tibolone on Climacteric Symptoms of Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    S Moghassemi; S Ziaei

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Menopause is related to many symptoms that have an effect on women’s life quality. HRT and its alternatives such as Tibolone are some of the routes for enhancement of different aspects of QoL in menopause. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effects of Tibolone and placebo on climacteric symptoms of healthy menopausal women. Materials & Methods: This is a randomized, prospective clinical study. A total of 96 women with no absolute con...

  1. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  2. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...... not significant, the same trend was seen at the hip. No significant changes from baseline values were observed at the distal forearm in either the treatment or the placebo group. In conclusion, we found a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion in the treatment group compared with the placebo group...

  3. The single dose pharmacokinetic profile of a novel oral human parathyroid hormone formulation in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, Sibylle P; Mindeholm, Linda; Launonen, Aino; Kiese, Beate; Loeffler, Rolf; Harfst, Evita; Azria, Moise; Arnold, Michel; John, Markus R

    2012-04-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), currently the only marketed anabolic treatment for osteoporosis, is available as the full-length hormone, human PTH1-84, or as the human PTH1-34 fragment (teriparatide). Both must be administered as a daily subcutaneous (sc) injection. A new oral formulation of human PTH1-34 (PTH134) is being developed as a more convenient option for patients. In this single-center, partially-blinded, incomplete cross-over study, the safety, tolerability, and exposure of oral PTH134 (teriparatide combined with 2 different quantities of the absorption enhancer 5-CNAC) were assessed in 32 healthy postmenopausal women. 16 subjects were randomized to receive 4 single doses out of 6 different treatments: placebo, teriparatide 20 μg sc, or 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mg of oral PTH134 formulated with 200 mg 5-CNAC. Subsequently, another 16 subjects were randomized to receive 4 out of 6 different treatments: placebo, teriparatide 20 μg sc, or 2.5 or 5 mg of oral PTH134 formulated with either 100 or 200 mg 5-CNAC. Doses were given ≥6 days apart. All doses of PTH134 were rapidly absorbed, and showed robust blood concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, PTH1-34 disappeared from blood faster after oral than after sc administration. Specifically, 2.5 and 5 mg PTH134 (containing 200 mg 5-CNAC) demonstrated Cmax and AUC0-last values closest to those of sc teriparatide 20 μg (Forsteo®). Mean+/-SD hPTH134 Cmax values were, respectively, 74+/-59, 138+/-101, 717+/-496, and 1624+/-1579 pg/mL for 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg doses of this peptide administered with 200 mg 5-CNAC; while mean+/-SD AUC (0-last) values were, respectively, 30+/-40, 62+/-69, 320+/-269, and 627+/-633 h*pg/mL. The corresponding estimates for teriparatide 20 μg sc were 149+/-35 for Cmax and 236+/-58 for AUC (0-last) Ionized calcium remained within normal limits in all treatment groups except for 3 isolated events. Nine subjects withdrew due to treatment-related AEs. Of those, seven were taking PTH

  4. Managing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Sheryl F

    2010-04-01

    To describe strategies used in managing postmenopausal osteoporosis, including a bone-healthy lifestyle, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and drug therapy options; considerations in selecting osteoporosis drug therapy; and the role of health-system pharmacists in managing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women are at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Weight-bearing and resistance exercise, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, smoking cessation, and fall prevention strategies are part of a bone-healthy lifestyle used to manage postmenopausal osteoporosis. Supplements containing calcium and vitamin D are needed by many postmenopausal women because of an inadequate intake and other factors. The choice of osteoporosis drug therapy should take into consideration patient characteristics and preference and drug efficacy, safety, route of administration, dosing frequency, convenience, cost, and potential for nonadherence. Bisphosphonates generally are preferred for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, with raloxifene, teriparatide, and calcitonin salmon as alternatives. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G(2) antibody, may become available soon for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Health-system pharmacists can improve the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by counseling them on a bone-healthy lifestyle and making recommendations for calcium and vitamin D supplements and osteoporosis medications to prevent or treat the disease. A variety of approaches are available to promote bone health in postmenopausal women. Health-system pharmacists can promote interventions to optimize patient outcomes.

  5. Both raloxifene and estrogen reduce major cardiovascular risk factors in healthy postmenopausal women: A 2-year, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk-de Roo, G.W. de; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Meijer, P.; Mijatovic, V.; Kluft, C.; Kenemans, P.; Cohen, F.; Watts, S.; Netelenbos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Currently raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is being investigated as a potential alternative for postmenopausal hormone replacement to prevent osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. We compared the 2-year effects of raloxifene on a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors with

  6. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  7. Predictors of mental health in post-menopausal women: results from the Australian healthy aging of women study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Anderson, Debra; Lee, Kathryn; Humphreys, Janice

    2013-12-01

    To examine the extent to which socio-demographics, modifiable lifestyle, and physical health status influence the mental health of post-menopausal Australian women. Cross-sectional data on health status, chronic disease and modifiable lifestyle factors were collected from a random cross-section of 340 women aged 60-70 years, residing in Queensland, Australia. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to measure the effect of a range of socio-demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle factors, and health markers (self-reported physical health, history of chronic illness) on the latent construct of mental health status. Mental health was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12(®)) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The model was a good fit for the data (χ(2)=4.582, df=3, p=0.205) suggesting that mental health is negatively correlated with sleep disturbance (β=-0.612, pmental health was associated with poor sleep, it was not correlated with most lifestyle factors (BMI, alcohol consumption, or cigarette smoking) or socio-demographics like age, income or employment category and they were removed from the final model. Research suggests that it is important to engage in a range of health promoting behaviors to preserve good health. We found that predictors of current mental health status included sleep disturbance, and past mental health problems, while socio-demographics and modifiable lifestyle had little impact. It may be however, that these factors influenced other variables associated with the mental health of post-menopausal women, and these relationships warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced trabecular micro-architecture of the femoral neck in hip osteoarthritis vs. healthy controls: a micro-computer tomography study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Marija; Zagorac, Slavisa; Milovanovic, Petar; Djonic, Danijela; Nikolic, Slobodan; Hahn, Michael; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Bumbasirevic, Marko; Amling, Michael; Marshall, Robert Percy

    2013-01-01

    A controversial relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and bone fragility has been attracting considerable attention. However, despite interest in the effects of OA on femoral neck fracture risk and numerous studies analysing the changes in the arthritic femoral head, there is insufficient data about femoral neck 3D bone micro-architecture in individuals with hip osteoarthritis. We compared trabecular micro-architecture of the femoral neck between postmenopausal women with coxarthrosis and controls to explore whether coxarthrosis may indicate reduced bone fragility from the trabecular micro-architectural perspective. The study sample included nine women with hip osteoarthritis and 13 age-matched controls. The femoral neck sections were scanned using micro-computed tomography, evaluating the cancellous bone from the superolateral and inferomedial neck subregions. Osteoarthritic subjects demonstrated a general trend of improved trabecular micro-architecture in both analysed subregions when compared with age-matched controls. In particular, several architectural properties that are important predictors of cancellous bone strength showed significantly better values in the OA group, even after adjusting for bone volume fraction. Namely, the OA group expressed higher trabecular connectivity (p = 0.008), lower SMI indicating more plate-like structure (p = 0.005), and reduced anisotropy (p = 0.006) particularly in the inferomedial neck. Osteoarthritic cases also trended towards higher BV/TV, particularly in the superolateral neck. All micro-architectural parameters displayed significant regional heterogeneity (p ≤ 0.01), with the inferomedial neck region showing more favourable values than the superolateral region. Enhanced trabecular micro-architecture of the femoral neck in postmenopausal osteoarthritic subjects suggests reduced cancellous bone fragility in comparison with their age-matched healthy controls.

  9. Effect of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on bone disease in postmenopausal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nanda, Kavinderjit S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data are available on the contribution of chronic HCV infection to the development of bone disease in postmenopausal women. We studied whether women who acquired HCV infection through administration of HCV genotype 1b-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin from a single source had decreased bone mineral density (BMD) or altered levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs), compared with women who spontaneously resolved infection or age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: From a cohort of postmenopausal Irish women, we compared BMD, determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and a panel of BTMs in 20 women chronically infected with HCV (PCR(+)), 21 women who had spontaneously resolved infection (PCR(-)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of BTMs and BMD were similar in PCR(+) and PCR(-) women and healthy age-matched controls. However, there was an increased frequency of fractures in PCR(+) (n = 6) compared with PCR(-) women (n = 0, P = .007). PCR(+) women with fractures were postmenopausal for a longer time (median, 15.5, range, 5-20 years vs 4.5, range, 1-20 years in PCR(+) women without fractures; P = .033), had lower BMD at the hip (0.79, range, 0.77-0.9 g\\/cm(2) vs 0.96, range, 0.81-1.10 g\\/cm(2); P = .007), and had a lower body mass index (23.7, range 21.2-28.5 kg\\/m(2) vs 25.6, range 22.1-36.6 kg\\/m(2); P = .035). There was no difference in liver disease severity or BTMs in PCR(+) women with or without fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV infection did not lead to discernable metabolic bone disease in postmenopausal women, but it might be a risk factor for bone fractures, so preventive measures should be introduced. To view this article\\'s video abstract, go to the AGA\\'s YouTube Channel.

  10. Is heart rate variability associated with frequency and intensity of vasomotor symptoms among healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Salene M W; Guthrie, Katherine A; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sternfeld, Barbara; Landis, Carol A; Reed, Susan D; Dunn, Andrea; Caan, Bette; Cohen, Lee S; Hunt, Julie; Newton, Katherine M

    2016-02-01

    Research has suggested that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involved in the experience of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) during menopause. We examined the relationship of VMS intensity and heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of ANS function. Women (n = 282) were recruited from three American states for a clinical trial of yoga, exercise, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements for VMS. To be eligible, women had to report at least 14 VMS per week, with some being moderate to severe. Sitting electrocardiograms were recorded for 15 min using Holter monitors at both baseline and 12-week follow-up. Time and frequency domain HRV measures were calculated. Women completed daily diary measures of VMS frequency and intensity for 2 weeks at baseline and for 1 week at the follow-up assessment 12 weeks later. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the relationship between VMS and baseline HRV measures and to compare change in HRV with change in VMS over the 12 weeks. Baseline HRV was not associated with either VMS frequency or intensity at baseline. Change in HRV was not associated with change in VMS frequency or intensity across the follow-up. Heart rate variability (HRV) was not associated with basal VMS frequency or intensity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women experiencing high levels of VMS. Autonomic function may be associated with the onset or presence of VMS, but not with the number or intensity of these symptoms.

  11. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Riou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7±4.2 years; 28.5±5.9 kg/m2. BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5±0.5 versus 30.3±1.7 kg/m2, P<.05. In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5±0.8 versus 32.4±1.1 kg/m2, P<.001. Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits.

  12. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79. For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I while walking only (single task, (II walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT (dual task, and (III walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT (dual task. Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7% and right (by 7% foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%, reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11% and right (by 8% extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%. Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task.

  13. Postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Dima L; Watts, Nelson B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a thorough updated review of the diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. There have been several important findings in the field of postmenopausal osteoporosis over the past 1-2 years. Fewer morphometric vertebral fractures were found in women treated for 6 years with zoledronic acid compared with those who stopped treatment after 3 years. Longer duration of bisphosphonate therapy is associated with a higher risk of atypical femur fractures. Combination therapy with teriparatide and denosumab appears to increase bone mineral density to a greater extent than either therapy alone in postmenopausal women at high risk for fracture. There are several novel therapies under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis, which are in various stages of development. Nonadherence to osteoporosis therapies continues to be a major problem in clinical practice. There are numerous effective pharmacologic treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bisphosphonate drug holidays continue to be an area of significant debate.

  14. The Absolute Bioavailability and Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Odanacatib: A Stable-Label i.v./Oral Study in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajic, Stefan; Rossenu, Stefaan; Hreniuk, David; Kesisoglou, Filippos; McCrea, Jacqueline; Liu, Fang; Sun, Li; Witter, Rose; Gauthier, Don; Helmy, Roy; Joss, Darrick; Ni, Tong; Stoltz, Randall; Stone, Julie; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2016-09-01

    A stable-label i.v./oral study design was conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of odanacatib. Healthy, postmenopausal women received oral doses of unlabeled odanacatib administered simultaneously with a reference of 1 mg i.v. stable (13)C-labeled odanacatib. The absolute bioavailability of odanacatib was 30% at 50 mg (the phase 3 dose) and 70% at 10 mg, which is consistent with solubility-limited absorption. Odanacatib exposure (area under the curve from zero to infinity) increased by 15% and 63% when 50 mg was administered with low-fat and high-fat meals, respectively. This magnitude of the food effect is unlikely to be clinically important. The volume of distribution was ∼100 liters. The clearance was ∼0.8 l/h (13 ml/min), supporting that odanacatib is a low-extraction ratio drug. Population PK modeling indicated that 88% of individuals had completed absorption of >80% bioavailable drug within 24 hours, with modest additional absorption after 24 hours and periodic fluctuations in plasma concentrations contributing to late values for time to Cmax in some subjects. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Anne; van Doormaal, Jasper J; Muskiet, Frits A J; Hofstede, Gert J H; Pakan, Igor; van der Veer, Eveline

    2002-03-01

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked at biochemical markers of bone and Ca metabolism. Both Ca sources were provided in combination with minerals and vitamins including Mg, cholecalciferol and phylloquinone. We designed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to take place over 12 months. Healthy Caucasian women (n 85), selected by age (> or =50 and - 2.5. At baseline, their mean habitual daily Ca intake was adequate. The women were randomly allocated to: eggshell powder-enriched (group A; n 24), purified CaCO3-enriched (group B; n 22), or a placebo product (group C; n 27). BMD was measured at baseline and then after 6 and 12 months of supplementation as were the biochemical markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, amino-terminal propeptide extension of type I collagen, deoxypyridinoline, calcitonin, intact parathyroid hormone, calcidiol, and urinary Ca. After 12 months of supplementation, only mean BMD of the femoral neck in group A was significantly increased (P=0.014) by 1.75% (95% CI 0.18, 3.32) compared with a decrease of -0.60% (95% CI -1.92, 0.72) in group C. This increase coincided with significant decreases in markers of bone resorption and formation. No significant changes were seen in BMD at other sites, including lumbar spine, nor in groups B and C. No differences were found between groups A and B, or B and C. The present study indicates that healthy late post-menopausal women with an adequate Ca intake at baseline may increase BMD of the hip within 12 months following supplementation with the chicken eggshell powder-enriched supplement.

  16. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  17. Understanding Irish Labour Force Participation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen Byrne; Martin D O'Brien

    2017-01-01

    .... Given the important role of labour supply in explaining Irish economic growth, we aim to identify the relative influence of structural and cyclical factors in the recent dynamics of Irish labour force participation...

  18. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Joseph J; Holick, Michael F; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome poses additional risk for postmenopausal women who are already at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesized that a nutritional supplement containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and essential bone nutrients would produce a favorable bone biomarker profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. In this 14-week, randomized trial, 51 women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in aerobic exercise. Those in the intervention arm (n = 25) additionally received 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D₃, and 500 μg vitamin K₁ twice daily. Forty-five women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. Compared with baseline, the intervention arm exhibited an approximate 25% mean decrease (P vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reawakening the Irish Language through the Irish Education System: Challenges and Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Ceallaigh, T. J.; Ní Dhonnabháin, Áine

    2015-01-01

    As a language, Irish is unique to Ireland and is, therefore, of crucial importance to the identity of the Irish people, to Irish culture and to world heritage. The Irish language however has had a turbulent and traumatic history and has endured a complex and varied relationship with the Irish people. Since the foundation of the Irish Free State,…

  20. Epilepsy in Irish Wolfhounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Margret L.; Munuve, Richard M.; Janis, M. Anne; Werner, Petra; Henthorn, Paula S.

    2012-01-01

    During the last 15 years, breeders have reported an increase in the proportion of Irish Wolfhounds with seizure disorders. Clinical data and pedigrees from closely related Irish Wolfhounds were collected retrospectively and analyzed. Idiopathic epilepsy was diagnosed, by exclusion of other causes for seizures, in 146 (18.3%) of 796 Irish Wolfhounds from 115 litters. The first seizure occurred by the age of 3 years in 73% of all dogs. Males were more commonly affected than females (61.6% versus 38.4%), with males having a later average age of seizure onset. The life expectancy of affected dogs was decreased by 2 years when compared with the average Irish Wolfhound population. The heritability index for the affected dogs, their littermates, and unaffected parents was 0.87. No simple mode of inheritance explains the pattern of affected dogs in pedigrees. Hallmarks of dominant and sex-linked inheritance were notably absent, and the segregation ratio was less than would be expected for simple autosomal recessive inheritance. Assuming all affected dogs have the same form of epilepsy, the simplest description of the complex pattern of inheritance observed is autosomal recessive, with incomplete penetrance and male dogs at increased risk. PMID:16496932

  1. Saints, sinners and non-believers: the moral space of food. A qualitative exploration of beliefs and perspectives on healthy eating of Irish adults aged 50-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Mary; McCarthy, Mary B

    2014-02-01

    Food choices can involve a moral element of which healthy eating has come to play a major part in recent years. This research aimed to explore the moral space of food for older adults in order to understand how they conceptualise and negotiate various moral demands in the context of their general food lives. In-depth interviews on the lived experience of food and eating were conducted with a purposive sample of 50 adults aged 50-70, who varied by dietary quality and health status. An inductive thematic analysis was carried out. Three major themes representing aspects of the "moral space of food" were identified. This moral space was influenced by old religious and secular moralities which have become intertwined with new moralities of "healthism", a trend towards encouraging personal responsibility for health. Participants sought to maintain moral congruence by keeping their behaviour within moral boundaries through balance and moderation. Some resisted immoral positioning by highlighting their own autonomy or by challenging healthist ideology. A fundamental tension exists between the concept of healthy eating as desirable to remain a moral person while simultaneously being equated with sacrifice of pleasure and enjoyment. Healthist ideology perpetuates this tension, problematising enjoyment of food and bodies of those outside of the "norm". Attempting to address negative moralistic undertones of healthy eating messages may help to engage public interest in nutrition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Irish Neutrality: From Nationalism to Postnationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The article accounts for the history of Irish neurality and argues that, since the end of the 1950s it developed into the most significant political symbol of Irishness as the importance of Gaelicism and Irish unity began to dwindle.......The article accounts for the history of Irish neurality and argues that, since the end of the 1950s it developed into the most significant political symbol of Irishness as the importance of Gaelicism and Irish unity began to dwindle....

  3. Irish sources for music research

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Irish contemporary art music is an often-overlooked aspect of the musical traditions of Ireland. In 1995 composer Raymond Deane (1953-) coined the term 'the honor of non-existence' to describe the condition of contemporary composers in Ireland.(1) it is telling still that in considerations Of Irish culture, such as in the interdisciplinary field of Irish studies, the emphasis has to a large extent been on one of our three main music traditions.(2) The term Irish Music for many signifies tradi...

  4. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  5. Cytokines and T-lymphocyte subsets in healthy post-menopausal women: estrogen retards bone loss without affecting the release of IL-1 or IL-1ra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    . There was no association between cytokine release and bone mass or loss assessed over 2 yrs. The only exception was a weak estrogen-independent correlation between basal IL-1ra secretion and bone loss (r = -0.21, p bone density or loss...... cells may be important in the pathophysiology of post-menopausal bone loss. The possibility that IL-1ra acts as an independent bone-sparing factor unrelated to estrogen withdrawal warrants further investigation. In conclusion, ERT maintains bone without affecting the release of the IL-1 family......Interleukin (IL)-1 is a potent inducer of bone resorption, and an increased secretion of the IL-1 agonists IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta relative to the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) has been proposed as a mechanism leading to post-menopausal osteoporosis. T-lymphocytes are capable of secreting bone...

  6. Postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastell, Richard; O'Neill, Terence W; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Langdahl, Bente; Reid, Ian R; Gold, Deborah T; Cummings, Steven R

    2016-09-29

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. Fractures of the proximal femur, the vertebrae and the distal radius are the most frequent osteoporotic fractures, although most fractures in the elderly are probably at least partly related to bone fragility. The incidence of fractures varies greatly by country, but on average up to 50% of women >50 years of age are at risk of fractures. Fractures severely affect the quality of life of an individual and are becoming a major public health problem owing to the ageing population. Postmenopausal osteoporosis, resulting from oestrogen deficiency, is the most common type of osteoporosis. Oestrogen deficiency results in an increase in bone turnover owing to effects on all types of bone cells. The imbalance in bone formation and resorption has effects on trabecular bone (loss of connectivity) and cortical bone (cortical thinning and porosity). Osteoporosis is diagnosed using bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Preventive strategies to improve bone health include diet, exercise and abstaining from smoking. Fractures may be prevented by reducing falls in high-risk populations. Several drugs are licensed to reduce fracture risk by slowing down bone resorption (such as bisphosphonates and denosumab) or by stimulating bone formation (such as teriparatide). Improved understanding of the cellular basis for osteoporosis has resulted in new drugs targeted to key pathways, which are under development.

  7. Effects of consumption of whole grain foods rich in lignans in healthy postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, A; Carcea, M; Adlercreutz, H; Azzini, E; Polito, A; Olivieri, L; Zaccaria, M; Meneghini, C; Maiani, F; Bausano, G; Martiri, F; Samaletdin, A; Fumagalli, A; Raguzzini, A; Venneria, E; Foddai, M S; Ciarapica, D; Mauro, B; Volpe, F; Maiani, G

    2014-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of an experimental period of intake of whole grain foods rich in lignans as part of an habitual diet on the plasma and urinary excretion of enterolignans, the biomarkers of lipid metabolism and the immunological and antioxidant status in a group of postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol. A randomized double-blind crossover study was completed on 13 subjects in 12-weeks after protocol approval of an ethical committee. The subjects consumed whole grain foods high in lignans (30 g/d of breakfast cereals or biscuits, etc., 80 g/d of whole grain pasta) or refined grain foods for 4 weeks, separated by a 2-weeks wash-out period. A modest hypocholesterolemic effect (p whole grain diet was observed and the intake of whole grain products rich in lignans was also associated with an increase in urinary enterodiol excretion (p < 0.05).

  8. Consumption of onion juice modulates oxidative stress and attenuates the risk of bone disorders in middle-aged and post-menopausal healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yat-Yin; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Lee, Hui-Hsin; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2016-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic inflammatory condition that is characterized by the loss of bone mineral density (BMD). The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of onion juice intake on the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in corroboration with antioxidant effects in human (in vivo) as well as inhibitory effects on the differentiation of osteoclasts in the cell line (in vitro). For in vitro studies, the RAW 264.7 (osteoclast progenitor) cells were used to examine the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of onion. In the case of in vivo studies, twenty-four subjects were divided into two groups and advised to intake 100 mL of onion juice or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the initial, 2(nd), 6(th), 8(th) and 10(th) week. The result of in vitro studies indicated that onion extract would effectively inhibit the osteoclastogenesis and its differentiation. Significant changes in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), free radicals, total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and various antioxidants were observed in onion administered subjects. The BMD of three postmenopausal women was also found to be mildly improved on supplementation with onion juice. Onion juice consumption showed a positive modulatory effect on the bone loss and BMD by improving antioxidant activities and thus can be recommended for treating various bone-related disorders, especially osteoporosis.

  9. The Effect of Genistein Supplementation on Vitamin D Levels and Bone Turnover Markers during the Summer in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: Role of Genotypes of Isoflavone Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alonso, María; Briongos, Laisa-Socorro; Ruiz-Mambrilla, Marta; Velasco, Eladio A; Linares, Lidia; Cuellar, Luis; Olmos, José-Manuel; De Luis, Daniel; Dueñas-Laita, Antonio; Pérez-Castrillón, José-Luis

    2017-11-18

    The objective of this study was to determine whether vitamin D and genistein supplementation had an additive beneficial effect on levels of vitamin D and bone markers and whether this effect was mediated by genes regulating isoflavone metabolism. We carried out a prospective study in postmenopausal women randomized to calcium and vitamin D supplementation or calcium, vitamin D, and genistein supplementation. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), and procollagen 1 N-terminal (P1NP) were determined by electrochemiluminescence. Three SNPs - rs2231142 (ABCG2), rs358231 (cytosolic β-glucosidase [CBG]), and rs2273697 (ABCC2) - were determined. We included 102 women. The effects on bone remodeling were similar: rises in vitamin D were significantly associated with reductions in PTH, CTX, and P1NP. Pharmacogenomic analysis of the genotypes showed that, in AT heterozygotes of the CBG1368T>A polymorphism, CTX and P1NP were not reduced. Genistein added to calcium and vitamin D supplementation had no additional effect. The supplementation of individual AT heterozygotes of the CBG1368T>A polymorphism had no effect on markers of bone remodeling. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The Irish Maritime Transport Economist Volume 4

    OpenAIRE

    Office, Irish Maritime Development

    2007-01-01

    The Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) of the Marine Institute publishes the Irish Maritime Transport Economist each year to provide a descriptive statistical analysis of the Irish ports and shipping services sector, as well as the many factors influencing its performance.

  11. The Irish Maritime Transport Economist Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Office, Irish Maritime Development

    2004-01-01

    The Irish Maritime Transport Economist (IMTE) aims to provide Irish companies involved in International trade with a single journal that provides and collates relevant statistical economic, trade, traffic and shipping market information. The focus of the data herein is on the impact and outlook of Irish maritime trade related performance.

  12. The Irish Maritime Transport Economist Volume 5

    OpenAIRE

    Office, Irish Maritime Development

    2008-01-01

    The Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) of the Marine Institute publishes the Irish Maritime Transport Economist each year to provide a descriptive statistical analysis of the Irish ports and shipping services sector, as well as the many factors influencing its performance.

  13. The Irish Maritime Transport Economist Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Office, Irish Maritime Development

    2006-01-01

    The Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) of the Marine Institute publishes the Irish Maritime Transport Economist each year to provide a descriptive statistical analysis of the Irish ports and shipping services sector, as well as the many factors influencing its performance.

  14. Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial favorably affects energy-balance metrics in healthy men and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Das, Sai Krupa; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Meydani, Simin N; Roberts, Susan B

    2017-03-01

    Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control.Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40-65 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): Energy metabolism and body-composition metrics, appetite, markers of glycemic control, and gut microbiota were measured at 2 and 8 wk.Results: By design, body weight was maintained in both groups. Plasma alkylresorcinols, which are biomarkers of whole-grain intake, increased in the whole grain-rich diet group (WG) but not in the refined grain-based diet group (RG) (P-diet-by-time interaction energy content (57 ± 17 kcal/d; P = 0.003), but not in stool energy density, were higher in the WG. When combined, the favorable energetic effects in the WG translated into a 92-kcal/d (95% CI: 28, 156-kcal/d) higher net daily energy loss compared with that of the RG (P = 0.005). Prospective consumption (P = 0.07) and glycemia after an oral-glucose-tolerance test (P = 0.10) trended toward being lower in the WG than in the RG. When nonadherent participants were excluded, between-group differences in stool energy content and glucose tolerance increased, and between-group differences in the RMR and prospective consumption were not statistically significant.Conclusion: These findings suggest positive effects of whole grains on the RMR and stool energy excretion that favorably influence energy balance and may help explain epidemiologic associations between whole-grain consumption and reduced body weight and adiposity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Lack of relationships between cumulative methylprednisolone dose and bone mineral density in healthy men and postmenopausal women with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E. F.; Wagemans, M. F.; Verdouw, B. C.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Boxtel, C. J.; Dekhuijzen, P. N. R.; Schweitzer, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    The medical use of glucocorticoids (GCs) is related to low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the cumulative dose of GC is not related to BMD outcome. The study was cross-sectional in design and included healthy individuals with chronic low back pain resistant to

  16. Lack of relationships between cumulative methylprednisolone dose and bone mineral density in healthy men and postmenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E.F.L.; Wagemans, M.F.; Verdouw, B.C.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Boxtel, C.J. van; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Schweitzer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    The medical use of glucocorticoids (GCs) is related to low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the cumulative dose of GC is not related to BMD outcome. The study was cross-sectional in design and included healthy individuals with chronic low back pain resistant to

  17. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, V; Kurdoglu, Z; Alisik, M; Turgut, E; Sezgın, O O; Korkmaz, H; Ergun, Y; Erel, O

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of postmenopausal osteoporosis on thiol/disulfide homeostasis. A total of 75 participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 40) was composed of healthy postmenopausal women, and group 2 (n = 35) was composed of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical findings and thiol/disulfide homeostasis were compared between the two groups. The disulfide/native thiol ratio was 8.6% ± 3.6 in group 1 and 12.7% ± 8.4 in group 2 (p = 0.04). The disulfide/native thiol percent ratio was significantly higher in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p osteoporosis.

  18. Profiling Vocabulary Acquisition in Irish

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and…

  19. Effect of long-term hormone replacement therapy on tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2003-01-01

    It was recently reported from the Women's Health Initiative that healthy women using combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for 5 years have an increased cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that the increased risk is confined to subgroups of atherosclerotic women. Such women may have higher...... polymorphism. Overall, concentrations of TAFI did not differ between the two groups but were reduced by hormone therapy in homozygotes for the rare TAFI -438 A allele (P .... The observed decrease in TFPI may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with HRT. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Jun...

  20. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors

    2006-01-01

    Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density...... (BMD) would predict a large proportion of 10-year BMD and be useful for deriving predictive thresholds. We aimed to identify prognostic thresholds associated with less than 10% risk of osteoporosis by 10 years in the individual participant, in order to allow rational osteodensitometry and intervention......% risk of fracture or low BMD within 10 years. At the population level, baseline T -score cutoffs below 0 at the LS (68% of the population), 0 at the FN (72%) or -0.6 (62%) at the lower of the two sites capture 90% of the population that developed osteoporosis during the following 10 years. A BMD...

  1. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors

    2006-01-01

    . We analyzed dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) from 872 women, who participated in the non-HRT arms of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study and had remained on no HRT, bisphosphonates or raloxifene since inclusion 10 years ago. We defined......Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density...... development of a T -score below -2.5 at the LS and/or FN or incident fracture as end-point, and we derived prognostic thresholds for baseline BMD, defining 90% NPV (negative predictive value) and 90% sensitivity, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the variation in BMD of the LS at 10 years was predicted...

  2. Quantification of 3α-hydroxytibolone in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS: Application in a bioequivalence study in healthy postmenopausal volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Azevedo Portela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, specific and fast method to quantify 3α-hydroxytibolone in human plasma using deuterated 3α-hydroxytibolone (d5 as internal standard is described. The analyte and the internal standard were extracted from plasma (900 μL by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl ether/hexane (50/50, v/v and ammonium hydroxide (50%. The extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization. Chromatography was performed isocratically on a Gemini-NX™ C18 5 μm (150 × 4.6 mm i. d. column. The method had a chromatographic run time of 3.75 min and a linear calibration curve over the range 1–100 ng/mL. The limit of quantification validated was 1 ng/mL. This method was used to assess the bioequivalence between two different tibolone oral formulations: Livolon (1.25 mg tablet provided by Biolab Sanus Farmacêutica (Brazil, as the test formulation, and Libiam™ (1.25 mg tablet produced by Libbs Farmacêutica (Brazil, as the reference formulation. A single 3.75 mg dose of each formulation was administered to 46 postmenopausal female healthy volunteers. The study was conducted in an open, randomized, two-period crossover balanced design with a 2 week washout interval between the doses. The 90% confidence interval for Cmax, AUC(0-last and AUC(0-inf individual test/reference ratios were 97.48–111.51, 95.35–103.20 and 96.42–103.86, respectively. It is concluded that Livolon (1.25 mg tablet is bioequivalent to Libiam™ (1.25 mg tablet, with regards to both rate and extent of absorption.

  3. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  4. An international study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and postmenopausal estradiol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavaler, J S; Love, K; Van Thiel, D

    1991-01-01

    of androgens to estrogens. Because alcohol is reported to increase aromatization rates, the relationship between serum estradiol and moderate alcohol consumption was examined in a group of 128 healthy Pittsburgh postmenopausal women, and a significant direct association was found. In order to address...... significantly increased in alcohol users as compared to abstainers, but also estradiol levels were significantly correlated with total weekly drinks consumed. Based on these findings in study samples of healthy postmenopausal women from Pittsburgh, Copenhagen and Lisbon, we conclude that the increase...... in estradiol levels seen with moderate alcoholic beverage consumption is not an isolated finding and speculate that moderate alcohol consumption by healthy postmenopausal women may have beneficial effects....

  5. Measurement precision and normal range of endometrial thickness in a postmenopausal population by transvaginal ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, L; Ravn, Pernille; Skouby, Sven O.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the endometrial thickness (ET) in an asymptomatic postmenopausal population, and to assess the long-term variability. DESIGN: A total of 1182 asymptomatic generally healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled into this cross-sectional evaluation...

  6. Redefining Irishness: Fragmentation or intercultural exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Rania M. R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional definition of Irishness has been overwritten by internationalization, cultural and political discourses. Globalisation today sets the ground for the redefinition of a “new Ireland” altering the ethnocultural base to the definitions of Irish national identity. Recent cultural criticism on modern Irish studies have described the Irish nation as undergoing moments of crisis and instability within a global context. This paper explores and analyzes the process by which literary dramatic works dealing with Irish national distinctiveness have been put subject to being written and re-written as the Irish nation passes through periods of instabilities and problematisations. Ireland has been affected by conflicting narratives and needed to move “towards a new configuration of identities” (Kearney, 1997, p. 15. Edward W. Said comments on this fracturing of identity as “human reality is constantly being made and unmade” (1979, p. 33. The attempt Irish playwrights have made to address factors affecting Irishness and the violent assertion of national identity addressed in this paper, are considered within a post-nationalist and post-colonial context of dramatic works.

  7. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  8. Music Therapy Through Irish Eyes: A Student Therapist’s Experience of Irish Traditional Music

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines my personal experience of Irish traditional music and considers how it can inform music therapy practice. The use of Irish music may be particularly meaningful for some clients and help them connect with their culture and identity. Music therapy can also draw on specific features; including the melodic, rhythmic and social aspects of the music. The melody is prominent in Irish traditional music, and its expression is very important. The word draíoght (meaning "spell" or ...

  9. Intercultural pragmatics: an investigation of expressing opinions in Irish English amongst Irish and Polish students.

    OpenAIRE

    Gąsior, Weronika Zofia

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed Research in cross-cultural pragmatics has been limited to a handful of speech acts, and opinions remain rather poorly documented. The aim of this research was to explore the speech act of opinions from the dual perspective of pragmalinguistics-sociopragmatics, focusing additionally on the Irish variety of the English language and the Irish-Polish intercultural context. An empirical study of the expression of opinions among Polish and Irish students was conducte...

  10. Into Irish Drawing, International Touring Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Into Irish Drawing showcases the work of twenty-two Irish artists who specialize in drawing. The choice of artist was largely determined by whether or not drawing forms more or less the mainstay of their oeuvre, or even is sometimes the only discipline they practice. Arno Kramer, the curator of Into Irish Drawing comments that frequently something occurs in a drawing ‘by chance’, an event that the artist did not know was going to happen. Perhaps the artist may have nurtured a vague idea about...

  11. L7 Irish Cloud Validation Masks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The scenes in this dataset were originally selected by Richard Irish, NASA-GSFC, and were derived manually from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) Level 1G...

  12. Motivation and the Adult Irish Language Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Margaret; McGrory, Orla

    2005-01-01

    What motivates adult language learners in the city of Belfast to enrol and remain in an Irish class in the first years of the twenty-first century is the subject of the research study reported here. The research is placed within the context of the long history of interest in Irish revival in the city as far back as the eighteenth century and is…

  13. A catalogue of Irish pollen diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Fraser

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED The first Irish pollen diagram was published by Gunnar Erdtman in the Irish Naturalists? Journal in 1927. Since then over 471 pollen diagrams have been produced from locations throughout Ireland from a range of sites and time spans. The data from these pollen diagrams can be used to reconstruct vegetation dynamics over long time scales and so facilitate the investigation of climate change impacts, plant migration and the scale of human induced landscape change. In this paper we ...

  14. Irish Intercultural Cinema: Memory, Identity and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray, Enda Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irish intercultural cinema looks at the development of a cinematic genre which focuses on issues of Irish migrancy but is produced outside of Ireland. This paper has as its focus the cultural landscape of Irish-Australia. The essay uses methodologies of ethnographic and documentary theory plus textual analysis of film and written texts to establish a throughline of Irish intercultural film. The essay begins by contextualising the place of the Irish diaspora within the creation of Irish identity globally. The discussion around migrancy is widened to consider the place of memory and intergenerational tensions within not just the Irish migrant population, but also within the diverse cultures which comprise the contemporary Australian landscape. The historical development of intercultural cinema is then explored internationally within a context of colonial, gender and class struggles in the 1970s and1980s. The term intercultural cinema has its origins in the Third Cinema of Argentinians Solanas and Getino in the 1970s and covers those films which deal with issues involving two countries or cultures. The term was refined by Laura Marks in 2000 and further developed by Hamid Naficy in 2001 in his discussion of accented cinema which narrows its definition to include the politics of production. The paper then traces the development of Irish intercultural cinema from its beginnings in England in the 1970s with Thaddeus O'Sullivan through to Nicola Bruce and others including Enda Murray in the present day. The essay concludes by bringing these various strands together to see where intercultural film might have a place in today's globalised cultural landscape. Common traits within intercultural film such as the notion of place, autobiographical film and personal identity are explored using examples of intercultural filmmaking from around the globe. These commonalities point to a way forward for the future of a sustainable multicultural film culture.

  15. Knee injury patterns in young irish dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A; Stracciolini, Andrea; Tyson, Kesley D; Stein, Cynthia J

    2014-06-01

    To characterize knee injury patterns in Irish dancers. A retrospective chart review was performed for Irish dancers under age 19 who presented with knee injuries to the sports medicine or orthopedic clinic from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Data were collected on all knee injuries partially or directly related to Irish dance. Injury was defined as dance-related pain or damage to the structures in the knee that resulted in evaluation in the clinic. Survey data were collected to determine the number of different schools/studios represented by the dancers in the study. Sixty-seven Irish dancers with 86 knee injuries were evaluated. Half (50.7%) of these patients received more than one diagnosis during these visits. Overuse injuries accounted for 90.7% of knee injuries. Time to presentation ranged from less than 1 week to over 1 year. There was a significant difference in time to presentation, with traumatic injuries being evaluated sooner than overuse injuries. The most common diagnoses, accounting for 53.5% of injuries, were patellar tracking disorders, including patellofemoral syndrome, hypermobile patella, and patellar subluxation. In Irish dance overuse injuries represent the great majority of knee injuries, and patellofemoral tracking disorders are the most common diagnosis. For many dancers, there is often a delay of weeks to months between the onset of symptoms and evaluation in clinic. Prevention programs could potentially eliminate a large portion of knee pain experienced by young Irish dancers.

  16. Horslips in Irish Musical and Literary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Murphy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the literary impact of a musical electric-folk band. Horslips combined psychedelic, and hard rock with Irish traditional motifs and Celtic narrative themes. Spanning the decade from 1970 to 1980, their success and decline followed the trajectory of the countercultural movement, which came late to Ireland. The band’s revival of mythic characters and historical events drawn from the Irish past attracted fans from all over the island, as well as the diaspora; many young people gained an appreciation of their Irish heritage for the first time, as Horslips became the first electric folk-rock band to fuse disparate genres, and to succeed as an Irish-based independent collective who controlled the graphics, marketing, distribution, and promotion of their music. They inspired the likes of U2 and the Irish punk and new-wave rock musicians who followed them, and without the pioneering efforts of Horslips, Irish music and culture today may never have reached its current success, three decades later.

  17. Periodontitis impacts quality of life in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaz, C; Shamia, H; Hahn, J; Mithani, S; Sadeghi, G; Palomo, L

    2015-01-01

    Interrelationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far-reaching aspects of life such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life in postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis with that of healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 128 randomly recruited postmenopausal women received a comprehensive periodontal evaluation and completed the Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into healthy and periodontitis groups based on comprehensive periodontal examination. Mean scores were calculated for each quality-of-life item, domain and the overall summary score. Periodontitis patients' quality-of-life outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using the t-test with threshold of significance at p Quality-of-life scores in all fields measured were significantly poorer in the periodontitis patients compared to the healthy patients, occupational (25.74 ± 8.25 vs. 21.40 ± 9.19), health (26.46 ± 5.93 vs. 19.64 ± 10.24), emotional (21.04 ± 10.20 vs. 16.40 ± 10.84), sexual (9.23 ± 4.92 vs. 5.96 ± 5.20), and total score (82.48 ± 23.74 vs. 63.69 ± 26.61). This study has identified that postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis report significantly poorer quality of life than healthy patients. Clinicians caring for postmenopausal women should be aware that periodontitis also impacts quality of life when making referral decisions for oral health care.

  18. Estrogenic receptors a and p gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Maslova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess frequency distribution of estrogenic receptor (ERa and ERfl gene polymorphisms and their influence on bone mineral density (BMD in groups of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis (OP. Material and methods. 200 residents of Moscow and Moscow region were divided into two groups considering BMD values according to WHO criteria; OP group and healthy control group Results. Differences of genotype and their combinations frequency distribution between OP and control groups show presence OP risk and protector genotypes. ER gene important role in pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and possibility to use these genetic markers for assessment of risk of OP development in Russian population was confirmed.

  19. The Irish Imagination 1971 – Stereotype or Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Róisín Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    ... O’Doherty’s text for the 1971 exhibition catalogue, the Irish Imagination 1959-71. The exhibition, a subsidiary of the international Rosc 71 exhibition, was an important vehicle for promoting contemporary Irish visual art in a global forum...

  20. Postmenopausal osteoporosis and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiechi, L M; Valerio, T; Loizzi, P

    2002-01-01

    Individualizing risk factors is the most important tool to prevent late consequences of menopause. Celiac disease is a predisposing condition not very considered for some postmenopausal diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this review the authors examine climacteric conditions that could be heightened by a celiac status especially if disregarded and untreated.

  1. A need to educate postmenopausal women of their periodontal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Leena; Chitguppi, Rajeev; Buencamino, Maria Clarinda; Santos, Dwetta; Thacker, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal women have shown proactive willingness to take responsibility for their changing health care needs. The example of osteoporosis is a model that when educated of their bone health status, this cohort follows through with prevention and treatment regimens. Postmenopausal status is considered to be a risk factor for periodontitis. It is known that up to 50% of periodontal disease goes undiagnosed. The goal of periodontal therapy is to prevent tooth loss. Objective: Is there a need, then to educate and inform postmenopausal women of their periodontal status? Can dentists provide a greater service to this cohort by increasing education and information? Materials and Methods: The current study compares patient perception to actual clinical findings in 94 postmenopausal women. Patients are informed of their diagnosis, and educated about the disease, its risk factors and preventive and treatment modalities. Detailed interviews examine the patient intentions to follow up on preventive and treatment regimens suggested. Results: Although 97.8% of participants reported having “healthy gums”, 36.2% had severe periodontitis in at least one site. Interviews reveal that patients associated disease with abscess, and would be likely to follow prevetive and treatment regimens when they were informed of their diagnosis and educated on the topic. Conclusion: The findings suggest a need to make education a priority when treatment postmenopausal women. PMID:23869131

  2. Body iodine status in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanca, Tufan; Korkmaz, Vakkas; Arslanca, Seyma B; Karadag, Burak; Ergün, Yusuf

    2018-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a frequent cause of morbidity and can negatively impact life expectancy; iodine is an essential element for bone mineralization, and iodine deficiency is frequently observed. The aim of the present study was to understand the connection between postmenopausal osteoporosis and the level of iodine in the body. A total of 132 participants were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 34), group 2 comprised osteopenic women (n = 38), and group 3 included women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 60). The three groups were compared according to demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings. The urinary iodine levels were recorded as 216.1 ± 125.2 in the control group, 154.6 ± 76.6 in the osteopenic group, and 137.5 ± 64.9 in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (P osteoporosis, and iodine replacement may be important in preventing osteoporosis in areas where iodine deficiency is endemic.

  3. More British abortions for Irish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, D

    1999-01-09

    Abortion is illegal in Ireland except when a pregnant woman is judged by physicians to be suicidal. According to early estimates for 1998 soon to be released by Ireland's Office for National Statistics, more than 6000 Irish women are therefore now traveling each year to Britain for induced abortion, the largest number of such women thus far recorded in Ireland. However, Tony O'Brien, head of the Irish Family Planning Association, believes that it is not so much that the abortion rate is rising, but that a larger percentage of women traveling to the UK for abortion are telling people about their journey and abortion. This new liberalism is reflected in an Irish newspaper poll released last week which shows that 59% of Irish adults over age 18 years, and 86% of adults under age 25 years, approve of couples having sex before marriage. Meanwhile, the government of Ireland has yet to publish the report of its working group on abortion, which it promised to do last summer. O'Brien condemns the recent Irish governments for failing to amend or repeal the country's criminal law against abortion.

  4. Universal precautions--do Irish anaesthetists comply?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Rourke, N

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Anaesthetists are at high risk from blood-borne pathogens. Universal Precautions (UP) include the routine use of appropriate barrier precautions and techniques to reduce the likelihood of exposure to blood, body fluids and tissues that may contain pathogens. The compliance of Irish anaesthetists with these precautions has not been studied. AIM: To study the attitudes of Irish anaesthetists to Universal Precautions. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was sent to 210 anaesthetists currently practising in Ireland. The questionnaire was based on a model used in Australia and New Zealand. RESULTS: There was a 50% response rate to the survey. Only 15% of respondents had taken a risk history from a patient in the preceding four weeks. Resheathing of needles was commonplace. The effectiveness of hepatitis B immunisation was rarely checked and only 66% of respondents believe implementation of Universal Precautions to be practical. CONCLUSION: Irish anaesthetists comply poorly with Universal Precautions.

  5. CULTURAL NATIONALISM AND THE IRISH LITERARY REVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pierce

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of cultural nationalism on the Insh Literary Revival is a topic of continuing interest for the cultural critic and literary historian alike. In recent years, with the Fa11 of the Berlin Wall, political scientists and others, suchas A.D. Smith, Ernest Gellner, and E.J. Hobsbawm, have also focused on the subject of nationalism. The intention here in this article is to revisit a familiar site in the light of these new ideas and to test their validity or appropriateness in the Irish context. The article, part of a larger project to be published in 2003 by Polity Press under the title A Cultural History of Twentieth-Century Irish Literature, is divided into 5 sections: What ish my Nation?; What is a Nation?; Do Nations Have Navels?; 1890s: Winds of Change; English As We Speak It In Ireland. Among Irish authors discussed are Hyde, Shaw. Yeats, Wilde, Lady Gregory, Joyce, and Beckett.

  6. Equity in health care: the Irish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha; Normand, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Equity is espoused in many national health policy statements but is a complex concept and is difficult to define. The way in which equity is defined in policy has implications for how the health-care system should be structured. Conflicts between different definitions of equity are identified in theory and policy. This paper discusses these issues, with specific focus on the equity principles underpinning the Irish health-care system. The complex mix of public and private funding in the Irish system brings the challenges in identifying (and achieving) equity objectives more sharply into view, and serves as a warning system for other countries.

  7. Clinical Practice. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dennis M; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-01-21

    Key Clinical Points Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Fractures and osteoporosis are common, particularly among older women, and hip fractures can be devastating. Treatment is generally recommended in postmenopausal women who have a bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or less, a history of spine or hip fracture, or a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score indicating increased fracture risk. Bisphosphonates (generic) and denosumab reduce the risk of hip, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures; bisphosphonates are commonly used as first-line treatment in women who do not have contraindications. Teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been reported with treatment but are rare. The benefit-to-risk ratio for osteoporosis treatment is strongly positive for most women with osteoporosis. Because benefits are retained after discontinuation of alendronate or zoledronic acid, drug holidays after 5 years of alendronate therapy or 3 years of zoledronic acid therapy may be considered for patients at lower risk for fracture.

  8. Postprandial Metabolic Responses to Dietary Glycemic Index in Hypercholesterolemic Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bukkapatnam, Radhika N.; Berglund, Lars; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Devaraj, Sridevi; Hyson, Dianne; Rafii, Flora; Malmstein, Catharine; Villablanca, Amparo C.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. While diet and lifestyle remain the cornerstones of prevention, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet is associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipemia—atherosclerotic risk factors affected by postprandial conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the acute response of lipids and insulin to a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal with either a high-glycemic or a low-glycemic index in healthy postmenopausal women. F...

  9. ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2008-12-01

    Scientific studies and clinical experiences have not provided until now the answers to thequestion: »Whom to treat, when, why and for how long should androgens be used for HRTin postmenopausal women?«

  10. Postmenopausal genital bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Neto

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 748 women who reported genital bleeding occurring at least one year after the last menstruation. Benign causes were most frequent than malignant causes. Among the benign causes, the most frequent were cervicitis (19,95%, prolapsed uterus with decubitus ulcer (19,41%, dysfunctional hemorrhage (13,29% and endometrial polyps (12,77%. In the group of malignant causes, cancer of the cervix was the neoplasm most often detected (59,26%; endometrial cancer was next, affecting 29,63%. The cancer of the cervix/ cancer of the body ratio was 2:1. In summary, many causes, both benign and malignant, can provoke abnormal postmenopausal bleeding. Thus, curettage of the uterus should be reserved for doubtful cases, i.e., in situations in which, after all non invasive methods of investigations have been exhausted, the possibility of the occurrence of malignant lesions still persist.

  11. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  12. Particle tracking in the eastern Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Judith; Amoudry, Karen; Phillips, Hazel; Brown, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The unstructured grid finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the west coast of the UK, in order to examine the circulation and transport in the eastern Irish Sea. Tides, freshwater river discharge and meteorological forcing for the year 2008 were used to force the baroclinic hydrodynamic circulation. The hydrodynamics of the Irish Sea are largely governed by the semidiurnal tide, which has a tidal range reaching 10m at Liverpool is the eastern Irish Sea. Tidal currents reach 1 ms-1 over the majority of the area, which means that much of Irish Sea is vertically well-mixed throughout the year period, with a few areas affected by seasonal stratification, such as the cyclonic gyre in the deep channel off Ireland in the western Irish Sea which experiences thermal stratification in summer. In Liverpool Bay, horizontal density gradients, created through freshwater influence from estuaries along the coastline interact with the strong tidal current to produce a phenomenon known as strain-induced periodic stratification (SIPS). There are water quality concerns due to the tendency to eutrophication, as the area is often exposed to industrial pollution and excess nutrients from effluent waters and rivers. There is also concern about the fate of radioactive materials discharged from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since 1952. In addition to the present discharges from the site, it has been estimated that it is likely that all of the americium and plutonium and around 10% of the caesium entering the Irish Sea were originally assimilated into deposits of silt and mud sediments; this material may be regarded as a considerable potential source of radionuclides. Determining suspended sediment pathways in this region is important in order to identify potential areas vulnerable to deposition of radioactive material, particularly as radionuclide uptake onto sediments takes place in the offshore 'mud patch' before returning to the coast to be deposited

  13. Irish Culinary Manuscripts and Printed Books:a Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Cashman, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of Irish Culinary Manuscripts and Printed Cookbooks. It covers Gaelic hospitality and aristocratic hospitality, setting the background for the Anglo-Irish households from which many manuscripts emerge. It charts the growing sources of information on Irish culinary history. It outlines Barbara Wheaton's framework for reading historic cookbooks and discusses the growing manuscript cookbook collection in the National Library of Ireland.

  14. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health...... and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women...... insulin concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test (pCardiovascular risk factors are similar in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, with the exception that postmenopausal women have higher HDL-C and LDL-C levels...

  15. [Comparative study of the urinary excretion of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Ramón, Vielma; Mora Mora, Marylú; Marino Alarcón, Oscar; Hernández, Gladys; Josefina Linares, Ledy; Urdaneta Romero, Haideé; Arévalo González, Evelia

    2012-03-01

    In order to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, we selected 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, divided into two groups: group I clinically healthy postmenopausal women and group II postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, without chronic kidney and hepatic diseases or diabetes mellitus. We determined the boron (B), phosphorus (P), total calcium (Ca) and total magnesium (Mg) in the urine of two hours, by atomic emission spectroscopy with induction-coupled plasma (ICPA-ES). Total calcium and total magnesium in serum were determined by atomic flame absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inorganic phosphorus in serum, and creatinine in serum and urine, by molecular absorption spectrometry. The preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  16. Cultural Scripts and the Speech Act of Opinions in Irish English: A Study amongst Irish and Polish University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Gąsior

    2015-01-01

    Studies in pragmatics have been limited to a handful of illocutionary acts such as requests, apologies or compliments, and opinions remain underrepresented in the existing literature. In this paper I present the results of a study of opinions in Irish English, conducted in an intercultural environment of Irish-Polish interactions. Departing from a traditional approach of speech act realisation studies, I applied the theory of cultural scripts to analyse opinions. In contrasting the Irish and ...

  17. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Allwright Shane PA; Thomas David E; Darker Catherine D; Barry Joe M; O'Dowd Tom

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT)...

  18. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    DARKER, CATHERINE; O'DOWD, THOMAS; ALLWRIGHT, SHANE PATRICIA ANN; BARRY, JOSEPH

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods: This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of ...

  19. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmozherova, N V; Popov, A A

    2008-01-01

    assessment of frequency of obesity and comorbidities in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). cross-sectional study included 243 postmenopausal symptomatic women with OP diagnosed by dual energy lumbar spine absorptiometry. normal body mass was found in 74 women (30.5%), 105 persons (43.2%) had overweight and 64 patients (26.3%) were obese. Obese OP patients had significantly higherfrequency of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, osteoarthritis and glucose metabolism disorders than those with normal body mass. Obese persons also had more severe menopausal symptoms than women with normal body mass. There was no difference in non-traumatic fractures between obese, overweight and slim patients. Thus, postmenopausal OP in obese women was associated with numerous comorbidities and more severe menopausal symptoms.

  20. Plasma leptin values in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Kocyigit

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has a protective effect against osteoporosis and this effect has been attributed to a high body fat content. It has been shown that the leptin concentration is higher in obese patients. Leptin, the protein product of obesity gene, is a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Some studies suggest that endogenous leptin might influence bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated plasma leptin concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and also analyzed the relationship between plasma leptin levels and bone mineral density (BMD in order to understand the potential role of leptin in maintaining bone mass. Forty-two postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and thirty seven age and BMI-matched healthy postmenopausal women were included in the study. The mean femoral neck BMD value in the patient group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.691±0.1 g/cm1 and 0.863±0.1 g/cm2, respectively; p<0.001. The mean plasma leptin concentration in the patient group was not significantly different from that in the control group (p>0.05. Plasma leptin levels were correlated with BMI in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p=0.001 in controls. There was also a strong positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and %fat in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p<0.001 in controls. But there was no correlation between plasma leptin levels and femoral neck BMD values in both groups. Our results do not support the hypothesis that leptin itself plays an important role in maintaining bone mass in postmenopausal women.

  1. Plasma leptin values in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Hikmet; Bal, Serpil; Atay, Ayşenur; Koseoglu, Mehmet; Gurgan, Alev

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has a protective effect against osteoporosis and this effect has been attributed to a high body fat content. It has been shown that the leptin concentration is higher in obese patients. Leptin, the protein product of obesity gene, is a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Some studies suggest that endogenous leptin might influence bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated plasma leptin concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and also analyzed the relationship between plasma leptin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in order to understand the potential role of leptin in maintaining bone mass. Forty-two postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and thirty seven age and BMI-matched healthy postmenopausal women were included in the study. The mean femoral neck BMD value in the patient group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.691±0.1 g/cm2 and 0.863±0.1 g/cm2, respectively; p0.05). Plasma leptin levels were correlated with BMI in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p=0.001 in controls). There was also a strong positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and %fat in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p<0.001 in controls). But there was no correlation between plasma leptin levels and femoral neck BMD values in both groups. Our results do not support the hypothesis that leptin itself plays an important role in maintaining bone mass in postmenopausal women.

  2. Lower Limb and Trunk Biomechanics After Fatigue in Competitive Female Irish Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Catherine Y; Grealish, Avril; Hopper, Diana

    2017-07-01

      Because of the increasing popularity of participation in Irish dance, the incidence of lower limb injuries is high among this competitive population.   To investigate the effects of fatigue on the peak lower limb and trunk angles as well as the peak lower limb joint forces and moments of competitive female Irish dancers during the performance of a dance-specific single-limb landing.   Cross-sectional study.   Laboratory.   Fourteen healthy, female, competitive Irish dancers (age = 19.4 ± 3.7 years, height = 165.3 ± 5.9 cm, mass = 57.9 ± 8.2 kg).   Participants performed an Irish dance-specific leap before and after a dance-specific fatigue protocol. During each landing movement, 3-dimensional lower limb kinematics (250 Hz) and ground reaction forces (1000 Hz) were collected. Paired t tests were performed to determine the differences (P ≤ .05) in lower limb and trunk biomechanics prefatigue and postfatigue.   Peak lower limb and trunk angles as well as peak lower limb joint reaction forces and external moments.   Compared with the prefatigue trials, dancers landed with reduced ankle plantar flexion (P = .003) and hip external rotation (P = .007) and increased hip-adduction alignment (P = .034) postfatigue. Dancers displayed greater anterior shear (P = .003) and compressive (P = .024) forces at the ankle and greater external knee-flexion moments (P = .024) during the postfatigue compared with the prefatigue landing trials.   When fatigued, dancers displayed a decline in landing performance in terms of aesthetics as well as increased ankle- and knee-joint loading, potentially exposing them to a greater risk of injuries.

  3. Investment in Edification: Reflections on Irish Education Policy since Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Muiris

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with a historical review of Irish education policy since the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, this paper focuses on the issue of investment in education through the lens of the "Investment in Education" report. Following this historical review, the author explores how the legacy of the past continues to define the…

  4. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

  5. Is Bank Finance the Achilles' Heel of Irish SMEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Dermot; Flynn, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to examine the implications of new banking regulations (Basel II) for the Irish SME sector. Training gaps are identified and recommendations to advance social capital networks are provided. Design/methodology/approach: The Irish SME dependence on external (bank) finance and their susceptibility to…

  6. Irish Images of Germany: Using Literary Texts in Intercultural Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dore

    2001-01-01

    Examines the need for intercultural learning within the Irish context. Concepts of culture and cultural conditioning are discussed and aims and objectives for intercultural learning are suggested. Looks at the part literature, in particular modern Irish prose fiction and German migrant literature, can play in the intercultural learning experience.…

  7. Irish International Cultural and Educational Exchange: Two Models for Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy.......An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy....

  8. Student Voice: An Emerging Discourse in Irish Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Domnall

    2015-01-01

    In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland's ratification of the…

  9. 77 FR 13183 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... fire halls across our country; and whose blood spilled to defend a Nation and a way of life they helped...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8779 of March 1, 2012 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2012 By the President of... throughout our Nation. Today, we draw on the indomitable spirit of those Irish Americans whose strength...

  10. Cuchulain in the General Post Office : Gaelic revival, Irish rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerssen, J.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the importance of the Gaelic language for the development of Irish nationalism in the decades leading up to, and following the Easter Rising of 1916. This importance was mainly symbolical: the Irish language was used mainly by revivalist activists, in a restricted number of

  11. Welcome to the Irish Journal of Paramedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Batt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of the Irish Journal of Paramedicine (IJP. It gives me great pleasure to launch this journal, a first for Irish paramedics, and pre-hospital care in Ireland. I am also honoured to announce that the IJP has been adopted as the official journal of the Irish College of Paramedics, the professional body for prehospital emergency care practitioners in Ireland.               A newly emerging profession, paramedicine is now poised at  a crossroads. Previously alluded to with  colleagues from around the globe, the role of the paramedic is one that is rapidly evolving, and yet paramedicine as a discipline has yet to figure out where it belongs.(1 Are we public safety professionals, first responders or healthcare professionals? Williams has previously stated that the road less travelled requires the paramedic profession to pursue identity as a healthcare profession and not as emergency responders, EMS workers, or ambulance drivers, which we are so commonly identified as.(2 Initiatives within Ireland such as the Centre for Prehospital Research national research agenda, the move to higher education for paramedics in University College Dublin and the University of Limerick, and the publication of high-quality peer-reviewed research, undertaken for paramedics, led by paramedics, and published in paramedicine journals are key components in this pursuit of professionalism. It is our hope that the Irish Journal of Paramedicine will play its part as a vehicle in this endeavour. It is important however to point out that the Irish Journal of Paramedicine is not exclusively for paramedics. Within Ireland, and around the world, there are many other prehospital care providers, including community responders, volunteer first responders, EMT practitioners, nurses, physicians and others who deliver high quality patient care and are as committed to their personal and professional development as any paramedic. This journal is for

  12. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Trongsakul, Rangsiri; Inhongsa, Pariwat; Chaidach, Preeyaporn

    2014-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 361 healthy women (218 premenopausal women and 143 postmenopausal women) in Southern Thailand. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting plasma glucose and serum lipid levels were measured. MetS was defined according to criteria of the "National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Panel Treatment III" (NCEP ATPIII). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with MetS. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were significantly higher in postmenopausal women, when compared with premenopausal women (p < 0.05). The prevalence of MetS in postmenopausal women (29.37%), was significantly higher than that of premenopausal women (16.97%) (p = 0.005). The most frequent component of MetS in postmenopausal women was central obesity (58.74%), followed by hypertension (58.04%), high triglyceride (27.97%), low HDL-C (23.08%), and high FPG (11.19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that age and higher body mass index (BMI) increased the risk of developing MetS. The prevalence of MetS is higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women, and its significant predictors include age and BMI.

  13. Solar Orientation of Irish Early Christian Oratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, V. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Hiberno-Latin literary metaphor of "Xpistus sol verus" (Christ the True Sun) finds an architectural analogue in the orientation of the single eastern window of Irish monastic stone chapels or oratories. The author's field surveys in Ireland, Hebrides, Orkney and Shetlands revealed that the window of Irish rectangular dry stone oratories framed the rising solar disk on the Feast Days of selected saints of the Celtic Early Christian Church, AD 800-1100. The most frequent target skyline declinations were to sunrise on the Feast Days of St. Patrick (March 17th) and St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (August 31st). During the Early Christian period, St. Patrick's Day coincided with the Vernal Equinox, and heralded the Paschal Full Moon (i.e., Passover crucifixion) and Easter Sunday as proclaimed by Emperor Constantine at the Council of Nicaea (AD 325). St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (d. AD 651) inspired the Irish monks who, at the Synod of Whitby (AD 664), remained loyal to the Jewish 84-year cycle determining Passover and refused to replace it with the new orthodox 19-year computus for Easter adopted by the Roman Catholic Church (AD 527). Hypothetical affiliation between monastic communities whose oratories share common solar orientation, interior length/width ratios (e.g., 4:3 and 3:2) and units of measurement (e.g., Scottish ell, Coptic cubit, or Roman pes) is discussed. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the Michael D. Coe Fund and Augusta Hazard Fund of Yale University for research grant support in 1999.

  14. Teleworking: An Examination of the Irish Dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Donovan

    2013-07-01

    Given the attitudinal challenges to telework within Irish organisations, the research findings suggest that there would be clear merit in piloting telework initiatives with carefully selected candidates. Multinationals and young dynamic businesses which remain open to innovative work practices, particularly in the services and technology sectors, are ideally positioned for such an initiative. Coupled with the extension of broadband, a successful outcome, with government sponsored PR, could pave the way for expanding the practice of teleworking in Ireland. This research would be of particular benefit to organisations and individuals considering the option of telework in the future.

  15. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K. (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Radiation Monitoring, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so

  16. The Introduction of Computers in Irish Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Denise; Dolan, Dudley

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This chapter is a reflection on the introduction of computers and computer education in schools at primary and secondary level in Ireland. It is based on a review of the policy documents from that time and a series of interviews with teachers who were involved in the early stages of the use of computers in schools during the late 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The use of computers in schools has developed over those last forty years, this is reflected in Irish Government poli...

  17. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, B.; Suetta, C.

    2005-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON...... data from a reduced number of participants, showing that rate of disappearance was responsible for the initial (women, nutrient ingestion...

  18. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons. PMID:20307311

  19. Primary medical care in Irish prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane P A; O'Dowd, Tom

    2010-03-22

    An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  20. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwright Shane PA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  1. Bowery to Broadway. The American Irish in Classic Hollywood Cinema (Christopher Shannon & New Irish Storytellers. Narrative Strategies in Film (Díóg O’Connell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Menéndez-Otero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reseñas de los libros de cine Bowery to Broadway. The American Irish in Classic Hollywood Cinema (Christopher Shannon 2010 & New Irish Storytellers. Narrative Strategies in Film (Díóg O’Connell 2010

  2. Trans fat, aspirin, and ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaemsiri, Sirin; Sen, Souvik; Tinker, Lesley; Rosamond, Wayne; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; He, Ka

    2012-11-01

    To examine the associations between dietary fat intake and ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 87,025 generally healthy postmenopausal women (age, 50-79 years) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Repeated and validated dietary assessments were done using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of ischemic stroke based on quintiles of the cumulative average of fat intake. We documented 1,049 incident cases of ischemic stroke over 663,041 person-years of follow-up. Women in the highest quintile of trans fat intake had a significantly higher incidence of ischemic stroke (HR, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.79; p-trend = 0.048) compared with women in the lowest quintile, while controlling for multiple covariates. The observed association was modified by aspirin use (p-interaction = 0.02). The HR was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.36; p-trend fat and ischemic stroke or any ischemic stroke subtypes. In this large cohort of postmenopausal women, higher intake of trans fat was associated with incident ischemic stroke independent of major lifestyle/dietary factors. Aspirin use may attenuate the potential adverse effect of trans fat intake on ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  3. #IrishMed; let's talk, and break down the barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Liam

    2017-01-01

    A tweetchat is a live Twitter event, moderated and focused around a  specific topic. To filter all the chatter on Twitter into a single conversation, a hashtag e.g #IrishMed, is used. A moderator or host sets the agenda and leads the discussion.#IrishMed https://irishmed.wordpress.com/ is a live twitter-driven event which takes place every Wednesday at 10 pm Irish time, 5 pm ET, lasting for one hour, on all things relating to medicine. Tweets are welcome from everyone, healthcare professional...

  4. POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS- AN UPDATED REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    A. Suhas et al.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major growing public health problem with impact that crosses medical, social, and economic lines. Osteoporosis in older women is the 2nd most cause of death in America thus it is one of the essential area to be understand in medical science and need to update time to time. The objective of the present review is to update all aspect of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, including current etiology, diagnostic methods, calculator of osteoporotic risk fators (FRAX), laborator...

  5. Periodontal Status of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Melkumyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Material and Methods: We examined 43 postmenopausal women aged from 55 to 74 years. Material assessment of bones in every patient was performed by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from two points on the skeleton – part of the femur neck and between the first and fourth lumbar vertebrae. A lipid blood test was done for patients of both groups. All patients were divided into two groups (the 1st with osteopenia, and the 2nd with osteoporosis. All patients were subjected to an oral clinical examination: the periodontal examination was composed of Plaque Index (PI, Pocket Score (PS, and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI. X-ray analysis was performed for every patient. Results: The results of the clinical periodontal examination demonstrated that the mean PBI in patients in the 1st group had no significant differences from the PBI in patients in the 2nd group. PI value and PS findings in patients with general osteoporosis also had no statistical differences from the same parameters in patients with osteopenia. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of these patients’ characteristics and within the limits of the present study, we concluded that there is no significant difference in the periodontal status of postmenopausal women with systemic osteopenia and with osteoporosis.

  6. [Psychosomatic relationships in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larëva, N V; Govorin, A V

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in postmenopausal disorders and their relationship with the manifestations of climacteric syndrome. The study enrolled 203 women, including 142 patients with surgical menopause and 61 with natural menopause. Psychometric testing using the Hamilton depression rating scale and the Spielberger test anxiety inventory, and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring with assessment of the 24-hour BP profile were performed. Depressive disorders (DD) were found in 82.5% of the postmenopausal women; all the patients had higher levels of situational and personality anxiety. The women with natural menopause developed moderate and severe DD and those who had undergone ovariectomy had mild DD. The prevalence of DD was higher in patients with essential hypertension (EH) than in those with normal BP (88.6 and 78.3%, respectively; p depression was recorded in patients without nocturnal BP reduction. The same group was found to have the highest level of personality and situational anxiety. The magnitude of DD depends on the type of menopause, the presence of EH, and the specific features of diurnal BP variations. The findings necessitate a detail examination of postmenopausal women for identification of affective disorders and their further correction.

  7. Tear lipocalin, lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careba, I; Chiva, A; Totir, M; Ungureanu, E; Gradinaru, Sinziana

    2015-01-01

    Among the most frequently encountered pathologies examined by the ophthalmologist is dry eye syndrome (DE), which can be discovered particularly in the elderly. The initial diagnosis of DE is of high importance, but also challenging. This is because the biochemical changes in the tear film often develop before any detectable signs. In this study, the possible relationship between ocular symptomatology, tear volume and tear break-up time (TBUT) and lipocalin, lactoferrin and lysozyme concentrations in the tear film were explored in a group of symptomatic dry-eyed postmenopausal (PM) women compared to age-matched controls. Sixty-six healthy PM females with ages of at least 50 years were grouped in two homogeneous lots (by age, post-menopause, co-morbidities) of 33 females each, one lot presenting mild or moderate dry eye syndrome (DE) and one asymptomatic non-dry eye (NDE), based on their feedback to the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and noninvasive TBUT and Schirmer test results. Tears were collected via capillary tubes and an eye wash method. Tear lysozyme, lactoferrin and lipocalin concentrations were determined via electrophoresis. OSDI responses revealed 3 mild DE, 30 moderate DE and 33 NDE. The OSDI total score and sub scores for the DE group were significantly greater than for the NDE group (p lactoferrin concentration (plactoferrin concentrations. In a PM population, lipocalin and lysozyme are invariable, irrespective of the presence and severity of DE symptoms. However, lactoferrin shows a significant decrease. This is a comprehensive study of lipocalin, lactoferrin and lysozyme in dry-eyed PM women and our results suggested that lactoferrin could be used as a biomarker of DE in postmenopausal women. PM = postmenopausal; DE = dry eye disease; NDE = non-dry eye; ELISA = Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

  8. Yoga increased serum estrogen levels in postmenopausal women-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Rui Ferreira; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Rodrigues, Dinah; Leite, José Roberto; Tufik, Sérgio; Hachul, Helena

    2016-05-01

    This case report aimed to evaluate 4 months of yoga practice on the quality of life (QOL) and estradiol levels of two postmenopausal women. Participants were clinically healthy postmenopausal women, with follicle-stimulating hormone levels greater than or equal to 30 mIU/mL and a body mass index lower than 30 kg/m. The participants practiced yoga for 4 months in two 1-hour sessions per week. The participants exhibited an abnormal estrogen-level increase after 4 months of yoga practice and showed QOL improvements. In some cases, yoga practice can affect the female neuroendocrine system, increasing estrogen and improving QOL.

  9. Diet intervention to improve cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, Parvin; Lee, Mary Huang Soo; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Yassin, Zaitun; Shojaeezade, Davood; Hosseini, Mostafa; Malihi, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and disability and remains so in the future. The aim of this study was to detect the impact of a 6-month diet intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal Iranian women. It was a randomized controlled trial that carried out in the East Health Clinic in Ahvaz-Iran. This study started on June 2007 and was completed on May 2008. A total 64 healthy postmenopausal women recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (35...

  10. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Post-menopausal hormone replacement (HRT) might protect against cardiovascular disease, possibly by arterial vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Progestogens are needed to avoid endometrial disease but vascular effects are controversial. The objective was to assess temporal changes...... in blood pressure (BP) by two measurement techniques during a cyclic hormone replacement regimen. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy and normotensive post-menopausal women (age 55 +/- 3 years) were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, and were randomized to 17beta-oestradiol plus...

  11. The Portrayal of Women’s Contribution to Irish Society through a Sample from the Irish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Lirola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to approach the representation of womanhood in the Irish press from 2006 to 2012. The corpus comprises all the texts dealing with women, from January 1 to 31 December of four years within this time range, taken from one of the main Irish broadsheet newspapers: The Irish Independent. The research database LexisNexis Academic was employed to compile the corpus. For the purposes of this research, I apply Teun van Leeuwen’s (2008 social actor network model. This paper points out that Corpus Linguistics (CL can be a powerful complementary tool to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA.

  12. The Portrayal of Women’s Contribution to Irish Society through a Sample from the Irish Press

    OpenAIRE

    María Martínez Lirola

    2014-01-01

    The article intends to approach the representation of womanhood in the Irish press from 2006 to 2012. The corpus comprises all the texts dealing with women, from January 1 to 31 December of four years within this time range, taken from one of the main Irish broadsheet newspapers: The Irish Independent. The research database LexisNexis Academic was employed to compile the corpus. For the purposes of this research, Teun van Leeuwen’s (2008) social actor network model was applied. This paper poi...

  13. The 'healthy immigrant effect': breastfeeding behaviour in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Anne; Layte, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for babies, mothers and society have been demonstrated in a large scientific literature. Irish rates of breastfeeding are amongst the lowest in Europe (in 2010, Ireland had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate of 14 European countries). One of the most distinctive features of breastfeeding behaviour in Ireland is the large difference in breastfeeding rates between immigrants to Ireland and the Irish-born. Data from the 2010 Irish National Perinatal Reporting System show that just 46.1% of Irish-born mothers were breastfeeding at hospital discharge, in comparison with 84.2% of immigrant mothers. Descriptive patterns suggest that breastfeeding behaviour in Ireland may exhibit a 'healthy immigrant' effect, whereby the health status and behaviours of immigrants are better than the native-born on arrival, but converge to native levels as length of time since migration increases. Using nationally representative data from two cohorts of children in Ireland, the purpose of this article is to examine the evidence for a 'healthy immigrant' effect with respect to breastfeeding behaviour. The results indicate that immigrants are significantly more likely to breastfeed than Irish-born mothers, but that immigrant breastfeeding rates converge towards Irish-born rates of breastfeeding as length of time since migration increases. The decline in breastfeeding behaviour among immigrants to Ireland with length of time since migration highlights the need for appropriate interventions aimed at countering the particular negative attitudes to breastfeeding that are observed in Irish society. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein enrichment of Irish potatoes by fermentation process using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein enrichment of Irish potatoes by fermentation process using mutant ... The mutants exhibited similar morphological and cultural characteristics as the wild ... The genetic analysis resealed that the Lactobacillus bulgaricus studied did not ...

  15. Student Voice: An Emerging Discourse in Irish Education Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domnall Fleming

    2015-01-01

      In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation...

  16. 76 FR 11929 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ..., BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the... inauguration, we recognize our 35th President and the countless other Irish Americans whose leadership and...

  17. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Browne, Una

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure consonant sentences than low-pressure consonant sentences, and for the Rainbow passage than total test sentences. There was no significant difference between high-pressure consonant sentences and the Zoo passage. Compared to previous studies, the Irish young adults had lower nasalance scores than Irish children and than young adults with North American dialects.

  18. Irish American Women: Forgotten First-Wave Feminists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Barr Ebest

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous books have been written about American feminism and its influence on education and society. But none have recognized the key role played by Irish American women in exposing injustice and protecting their rights. Certainly their literary heritage, inherent knowledge of English, and membership in the single largest ethnic group gave them an advantage. But their dual positions as colonized, second-class citizens of their country and their religion gave them their political edge, a trait that has been evident since the Irish first stepped off the boat and that continues to this day. This essay focuses on the first wave of these feminist messages by introducing Irish American writers and activists who emerged between the 1830s and 1960s. It locates Irish American women’s influence in three different, yet overlapping milieus—political activism, journalism, and literature.

  19. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alice S.; Browne, Una

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between–within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure conson...

  20. Effect of Hesperidin With and Without a Calcium (Calcilock) Supplement on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Jackson, George S; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Offord-Cavin, Elizabeth; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-03-01

    Citrus fruits contain unique flavanones. One of the most abundant of the flavanones, hesperidin, has been shown to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats. The objective of the study was to measure the effect of hesperidin with or without calcium supplementation on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-order crossover design of 500 g hesperidin with or without 500 mg calcium supplement in 12 healthy postmenopausal women. Bone calcium retention was determined from urinary excretion of the rare isotope, (41)Ca, from bone. Calcium plus hesperidin, but not hesperidin alone, improved bone calcium retention by 5.5% (P hesperidin, is effective at preserving bone in postmenopausal women.

  1. An Irish perspective on Cryptosporidium. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zintl Annetta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptosporidiosis, a protozoal disease which causes significant morbidity in humans, is one of the chief causes of diarrhoea in neonatal ruminants. Although the parasite poses a significant threat to public health and animal health in Ireland, its epidemiology on the island is only poorly understood. Environmental studies have shown the waterborne parasite to be widespread in some untreated waterbodies around Ireland. The island's hydrogeological situation, combined with high stocking rates of livestock and the absence of filtration from regular water treatment, render it vulnerable to large-scale outbreaks. This review discusses the parasite in the Irish context and underlines the need for a reference facility to provide active surveillance on the island.

  2. Valuing Equality in Irish Social Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author critiques Irish social care by presenting an equality perspective on practice. An equality perspective involves developing emancipatory practices, that is, ways of helping that provide egalitarian solutions and outcomes. Although emancipatory values are often contrasted with traditional social care values, the author seeks a pragmatic and integrated approach to emancipatory practices rather than a restatement of traditional dichotomies. Emancipatory practice begins with an appreciation of the nature and relevance of inequalities on the lives of diverse social care users. Building a commitment to equality within social care education and practice is an important step in altering many individual and institutional social care practices by focussing on equality processes and outcomes as central social care objectives. Using a well credited framework that outlines five dimensions of inequality (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon and Walsh, 2004, the author argues that social care educators and practitioners need to debate the issues raised and develop emancipatory practices.

  3. ‘The Irish Imagination 1971 – Stereotype or Strategy’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róisín Kennedy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses one of the most influential and contentious essays on post-war Irish art, Brian O’Doherty’s text for the 1971 exhibition catalogue, the Irish Imagination 1959-71. The exhibition, a subsidiary of the international Rosc 71 exhibition, was an important vehicle for promoting contemporary Irish visual art in a global forum. The paper considers how O’Doherty’s representation of modern Irish art relates to the priorities of the art establishment in the Republic of Ireland in the early 1970s. Coming at a crucial moment in the escalation of violence in Northern Ireland and the demise of Modernism internationally, it argues that the essay encapsulates many of the contradictions of its time. The ‘atmospheric mode’ is identified as the key feature of mid 20th century Irish painting. O’Doherty suggests that this ambiguous use of form is the result of a problematical relationship between the artist and his/her native country. Avoiding conventional biographical or art historical narratives in favour of a systematic critical method O’Doherty’s text focuses on the physical characteristics of the artworks. Drawing on both formalist and nationalist rhetoric in its evaluation of Irish art, it makes a cogent, if problematic, defence of local art practice in the face of the dominant cosmopolitan centre.

  4. The Irish Theme in the Writings of Bill Naughton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pierce

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The student interested in cultural assimilation, hybridity, and naturalization, in masculinity, authorship, and identity, in what happened to the Irish in Britain in the twentieth century, will turn at some point to the Mayo-born, Lancashire writer Bill Naughton (1910-1992, author of a classic children’s story collection The Goalkeeper’s Revenge and Other Stories (1961, ofAlfie (1965, the film which helped define 1960s London, and of a series of autobiographies largely centering on his Irish childhood and upbringing in Bolton. It has been the historic role of Irish writers from Richard Brinsley Sheridan to Oscar Wilde, from Elizabeth Bowen to William Trevor, to give the English back to themselves in a gallery of portraits. Naughton is part of this tradition, but, unlike these other writers, his subject is the English working class, which he writes about from within, with both sympathy and knowledge. It can be readily conceded that his work is not at the forefront of modern English or Irish writing, but it does deserve to be better known and appreciated. Here in this discursive essay, with an eye on his Irish background, I move back and forth across his writing to reflect on his contribution not so to much the cultural greening of Britain as to the mass observation of the English and of the Irish in Britain.

  5. Relationship between serum estrogen levels and blood stasis syndrome in postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Guo, Chunyu; Ma, Xiaojuan; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Yin, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the difference of serum estrogen, serum lipids and inflammatory factors levels in postmenopausal women with coronary heart blood stasis syndrome and non-blood stasis syndrome. Twenty five healthy postmenopausal women were selected as a healthy control group who were compared with 43 postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease (CHD) first visiting a doctor for the CHD. Among the postmenopausal women with CHD, There were 23 patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and 20 patients with non-blood stasis syndrome (NBSS). The levels of plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) were determined in blood samples taken after patients' admission in Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The serum estradiol(E2) was measured by electrochemiluminescence assay and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1) was measured by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with the healthy control group, the levels of TG and TC, sICAM-1 in coronary heart disease group were all significantly increased (P0.05), and there was an increasing trend of serum sICAM-1 levels (P>0.05). There were negative significant correlations between serum E2 levels and TC, sICAM-1 levels in patient with coronary heart disease. The estrogen level of menopausal women with coronary heart disease is lower than healthy menopausal women. With the low estrogen levels, postmenopausal women tend to have high levels of blood lipids and sICAM-1, which elucidates that the estrogen could regulate lipids and attenuate inflammatory response to play a protective role on blood vessels.

  6. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  7. Life Satisfaction and Morbidity among Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyry S Lukkala

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between morbidity and global life satisfaction in postmenopausal women taking into account type and number of diseases.A total of 11,084 women (age range 57-66 years from a population-based cohort of Finnish women (OSTPRE Study responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Life satisfaction was measured with a 4-item scale. Self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician and categorized according to ICD-10 main classes were used as a measure of morbidity. Enquiry data on health and lifestyle were used as covariates in the multivariate logistic models.Morbidity was strongly associated with life dissatisfaction. Every additional disease increased the risk of life dissatisfaction by 21.1% (p < .001. The risk of dissatisfaction was strongest among women with mental disorders (OR = 5.26; 95%CI 3.84-7.20 and neurological disorders (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 2.60-5.02 compared to the healthy (each p < .001. Smoking, physical inactivity and marital status were also associated with life dissatisfaction (each p < .001 but their introduction to the multivariate model did not attenuate the pattern of associations.Morbidity and life dissatisfaction have a disease-specific and dose-dependent relationship. Even if women with mental and neurological disorders have the highest risk for life dissatisfaction, monitoring life satisfaction among aging women regardless of disorders should be undertaken in order to intervene the joint adverse effects of poor health and poor well-being.

  8. Serum chitotriosidase in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, M; Palermo, A; D'Onofrio, L; Vadalà, G; Greto, V; Di Stasio, E; Maddaloni, E; Di Rosa, M; Tibullo, D; Angeletti, S; Silvia, A; Napoli, N; Denaro, V; Manfrini, S

    2016-02-01

    Human chitotriosidase (Chit) increases during the osteoclast differentiation and their activity. We demonstrated that serum Chit was significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects than in healthy control ones and revealed a negative correlation between Chit and bone mineral density (BMD). This is the first study showing a correlation between Chit and severe postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mammalian chitinases exert important biological roles in the monocyte lineage and chronic inflammatory diseases. In particular, Chit seems to promote bone resorption in vitro. No in vivo studies have been performed to confirm this finding. We aim to evaluate Chit activity in postmenopausal women affected by severe osteoporosis. In this cross-sectional study, 91 postmenopausal women affected by osteoporosis and 61 with either osteopenia or normal BMD were screened. All subjects were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and X-ray vertebral morphometry. Osteoporotic subjects were considered eligible if they were affected by at least one vertebral osteoporotic fracture (group A = 57 subjects). Osteopenic or healthy subjects were free from osteoporotic fractures (group B = 51 subjects). Enzymatic Chit and serum β-CrossLaps (CTX) were measured in the whole population. Group A showed higher serum levels of beta-CTX compared to group B (0.40 ± 0.26 ng/mL vs 0.29 ± 0.2 ng/mL, p = 0.022). Chit was significantly higher in group A than in group B (1042 ± 613 nmol/mL/h vs 472 ± 313 nmol/mL/h, p age (p osteoporosis and Chit (p age (p osteoporosis. Larger and prospective studies are needed to evaluate if Chit may be a promising clinical biomarker and/or therapeutic monitor in subjects with osteoporosis.

  9. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  10. Alendronate in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Weiss, S R; Rodriguez-Portales, J A

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect on bone mass of alendronate treatment for 5 yr and its withdrawal. Four hundred and forty-seven postmenopausal women with normal bone mass entered a 3-yr randomized trial followed by a 2-yr open label extension. Three hundred and eleven women completed the first 3 yr, and 263...... consented to continue and completed the extension. We are reporting data from groups using the dose of alendronate currently approved for osteoporosis prevention (5 mg) or from the group in which alendronate treatment was withdrawn: 52 women received alendronate (5 mg) for 5 yr (group I), 56 received 3 yr...

  11. Evaluation of activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in postmenopausal women suffering from severe acute illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, M Neelima; Suresh, V; Mukka, Arun; Reddy, Amaresh; Sachan, Alok; Mohan, Alladi; Vengamma, B; Rao, P V L N Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Postmenopausal women constitute an ideal model for studying the extent of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis suppression in critical illness as the gonadotropins are normally high and non-cyclical in them. The objective was to assess the impact of acute severe illness in postmenopausal women on the HPG axis and the activities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), the hypothalamo- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes; and levels of serum prolactin, by comparison between critically ill postmenopausal women and otherwise healthy postmenopausal women. Thirty five consecutive postmenopausal women older than 60 yr admitted to medical intensive care with a s0 implified a0 cute p0 hysiology s0 core II (SAPS II) more than 30 were included. On day five of their in-hospital stay, blood samples were collected for oestradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), cortisol, androstenedione, prolactin and thyroid profile. Thirty five apparently healthy postmenopausal women were selected as controls. Levels of LH, FSH, thyrotropin, free thyroxin (fT 4 ) and free tri-iodothyronine (fT 3 ) were lower while oestradiol, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were higher among patients in comparison to healthy controls. Prolactin levels were similar in patients and controls. Among sick patients both FSH and fT 4 showed a negative correlation ( P<0.05) with the SAPS II score. In critically ill postmenopausal women, paradoxically elevated oestrogen levels despite gonadotropin suppression suggests a non-ovarian origin. Prolactin remained unaltered in patients despite their illness, possibly reflecting atrophy of lactotrophs in menopause.

  12. Evaluation of activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in postmenopausal women suffering from severe acute illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Neelima Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Postmenopausal women constitute an ideal model for studying the extent of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG axis suppression in critical illness as the gonadotropins are normally high and non-cyclical in them. The objective was to assess the impact of acute severe illness in postmenopausal women on the HPG axis and the activities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA, the hypothalamo- pituitary-thyroid (HPT axes; and levels of serum prolactin, by comparison between critically ill postmenopausal women and otherwise healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Thirty five consecutive postmenopausal women older than 60 yr admitted to medical intensive care with a s0 implified a0 cute p0 hysiology s0 core II (SAPS II more than 30 were included. On day five of their in-hospital stay, blood samples were collected for oestradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, cortisol, androstenedione, prolactin and thyroid profile. Thirty five apparently healthy postmenopausal women were selected as controls. Results: Levels of LH, FSH, thyrotropin, free thyroxin (fT 4 and free tri-iodothyronine (fT 3 were lower while oestradiol, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were higher among patients in comparison to healthy controls. Prolactin levels were similar in patients and controls. Among sick patients both FSH and fT 4 showed a negative correlation ( P<0.05 with the SAPS II score. Interpretation & conclusions: In critically ill postmenopausal women, paradoxically elevated oestrogen levels despite gonadotropin suppression suggests a non-ovarian origin. Prolactin remained unaltered in patients despite their illness, possibly reflecting atrophy of lactotrophs in menopause.

  13. Postprandial lipemia in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Gaffar S.; Rahman, Sajida; Rahman, Jalelur

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: The increased risk for coronary artery disease observed in postmenopausal (PoW) women is partly explained by a more atherogenic lipoprotein profile. Moreover, natural menopause has been associated with an altered postprandial lipid profile. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that young premenopausal (PrW) and PoW may be independently associated with postprandial lipemia and indirectly associated with atherosclerosis. Patients and Methods: A total of 46 healthy PrW and 44 healthy PoW participated in a 5-h intervention study. Blood samples were taken at the baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after eating. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, fasting, and postprandial triglycerides (PPTG) were determined sequentially in blood samples. Results: PPTG presented significant higher values in PoW compared to PrW (P < 0.05), but other lipids did not significantly differ between groups. PPTG concentrations in PoW were significantly higher than in PrW (P < 0.05). There was a significant time influence (P < 0.05) in TG in PrW and PoW, while time to peak and peak concentration were significantly higher in PoW than PrW. Other lipids were also decreased more in PrW than PoW, but not significantly so. Cholesterol concentrations showed a significant reduction after 2 h, to reach values similar to the baseline after 4 h in PrW but not in PoW. HDL-cholesterol concentration was decreased more in PoW compared to PrW but it was not significant. Conclusions: Lipid postprandial response indicates a higher cardiovascular risk pattern in PoW compared to PrW. PMID:22690054

  14. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, T; Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  15. Cardiovascular risk assessment with oxidised LDL measurement in postmenopausal women receiving intranasal estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Yildirim, Mulazim; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Bilgihan, Ayse; Goktas, Bulent

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of intranasal estrogen replacement therapy administered to postmenopausal women alone or in combination with progesterone on markers of cardiovascular risk. The study was conducted with 44 voluntary postmenopausal women. In group I (n = 15), the patients were treated with only intranasal estradiol (300 μg/day estradiol hemihydrate). In group II (n = 11), the patients received cyclic progesterone (200 mg/day micronized progesterone) for 12 days in each cycle in addition to continuous intranasal estradiol. Group III (n = 18) was the controls. Serum lipid profiles, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed at baseline and at the 3rd month of the treatment. Lipid profile, LDL apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein a, homocysteine, oxidised LDL values and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratio were not observed to change after 3 months compared to baseline values within each group (p > 0.016). In comparison to changes between the groups after the treatment, only oxidised LDL levels and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratios of group II were increased compared to control group (p cardiovascular risk in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the addition of cyclic oral micronized progesterone to intranasal estradiol influenced the markers of cardiovascular risk negatively in comparison to non-users in healthy postmenopausal women.

  16. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass and spinal fracture in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rix, M; Andreassen, H

    1997-01-01

    A group of 366 healthy, white postmenopausal women, aged 50-81 years, mean age 66 years, were selected from the screened population of Scandinavians who were part of a multicenter study of the efficacy of tiludronate, a new bisphosphonate, in established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty-eight ......, and prevalence of spinal fracture, which supports the theory that high bone turnover is a risk factor for spinal fracture and osteoporosis.......A group of 366 healthy, white postmenopausal women, aged 50-81 years, mean age 66 years, were selected from the screened population of Scandinavians who were part of a multicenter study of the efficacy of tiludronate, a new bisphosphonate, in established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty...... resorption was assessed by measurement of the urinary excretion of type I collagen degradation products by the CrossLaps enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Bone formation was assessed by ELISA measurement of the N-terminal-midfragment as well as the intact serum osteocalcin (OCN-MID), thus omitting...

  17. Postprandial metabolic responses to dietary glycemic index in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukkapatnam, Radhika N; Berglund, Lars; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Devaraj, Sridevi; Hyson, Dianne; Rafii, Flora; Malmstein, Catharine; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. While diet and lifestyle remain the cornerstones of prevention, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet is associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipemia-atherosclerotic risk factors affected by postprandial conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the acute response of lipids and insulin to a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal with either a high-glycemic or a low-glycemic index in healthy postmenopausal women. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled in a randomized crossover dietary intervention study. Levels of glucose, triglyceride, free fatty acids (FFAs), and insulin were measured preprandially and for 240 minutes after consumption of the test meals. In response to the high-glycemic compared with the low-glycemic index meal, postprandial insulin levels had a higher peak (65.4 vs 48.1 microU/mL, respectively), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly higher (P=.014), serum triglyceride levels declined significantly (Pglycemic index on cardiovascular metabolic biomarkers in postmenopausal women and may have implications for dietary glycemic modification of cardiovascular risk in women. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Association of serum Dkk-1 levels with β-catenin in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Zhu, Xi-Wen; Li, Cheng-gang; Ma, Chen; Lv, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Wnt signaling plays an important role in the bone development and remodeling. The Wnt antagonist Dkk-1 is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. The aims of this study were firstly to compare the serum Dkk-1 levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients with age-matched healthy controls, and secondly, to assess the possible relationship between Dkk-1 and β-catenin, sclerostin, or bone turnover markers [CTX, PINP, N-MID-OT and 25(OH)D] in the setting of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A total of 350 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 150 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled, and the serum levels of Dkk-1, β-catenin, sclerostin, OPG, and RANKL were detected by ELISA, and bone turnover markers [CTX, PINP, N-MID-OT and 25(OH)D] were measured by Roche electrochemiluminescence system in two groups. Serum Dkk-1 levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in control group (Posteoporosis group. No similar correlations ware observed in control group. The results provided evidence for the role of Dkk-1 in bone metabolism and demonstrated the link of Dkk-1 and Wnt/β-catenin in some ways.

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, T J; Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Stevens, R G; Albert, P S; Dorgan, J F; Kesner, J S; Meadows, J W; Shields, R; Taylor, P R

    2012-01-01

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for breast cancer including serum and urinary levels of hormones and other biomarkers. Previously, we observed significant increases in concentrations of serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in participants after consumption of 15 or 30 g (one or two drinks) of alcohol per day. In the present analysis, we evaluated the relationship of alcohol consumption with 24-h urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) concentration (micrograms per 24 h). Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed a controlled diet plus each of three treatments (a nonalcoholic placebo beverage or 15 or 30 g alcohol/d) during three 8-wk periods in random order under conditions of weight maintenance. 6-SMT was measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected at entry into the study (baseline) and at the midpoint (4 wk) and end (8 wk) of each of the three diet periods. Concentration of 6-SMT was not significantly modified by the alcohol treatment after adjustment for body mass index, hours of sleep, daylight hours, and baseline level of 6-SMT. These results suggest that low to moderate daily alcohol consumption does not significantly affect 24-h urinary levels of melatonin among healthy postmenopausal women.

  20. Recognition and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannafon, Freda; Cadogan, Mary P

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common but often silent condition among older adults. The characteristic pathological changes associated with osteoporosis may go unnoticed until a fracture occurs or a bone density test is performed. Although osteoporosis occurs in men and among premenopausal women, it is most prevalent among postmenopausal women who are the focus of this article. Within the subpopulation of postmenopausal women, there are major differences in risk status, disease severity, and response to treatment. Two individual examples are presented to highlight these differences and to illustrate appropriate assessment and treatment strategies in each scenario. In addition, general nonpharmacological recommendations for postmenopausal women across risk status and disease severity are presented.

  1. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Eating Healthy Eating Healthy Contact Us Resources Eating Healthy Eating healthy is part of living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, ...

  2. Irish-Language Policy in a Multiethnic State: Competing Discourses on Ethnocultural Membership and Language Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how competing discourses about the ownership of the Irish language in an increasingly multiethnic Ireland and the extent to which it is associated with a sense of "Irishness" influence the formulation of recent Irish-language policy at institutional and national levels. As part of a broader study on the language…

  3. The Role of Irish Language Teaching: Cultural Identity Formation or Language Revitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatinská, Anna; Pecníková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The focal point of the article is Irish language teaching in the Republic of Ireland. Firstly, we deal with the most significant documents where the status of the Irish language is being defined. In this respect, for the purposes of analysis, we have chosen the document titled "20 Year Strategy for the Irish language" which plays a…

  4. Acquiring an Opaque Gender System in Irish, an Endangered Indigenous Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Fhlannchadha, Siobhán; Hickey, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the acquisition of grammatical gender has not previously been conducted for Irish, an endangered indigenous language now typically acquired simultaneously with English, or as L2. Children acquiring Irish must contend with the opacity of the Irish gender system and the plurifunctionality of the inflections used to mark…

  5. Database in Theory and Practice: The Bibliography of Irish Literary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on "The Bibliography of Irish Literary Criticism" (BILC, 2010), a bibliographical database of Irish literary criticism developed by humanities and information and communications technology (ICT) researchers in NUI Maynooth, this chapter investigates the opportunities and implications afforded the field of Irish literary studies…

  6. Irish abortion ban strengthened as information is censored and seized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In Ireland it is illegal to distribute information about abortion services. This means that magazines like Cosmopolitan have to remove ads for abortion clinics from the magazines printed for Ireland. A BBC television show about abortion was aired in Ireland with the names of the clinics blacked out. Even the phone books of foreign cities have removed because they contain the phone numbers of abortion clinics. Currently the only price where women can get information about abortion clinics is from a very small network of priests, doctors, and activists. Some activists have resorted to writing the phone numbers of abortion clinics in England on the public bathroom walls. Officially there are 4000 Irish women who travel to England for abortions every year. That figure only represents the women that give Irish addresses. The real figure is estimated to be about 8000 annually. 14 students were arrested for distributing leaflets with information about abortion clinics in England. They lost their case in both the Irish and European courts and have been fined, undisclosed amounts. Ireland is 85% Catholic and the Catholic Church still has a great deal of influence in Irish politics. The head of the Irish Family Planning Association said that the Catholic Church has moved Ireland back into the Dark Ages. Abortion was made illegal in Ireland in 1986. Contraception was legalized in 1980 and in 1985 condoms were allowed to be sold without a doctors prescription.

  7. A contrastive view of Irish language dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giollagáin, Conchúr O

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the linguistic anthropology which underpins the language dynamics of two Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking) areas, Ros Muc in Conamara, Co. Galway and Ráth Cairn in Co. Meath. This research highlights what could be considered a socio-linguistic paradox: the community (Ráth Cairn) which engages more vigorously in language maintenance endeavors, and exhibits a greater awareness of language policy and of linguistic ideology among members of the community, fares less favorably in socio-linguistic terms to the contrasting community (Ros Muc) which has to endure a more challenging socio-economic climate than that of Ráth Cairn. The relative socio-economic success of the Ráth Cairn community appears to be masking a greater malaise of socio-cultural fragility and language endangerment. In contrast, the language obsolescence issues faced by the Ros Muc community, though superficially not as severe, are enmeshed in what would be considered more pressing issues of socio-economic marginalization.

  8. The susceptibility of Irish-grown and Galician-grown Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, to Vibrio tapetis and Brown Ring Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Linda C; Balboa, Sabela; Beaz, Roxana; Mulcahy, Máire F; Barja, Juan L; Culloty, Sarah C; Romalde, Jesús L

    2007-05-01

    Brown Ring Disease (BRD), which affects the Manila clam in Europe, is caused by the bacterium, Vibrio tapetis. BRD has been diagnosed in Ireland on only one occasion (1997) although the aetiological agent has recently been detected in apparently healthy Manila clams from a number of sites around the Irish coast. The present work investigated the susceptibilities to BRD of two stocks of Manila clams, one from Ireland and the second from Galicia, north-western Spain, where BRD has been reported on a number of occasions. Exposure of the clams was by addition of V. tapetis to the holding waters. Development of BRD was assessed by the appearance of brown ring signs on the host shells, by bacterial isolation and characterization, and by detection of the bacterium by PCR. The pathogen was recovered from infected individuals and confirmed as V. tapetis by biochemical tests and a slide agglutination test. Galician clams experienced significantly higher mortalities, BRD prevalences and V. tapetis levels than Irish clams. Background infection with V. tapetis in the control stocks prevented conclusions being drawn on comparative susceptibility of the two stocks. Irish clams were significantly affected by the experimental challenge, as demonstrated by the development of BRD and an increase in V. tapetis levels. Results illustrate the vulnerability of Irish clams to BRD and have implications for the movement and transfer of clam seed in Ireland.

  9. Effects of substances on serum zinc levels in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Maria; Mroczek, Bozena; Kotwas, Artur; Baczkowski, Tomasz; Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup-Jabłońska, Malgorzata; Grochans, Elzbieta; Karakiewicz, Beata; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Demographic facts and forecasts about lengthening life expectancy motivate to systematize the knowledge of health problems experienced by women at the age of 50 and older. It refers to the whole health policy including health economics. Longer female life spans cause that an increasing number of women suffer from health problems associated with the perimenopausal period, and become health care recipients. Also a shift of retirement age is the reason to take interdisciplinary actions for women's health and quality of life. This study describes a decline in the levels of many bioelements in hair, urine and blood serum, which progresses with age. It not only correlates with a decrease in the synthesis and secretion of estrogen, but also environmental pollution, unhealthy lifestyle and the use of substances. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between serum zinc levels in postmenopausal women and such variables as the use of substances (cigarettes, alcohol) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Material and method: The study was conducted among 152 healthy women being 1-16 years after menopause. The women were divided into study group (MHT users) and control group (MHT non-users). A sub-division criterion was the use of substances (cigarettes, alcohol). Serum zinc levels were determined in all women. Results: The use of substances significantly contributed to the lowering of serum zinc levels in postmenopausal women. MHT users had statistically higher average zinc levels in blood serum, which referred both to smokers and consumers of alcohol and those who did not use these substances. (1) The use-of substances (cigarettes, alcohol) contributes to the lowering of zinc levels in blood serum. (2) MHT positively affects serum zinc levels in postmenopausal women regardless of whether they use substances (cigarettes, alcohol) or not.

  10. Effects of vitamin K in postmenopausal women: mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Onur; Erel, Cemal Tamer

    2014-03-01

    Possible benefits of vitamin K on bone health, fracture risk, markers of bone formation and resorption, cardiovascular health, and cancer risk in postmenopausal women have been investigated for over three decades; yet there is no clear evidence-based universal recommendation for its use. Interventional studies showed that vitamin K1 provided significant improvement in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels in postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD); however, there are inconsistent results in women with low BMD. There is no study showing any improvement in bone-alkaline-phosphatase (BAP), n-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (NTX), 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and urinary markers. Improvement in BMD could not be shown in the majority of the studies; there is no interventional study evaluating the fracture risk. Studies evaluating the isolated effects of menatetrenone (MK-4) showed significant improvement in osteocalcin (OC); however, there are inconsistent results on BAP, NTX, and urinary markers. BMD was found to be significantly increased in the majority of studies. The fracture risk was assessed in three studies, which showed decreased fracture risk to some extent. Although there are proven beneficial effects on some of the bone formation markers, there is not enough evidence-based data to support a role for vitamin K supplementation in osteoporosis prevention among healthy, postmenopausal women receiving vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Interventional studies investigating the isolated role of vitamin K on cardiovascular health are required. Longterm clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of vitamin K on gynecological cancers. MK-4 seems safe even at doses as high as 45 mg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary calcium concentration as a screening tool for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Masooleh, Irandokht Shenavar; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnejad; Nikoukar, Laia Rahbar

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of salivary calcium level may be a useful screening tool for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether this measure is valid compared with dual-energy X-ray (Bone Mineral Density) screening tools in osteoporosis. A case-control study was carried out in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and 40 women without osteoporosis (T-score > -1 bone mineral density). Salivary samples were collected and calcium concentrations were measured and expressed as mg/dL. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses was used to determine the optimal cut-off thresholds for salivary calcium in healthy postmenopausal women. The cut-off point for salivary calcium was 6.1 mg/dL. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for identifying women with osteoporosis, were 67.5 (95%CI 52.33-82.67) and 60% (95%CI 44.62-75.38). The area under curve (AUC) was 0.678 (95%CI 0.56-0.79), the positive predictive value (PPV) was 62.79 (95%CI 47.74-77.84) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 64.86% (95%CI 49.27-80.46). The positive likelihood ratio was 1.688 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.542. Salivary calcium concentration discriminates between women with and without osteoporosis and constitutes a useful tool for screening for osteoporosis. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Attitudes of Irish dental graduates to vocational training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, G

    2010-05-01

    Vocational training (VT) is a mandatory 12 month period for UK dental graduates after graduation. Graduates of Irish Dental Schools are eligible to enter the general dental service in Ireland or obtain an NHS performers list number in the UK immediately after qualification. Reports would suggest that some graduates of Irish Dental Schools are choosing to take part in VT in the UK and find the experience beneficial. This study aimed to record the uptake of VT amongst recent graduates from University College Cork and to document their experiences. It was designed to compare the attitudes and experiences of graduates of Irish Dental Schools who undertook VT compared with those who entered the general dental service.

  13. "Estranging Exteriority": translation and adaptation in Irish drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Murphy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests Nicholas Grene's theory that Irish drama is "...outerdirected, created as much to be viewed from outside as well as inside Ireland" to see whether it holds true for Irish language theatre. Starting with three plays written first in the Irish language: Brendan Behan's An Giall (The Hostage, Máiréad Ní Ghráda's An Triail (The Trial: a Play and Antoine Ó Flatharta's Grásta I Meiriceá (Grace in America, the paper will examine the authors' English versions of the plays to see whether they were literal translations, adaptations or transformation. If the English version were adaptations or transformations, what kinds of artistic, cultural or linguistic choices did the playwrights make to make "the otherness of Ireland" more accessible to their English readers and audiences?

  14. The Language of Globalization in Contemporary Irish Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Keatinge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how contemporary Irish poets have responded to the changing socio-economic realities of Irish life since 1990. Through an examination of themes of work, consumerism, the encroachment of cyber-space and changing urban lifestyles, the essay demonstrates how Irish poets have risen to the challenge of finding a language to capture what Zygmunt Bauman characterizes as ‘liquid modernity’. A range of poets are considered, including the late Dennis O’Driscoll, Rita Ann Higgins, Peter Sirr as well as Billy Ramsell, Kevin Higgins and Iggy McGovern. These poets’ musings provide excellent examples of how the poet can turn the language of globalization into a critique of globalization’s economic hegemony.

  15. The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G.; Bernards, N; Meijman, T.F.; Heijnen, C.J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  16. Postmenopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Oxytrol have helped women with urinary issues. Memory and Concentration Problems Issues with memory loss and ... the elevator. Dance to some of your favorite music. Or take the dog out for a long ...

  17. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Fingernail Clippings Can Help Differentiate between Postmenopausal Women who Have and Have Not Suffered a Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Beattie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy was applied to nail clippings from 633 postmenopausal British and Irish women, from six clinical sites, of whom 42% had experienced a fragility fracture. The objective was to build a prediction algorithm for fracture using data from four sites (known as the calibration set and test its performance using data from the other two sites (known as the validation set. Results from the validation set showed that a novel algorithm, combining spectroscopy data with clinical data, provided area under the curve (AUC of 74% compared to an AUC of 60% from a reduced QFracture score (a clinically accepted risk calculator and 61% from the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T -score, which is in current use for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Raman spectroscopy should be investigated further as a noninvasive tool for the early detection of enhanced risk of fragility fracture.

  18. Heart rate variability under resting conditions in postmenopausal and young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Ribeiro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the modulation of heart rate in a group of postmenopausal women to that of a group of young women under resting conditions on the basis of R-R interval variability. Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD, 58.3 ± 6.8 years and 10 healthy young women (mean ± SD, 21.6 ± 0.82 years were submitted to a control resting electrocardiogram (ECG in the supine and sitting positions over a period of 6 min. The ECG was obtained from a one-channel heart monitor at the CM5 lead and processed and stored using an analog to digital converter connected to a microcomputer. R-R intervals were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis from the ECG recording in real time using a signal-processing software. Heart rate variability (HRV was expressed as standard deviation (RMSM and mean square root (RMSSD. In the supine position, the postmenopausal group showed significantly lower (P<0.05 median values of RMSM (34.9 and RMSSD (22.32 than the young group (RMSM: 62.11 and RMSSD: 49.1. The same occurred in the sitting position (RMSM: 33.0 and RMSSD: 18.9 compared to RMSM: 57.6 and RMSSD: 42.8 for the young group. These results indicate a decrease in parasympathetic modulation in postmenopausal women compared to young women which was possibly due both to the influence of age and hormonal factors. Thus, time domain HRV proved to be a noninvasive and sensitive method for the identification of changes in autonomic modulation of the sinus node in postmenopausal women.

  19. Reawakening the Irish language through the ırish education system: Challenges and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J. Ó Ceallaigh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a language, Irish is unique to Ireland and is, therefore, of crucial importance to the identity of the Irish people, to Irish culture and to world heritage. The Irish language however has had a turbulent and traumatic history and has endured a complex and varied relationship with the Irish people. Since the foundation of the Irish Free State, the education system has been targeted as an agency and model for Irish language planning, education and language revitalisation and has had a critical role in generating linguistic ability in the Irish language. This paper reviews the complex and controversial relationship between the Irish language, the State and the education system from an historical perspective. Some key acts of recent legislation and government initiatives, which impact on the status of the Irish language are considered and barriers and challenges to progress in the education system are outlined. The paper concludes with a discussion on significant positive factors which may revolutionise and reawaken the Irish language through our education syste

  20. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla; Małgorzata Szkup; Anna Jurczak; Agnieszka Samochowiec; Jerzy Samochowiec; Marzanna Stanisławska; Iwona Rotter; Beata Karakiewicz; Elżbieta Grochans

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index t...

  1. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  2. Effects of yoga exercise on serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-03-01

    Regular and continuous yoga exercise is one of the most important nonpharmacological methods of improving serum lipid concentrations, adipose tissue, and metabolic syndrome factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of yoga exercise on serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Sixteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 54.50 ± 2.75 years with more than 36% body fat were randomly assigned to either a yoga exercise group (n = 8) or to a "no exercise" control group (n = 8). The variables of body composition, visceral fat, serum adiponectin, and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in all the participants before and after the 16-week study. Body weight, percentage of body fat, lean body mass, body mass index, waist circumference, and visceral fat area had significantly decreased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin had significantly increased, but total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance had significantly decreased. Serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly correlated with waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance in the postyoga exercise group. Our findings indicate that yoga exercise improves adiponectin level, serum lipids, and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese postmenopausal women. Consequently, yoga exercise will be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease caused by obesity in obese postmenopausal Korean women.

  3. EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS OF AEROBIC ON BODY COMPOSITION AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamrezai Shahram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays increasing blood pressure is the most important risk factor of coronary, cerebral and renal vessel diseases. Epidemiological studies indicate that Physical inactivity adversely affects the blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic on body composition and blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Methods: 20 healthy postmenopausal women with similar age and weight were randomly devided in intervention and control groups. Subjects completed an informed consent form and health history questionnaire. The intervention group was trained in an aerobic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions weekly. Weight, body fat percentage (BF%, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, Lean body mass and blood pressure (BP were measured in the beginning and the end of the study for all of the subjects. Data were analyzed by the Paired t-test and independent t- test. Results: The results showed that BF% , WHR, BMI decreased and Lean body mass increased significantly in training group after 8 weeks training (P0.05. Conclusions: It seems that a period of aerobic training for 8 weeks can be effective as a non-pharmacological treatment strategy for improvement some physical fitness and body composition indexes, blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  4. Chronic kidney disease in Chinese postmenopausal women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-11

    CKD), there is ongoing uncertainty regarding the prevalence of CKD in postmenopausal women. This study was designed to investigate both CKD prevalence and related risk factors in a cohort of postmenopausal Chinese ...

  5. Treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women: a case approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael I

    2004-10-01

    We now have several agents of different classes for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this paper, a case report serves as the focus for a discussion of the risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis and of the available therapies.

  6. Towards a Generative Phonology of the Modern Irish Noun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Arndt

    1973-01-01

    Revised version of Komplexe Regelmerkmale in der Morphologie des Irischen'' (Complex Rule Characteristics in Irish Morphology), a paper presented at a meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia, October 10, 1970; present paper presented at the Dublin Linguistic Circle, January 10, 1971. (DD)

  7. Sequencing and analysis of an Irish human genome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tong, Pin

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies generating complete human sequences from Asian, African and European subgroups have revealed population-specific variation and disease susceptibility loci. Here, choosing a DNA sample from a population of interest due to its relative geographical isolation and genetic impact on further populations, we extend the above studies through the generation of 11-fold coverage of the first Irish human genome sequence.

  8. Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Fergal

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

  9. The Efficacy of Entrepreneurship Education: Perspectives of Irish Graduate Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the views of Irish graduate entrepreneurs on the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in fostering their development as entrepreneurs. It answers three key questions: (a) what was the graduate entrepreneurs' experience of undergraduate entrepreneurship education; (b) what was the graduate entrepreneurs'…

  10. Performance Of Irish Potato Varieties Under Aeroponic Conditions In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) is constrained primarily by use of low quality seeds in Rwanda. Many field multiplication generations of vegetatively propagated basic seed result in build-up of seed-borne diseases and subsequent dissemination to new fields. Using soil-less media is an alternative to reduce ...

  11. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Specialist, or Gary D. Olson, Regional Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a...

  12. Bereavement Support in an Acute Hospital: An Irish Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Trish; Foreman, Maeve; Curry, Philip; O'Driscoll, Siobhan; McCormack, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In the first Irish study to examine a hospital-based bereavement care program, 1 year's cohort of bereaved people was surveyed. A response rate of over 40% provided 339 completed questionnaires from bereaved next-of-kin. The findings suggest that a tiered pyramid model of bereavement care (the Beaumont model) may be functional in a number of ways.…

  13. Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria Associated With Irish Potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 15 samples of spoilt Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were collected from five grocery shops in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria and were analysed for aerobic mesophilic bacterial load. The isolated aerobic mesophilic bacteria were phenotypically characterized by biochemical tests and their susceptibility to ...

  14. Your activity record book (English and Irish translation)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This fun physical activity record book outlines the recommended physical activity guidelines for children aged 5 to 18 and includes an easy way for children to keep track of how much physical activity they are getting.(Irish translation of 2011 booklet)

  15. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Styles of Irish Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Helen G.

    2010-01-01

    The research on child developmental outcomes underscores the importance of exploring parenting styles and identifying their multifactorial and intergenerational influences. This descriptive study examined the individual parenting styles of a sample of 82 Irish immigrant mothers and investigated the factors that influenced their individual…

  16. Conceptualising Irish rural youth migration: a biographical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Laoire, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the usefulness of a biographical approach in studying Irish rural youth migration. There have been calls recently for an approach to migration study that involves conceptualizing migration as part of individual biographies as well as social structures. However, there is little research that explicitly adopts a biographical approach. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings, methodological issues and findings of a recent study that was guided by the principles of a biographical approach to migration. The study was an exploration of life-path formation among Irish rural youth from the 1970s to the 1990s. The paper focuses on the three key elements of a biographical approach to migration, and relates them to Irish rural youth migration. Firstly, migration is considered as part of an individual's biography, and the methodological implications of this are explored. Secondly, it is argued, drawing on the research in Ireland, that migration decision-making is a multilayered process. In the case of Irish rural youth migration, a biographical approach highlights the complexity of migration decision-making, revealing the tensions and struggles that lie behind each move, and thus raises questions over the tendency towards simplification of the migration process. Finally, it is argued that migration is a cultural phenomenon, but that this assertion needs careful qualification. This paper problematizes the role of culture in migration processes by untangling the systems of competing discourses of migration that underlie societal norms regarding migration, thereby challenging the view of migration as "normal" for particular societies or cultures.

  17. Carbonate mound development in contrasting settings on the Irish margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Land, C.; Eisele, M.; Mienis, F; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds, formed by framework building cold-water corals, are found in several mound provinces on the Irish margin. Differences in cold-water coral mound development rates and sediment composition between mounds at the southwest Rockall Trough margin and the Galway Mound in

  18. Patterns of Sedentary Behaviours in Irish Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…

  19. New Uses of Traditional Healing in Contemporary Irish Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lynch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a comparative study in two ways.  After a summary of the historical and cultural research into traditional healing which is relevant to this article, then some comments about the general usage of such themes in contemporary Irish literature, the article moves on to examine the role and function of traditional healing as a motif in four specific literary texts.  These are: two Irish plays, Brian Friel’s Faith Healer, and Jim Nolan’s Blackwater Angel, and two pieces of Irish fiction, P.J. Curtis’ novel The Lightning Tree and Claire Keegan’s short story “The Night of the Quicken Trees”.  Strong similarities are found on many fronts between the texts, especially in the acceptance of healing and the mystery associated with it.  However, differences also occur, depending on the artistic choices of the authors, the gender and community emphasis used, and the relative importance of healing in the context of the work.  Women healers seem to be more rooted and less tragic than their male counterparts, but all healers are seen paradoxically as both an asset and a potential threat to society. When these texts are compared with research into historical and cultural aspects of Irish folk medicine, they clearly draw on tradition for their plot elements, but only in the fiction and plays can the full dramatic potential of these life and death situations be explored.

  20. Obesity and disability in the symptomatic Irish knee osteoarthritis population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, N L

    2010-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common disorder with significant social and financial implications. Obesity is the strongest modifiable risk factor of knee OA. There is little data on obesity in Irish knee OA populations and its relationship to other measures of disease severity.

  1. The epidemiology of psychological disorders in Irish children

    OpenAIRE

    CARR, ALAN

    2001-01-01

    Three major epidemiological studies of psychological disorders in Irish children were reviewed. These are the first systematic investigations to be conducted in Ireland and all have been completed within the last 5 years. The studies were conducted in Dublin (N=2029), Clare (N=1361) and Cork (N=733). In all three studies children were screened with the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire.

  2. The conditionality of Irish aid towards Sudan | Hussein | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A large proportion of Irish aid is administered multilaterally through the European Union and other international organizations but it is beyond the scope of this study to cover ... The global economic recession has fostered a climate where support for development aid is set against domestic social needs of donor countries.

  3. Dramatising Identity on Irish Language Television: Aifric (TG4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lysaght

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aifric (Telegael 2006-8 a live action comedy drama series for young teenagers, gives an extra dimension to a relatively conventional entertainment genre through its use of the Irish language on screen and on set. One of the largest scale longer-term drama productions for TG4, Aifric is aimed at an audience which enjoys Australian series, British soaps and American sit coms. Significantly, viewers are addressed as members of a similar culture, who understand its norms and expectations, rather than as some pan-global ‘youth audience’ who exist only to be entertained. Aifric presents humorous stories about somewhat quirky characters with credible relationships. Although the language is not foregrounded as a theme in the drama, its treatment results from very conscious decisions by the programme-makers. Performed by largely native-speaking actors, there is a strong drive to present a vibrant and funny Irish-speaking world. However, for most viewers, the use of the indigenous national language on screen remains noteworthy. Telegael were sensitive to this in taking on the commission, and in choosing to create an ‘Aifric universe’ where Irish is fluently used by everyone, add another layer to the question of Irish language identity.

  4. Relation between postmenopausal osteoporosis and coronary and peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shokry

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: Because of the increased prevalence of CAD and PAD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis the severity of CAD and PAD in osteoporotic postmenopausal women is positively correlated to the severity of osteoporosis. Thus, in osteoporotic postmenopausal women, cardiovascular status evaluation should be done in order to identify candidate patients for preventive and therapeutic cardiovascular interventions.

  5. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  6. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Trimegestone in a low-dose, continuous-combined hormone therapy regimen prevents bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Spielman, Danièle

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of estrogen + progestogen therapy with 1 mg 17beta-estradiol and 0.125 mg trimegestone in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: For this study, 360 healthy, postmenopausal women with osteopenia [lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) between -1...... bone-specific alkaline phosphatase revealed a more retarded decrease of 40% and 33%, respectively. Of the women receiving hormone therapy, 75% had amenorrhea from the first cycle, and 5% withdrew prematurely due to metrorrhagia or mastalgia. CONCLUSION: This new estrogen + progestogen therapy...... is efficient in increasing BMD in an osteopenic postmenopausal population. Furthermore, it is well tolerated, with few adverse events and an early bleeding control, which is likely to improve compliance to the treatment over the long term....

  8. Cultural Scripts and the Speech Act of Opinions in Irish English: A Study amongst Irish and Polish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Gąsior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies in pragmatics have been limited to a handful of illocutionary acts such as requests, apologies or compliments, and opinions remain underrepresented in the existing literature. In this paper I present the results of a study of opinions in Irish English, conducted in an intercultural environment of Irish-Polish interactions. Departing from a traditional approach of speech act realisation studies, I applied the theory of cultural scripts to analyse opinions. In contrasting the Irish and Polish formulas for expressing opinions, as well as sociopragmatic attitudes towards this speech act, a difference in the cultural scripts for opinions in each culture was observable. Apart from already documented Polish frankness in opinions, the study discovered also a rational approach to presenting good arguments to support one’s assertions among the participants. In relation to the Irish script for opinions, the findings are in line with previous classifications of opinions in Australian English, showing a certain level of variational uniformity amongst the English-speaking cultures in this regard.

  9. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  10. Rites of Passage: The Coffin Ship as Site of Immigrants’ Identity Formation in Irish and Irish-American Fiction, 1855-1885

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corporaal, M.C.M.; Cusack, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The statue of Annie Moore and her brothers in Cobh, Ireland, is one of the many lieux de mémoire which seek to crystallise the recollections of the Irish exodus to North America between 1845 and 1900. Scholars have examined the monuments erected to commemorate the massive exodus of 1.8 million Irish

  11. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  12. Acute Ascorbic Acid Infusion Increases Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozemek, Cemal; Hildreth, Kerry L.; Groves, Daniel W.; Moreau, Kerrie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to reductions in left ventricular diastolic function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, related in part to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Study design LV diastolic function – recorded using transthoracic echocardiography and determined as the peak early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow velocity ratio and the E to peak early (e’) mitral annular velocity ratio – and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), a biomarker of NO bioavailability, were measured during acute systemic infusions of saline (control) and ascorbic acid (experimental model to decrease oxidative stress) in healthy premenopausal women (N=14, 18-40 years) and postmenopausal women (N=23, 45-75 years). Results The E/A ratio was lower (1.16[1.06−1.33] vs 1.65[1.5−2.3]; median[interquartile range]) and the E/e’ ratio was elevated (8.8[7.6−9.9] vs. 6.6[5.5−7.3]) in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women, indicating reduced LV diastolic function. E/A and E/e’ were correlated with FMD (r=0.54 and r=−0.59, respectively, both PAscorbic acid infusion improved both FMD (5.4±2.0% to 7.8±2.6%) and E/e’ (to 8.1[7.2−9.7], P=0.01) in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Ascorbic acid did not change E/A in either group. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that oxidative stress contributes to reduced LV diastolic function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, possibly by reducing the availability of NO. PMID:27621254

  13. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  14. Testosterone improves verbal learning and memory in postmenopausal women: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sonia L; Bell, Robin J; Gavrilescu, Maria; Searle, Karissa; Maruff, Paul; Gogos, Andrea; Rossell, Susan L; Adams, Jenny; Egan, Gary F; Davis, Susan R

    2011-11-01

    To explore the effects of testosterone on cognitive performance in healthy postmenopausal women. Open-label pilot study. Nine postmenopausal women on non-oral hormone replacement therapy, aged 47-60 years received transdermal testosterone spray for 26 weeks. A control group of 30 women provided normative data for comparison. Scores from a computerized cognitive test battery performed pre- and post treatment, at 0 and 26 weeks. There were no differences between treatment/normative groups in any parameter at baseline. At week 26 scores for the International Shopping list task including delayed recall (verbal learning and memory) and the continuous paired associate learning task (visual learning and memory) were significantly higher in the treatment group as compared to the normative group (pverbal learning and memory) and Groton Maze recall tasks (visual learning and memory) for the treatment group (both pverbal learning and memory in a pilot study of healthy postmenopausal women and is worthy of further exploration in a randomized placebo controlled study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Discursive Construction of ‘Children’ and ‘Rights’ in Irish Early Childhood Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kiersey, Rachel; Hayes, Nóirín

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of knowledge about ‗children‘, ‗rights‘ and ‗ECEC‘ in Irish early childhood policy discourses. This research forms part of a wider thematic research project exploring Irish early childhood policy design from a number of angles; this strand of the research is concerned with ―revealing meaning‖ from Irish ECEC policy texts through a critical discourse analysis study. The theoretical goal of a critical discourse analysis study aims to understand how specific ...

  16. 2011: 7th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    Ireland’s Largest Live Cocktail Challenge attracts over 90 Mixologists” The 7th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge took place on Thursday November 25th 2011, this initiative between the DIT Bar Management Studies and Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard attracted 90 mixologists. Prizes were awarded for best short drink cocktail, best long drink cocktail and technical performance cocktails were based on Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard premium spirits and liqueurs, points wer...

  17. A Pilot Study of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring in Irish Medium Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, Allen; Keenan, Ciara

    2014-01-01

    A pilot study to investigate the effects of mathematics peer tutoring in Irish medium primary schools was undertaken. Five schools and 90 students took part in the pilot. Materials and resources that had previously been shown to work in English medium Scottish schools were translated into Irish by CCEA. Irish medium teachers attended three professional development days. Teachers implemented the peer tutoring techniques during mathematics lessons during a period of 16 weeks. Changes in attainm...

  18. The process of migration and the reinvention of self: the experiences of returning Irish emigrants.

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, Mary

    2002-01-01

    IRISH migration at the end of the twentieth century encompasses complex and multidimensional processes. Whereas Irish emigrants were once drawn almost exclusively from the agricultural and laborer classes, in the closing decades of the twentieth century emigration came to permeate the entire social system. Thus, Irish migrants are to be found not just among the ranks of skilled and semi-skilled labor, but also among the transnational professional elite that crisscrosses the globe. Current mig...

  19. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, Birgitte; Suetta, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    ). METHODS: Fasted participants received a primed-constant infusion of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine. After 90 minutes of rest, the participants performed leg-resistance exercises followed by the oral supplementation. During the following 4 hours, net protein balance (NB) and rate of disappearance......BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON...... supported by kinetic data from a reduced number of participants, showing that rate of disappearance was responsible for the initial (training in the PC group. CONCLUSION: In early postmenopausal women...

  20. Making the Case for Irish through English: Eco-critical Politics of Language by Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Murphy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines recent accounts by Americans who have learned Irish. Their narratives from the West of Ireland express what translation theorist Michael Cronin calls ‘individualist politics of language’. He claims that the English-speaking majority will determine the survival of 21st century Irish.  Cronin shifts Irish into a globalized, ‘late modern’ network. Foreign-born learners enter this network when they choose to study Irish. They counter the stereotype of Irish schoolchildren forced into rote recitation of a moribund language.  Patricia Monaghan combines goddess-worship with academic research into indigenous spirituality, place-name lore, literature, and the Irish environmental inheritance. Her travelogue and reports by five other American visitors to Gaeltachtaí are compared with John Montague and Éilís Ní Dhuibhne’s literary depictions of 20th-century Irish-born school-level learners.Feminist, post-colonial, and literary criticisms enrich understanding of how American students apply ecological and cultural strategies that seek to recover this indigenous language. Choosing to make the case for Irish, adult students share Cronin’s ‘individualist politics’. In English-language books, American advocates preserve and expand a linguistic ecology in which Irish may survive.

  1. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: diversity, dynamism and medicalization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condell, Sarah L

    2012-11-01

    Gaining ethical clearance to conduct a study is an important aspect of all research involving humans but can be time-consuming and daunting for novice researchers. This article stems from a larger ethnographic study that examined research capacity building in Irish nursing and midwifery. Data were collected over a 28-month time frame from a purposive sample of 16 nurse or midwife research fellows who were funded to undertake full-time PhDs. Gaining ethical clearance for their studies was reported as an early \\'rite of passage\\' in the category of \\'labouring the doctorate\\'. This article penetrates the complexities in Irish clinical research ethics by describing the practices these nurse and midwife researchers encountered and the experiences they had. The key issue of representation that occurred in the context of \\'medicalized\\' research ethics is further explored including its meaning for nursing or midwifery research.

  3. Head-dependent asymmetries in Munster Irish prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Iosad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose an analysis of stress in Munster Irish which builds on two important premises. First, I argue for a distinction between the notion ‘head of a constituent’ and the notion of ‘stress’: these are separate entities, and the typologically frequent isomorphic distribution of the two is just one possible outcome of the phonological computation. Second, I propose to employ a particular family of constraints requiring head-dependent asymmetries (Dresher and van der Hulst 1998 to account for the mismatch between the placement of foot heads and stress in Munster Irish. Overall, the paper is an argument for elaborate abstract structure as an explanatory factor in phonology, as opposed to relatively shallow, substance-based representations.

  4. Joint Consensus: Hormone therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the expected benefits in cardiovascular risk were not substantiated. Thereafter, the pendulum swung dramatically away from HT in PMOP; but newer evidence over the last 18 months is causing the pendulum to move back towards a central position. We now review the place of HT in postmenopausal osteoporosis ...

  5. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  6. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourozi, Mansoreh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Hanachi, Parichehr

    2015-06-01

    To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women. Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG) and control (CG). Individuals in the SG (n = 34) received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl) and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl) per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23) received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3). The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month) using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire. A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05) years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031), while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical). Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.

  7. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Norrozi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women.Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG and control (CG. Individuals in the SG (n = 34 received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23 received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3. The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL questionnaire.A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05 years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031, while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical.Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.

  8. Melatonin in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: associations with mood, sleep, climacteric symptoms, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffol, Elena; Kalleinen, Nea; Haukka, Jari; Vakkuri, Olli; Partonen, Timo; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2014-05-01

    Melatonin synthesis and secretion are partly modulated by estrogen and progesterone. Changes in melatonin concentrations, possibly related to the menopausal transition, may be associated with climacteric mood, sleep, and vasomotor symptoms. The aims of this study were to compare the serum concentrations of melatonin in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and to evaluate melatonin's influence on mood, sleep, vasomotor symptoms, and quality of life. We analyzed the data of 17 healthy perimenopausal women (aged 43-51 y) and 18 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 58-71 y) who participated in a prospective study. On study night (9:00 pm-9:00 am), serum melatonin was sampled at 20-minute (9:00 pm-12:00 midnight; 6:00-9:00 am) and 1-hour (12:00 midnight-6:00 am) intervals. Questionnaires were used to assess depression (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), insomnia and sleepiness (Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire [BNSQ]), subjective sleep quality, vasomotor symptoms, and quality of life (EuroQoL). Postmenopausal women had lower nighttime serum melatonin concentrations than perimenopausal women. The duration of melatonin secretion tended to be shorter in postmenopause, whereas melatonin peak time did not differ. Mean melatonin concentrations and exposure levels did not correlate with follicle-stimulating hormone level, estradiol level, body mass index, Beck Depression Inventory score, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score, BNSQ insomnia score, BNSQ sleepiness score, subjective sleep score, climacteric vasomotor score, or quality of life. In perimenopause, the later is the melatonin peak, the higher is the level of anxiety (P = 0.022), and the longer is the melatonin secretion, the better is the quality of life (P < 0.001). Longitudinal research is needed to better understand the possible contributory role of menopause in lower melatonin levels.

  9. Replication Study Confirms the Association of the Common rs1800629 Variant of the TNF Gene with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Susceptibility in the Han Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaona; Zhou, Baozhen; Zhang, Dangfeng

    2018-02-26

    Previous studies have suggested that tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), encoded by TNF gene, can increase osteoclast formation, and that specific alleles of the TNF gene are associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis susceptibility in some populations; however, the exact molecular mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the potential association of nineteen polymorphisms of the TNF gene with postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD) traits in a sample of 1288 postmenopausal women from the Han Chinese population. A total of 437 postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and 851 unrelated age-matched healthy women were recruited in the study. Single marker and haplotype based analyses were conducted to evaluate the association of nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both patient and control groups. The SNP rs1800629 was identified as being highly significantly associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis after accounting for age and body mass index (p = 0.000087). In addition, the GG genotype of this SNP was associated with significantly lower measures of femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD. Moreover, haplotype based analyses suggested significant association signals between the haplotype block, including rs1800629 with postmenopausal osteoporosis (p osteoporosis and BMD in the female Han Chinese population. Additional sequencing-based studies are needed to investigate the genetic architecture of this genomic region and its relationship with osteoporosis-related phenotypes.

  10. Contemporary Issues in Irish and Global Tourism and Hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Gorham, Geraldine; Mottiar, Ziene

    2010-01-01

    This book contains an edited collection of papers presented at the Tourism and Hospitality Research in Ireland Conference 2009 (THRIC). This annual conference provides an invaluable opportunity for Irish and international tourism and hospitality academics and practitioners to debate the key contemporary challenges facing the sector. Based on this selection of conference papers a broad range of issues are addressed in the following chapters. These are issues, which are pertinent not only for I...

  11. The contribution of Irish urology to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Matthew F; Galvin, David J; Mulhall, John P

    2009-11-01

    Historically, Irish doctors have made significant contributions to Medicine and Surgery including Colles, Graves, and Corrigan. Herein, we detail the contribution of Irish people to Urology. Internet, specific Medline database searches, and individual searches of medical history and urologic history texts and from individual institutions were performed. Sir Francis Cruise, in 1865, perfected the panendoscope using the principle of reflected light from a kerosene lamp, enabling high-quality cystoscopy for the first time. In 1901, Sir Peter Freyer described the suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy, dramatically reducing perioperative mortality for prostate surgery to 3% in 1912. Terence Millin developed a novel in situ rectus fascia pubovaginal sling for incontinence, and revolutionized open prostate surgery with one of the seminal articles in the history of urology. He reported the retropubic extravesical enucleation of the prostate in 20 cases in The Lancet in 1945. Future work on radical retropubic prostatectomy was based on his unique approach to the prostate. In 1956, the first dedicated urology unit was designed and opened in Ireland by Dr. Thomas JD Lane. He reported an overall mortality of 2.3%, in 1540 consecutive prostatectomies, thereby emphasizing the importance of a specialized unit. In the contemporary era, Ralph DeVere White, current president of the Society of Urological Oncology, and John M. Fitzpatrick the current editor of BJU International, the first Irish persons to hold these positions have contributed to the field of urology. Irish urologists have made considerable contributions to urology throughout modern history, particularly in the areas of endoscopy and prostate surgery.

  12. Ireland's medical brain drain: migration intentions of Irish medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gouda, Pishoy

    2015-12-01

    To provide the optimum level of healthcare, it is important that the supply of well-trained doctors meets the demand. However, despite many initiatives, Ireland continues to have a shortfall of physicians, which has been projected to persist. Our study aimed to investigate the migration intentions of Irish medical students and identify the factors that influence their decisions in order to design appropriate interventions to sustain the supply of trained doctors in order to maintain a viable medical system.

  13. Tickling the Palate: Gastronomy in Irish Literature and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Maher, Eamon

    2014-01-01

    This volume of essays which originated in the inaugural Dublin Gastronomy Symposium held in the Dublin Institute of Technology in June 2012, offers fascinating insights into the significant role played by gastronomy in Irish literature and culture. The book opens with an exploration of food in literature, covering figures as varied as Maria Edgeworth, James Joyce, Charles Dickens, Enid Blyton, John McGahern, and Sebastian Barry. Other chapters examine culinary practices among the Dublin wo...

  14. The efficacy of entrepreneurship education: perspectives of Irish graduate entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the views of Irish graduate entrepreneurs on the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in fostering their development as entrepreneurs. It answers three key questions: (a) what was the graduate entrepreneurs’ experience of undergraduate entrepreneurship education; (b) what was the graduate entrepreneurs’ experience of graduate entrepreneurship education; and (c) to what extent did entrepreneurship education prepare the graduate entrepreneurs to start ...

  15. Directors in British and Irish cinema 

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Directors in British and Irish Cinema is an assessment of the careers and achievements of over a thousand directors, most of whom have received little scholarly attention. It draws upon the expertise of over sixty contributors. Each of the 1028 entries has been provided with a comprehensive filmography (which for some of the silent film directors includes over a hundred films). Comprehensive coverage have made it a standard reference work. Collaboration with the BFI-based website Screenonli...

  16. Irish consumers' use and perception of nutrition and health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Ann-Marie; McKevitt, Aideen; Gibney, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate Irish consumers' use and understanding of and their belief in nutrition and health (NH) claims in the context of the European Union (EU) legislation (Regulation no. 1924/2006), which permits a number of NH claims on food products. An interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to consumers (n 400). Preference for three types of NH claims across six products was tested. Perception of NH claims was assessed across a further eight food products. Claims were categorised as content, structure-function and disease-risk factor reduction claims. Six supermarkets in the Republic of Ireland. Four hundred adult Irish supermarket consumers. Older (P consumers were more likely to seek NH claims. Structure-function and content claims were preferred across six products. Consumers' perception was associated with the health benefit claimed rather than with the strength of the claim itself. Preference for claim type and claim perception differed with gender, age and educational level. Irish consumers prefer content and simpler NH claims rather than more complex disease-risk factor reduction claims. The food industry may thus be better served using these types of claims. Although the reported levels of understanding were high, evidence of positivity bias and misinterpretation was found. Thus, with regard to Regulation 1924/2006, consumers need more information on both simpler and more complex claims. Public health messages should be targeted according to gender, age and educational level.

  17. Responses to the Holocaust in Modern Irish Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Keatinge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines twentieth and twenty-first century responses by Irish poets to the Holocaust. It argues that, despite the illiberal tendencies of the Irish state towards Jewish immigration during and after the 1939-1945 war, recent commemorative activities in Ireland have included the Holocaust and are part of a wider commemorative ‘opening up’ in Ireland towards twentieth-century historical events. Important contemporary Irish poets have written Holocaust poems of notable merit including: Seamus Heaney, Harry Clifton, Derek Mahon, Pearse Hutchinson, Paul Durcan, Paul Muldoon, Thomas Kinsella and Tom Paulin, all of whom are discussed here. These poets are noted as second-generation Holocaust poets, more at home in the lyric form and less troubled by communicative dilemmas than their precursors such as Paul Celan and Samuel Beckett whose resemblance is briefly discussed. The essay concludes by arguing that Giorgio Agamben’s arguments about testimony after Auschwitz are strikingly pertinent to some of the poems under discussion. It also suggests that the historical essays of Hubert Butler may have acted as an unseen influence on some of these writers.

  18. Student Voice: An Emerging Discourse in Irish Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domnall FLEMING

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland’s ratification of the United Nations Charter on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC in 1992. Initially emerging in policy from a rights-based and democratic citizenship perspective, the student council became the principal construct for student voice in Irish post-primary schools. While central to the policy discourse, the student council construct has become tokenistic and redundant in practice. School evaluation policy, both external and internal, became a further catalyst for student voice in Ireland. Both processes further challenge and contest the motivation for student voice and point to the concept as an instrument for school improvement and performativity that lacks any centrality for a person-centered, rights-based, dialogic and consultative student voice within an inclusive classroom and school culture.

  19. Survey of Irish general practitioners' preferences for continuing professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, B; O'Neill, R; Faruqui, A; Bergin, C; Horgan, M; Bennett, D; O'Tuathaigh, C M P

    2017-06-14

    Doctors' continuing professional development (CPD) training needs are known to be strongly influenced by national and local contextual characteristics. Given the changing national demographic profile and government-mandated changes to primary care health care provision, this study aimed to investigate Irish General Practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of, and preferences for, current and future CPD programmes. A cross-sectional questionnaire, using closed- and open-ended questions, was administered to Irish GPs, focusing on training needs analysis; CPD course content; preferred format and the learning environment. The response rate was 719/1000 (71.9%). GPs identified doctor-patient communication as the most important and best-performed GP skill. Discrepancies between perceived importance (high) and current performance (low) emerged for time/workload management, practice finance and business skills. GPs identified clinically-relevant primary care topics and non-clinical topics (stress management, business skills, practice management) as preferences for future CPD. Flexible methods for CPD delivery were important. Gender and practice location (urban or rural) significantly influenced CPD participation and future course preference. The increasing diversity of services offered in the Irish primary care setting, in both clinical and non-clinical areas, should be tailored based to include GP practice location and structure.

  20. A prospective analysis of diet quality and endometrial cancer among 84,415 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stephanie M; Ballard, Rachel; Shikany, James M; Crane, Tracy E; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2015-10-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer, but no convincing dietary risk factors for this cancer have been identified. Among postmenopausal women, we examined how four key a priori diet quality indices--the Healthy Eating Index-2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension are related to the risk of endometrial cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials and Observational Study. Our prospective cohort study included 84,415 postmenopausal women with a uterus who completed a food frequency questionnaire at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for endometrial cancer associated with increasing quintiles of diet quality index scores. During 13.3 years of follow-up, 1392 endometrial cancer cases occurred. After adjustment for known risk factors, having better diet quality (Q5 vs. Q1) was not associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, as evidenced using Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.93-1.33), Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.82-1.17), alternate Mediterranean Diet (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.82-1.17), or Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84-1.19). Diet quality was not associated with endometrial cancer risk in this large cohort of postmenopausal women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people.

  2. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  3. Influence of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia on lipid and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Miljanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is less frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women with diabetes type 2 who have poor lipid status despite well known favorable effect of HRT on lipid levels. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral HRT in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Method. Continuously combined HRT, estradiol 2mg + norethisterone acetate 1mg was given to 30 women with diabetes type 2 and hyperlipidemia and two control groups of postmenopausal women (30 with hyperlipidemia only and 30 healthy women over a 6-month period. Total cholesterol (t- HOL, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were evaluated in 3-month intervals. Fasting and postprandial glucose levels were evaluated monthly. Results. HRT significantly decreased levels of t-HOL (χ2 Friedman=11.712; p<0.01 and LDL-c (χ2 Friedman=10.403; p<0.01 in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. However, the effect was more pronounced in two control groups. Triglycerides (χ2 Friedman=5.400; p≥0.05 and HDL-c (χ2 Friedman=1.113; p>0.05 did not change in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Six month of oral HRT significantly decreased HbA1c (F=44.693; p<0.01. Fasting and postprandial glycemia was decreased but not significantly (χ2 Friedman=6.527; p>0.05. Conclusion. Six-month application of HRT is effective in lowering the lipid levels and HbA1c in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. However, target lipid levels were not achieved.

  4. 22 CFR 41.57 - International cultural exchange visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). 41.57 Section 41.57... visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). (a... operation of the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program (IPPCTP) which establishes at a minimum...

  5. Engaging with Leadership Development in Irish Academic Libraries: Some Reflections of the Future Leaders Programme (FLP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Helen; Maxwell, Jane; McCaffrey, Ciara; McMahon, Seamus

    2011-01-01

    Four librarians from Irish university libraries completed the U.K. Future Leaders Programme (FLP) in 2010. In this article they recount their experience and assess the effect of the programme on their professional practice and the value for their institutions. The programme is explored in the context of the Irish higher education environment,…

  6. Vitamin D intake and status in Irish elderly women and adolescent girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, D.; Collins, A.; O’Brien, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess vitamin D status during summer and winter in Irish girls and elderly women, and to estimate vitamin D intake in these two age-groups. Methods Ambulatory free-living, elderly Irish women (aged 70-76 years; n = 43) and girls (aged 11-13 years; n = 17) were recruited. Fasting serums we...

  7. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  8. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  9. Yield gap analysis and resource footprints of Irish potato production systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Irish potato is the third most important carbohydrate food crop in Zimbabwe after maize and wheat. In 2012, the Government of Zimbabwe declared it a strategic national food security crop. In this study, we examine the country's potential for increasing Irish potato yield and help ease the nation's

  10. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  11. Is the Price Right?: Stereotypes, Co-Production Policy and Irish Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Luke

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how recent demand for greater realism in portrayals of Irish life in the television and film industries serves to authenticate existing stereotypes and romantic images which characterize "Irishness" in the popular imagination rather than refute or undermine them. Discussions of a political thriller…

  12. The Farm as an Educative Tool in the Development of Place Attachments among Irish Farm Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the educative role of the farm in the development of relationships between young people and the homeplace they grew up on. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with a cohort of 30 Irish university students (15 men and 15 women) brought up on Irish family farms who would not become full-time farmers. The farm acts as…

  13. What Stick Figures Tell Us about Irish Politics: Creating a Critical and Collaborative Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Sharon; Hogan, John; Donnelly, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the interpretation of freehand drawings produced by a small sample of 220 first-year students taking an Irish politics introductory module in response to the question, "What is Irish Politics?" By sidestepping cognitive verbal-processing routes, through employing freehand drawing, we aim to create a critical and…

  14. Effects of Yogasanas on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Motorwala, Zainab S; Kolke, Sona; Panchal, Priyanka Y; Bedekar, Nilima S; Sancheti, Parag K; Shyam, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is commonly encountered by postmenopausal women. There is an increased need for a low cost and efficient treatment alternative to address this population. Aims: To study the effects of integrated yoga on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Settings and Designs: Experimental pre-post study conducted in a community setting. Materials and Methods: 30 females in the age group of 45–62 years suffering from postmenopausal osteoporo...

  15. Bone mass and mineral metabolism in HIV+ postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Michael; Dobkin, Jay; Brudney, Karen; Becker, Carolyn; Zadel, Janis L.; Manandhar, Monica; Addesso, Vicki; Shane, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for osteoporosis in HIV+ postmenopausal women. Bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and biochemical indices of mineral metabolism were measured in 31 Hispanic and African American HIV+ postmenopausal women. BMD was compared with 186 historical controls, matched for age, ethnicity and postmenopausal status. Mean BMD was significantly lower at the lumbar spine and total...

  16. [Effect of postmenopausal hormone substitution on the lipid profile and coagulation factors in female smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatović-Babić, Danijela; Beljić, Teodora; Drezgić, Milka; Trpković, Draginja; Balint-Perić, Ljiljana; Babić, Darko; Nikolić, Jagoda

    2002-01-01

    Postmenopause and smoking impair lipid profile, induce hypercoagulability and reduce fibrinolytic capacity [1, 2]. Postmenopause induced lipid changes can be reversed by oestrogen replacement [3]. Oestrogens also reduce fibrinogen level [4] and have beneficial effects on endothelium [5]. Although several studies showed that hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of thromboembolic diseases, procoagulant oestrogen activity has not clearly been demonstrated. It is well known that smoking accelerates oestrogen metabolism [6, 7], which may attenuate its beneficial effects. The present study was undertaken to determine if there is difference in beneficial effects of oestrogens between smokers and non-smokers in terms of coagulation process and lipids. The examination was a longitudinal, one-year, before/after therapeutic study, which included healthy postmenopausal women (FSH levels at least 40 U/l), 30 smokers and 32 non-smokers who were under 55 years of age and postmenopausal period shorter than 5 years. Women with surgically induced menopause received unopposed oral oestrogens, while those with spontaneous menopause were treated with combined oral oestrogen/progestogen therapy. Before entering the study and in three-months intervals total LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL were determined, as well as plasma fibrinogen, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. Neither beneficial nor adverse effects of oestrogens on lipids and coagulation were observed during one-year follow-up in smokers, although subjects with longer smoking history had higher triglycerides levels after 12 months of therapy. On the contrary, oestrogen replacement reduced total and LDL cholesterol, and increased HDL cholesterol in non-smokers, with no change in triglycerides and VLDL level. A decrease in fibrinogen levels and coagulation activity, expressed by prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time, were also observed in hormone replacement therapy in

  17. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on lipids and coagulation factors in postmenopausal women smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatović-Babić Danijela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopause and smoking impair lipid profile, induce hypercoagulability and reduce fibrinolytic capacity [1, 2]. Postmenopause induced lipid changes can be reversed by oestrogen replacement [3]. Oestrogens also reduce fibrino-gen level [4] and have beneficial effects on endothelium [5]. Although several studies showed that hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of thromboembolic diseases, procoagulant oestrogen activity has not clearly been demonstrated. It is well known that smoking accelerates oestrogen metabolism [6, 7], which may attenuate its beneficial effects. The present study was undertaken to determine if there is difference in beneficial effects of oestrogens between smokers and non-smokers in terms of coagulation process and lipids. The examination was a longitudinal one-year, before/after therapeutic study, which included healthy postmenopausal women (FSH levels at least 40 U/l, 30 smokers and 32 non-smokers who were under 55 years of age and postmenopausal period shorter than 5 years. Women with surgically induced menopause received unopposed oral oestrogens, while those with spontaneous menopause were treated with combined oral oestrogen/progestogen therapy. Before entering the study and in three-months intervals total LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglycérides and VLDL were determined, as well School of Medicine, Belgrade as plasma fibrinogen prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. Neither beneficial nor adverse effects of oestrogens on lipids and coagulation were observed during one-year follow-up in smokers, although subjects with longer smoking history had higher triglycérides levels after 12 months of therapy. On the contrary, oestrogen replacement reduced total and LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol in non-smokers, with no change in triglycérides and VLDL level. A decrease in fibrinogen levels and coagulation activity, expressed by protrombin time and partial thromboplastin time, were

  18. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Zheng, Lu; Wei, Dengyun; Ye, Ming; Li, Xun

    2013-01-01

    ...) and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups...

  19. Dietary weight-loss and exercise effects on serum biomarkers of angiogenesis in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Catherine; de Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obese and sedentary persons have an increased risk for cancer, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Angiogenesis is common to adipose tissue formation and remodeling, and to tumor vascularization. 439 overweight/obese, healthy, postmenopausal women (body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2) aged 50-75 years, recruited between 2005-2008 were randomized to a 4-arm 12-month randomized controlled trial, comparing a caloric restriction diet arm (goal: 10% weight-loss, N=118), aerobic exercise ar...

  20. Interaction of metabolic syndrome with asthma in postmenopausal women: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Murat; Koca, Cemile; Ozol, Duygu; Uysal, Sema; Yildirim, Zeki; Kavakli, Havva Sahin; Yigitoglu, M Ramazan

    2013-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of both asthma and obesity are major health problems. Recent studies established a possible link between obesity and asthma; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal subjects with asthma and search the interactions between adipokines, metabolic syndrome, and asthma. A total of 45 female patients (57.5 ± 13.9 years) with asthma and 30 healthy subjects (59.6 ± 12.8 years) in postmenopausal status were enrolled in this study. For the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, modified World Health Organization diagnostic criteria were used. Blood levels of glucose, lipid profile, HbA1c, insulin, CRP, leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. The mean body mass index was 29.6 ± 5.4 for asthma patients and 28.2 ± 5.3 for the control group. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was found as 26 % for both groups. Insulin resistance as calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in asthma patients (p syndrome was not higher in postmenopausal asthma patients than controls, there was an impairment of glucose metabolism and altered adipokine levels in asthma patients.

  1. Effect of a novel dietary supplement on skin aging in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, G R Lange; Jensen, A S; Sigler, M L

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects on skin in post-menopausal women of a novel dietary supplement (Imedeen Prime Renewal) that contained soy extract, fish protein polysaccharides, extracts from white tea, grape seed and tomato, vitamins C and E as well as zinc and chamomile extract. The study was a 6-month double blind, placebo controlled, randomized study on healthy post-menopausal females. The study was performed at a commercial Contract Research Organisation (TJ Stephens & Associates Inc., TX, USA). Two tablets of Imedeen Prime Renewal or placebo were given twice daily for 6 months. Thirty-eight (active group) and 42 (placebo group) subjects completed the study out of 100. Clinical grading showed that the active group had a significantly greater improvement (P treatment for: forehead, periocular and perioral wrinkles, mottled pigmentation, laxity, sagging, under eye dark circles and overall apperance; skin on the décolletage after 2, 3 and 6 months treatment and skin on the hand after 3 and 6 months treatment. Photo evaluation showed that the active group had a significantly greater improvement (P treatment. In summary, this novel dietary supplement, Imedeen Prime Renewal, provides improved condition, structure and firmness of the skin in post-menopausal women after 6 months.

  2. Obtaining a filter irish lace marigold (Tagetes filifolia Lag. sweetened with stevia leaves (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Millones

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to determine the segment of the irish lace marigold and appropriate formulation of irish lace marigold and leaves of stevia in the development of a filter sweetened, for which plants were used irish lace marigold and leaves stevia, which were washed, disinfected, dried at 65 °C, ground, sieved and packed; later formulations were made with irish lace marigold and stevia leaves (90:10, 85:15, 80:20 and 75:25, using a gram per sample packed in sealable paper, the results of the color, infusion time and pH, also the organoleptic evaluations smell, taste, sweetness and overall appearance were processed using the SAS statistical package (Statistical Analysis System for Window V8. The results showed that using 80 to 85 % leaves + flowers irish lace marigold and 15 to 20% stevia leaf with a sweetened organoleptically suitable filter is obtained.

  3. [Results of peripheral densitometry in a population of postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, L A; Kharchenko, N V; Akonova, N B; Novikova, S V; Karmanova, E P; Prokop'eva, T A; Tararashkina, T V

    1999-01-01

    Osteodensity was compared in 582 postmenopausal patients with such pathologies as urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis, vulvar craurosis, breast carcinoma, hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. A double-photon Z-ray densitometer with a computer program designed for postmenopausal women examination was employed. It was shown that osteodensity measurements can distinguish two opposite patterns of homeostasis in postmenopause: involute-atrophic vs. hyperplastic processes in target tissues characterized by high oncological susceptibility. However, if strict and clear distinctions are applied, many patterns of pathology combination so typical of postmenopause will stay outside the classification. Much in further studies of the problem will depend on progress made in investigation of estrogen receptors in target tissues.

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Early Reading Development in Two Languages: Comparing Literacy Outcomes in Irish Immersion, English Medium and Gaeltacht Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christine E.; Lyddy, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Schools in Ireland vary in how they introduce reading in the two official languages, Irish and English. There is particular variability within immersion (Irish medium) schools. Some introduce Irish reading first (IRF) and others English reading first (ERF). This study compared the development of Irish and English skills in children attending…

  5. Complete molar pregnancy in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Begum

    2016-01-01

    . Uterus was 20 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm filled with cystic, grapes such as vesicles. Microscopic examination demonstrated generalized trophoblastic proliferation with hydropic degenerated villi suggested of benign CHM. Follow-up showed steady fall in serum α -HCG level and no evidence of any residual disease. A suspicion of GTD should be kept in mind while evaluating a patient with peri- or post-menopausal bleeding so that it will prevent a delay in diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Functioning of active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristiane Binda

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The multiple aspects of disability in patients with osteoporosis require comprehensive tool for their assessment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is designed to describe the experience of such patients with theirs functioning. Objective: This study aimed to describe the functioning in a sample of active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to the brief ICF core set for osteoporosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among active community-dwelling older adults in a southern Brazilian city. Participants were enrolled by convenience sampling from a group conducting supervised aquatic and land-based exercises. Active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were included. Thirty-two women (mean age 68.0 ± 5.1 years old participated in the evaluation. The brief ICF core set for osteoporosis was used to establish functional profiles. The categories were considered valid when ≥20% of participants showed some disability (according to ICF qualifiers. Results: No category showed a high level of disability, as >50% of women rated by qualifiers .3 or .4. Only the category e580 was considered by all participants as a facilitator. Conclusion: The brief ICF core set for osteoporosis results demonstrated that this classification system is representative to describe the functional profile of the sample. Active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis presented few impairments related to body functions and structures, activities and participation and environmental factors.

  7. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E.; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:28121926

  8. Susceptibility genes for osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Zhang, Zeng; Zhang, Hao; He, Jin-Wei; Gu, Jie-Mei; Hu, Wei-Wei; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Li, Miao; Liu, Yu-Juan; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Yue, Hua; Ke, Yao-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2012-12-01

    To identify the susceptibility genes for osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women, a two-stage case-control association study using joint analysis was conducted in 1046 patients with nontraumatic vertebra, hip, or distal radius fractures and 2303 healthy controls. First, 113 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 16 potential osteoporosis candidate genes reported in recent genomewide association studies, meta-analyses studies, large-scale association studies, and functional studies were genotyped in a small-sample-size subgroup consisting of 541 patients with osteoporotic fractures and 554 healthy controls. Variants and haplotypes in SPTBN1, TNFRSF11B, CNR2, LRP4, and ESR1 that have been identified as being associated with osteoporotic fractures were further reanalyzed in the entire case-control group. We identified one SNP in TNFRSF11B (rs3102734), three SNPs in ESR1 (rs9397448, rs2234693, and rs1643821), two SNPs in LRP4 (rs17790156 and rs898604), and four SNPs in SPTBN1 (rs2971886, rs2941583, rs2941584, and rs12475342) were associated with all of the broadly defined osteoporotic fractures. The most significant polymorphism was rs3102734, with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.55, Bonferroni p = 2.6 × 10(-4) ). Furthermore, rs3102734, rs2941584, rs12475342, rs9397448, rs2234693, and rs898604 exhibited significant allelic, genotypic, and/or haplotypic associations with vertebral fractures. SNPs rs12475342, rs9397448, and rs2234693 showed significant genotypic associations with hip fractures, whereas rs3102734, rs2073617, rs1643821, rs12475342, and rs2971886 exhibited significant genotypic and/or haplotypic associations with distal radius fractures. Accordingly, we suggest that in addition to the clinical risk factors, the variants in TNFRSF11B, SPTBN1, ESR1, and LRP4 are susceptibility genetic loci for osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women. Copyright © 2012

  9. Critical review of health effects of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, A.; Albertazzi, P.; Nielsen, I. L.

    2006-01-01

    to reach conclusions on the effects of isoflavones on breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes or cognitive function. The health benefits of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in healthy post-menopausal women are subtle and even some well-designed studies do not show protective effects. Future studies should focus...... improve endothelial function. For menopausal symptoms there is currently limited evidence that soyabean-protein isolates, soyabean foods or red-clover (Trifolium pratense L.) extract are effective but soyabean isoflavone extracts may be effective in reducing hot flushes. There are too few RCT studies...

  10. Cardiac adaptations to high-intensity aerobic training in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jon; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Mandrup, Camilla M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the role of menopause on cardiac dimensions and function and assessed the efficacy of exercise training before and after menopause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of healthy premenopausal (n=36, 49.4±0.3 years) and postmenopausal (n=37, 53.5±0.5 years) women with no histo....... Furthermore, the hormonal changes associated with the menopausal transition do not appear to affect cardiac dimensions and function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02135575....

  11. King James II Stuart, Irish Elites and Patriot Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Kirill Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied episode of the “Glorious revolution” of 1688-1689, the political fight on Green Island. On the basis of historical sources, the author shows the main directions of Irish policy of last catholic king James II, who tried to fight for his lost British throne, because the majority of population of this catholic country remained loyal to his patron. The author pays special attention to investigating the policy of different ethnic groups represented in Patriot Parliament by their elites. There were two elite groups who supported king James II and tried to influence him: “Old English” aristocracy and “Old Irish” nobility. King’s own elite group also consisted of “New English” and “New Scots”, but during the “Glorious revolution” the majority of them supported the counterpart of king James II – William Orange. Basing the study on historical sources the author proves that eventually king James II had two groups of supporters: “Old English” and “native Irish”. The article is concerned with non-investigated problem of negotiations between king James II and Irish elites and analyses the demands of the last. The author proves that acts and decisions of patriot parliament were the Irish population’s answers to the program and suggestions of king James II and that the main concessions were given to “Old English” aristocracy. The demands of “Old Irish” in agrarian issue were mainly ignored. The Patriot Parliament based the foundations of Jacobite political regime in Ireland during the restoration rebellion of 1689-1691.

  12. Correlation between adiponectin, leptin, insulin growth factor-1 and bone mineral density in pre and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcov, Corina; Vulpoi, Carmen; Brănişteanu, D

    2012-01-01

    Body weight positively correlates with bone mass, gravity being a stimulating bone stress. Adipose tissues could influence bone metabolism especially in postmenopause. Also, muscle mass positively correlates with bone mass and is dependent on physical activity, but also on some hormones with direct effect on bone, such as insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Our study investigated the relative influence on lumbar bone mass of pre and postmenopausal women of body weight, leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1. Cross-sectional study including six groups of 8 to 15 pre and postmenopausal healthy volunteers with different weight: body mass index (BMI): normal and underweight (BMI30 kg/m2). Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition (BC) were evaluated by dual X ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic), while serum leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 were measured by ELISA. Body weight, fat and lean mass positively correlated with BMD, irrespective of age (pweight prevents bone loss after menopause. Leptin and IGF-1 have adjacent positive roles in preserving bone mass during postmenopause.

  13. Speckle tracking echocardiography in mature Irish Wolfhound dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westrup, Ulrik; McEvoy, Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken...... under normal clinical conditions.The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error....

  14. The inorganic carbon distribution in Irish coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Triona; Cave, Rachel; McGovern, Evin; Kivimae, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, coastal and shelf waters play a crucial role in the global climate through their influence on major biogeochemical cycles. Due to growing concern about ocean acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, measurements of inorganic carbon parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), pH and pCO2) have been made with increasing regularity over the past two decades. While it is clear that open ocean surface waters are acidifying at a fairly uniform rate ( -0.02 pH units per decade), less is known about changes in coastal waters due to the high complexity and spatial variability in these regions. Large spatial and temporal variability in coastal CO2 parameters is mainly due to nutrient inputs, biological activity, upwelling and riverine inputs of alkalinity and inorganic and organic carbon. The inorganic carbon system in Irish coastal waters is presented here, gathered from 9 surveys around the Irish coastline between 2009 and 2013. There are striking contrasts in the CO2 system between different areas, largely attributed to the bedrock composition of the nearby rivers. Freshwater end-member concentrations of TA, calculated from TA-salinity relationships in outer estuarine and nearshore coastal water, were supported by riverine TA data from the Irish Environmental Protection Agency. A large portion of Ireland is covered with limestone bedrock and as a result, many of the rivers have extremely high TA (>5000μmol/kg) due to the carbonate mineral content of the underlying bedrock. While such high TA has resulted in elevated pH and calcium carbonate saturation states in some coastal waters, (e.g. Galway Bay and Dublin Bay), the high TA in other areas was accompanied by particularly high DIC (e.g. River Shannon on the west coast), resulting in lower pH and aragonite/calcite saturation states and even CO2 degassing in the Shannon estuary. Due to non-limestone lithology in many parts

  15. UTERINE CERVICAL CYTOMORPHOLOGY IN SYMPTOMATIC POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In postmenopausal women, risk of uterine cervical dysplasia and malignancy is increased, especially in those with no history of previous Papanicolaou (Pap smears. Therefore, routine screening can help in reducing morbidity and mortality. AIM To study the uterine cervical cytomorphology in symptomatic postmenopausal women, prevalence of dysplasia/malignancy, to observe the relation of cervical cytomorphology with urogenital symptoms, age of onset and duration of menopause. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 102 symptomatic postmenopausal patients underwent Pap smear examination and reporting was done based on The 2001 Bethesda System. RESULTS Out of 102 smears, 101(99.02% cases were satisfactory for reporting. Age ranged from 44 to 79 years with mean and median age of 54.3±6.8 and 52.5 years respectively. Maximum cases were in the 50-59 age group, 57(56.5% cases. Age of onset of menopause varied from 40 to 56 years with mean and median age of 48.6±3.4 and 49 years respectively. Duration of menopause ranged from 1 to 26 years with mean and median duration of 5.78±5.7 and 4.0 years respectively. Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM and epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA were 86(85.1% and 15(14.9% cases respectively. ECA were most commonly seen in the 60-69 years’ age group, 7(46.7% cases. Overall prevalence of cervical dysplasia was 9(8.9%, with highest prevalence in the 60-69 age group, 5(27.7%; and carcinoma was 3(2.9% with highest in the 60-69 age group, 2(11.1% cases. Vaginal discharge was the commonest urogenital symptom, 40 (39.8% cases. Reactive cellular changes (RCC was the commonest finding in vaginal discharge, 24(60% cases. Maximum cases of ECA, 12(44.4% cases, were associated with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB. Mean age in dysplasia and malignancy (58.6±7.3 years was significantly higher (P54 years (P5 years (P<0.011. CONCLUSION Pap smear examination in symptomatic postmenopausal women will definitely

  16. Socio-demographic, environmental, lifestyle and psychosocial factors predict self rated health in Irish Travellers, a minority nomadic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, C C; Whelan, J; Daly, L; Fitzpatrick, P

    2012-03-01

    Irish Travellers are an indigenous nomadic minority group with poor life expectancy. As part of a census survey of Travellers (80% participation rate), a health status interview was conducted (n=2065, 43.5% male). In the final regression model, positive predictors of self-rated health (SRH) were having a flush toilet (OR 2.2, p=0.021), considering where one lives to be healthy (OR 1.9, p=0.017), travelling twice yearly (OR 2.3 p=0.026), taking a brisk walk weekly (OR 2.4, p=0.000) and non-smoking (OR 1.7, p=0.03). Conversely, SRH was negatively associated with age (p=0.000), activity-limiting ill health (OR 0.4, p=0.001), or chronic health condition (OR 0.4, p=0.002). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of serum estrogen and estrogen metabolites in pre- and postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although 17β-estradiol (E2 deficiency has been linked to the development of osteoarthritis (OA in middle-aged women, there are few studies relating other estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EMs to this condition. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method to measure the levels of six EMs (i.e., estrone, E2, estriol, 2-hydroxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and 16a-hydroxyestrone in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women and women with OA. This method had a precision ranging from 1.1 to 3.1% and a detection limit ranging from 10 to 15 pg. Compared to healthy women, serum-free E2 was lower in the luteal and postmenopausal phases in women with OA, and total serum E2 was lower in postmenopausal women with OA. Moreover, compared to healthy women, total serum 2-hydroxyestradiol was higher in postmenopausal women with OA and total serum 2-hydroxyestrone was lower in both the luteal and follicular phases in women with OA. In conclusion, our HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method allowed the measurement of multiple biochemical targets in a single assay, and, given its increased cost-effectiveness, simplicity, and speed relative to previous methods, this method is suitable for clinical studies.

  18. Prediction models in women with postmenopausal bleeding: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hanegem, Nehalennia; Breijer, Maria C.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Timmermans, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal bleeding is associated with an elevated risk of having endometrial cancer. The aim of this review is to give an overview of existing prediction models on endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal bleeding. In a systematic search of the literature, we identified nine prognostic

  19. Raloxifene trial in postmenopausal woman with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharoor, Hema; Goyal, Aparna

    2015-10-01

    Raloxifene augmentation in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia has shown promising results. Younger patients diagnosed as treatment-resistant schizophrenia and treated with raloxifene (120 mg/day) have reported significant improvement in symptoms. This case highlights how raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can play a major role in alleviating positive and negative symptoms in postmenopausal women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

  20. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...

  1. Healthy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, water’s vital role is most apparent during an emergency or disaster. We launched the Healthy Water website to provide answers to your water- ...

  2. Vitamin D Status in Irish Children and Adolescents: Value of Fortification and Supplementation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Aoife

    2014-07-07

    Background. Vitamin D has important skeletal and extraskeletal roles but those living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal levels because of reduced sunlight exposure. Aim. To describe the vitamin D status of Irish children and identify factors predictive of vitamin D status. Methods. A prospective cross sectional study was undertaken over a 12 month period. Two hundred and fifty two healthy children attending for minor medical or surgical procedures were recruited. All had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone and bone profiles measured. Results. The mean (standard deviation) for 25OHD was 51(25) nmol\\/L (20.4 (10) ng\\/mL). Forty-five percent had levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). The following variables were significantly associated with 25OHD levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL): sample drawn in April-September, use of vitamin D supplements, consumption of formula milk, and non-African ethnicity. Conclusion. More than half of the children in this study had 25OHD levels less than 50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). Vitamin D status was significantly improved by augmented oral vitamin D intake.

  3. Comparative metal distribution in scalp hair of Pakistani and Irish referents and diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun; Talpur, Farah Naz

    2013-01-16

    The essential metals, chromium (Cr), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn), are necessary for many metabolic processes and their homeostasis is crucial for life. The toxic metals, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), have no beneficial role in human metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn in scalp hair samples of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of both genders, ages ranging from 30 to 50 y, and belong to urban areas of Ireland and Pakistan. For comparison purposes, age matched non-diabetic subjects of both countries were selected as referents. The concentrations of metals in scalp hair samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by conventional wet-acid-digestion method and using certified reference materials. The mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of both Pakistani and Irish diabetic patients as compared to referents of both countries (Pdiabetes versus healthy subjects of both countries. This study showed that, increased toxic elements and decreased essential elements are associated with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, these elements may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Woman Alone: The Depictions of Spinsters in Irish Women’s Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the manner in which single women are represented in contemporary Irish women’s short stories.  Typically in these stories, such women are portrayed as a distinctive social group within a society in which a traditionally negative image of the spinster has been reinforced by a dominant social ideology which has as objective the exertion of social control over women.  Contemporary Irish female writers attempt to ridicule this problematic “single-woman phobia” by demonstrating that this phenomenon is actually the result of women’s “selflessness” rather than the “selfishness” associated with the spinster stereotype.  Irish women’s stories demonstrate also a fundamental unfairness inherent within Irish society in which women are compelled to sacrifice their own lives and needs for the benefit of others by assuming a surrogate mothering role as “social mothers”.  Ironically, this paradox acts as the main obstacle preventing Irish spinsters from fulfilling their roles as wives and biological mothers.  In response, Irish female writers de-demonise the witch-like spinster stereotypes by deconstructing through their narratives those paradoxical social norms which have actually nurtured and reinforced negative perceptions of the “single women” within Irish society.

  5. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C; Ettarh, Rajunor R

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member's organs in a minority of students. Irish students' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Early adult outcomes for Irish children with behavioural difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of Irish children and, to date, no studies reporting long-term outcome for those with behavioural disorder in childhood. This paper describes psychological and educational outcomes for a group of Irish children initially assessed at age 11 years and re-examined 10 years later. The period during which the research was conducted coincided with a time of increasing wealth in Ireland and the consequent development of psychological and educational services. To follow up and assess psychological and educational outcomes for a group of young people aged 21 years, half of whom had high levels of behavioural problems at age 11. Data were gathered at two time points for 97 children and their families. Childhood measures included psychological and behavioural functioning, IQ, family background and economic circumstances. Outcome measures assessed in young adulthood included psychological functioning, educational attainment and trouble with the law. Behavioural deviance at age 11 was found to be highly predictive of negative outcomes in early adulthood including a greater likelihood of involvement in criminal activity and less educational success. The likelihood of educational failure increased with the accumulation of risk factors including economic disadvantage and low IQ. These findings, supported in other international studies, underline the importance of behavioural difficulties in childhood for adult outcome, even in an environment of greater service and educational opportunities and access.

  8. Code-Mixing in Biliterate and Multiliterate Irish Literary Texts

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    Tina Bennett-Kastor

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Code-mixing and code-switching are common and well-documented processes in the speech of multilingual persons. Where multilingual persons are also literate in each language, code-mixing is also possible in writing. Despite conservative pressures which tend to deem only one of the languages in a linguistic repertoire the prestige variety, and therefore the primary choice for written expression, multiliterate authors who are able to assume a multiliterate readership may use two or more languages in their texts. Some theories of code-mixing are here summarized, along with a review of code-mixing in spoken Irish. Examination of code-mixing in modern and contemporary Irish literary texts shows that, structurally, written code-mixing is for the most part similar to what is observed in spoken language. Functionally, however, written mixing often has wider aims. Because writing is a planned and conscious form of language, multilingual writers utilize their greater linguistic repertoires strategically by imbuing different languages with different symbolic meanings. A full appreciation of such texts requires an understanding not just of the languages involved, but also of their functions in the cultural environment and the historical, political, and cultural associations with the other languages.

  9. Obesity and disability in the symptomatic Irish knee osteoarthritis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, N L; Keogan, F; O'Callaghan, J P; O'Connell, P G

    2010-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common disorder with significant social and financial implications. Obesity is the strongest modifiable risk factor of knee OA. There is little data on obesity in Irish knee OA populations and its relationship to other measures of disease severity. In Beaumont Hospital, we have been collecting data on patients presenting with knee OA as part of a screening process for potential candidates for therapeutic exercise intervention studies. Here, we present data on the first 96 candidates screened during this process. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the group fell within the obese range (31); indeed, only 21% had a normal BMI. The vast majority of our patients had severe self-reported disability. In contrast, the distribution of radiographic severity of knee OA was more even. There was no significant relationship between radiographic severity and disability. BMI did predict disability but had a weak correlation. Radiographic severity did not correlate with BMI. Irish patients with knee OA referred for physiotherapy were very disabled, significantly obese and represent a challenging cohort of patients to treat.

  10. Nasalance scores for normal-speaking Irish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Triona; Sell, Debbie; O'Regan, Myra

    2004-03-01

    To obtain normal nasalance values during the production of a standardized speech sample for Irish children and determine whether significantly different scores exist for different speech stimuli for female and male speakers. Mean nasalance scores were obtained for normal-speaking children during the repetition of 16 test sentences that were categorized according to consonant type within the sentences (high-pressure consonants, low-pressure consonants, nasal consonants). Seventy children (36 girls and 34 boys, aged 4 years 11 months to 13 years) with normal articulation, resonance, and voice were included. Children repeated each of the 16 test sentences individually. The sentences were presented in groups according to consonant type, referred to as sentence categories. Data were collected and analyzed using the Kay nasometer (model 6200.3). Nasalance scores were obtained for the total speech sample and each sentence category. Data were statistically analyzed to investigate the effects of gender, sentence category, and gender by sentence category. Normative nasalance scores were obtained for the total speech sample (26%), high-pressure consonant sentences (14%), low-pressure consonant sentences (16%), and a nasal consonant sentence (51%). There was no significant difference in nasalance scores between male and female speakers. Significant differences were found between each sentence category (p Irish children. There was a significant difference between nasalance scores for different speech stimuli.

  11. Dublin and Irish politics in the age of Charles Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J

    2015-09-01

    In addition to his contributions to medicine, Charles Lucas had a long career in politics, starting in the 1740s as a guild representative on the lower house of Dublin corporation, and culminating in his election to the Irish House of Commons in 1761. By examining the background in Dublin and Irish politics, this paper explores Lucas' impact on the electorate, and how it was that he was able to win a parliamentary seat in Dublin and retain it for a decade while he campaigned in support of a range of important Patriot issues. Lucas had none of the qualifications that would normally be required for a successful politician. His father held some land, but as a younger son who had to make a living, Charles was apprenticed to a Dublin apothecary. Nor did he have the political connections that might have compensated for a lack of land, wealth, or status. But Lucas possessed other advantages, notably an education that enabled him to read the city's medieval charters, identifying areas where the Dublin freemen had lost 'ancient rights', and some experience of publishing, so that he could appeal to the electorate. Lucas' remarkable political success stemmed from both local circumstances and his own personal qualities.

  12. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  13. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  14. Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin C

    2011-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.

  15. The Era of Tadeusz Pawlikowski and Irish Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Keane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tadeusz Pawlikowski was arguably Poland’s greatest theatre director of the fin de siècle. With stints as Theatre Manager in both Kraków and Lwów municipal theatres, Pawlikowski excelled in developing ensemble casts and cultivating audiences without kowtowing to popular tastes. He was also responsible for bringing many western plays to partitioned Poland, and indeed he oversaw theatrical premieres of Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw and John Millington Synge. This paper will look at the production and reception of these plays and will record how there was a growing conviction amongst Polish critics that Irish dramatists would soon make a towering impact on the age. That said, not all the productions were as successful as perhaps they should have been. When in Lwów, Pawlikowski attempted to flood the city with drama and this ambition entailed brief run-throughs and the shortening of texts in order to facilitate the learning of lines. Needless to say, there was little time for work on characterization. Consequently, it was often pointed out that performances had failed to bridge the cultural gap where a foreign piece was concerned. To this end, this paper will assess both the contribution of Tadeusz Pawlikowski to Irish theatre, and the reception and legacy of the productions which took place under his directorial guidance.

  16. Otolaryngology and Irish literature: an important medico-literary alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Emma C

    2010-12-01

    For a comparatively small island, Ireland has made a disproportionately large contribution to world literature in all its aspects. The literary lineage of those who pursue medicine and also write is long and well established. The Irish contribution to world literature in all its aspects is well documented. Less explored, however, is the prominent influence of Dublin-based otolaryngologists in the Irish literary movement at the turn of the last century. Here, we examine two such figures, Sir William Wilde and Oliver St. John Gogarty, and their pivotal roles both professionally and in establishing Ireland on the world's literary stage. During the early part of the 1800s, otology was perceived as a defunct subspecialty that could be adequately managed, without much expertise, in the primary care setting. It was through the efforts of William Wilde and others that otology gained clinical and scientific credence during the latter half of the 19th century. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary restraint and telomere length in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2008-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere shortening can serve as a biomarker of aging, as telomere length (TL) can decline with age and shortening is positively associated with morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to identify psychological and behavioral factors linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Stress and poorer metabolic health (greater adiposity, insulin resistance, and cortisol) correlate with shorter telomeres. Self-reported dietary restraint (DR), defined as chronic preoccupation with weight and attempts at restricting food intake, is linked to greater perceived stress, cortisol, and weight gain, when assessed in community studies (versus in weight loss programs). To test for an association between DR and TL in healthy women across a range of ages. We examined whether DR is linked to TL in two samples, one of premenopausal women (aged 20-50 years;N = 36) and one of postmenopausal women (aged 53-69 years; N = 20). In both samples, higher levels of DR were associated with shorter leukocyte TL, independent of body mass index, smoking, and age. Chronic DR, as assessed by self-report (i.e. not caloric restriction), may be a risk factor for premature telomere shortening. Potential mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Influence of Fructooligosaccharide on Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to determine the influence of fructooligosaccharide (FOS on the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. The study was a fixed-sequence, two-phase, crossover study. Twelve subjects received a single oral dose of 300 mL of a soy beverage. Blood samples were collected before the dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 32 h after the administration of the soy beverage. After a washout period of at least 1 week, subjects were assigned to receive oral doses of FOS, 5 g each time, twice a day (after breakfast and dinner for 14 days, followed by a single oral dose of the same soy beverage on the next day. Blood samples were then collected at the same time points mentioned previously. Plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Continuous oral administrations of FOS followed by a single oral administration of soy beverage caused significant increases in Cmax, AUC0–32, and AUC0–∞ of genistein and AUC0–32 of daidzein, comparing to those obtained following a single oral dose of soy beverage alone. Other pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax and t1/2 of both aglycones and AUC0–∞ of daidzein between both regimens were not significantly different.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Sexual Function in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, Susan E; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Limited literature suggests that sexual dysfunction in women covaries with the metabolic syndrome. This study examined the association of sexual function with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in healthy older women. There were 376 postmenopausal, community-dwelling women from the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean baseline age = 73 years) that completed a clinic visit during 1999-2002 and returned the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire mailed in 2002. Thirty-nine percent reported being sexually active; 41.5% met a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome components was strongly associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and low sexual satisfaction. Waist girth, diabetes, and hypertension were associated with decreased sexual activity. Elevated triglycerides were associated with low desire. Among the cardiovascular endpoints, heart attack, coronary artery bypass, and angina were associated with decreased sexual activity, but not with sexual desire or satisfaction. Past diagnosis of heart failure, poor circulation, and stroke were not associated with sexual function. Sexually active women with metabolic syndrome met criteria for sexual dysfunction in desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains. The FSFI Total Score did not differ significantly between sexually active and inactive women. Metabolic syndrome was associated with decreased sexual activity, desire, and satisfaction in all women and with sexual dysfunction in most domains in sexually active women. Coronary artery disease was more prevalent in women with low sexual activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investment in Information and Communication Technologies in the Irish Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Clare; Hinchey, Mike; McQuade, Eamonn

    Ireland’s economy has experienced phenomenal growth over the last ten years, in particular in the ICT sector. With today’s rising global competition, Ireland faces the challenge of sustaining this growth, particularly in the software sector. A core component of this challenge is to produce a steady stream of qualified graduates in the ICT area. Funded by the Irish government, Lero—the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre has begun two educational initiatives to address this issue: the establishment of the Lero Graduate School in Software Engineering (LGSSE) and the Lero Education and Outreach Programme. This paper describes both initiatives in detail and their uniqueness in the Irish context.

  1. Variability in the volume scattering function (VSF) in the Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, O. A.; Jago, C. F.; Mitchelson-Jacob, G.; Jones, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    The near-forward (0.05-10°) VSF has been measured during 8 cruises over a 2-year period in the Irish Sea. The VSF was measured with a LISST-100 and the cruises covered all seasons and spanned stratified as well as un-stratified areas of the Irish Sea. Here we report on the temporal and spatial variability of the shape of the VSF. Using a range of statistical grouping techniques it can be argued that, in reality, only a handful of different shapes of the VSF exists in the Irish Sea, each of which is found under different hydrodynamic conditions.

  2. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on myocardial performance in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzenli, M A; Ozdemir, K; Sokmen, A; Gezginc, K; Soylu, A; Celik, C; Altunkeser, B B; Tokac, M

    2010-04-01

    The results of the studies in which the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on cardiac function have been evaluated are rather disputable. In these studies, cardiac function was evaluated with conventional echocardiographic methods. This study was planned in order to investigate the effects of HRT on myocardial velocities and myocardial performance index (MPI) in healthy early postmenopausal women. In a prospective, controlled study, 60 healthy postmenopausal women were assigned to two groups (32 in the HRT group and 28 in the control group). After conventional echocardiographic parameters were measured, tissue Doppler echocardiography recordings were obtained from the mitral and tricuspid annulus. Systolic myocardial velocity (Sm), early and late diastolic myocardial velocities (Em and Am) and time intervals were measured and MPI was calculated. Then the symptom-limited exercise stress test using the Bruce protocol was performed. After 3 and 6 months of HRT (oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen + 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate/day), the same examinations were repeated. The effects of HRT on myocardial velocities, MPI and exercise time were evaluated at the 3rd and 6th months. The parameters of the control group remained statistically unchanged during the study. HRT did not have any effect on segmental and mean left ventricular (LV) Sm or right ventricular (RV) Sm. However, LV Em/Am and RV Em/Am ratios significantly increased at the 6th month of HRT, and LV and RV MPI values were observed to decrease significantly as compared to basal values. Additionally, a significant increase was observed in exercise duration and metabolic equivalent values after 3 months of HRT, and this increase continued at the 6th month as well. The favorable changes in all parameters in the HRT group were significantly different from those of the control group. Data obtained in this study suggest that HRT is not only effective for treating menopausal complaints but also increases

  3. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaor, Melissa Orlandin; Pilbrow, Lesley; Tonkin, Carol; Parker, Richard A; Compston, Juliet

    2010-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a recognized risk factor for fragility fracture, whereas obesity is widely believed to be protective. As part of a clinical audit of guidance from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), we have documented the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity in postmenopausal women younger than 75 years of age presenting to our Fracture Liaison Service (FLS). Between January 2006 and December 2007, 1005 postmenopausal women aged less than 75 years with a low-trauma fracture were seen in the FLS. Of these women, 805 (80%) underwent assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and values for BMI were available in 799. The prevalence of obesity (BMI 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) and morbid obesity (BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2)) in this cohort was 19.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Normal BMD was reported in 59.1% of obese and 73.1% of morbidly obese women, and only 11.7% and 4.5%, respectively, had osteoporosis (p obesity in postmenopausal women presenting to the FLS with low-trauma fracture. Most of these women had normal BMD, as measured by DXA. Our findings have important public heath implications in view of the rapidly rising increase in obesity in many populations and emphasize the need for further studies to establish the pathogenesis of fractures in obese individuals and to determine appropriate preventive strategies. Copyright 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, W A; Lanting, C I; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; Grooters, H G; Kampman, E; Kiemeney, L A L M; van Leeuwen, F E; Monninkhof, E M; de Vries, E; Peeters, P H; Elias, S G

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged >50 in 2010. First, age-specific PAFs were calculated for each risk factor, based on their relative risks for postmenopausal breast cancer (from meta-analyses) and age-specific prevalence in the population (from national surveys) around the year 2000, assuming a latency period of 10 years. To obtain the overall PAF, age-specific PAFs were summed in a weighted manner, using the age-specific breast cancer incidence rates (2010) as weights. 95 % confidence intervals for PAF estimates were derived by Monte Carlo simulations. Of Dutch women >40 years, in 2000, 51 % were overweight/obese, 55 % physically inactive (factors combined had a PAF of 25.7 % (95 % CI 24.2-27.2), corresponding to 2,665 Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010. PAFs were 8.8 % (95 % CI 6.3-11.3) for overweight/obesity, 6.6 % (95 % CI 5.2-8.0) for alcohol consumption, 5.5 % (95 % CI 4.0-7.0) for physical inactivity, 4.6 % (95 % CI 3.3-6.0) for smoking and 3.2 % (95 % CI 1.6-4.8) for low-fibre intake. Our findings imply that modifiable risk factors are jointly responsible for approximately one out of four Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases. This suggests that incidence rates can be lowered substantially by living a more healthy lifestyle.

  5. Differences in verbal memory performance in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy: 17β-estradiol versus conjugated equine estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroolie, Tonita E; Kenna, Heather A; Williams, Katherine E; Powers, Bevin N; Holcomb, Megan; Khaylis, Anna; Rasgon, Natalie L

    2011-09-01

    Much controversy exists and many questions remain unanswered about the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on cognition in postmenopausal women. There is growing evidence suggesting that HT compounds containing conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) have negative effects on cognition whereas 17β-estradiol (17β-E) either has positive or neutral effects. The present study sought to further examine this issue in a sample of postmenopausal women with risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cross-sectional neuropsychological evaluation. Academic research clinic. 68 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 49-68) receiving either 17β-E or CEE for at least one year with increased risk for AD. Neuropsychological test battery of the cognitive domains of attention/working memory/processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive functioning. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) showed significantly better verbal memory performance in women receiving 17β-E compared to women receiving CEE regardless of age, IQ, years of education, risk factors for AD (including APOE-ε4 carriership), duration of endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure, concurrent progesterone use, or natural versus surgical menopause status. Verbal memory performance was better in postmenopausal women receiving 17β-E compared to CEE in a sample population of women with risk factors for AD. Genetic risk for AD as well as other confounds did not affect this finding. The results suggest a differential effect of HT type on verbal memory, with 17β-E being a preferential compound. Further evaluation of HT types, regimens and duration of use on cognitive performance in postmenopausal women in a controlled longitudinal design is warranted.

  6. Point-of-care testing for HIV in an Irish prison setting: results from three major Irish prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Ciaran L; Lynch, Pamela A; Conroy, Emmett P; O'Dea, Siobhan; Surah, Saloni; Betts-Symonds, Graham; Lyons, Fiona E

    2016-10-01

    HIV is more prevalent in the prison population compared to the general population. Prison inmates are at an increased risk of blood-borne infections. Considerable stigma has been documented amongst inmates with HIV infection. In collaboration with the schools, healthcare facilities, prison authorities and inmate Irish Red Cross groups in Wheatfield, Cloverhill and Mountjoy prisons in Dublin, Ireland, the Department of Genito Urinary Medicine and Infectious Diseases at St James' Hospital in Dublin developed a campaign for raising awareness of HIV, educating inmates about HIV and tackling HIV stigma. Following this campaign, large-scale point-of-care testing for HIV was offered over a short period. In total, 741 inmates were screened for HIV. One inmate tested positive for HIV. We experienced a large number of invalid test results, requiring formal laboratory serum testing, and a small number of false positive results. Large-scale point-of-care testing in the Irish prison setting is acceptable and achievable. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Prevalence of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. Patients and Methods This study was cross-sectional study. In this study, 1280 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years old who were referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014 were randomly enrolled. Hamilton depression scale and demographic questionnaire were used for gathering information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (Independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were carried out (CI 95%. Results The mean ± SD score of depression for the subjects was 9.37 ± 4.62. The results showed that 59.8% of the 1280 samples were depressed; in particular, 39.8% had mild depression, 16% moderate depression, and 4% severe depression. There is a significant and inverse relation between variables of age, exposure to cigarette smoking, and the relationship with their spouses and the level of their depression, so higher age, more exposure to smoking, and better relation with their husbands, lead to the less depression. The results showed that the level of education is associated with depression. The highest rate of depression was in illiterate women; the finding also showed that there is a relationship between income and the severity of depression (Regression Log. T test showed that the mean depression level of employed postmenopausal women is higher than housewives postmenopausal women, and this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions A significant percentage of women in their menopause experience

  8. Alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in postmenopausal women is related to LDL cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chin-Hua; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Chin-Lon; Kuo, Terry B J

    2008-04-30

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in healthy postmenopausal women is related to lipid metabolism. A total of 70 healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy participated in this study: 35 were vegetarians (mean age 55.0 years) and 35 were omnivores (mean age 55.1 years). Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial blood pressure fluctuation. The vegetarians had statistically significant lowered blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting glucose levels compared with the omnivores. The vegetarians exhibited a significant higher total power, low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) of HRV and increased baroreflex sensitivity measures [Brr(LF) and Brr(HF)] compared with the omnivores. Total power, LF and HF of HRV, Brr(LF), and Brr(HF) were significantly and negatively correlated with LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P vegetarian diets in postmenopausal women are inversely related to LDL-cholesterol levels.

  9. Panoramic radiomorphometry and vertebral fractures in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Maestre, María Ángeles; Corcuera Flores, José Ramón; Machuca, Guillermo; González-Cejudo, Carmen; Torrejón, Rafael; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between panoramic radiomorphometric indexes, and the presence of osteoporotic fractures in a Spanish postmenopausal women. A sample of 120 women (60 with fragility spine fractures and 60 healthy), aged 55-70 years, with fragility spine fractures, were included in this cross-sectional study that was conducted from 2008 to 2011. All the women were referred to undergo a radiological spine examination, spinal densitometry and a panoramic radiograph for assessing osteoporosis using 3 radiomorphometric indexes: Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI), Mental Index (MI) and Mandibular Cortical Index (MCI). According to mandibular cortical shape, in MCI, three groups were defined: C3 (osteoporosis), C2 (osteopenia), C1 (health). Significant differences were found between all the MCI groups due to their composition between fractures and non-fractures. C1 group (healthy) has less fractures women than C2 (Bonferroni p<0.001), C1 has less fractures than C3 (Bonferroni p<0.001) and finally, C2 has less fractures than C3 (Bonferroni p<0.006). PMI and MI values were significantly lower in cases than in controls (U Mann-Whitney p<0.001). Panoramic radiomorphometrics mandibular indexes such as MCI, PMI, and MI, may be useful for identifying the population at higher risk for fracture. The relationship between panoramic index and osteoporosis remains unclear and further studies using fragility fracture as a real marker of osteoporosis are warranted to clarify the exact role and effect of one condition on the other and the corresponding clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  11. Environment and cognitive aging: A cross-sectional study of place of residence and cognitive performance in the Irish longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarino, Marica; O'Sullivan, Vincent; Kenny, Rose Anne; Setti, Annalisa

    2016-07-01

    Stimulating environments foster cognitive vitality in older age. However, it is not known whether and how geographical and physical characteristics of lived environments contribute to cognitive aging. Evidence of higher prevalence of dementia in rural rather than urban contexts suggests that urban environments may be more stimulating either cognitively, socially, or in terms of lifestyle. The present study explored urban/rural differences in cognition for healthy community-dwelling older people while controlling for a comprehensive spectrum of confounding factors. Cognitive performance of 3,765 healthy Irish people aged 50+ years participating in Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging was analyzed in relation to current location of residence-urban, other settlements, or rural areas-and its interaction with childhood residence. Regression models controlled for sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Urban residents showed better performance than the other 2 residence groups for global cognition and executive functions after controlling for covariates. Childhood urban residence was associated with a cognitive advantage especially for currently rural participants. Our findings suggest higher cognitive functioning for urban residents, although childhood residence modulates this association. Suggestions for further developments of these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Artificial radionuclides in the Irish Sea from Sellafield: remobilisation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Leonard, Kinson; Hughes, Linda

    2013-06-01

    Measured concentrations of Cs-137, tritium, Tc-99, Pu-239+240 and Am-241 in representative materials from the Irish Sea were investigated with reference to continuing remobilisation from sediments. Long time series of monitoring data since the 1960s were employed.Cs-137 in sea water and fish shows peaks in concentrations normalised to discharge rate (NACs) from 1985 to 1989. This is consistent with the time needed for dispersion in sea water following the preceding reductions in discharges; continuing enhancements of NACs above pre-1970s levels follow, consistent with the effect of activity remobilised from sediment. It is estimated that about 300 TBq of Cs-137 was remobilised from the immediate tidal area around Sellafield from 1989 to 2009. The enhancements in concentrations continue to this day, with the effect of remobilisation at present being ∼6 TBq y(-1), approximately doubling the effect of direct discharges. To provide an indication for the future, the rate of Cs-137 remobilisation is decreasing with a half-time of ∼6 years.The data for tritium and Tc-99 were examined in view of the interest in these radionuclides. The concentrations broadly reflect the levels of discharges and the need for dispersion. As expected, there is no evidence of sustained remobilisation of tritium, due to its mobility (or low Kd). The same lack of evidence was found to apply for Tc-99 despite known sorption of a small proportion of the discharged activity by Irish Sea sediments.Pu-239+240, by contrast, shows much evidence of the effect of remobilisation; concentrations in sea water near Sellafield have reduced much more slowly than discharges. At Southerness, ∼50 km away, there was no significant reduction in sea water concentrations from 1985 to 1996, and winkles showed an increase then decrease in concentrations over this period, consistent with a spreading of activity. This effect was replicated in mud at Garlieston, ∼70 km from Sellafield.For Am-241, the rate of

  13. Aerobic exercise training lowers platelet reactivity and improves platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg Slingsby, Martina Helena; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon

    2017-01-01

    .7 (52.5-55.0) years old, participated in an intervention study: 3-month high-intensity supervised aerobic spinning-cycle training (1hr, x3/week). Basal platelet reactivity was analyzed in platelet rich plasma from venous blood as agonist-induced %aggregation. In a subgroup of 13 pre- and 14...... exercise in late pre- and recent postmenopausal women by testing basal platelet reactivity and platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin and nitric oxide. METHODS: 25 sedentary, but healthy, late premenopausal and 24 matched recently postmenopausal women, mean (95% confidence interval) 49.1 (48.2-49.9) and 53......-68) versus premenopausal women; 45% (35-55). Exercise training reduced basal platelet reactivity to collagen(1μg/ml) in the premenopausal women only; from 63% (55-71%) to 51% (41-62%). After the training intervention, platelet aggregation was more inhibited by the arterial prostacyclin infusion and the acute...

  14. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  15. The United States Civil War Causal Agent for Irish Assimilation and Acceptance in US Society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillespie, William

    2001-01-01

    The American Civil War was a cornerstone event for the Irish in America. Their participation proved their duty to Union and Confederate causes, increased their acceptance in American society, and hastened assimilation...

  16. Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Norton, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

  17. A national study on the attitudes of Irish dental faculty members to faculty development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, E M

    2010-02-01

    International studies suggest that dental faculty are resistant to the concept and practice of faculty development. This paper analyses the demographic and educational profile of Irish Dental Faculty, exploring their attitudes to educational initiatives.

  18. The Irish epilepsy surgery experience: Long-term follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunlea, Orla

    2010-05-01

    To assess the long-term seizure outcome of Irish patients who underwent resective surgery for refractory epilepsy since 1975. We also wished to determine the impact of pathology and surgical technique (with particular reference to neocorticectomy) on seizure outcome.

  19. Survey of Selected Multi-National Employers’ Perceptions of Certain Graduates from Irish Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report provides feedback on the suitability of employment of Irish graduates, looking specifically at the disciplinary groups of Science, Engineering, Business and Finance and Humanities, and comparing them to their international counterparts.

  20. BMD and Serum Intact Osteocalcin in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Vanita R; Ganu, Jayashri V; Nagane, Nitin S

    2011-01-01

    India seems to have the highest prevalence of osteoporosis. With growing awareness of osteoporosis and its impact on life span especially in India, special attention is being paid to early detection, management and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Measurement of BMD and osteocalcin are of value in estimating bone turnover rates. The aim of this study is (1) to measure the specific, sensitive bone formation marker such as osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis women and postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women; (2) the follow up study to evaluate the impact of specific antiresorptive therapy (alendronate + calcium + vitamin D) regimen in postmenopausal osteoporosis by assaying osteocalcin and BMD. Sixty clinically diagnosed postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and 60 normal subjects (postmenopausal non-osteoporosis women) were recruited as control. Mean bone mineral density T score and Z score was significantly decreased (P osteoporosis patients as compared to controls. Highly significant increase in the mean score of BMD-T score and Z score from baseline to post therapy of 3 months was observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. Serum osteocalcin levels were significantly increased (P osteoporosis women. BMD is the best quantifiable predictor of osteoporotic fracture and osteocalcin is specific, sensitive, promising, currently used marker for better prognosis of osteoporosis and for monitoring responses to antiresorptive therapy.

  1. The Effect of Prior Oophorectomy on Changes in Bone Mineral Density and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucowski, Sara J.; Mack, Wendy J.; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Paulson, Richard; Hodis, Howard N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of prior oophorectomy in healthy postmenopausal women on the rate of loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and rate of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) Design Secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial Setting University-based research clinic Patient(s) 222 healthy postmenopausal women in the Greater Los Angeles Area Intervention(s) Baseline and annual screening of BMD and assessment of CIMT every 6 months for a total of 3 years Main Outcome and Measure(s) Changes in BMD and CIMT during postmenopausal years Result(s) Among women who were menopausal more than 10 years, the rate of CIMT progression was statistically significantly less in women with intact ovaries compared to prior oophorectomy. In women 5-10 years postmenopausal, there was a trend toward a slower loss of BMD in those who retained their ovaries and in women more than 10 years menopausal there was significantly less BMD loss in those who retained their ovaries. Conclusion(s) As time from menopausal transition increases, retained ovaries are associated with a slower rate of bone loss and a slower rate of thickening of the carotid artery wall compared to rates in menopausal women with oophorectomy. PMID:24530156

  2. Applications for fees waivers on medical and psychiatric grounds at an Irish third-level college

    OpenAIRE

    White, Daniel C.; Kelly, Brendan D.; Casey, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical and mental illness present substantial challenges to college students and authorities. Aims: (1) To characterize medical and psychiatric reasons underlying requests for fees waivers at an Irish third-level college; (2) to identify information included in applications; and (3) to develop proposals for standardizing applications. Methods: We examined all applications for exemption from fees for medical or psychiatric reasons over two academic years at an Irish third-level c...

  3. Explaining the variability in the Economic Performance of Irish Dairy Farmers 1998-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Smyth; Anne Marie Butler; Thia Hennessy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic performance of Irish dairy farms over the period 1998 to 2006 with the objective of identifying the factors influencing cost structure. Initial analysis reveals that a large variation in cost structure exists in the Irish dairy farming sector, and that this variation has increased over time. Econometric techniques are employed to examine the variation in cost structures and to identify the factors affecting farm profitability. National Farm Survey data from Ire...

  4. Should Any Workplace be Exempt from Smoke-Free Law: the Irish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffrey, M.; Goodman, Pat; Gavigan, A.; Kenny, C.; Hogg, C.; Byrne, L.; McLoughlin, J.; Clancy, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. In 2004, the Irish Government introduced national legislation banning smoking in workplaces; with exemptions for “a place of residence”. This paper summarises three Irish studies of exempted premises; prisons, psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes. Methods. PM2.5 and nicotine were measured in nursing homes and psychiatric hospitals, in addition to ultrafine particles in the hospitals. In the prisons, officers (n = 30) completed exhaled breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) measurements...

  5. Should Any Workplace Be Exempt from Smoke-Free Law: The Irish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    M. McCaffrey; P. Goodman; A. Gavigan; C. Kenny; C. Hogg; L. Byrne; J. McLaughlin; K. Young; L. Clancy

    2012-01-01

    Background. In 2004, the Irish Government introduced national legislation banning smoking in workplaces; with exemptions for “a place of residence”. This paper summarises three Irish studies of exempted premises; prisons, psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes. Methods. PM2.5 and nicotine were measured in nursing homes and psychiatric hospitals, in addition to ultrafine particles in the hospitals. In the prisons, officers ( = 3 0 ) completed exhaled breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) measurements...

  6. 2010: 6th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2010-01-01

    The 6th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge took place on Thursday November 25th 2010, this initiative between the DIT Department Bar Management and Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard attracted 85 mixologists currently studying and working in the hospitality and licensed trade premises the opportunity to improve their skills in creative drinks mixing, in direct response to the growing demand for new cocktails and exciting new drinks to suit every season. This magnificent ent...

  7. 2008: 4th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2008-01-01

    The 4th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge took place on Thursday November 27th 2008, this initiative between the DIT Department Bar Management and Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard attracted 80 mixologists currently studying and working in the hospitality and licensed trade premises the opportunity to improve their skills in creative drinks mixing, in direct response to the growing demand for new cocktails and exciting new drinks to suit every season. This magnificent ent...

  8. 2009: 5th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2009-01-01

    The 5th D.I.T – Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard Cocktail Challenge took place on Thursday November 26th 2009, this initiative between the DIT Department Bar Management and Irish Distillers Pernod Ricard attracted 95 mixologists currently studying and working in the hospitality and licensed trade premises the opportunity to improve their skills in creative drinks mixing, in direct response to the growing demand for new cocktails and exciting new drinks to suit every season. This magnificent ent...

  9. Cumulative disadvantage? Educational careers of migrant students in Irish secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Delma

    2014-01-01

    Recent rapid immigration of a diverse group of migrant children into an almost exclusively White Irish school population makes Ireland an interesting case study for migrant education. This article explores key points in the careers of migrant secondary school students in Ireland from an equality perspective. The article draws on data gathered as a part of a large-scale study specifically designed to investigate provision for migrant children in Irish schools. The results of ...

  10. Irish language broadcast media: the interaction of state language policy, broadcasters and their audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ó hIfearnáin, Tadhg

    2000-01-01

    peer-reviewed The position of Irish on the airwaves now and through recent history has always been closely linked to the strength of the language in society, its position in public opinion and national language policy and the place of the state-owned broadcaster and its subsidiary channels within the broadcasting domain. Government legislation regulates the private and voluntary sectors, which may also receive indirect state subsidies for Irish language programming. It is therefore impos...

  11. Migrant employment and the recession--the case of the Irish in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwin, F X; Nairn, A G

    1983-01-01

    "The past decade has witnessed a substantial contraction in the size of the Irishborn community in Britain. This paper uses shift share analysis to assess the extent to which job losses amongst the Irish in Britain over the years 1971-1977 may have induced return migration to Ireland. The article concludes that such 'push' factors are likely to have been relatively weak in comparison to the 'pull' of an Irish economy considerably more buoyant than that of Britain." excerpt

  12. Associations between Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Postmenopausal Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mengxi; Liu, Selena H; Mitchell, Cara; Fung, Teresa T

    2018-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer tends to have poorer prognosis than estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. A number of studies have examined the association between diet quality as measured by various diet quality scores and the risk of ER- breast cancer. This systematic review aimed to summarize existing evidence on this topic. Medline and Embase searches were conducted until 2 April 2017 for cohort and case-control studies on diet quality scores and ER- breast cancer. We included 6 prospective cohort studies and 1 case-control study on postmenopausal ER- breast cancer: 4 from Europe and 3 from the United States. There were 12 different diet quality scores: 2 versions of the Dietary Inflammatory Index, 4 versions of the Mediterranean diet score, the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and 3 versions of low-carbohydrate diet scores that differentiate between different sources of protein and fat. Of the 4 studies on Mediterranean diet scores, 3 showed a significant inverse association with postmenopausal ER- breast cancer, whereas no consistent association was observed with the other diet quality scores. Although most diet quality scores in this review share similar food components, most of the non-Mediterranean diet scores were represented by only 1 study each, and the associations with postmenopausal ER- breast cancer were mixed. All studies were adjusted for multiple covariates. This systematic review shows mixed results for an association between a variety of diet quality scores and postmenopausal ER- cancer. However, results from different versions of the Mediterranean diet scores are more consistent and suggest an inverse relation with ER- breast cancer.

  13. The future of UK/Irish surgery: A European solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzgalis, M; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) hospital systems are dependent on junior doctors for their functionality however it is increasingly difficult to recruit UK/ROI trained doctors to fill these posts. Directive 2005/36/EC, which came into force in 2007, is the principal European legislation on the recognition of equivalence of professional qualifications across Europe. European trained doctors are therefore attractive candidates for junior doctor posts. However, although their training is recognised as equivalent by the Irish Medical Council (IMC) and General Medical Council (GMC) they are not being appointed to equivalent posts by the Health Service Executive (HSE) or National Health Service (NHS). With the influence of European Union (EU) centralisation, modification of UK/ROI consultant grade is imminent, possibly to pyramidal structure of the Continental European model with clearer lines of corporate responsibility. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing a Model of the Irish Energy-System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    to be created. This paper focuses on the construction of this reference model, in terms of the data gathered, the assumptions made and the accuracy achieved. In future work, this model will be used to investigate alternative energy-systems for Ireland, with the aim to determine the most effective energy system......The transition from a fossil-fuel to a renewable energy system is a modern and complicated challenge for numerous countries. However, as Ireland is an island that is poorly interconnected to other energy systems, this challenge becomes even more complicated. Identifying how to make this transition...... is a vital step due to the scale of the change required for large-scale renewable penetrations. In this paper, a model of the Irish energy system is created to identify how Ireland can transform from a fossil-fuel to a renewable energy-system. The energy-systems-analysis tool, EnergyPLAN, was chosen...

  15. The public awareness of stillbirth: an Irish population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzum, D; Meaney, S; O'Donoghue, K

    2017-09-19

    To evaluate the general population's awareness of stillbirth. A cross-sectional telephone population survey. A nationally representative sample of the Irish adult population. In all, 999 members of the Irish population were selected by random digit dialling. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the odds of identifying risk factors for stillbirth. Public knowledge of incidence, risk factors, causes and social awareness about stillbirth. Only a minority, 17%, of respondents correctly identified the incidence of stillbirth. Men and those aged over 45 years were more likely to say they did not know when a stillbirth occurs. Over half, 56% of respondents were unable to identify any stillbirth risk factors. Half of respondents, 53%, believed that the cause of stillbirth was due to a problem with the baby, 39% a problem with the mother, while 31% believed stillbirth occurred as a result of the care provided to the mother. The majority, 79%, believed that all stillbirths should be medically investigated, although women were more likely to suggest this (82% versus 76.4%; P = 0.043). Stillbirth had been represented in traditional and online media for 75% of respondents and 54% said they personally knew someone who had a stillbirth. There is a lack of public knowledge concerning the incidence, risk factors and causes of stillbirth. Improved public health initiatives and antenatal education are warranted to increase awareness of stillbirth risk factors and to improve care and monitoring during pregnancy. No funding was granted for this study. Irish population study shows low public awareness of stillbirth incidence, risk factors and causes. This study aimed to find out what the general public know about the risk factors associated with stillbirth and whether stillbirth can be prevented. Many stillbirth risk factors can be identified and when they are, healthcare professionals can monitor pregnancy and

  16. Spinal nephroblastoma in an Irish wolfhound : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vaughan

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old Irish wolfhound was presented with a history of slowly progressive left pelvic limb paresis. A neurological examination demonstrated bilateral deficits referable to the thoracolumbar spinal cord. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid contained neoplastic cells. An intradural, extramedullary mass was demonstrated by myelography at the caudal aspect of T13. Surgical excision was abandoned owing to severe macroscopic damage to, and apparent infiltration of, the cord, and the dog was euthanased. The tumour was diagnosed histologically as an extrarenal nephroblastoma. Nephroblastoma should be suspected in young, large-breed dogs with intradural extramedullary masses over spinal segments T10-L2. The prognosis for complete recovery after surgical excision is guarded to poor.

  17. {sup 99}Tc in the Irish Sea. Recent trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, M.; Rajendran, K. [Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, East Kilbride (United Kingdom). Scottish Enterprise Technology Park

    1997-12-31

    The increase in discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield has resulted in an ideal opportunity to study the behaviour of this radionuclide in the aquatic environment. Results, thus far, have demonstrated that {sup 99}Tc uptake by seaweeds collected from around the Irish Sea has followed the anticipated trend, with brown seaweeds accumulating 100-1000 times more {sup 99}Tc than red or green algae. The large increase in discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield in 1994 had been matched by a similar increase in the levels present in brown seaweeds, mussels and winkles for which concentration factors of 24000, 5000 and 100, respectively, have been derived. This confirms the observation that {sup 99}Tc uptake by marine organisms in the field far exceeds that which would be expected from laboratory studies. Thus, it is concluded that, given the radiological importance of this nuclide, the provision of more accurate information on its environmental behaviour is required. (author) 13 refs.

  18. Community nurses working in piloted primary care teams: Irish Republic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Triona

    2010-08-01

    Primary care health services in the Irish Republic have undergone fundamental transformation with the establishment of multidisciplinary primary care teams nationwide. Primary care teams provide a community-based health service delivered through a range of health professionals in an integrated way. As part of this initiative ten pilot teams were established in 2003. This research was undertaken in order to gain an understanding of nurse\\'s experiences of working in a piloted primary care team. The methodology used was a focus group approach. The findings from this study illustrated how community nurse\\'s roles and responsibilities have expanded within the team. The findings also highlighted the benefits and challenges of working as a team with various other community-based health-care disciplines.

  19. Primary hormone treatment in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá Escalante, S; Pons Sanz, V; Rodríguez Lescure, A; Ballester Navarro, I; Carrato Mena, A

    2006-05-01

    Clinical benefits of hormone therapy in patients with hormone-sensitive tumors have been clearly established. Postmenopausal women with positive hormone receptors represent the largest group of patients in whom early stage breast cancer is diagnosed. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane) are active and well tolerated in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive metastasic or locally advanced breast cancer as first or second line treatment. These are also valuable agents in the neoadjuvant setting in postmenopausal women, and even as single treatment in localized breast tumors in women not amenable to surgery.

  20. A health and safety survey of Irish funeral industry workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Those handling deceased individuals, including the funeral industry, face a variety of health and safety hazards including occupationally acquired infectious disease. AIMS: To identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Irish funeral industry workers towards occupational hazards and infectious disease in 2009. METHODS: The sample analysed consisted of all listed member premises of the Irish Association of Funeral Directors as at 1 July 2009. A postal survey was sent to each premises in July 2009, with two rounds of follow-up reviews sent to non-responders. Four main areas were covered--occupational hazards, embalming, industry expertise and demographics. The quantitative and qualitative results were analysed to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Data collection was completed on 31 December 2009. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty listed member premises were contacted. Twenty-two were unsuitable for the survey. One hundred and thirty-eight valid replies were received from 130 premises, representing a premises response rate of 63% (130\\/208). Seventy-three premises (56%) identified themselves as embalmers. Embalmers had variable vaccine uptake and variable knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards embalming those with blood-borne viruses. Fifteen per cent of respondents reported a work-related injury, back injury being the most common. Splash and sharps injuries were reported as a work-related injury, and infections believed to be work related were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates widespread occupational health concerns among this professional group. It confirms the need for occupational health advice and services. There is also a strong desire for regulation of this profession in Ireland.

  1. Vitamin D status and supplementation in elite Irish athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela J; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Wallace, Julie M W; Cleary, John; Conway, Joe; Harney, Edward; Madigan, Sharon M

    2013-10-01

    A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, which may impact on health and training ability, is evident among athletes worldwide. This observational study investigated the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes and determined the effect of wintertime supplementation on status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, and plasma parathyroid hormone were analyzed in elite athletes in November 2010 (17 boxers, 33 paralympians) or March 2011 (34 Gaelic Athletic Association [GAA] players). A subset of boxers and paralympians (n = 27) were supplemented during the winter months with either 5,000 IU vitamin D3/d for 10-12 weeks or 50,000 IU on one or two occasions. Biochemical analysis was repeated following supplementation. Median 25(OH)D of all athletes at baseline was 48.4 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (serum 25(OH)D supplementation (all doses) significantly increased 25(OH)D (median 62.8 nmol/L at baseline vs. 71.1 nmol/L in April or May; p = .001) and corrected any insufficiencies/deficiencies in this subset of athletes. In contrast, 25(OH)D significantly decreased in those that did not receive a vitamin D supplement, with 74% of athletes classed as vitamin D insufficient/deficient after winter, compared with only 35% at baseline. This study has highlighted a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency among elite Irish athletes and demonstrated that wintertime vitamin D3 supplementation is an appropriate regimen to ensure vitamin D sufficiency in athletes during winter and early spring.

  2. Towards a building typology and terminology for Irish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, T; Kennelly, S; de Freine, P; Mahon, S; Mannion, V; O'Neill, D

    2017-02-01

    The physical form of the hospital environment shapes the care setting and influences the relationship of the hospital to the community. Due to ongoing demographic change, evolving public health needs, and advancing medical practice, typical hospitals are frequently redeveloped, retrofitted, or expanded. It is argued that multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder approaches are required to ensure that hospital design matches these increasingly complex needs. To facilitate such a conversation across different disciplines, experts, and community stakeholders, it is helpful to establish a hospital typology and associated terminology as part of any collaborative process. Examine the literature around hospital design, and review the layout and overall form of a range of typical Irish acute public hospitals, to outline an associated building typology, and to establish the terminology associated with the planning and design of these hospitals in Ireland. Searches in 'Academic Search Complete', 'Compendex', 'Google', 'Google Scholar', 'JSTOR', 'PADDI', 'Science Direct', 'Scopus', 'Web of Science', and Trinity College Dublin Library. The search terms included: 'hospital design history'; 'hospital typology'; 'hospital design terminology'; and 'hospital design Ireland'. Typical hospitals are composed of different layouts due to development over time; however, various discrete building typologies can still be determined within many hospitals. This paper presents a typology illustrating distinct layout, circulation, and physical form characteristics, along with a hospital planning and design terminology of key terms and definitions. This typology and terminology define the main components of Irish hospital building design to create a shared understanding around design, and support stakeholder engagement, as part of any collaborative design process.

  3. The role of commercial recordings in the development and survival of Irish traditional music 1899-1993

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Samuel Colin

    1996-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed No abstract available 1 The social and historical context of traditional music in Ireland - 2 Early media involvement in Irish traditional music- print in the pre-recording era ??? 3 The Irish in America and their music - 4: Commercial Irish recordings in America - 5 Decline at home and abroad - 6 Revival - 7 Commercial recordings 1956-1993 - 8 Other sound media and recent developments - 9 Evaluation and conclusions

  4. Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Healthy Eating KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Eating Print A A A What's in this article? ... best strategies to improve nutrition and encourage smart eating habits: Have regular family meals . Serve a variety ...

  5. Healthy Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there are many healthy ways to cope with stress. A diabetes educator will help you find healthy ways to ... you figure out a plan for coping with stress, here: English Version Spanish Version In This Section Living with Diabetes How a Diabetes Educator Can Help You Been ...

  6. Diabetes, metformin use, and colorectal cancer survival in postmenopausal women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cossor, Furha Iram; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Gunter, Marc J; Johnson, Karen; Martell, Robert E; McTiernan, Anne; Simon, Michael S; Rohan, Thomas; Wallace, Robert B; Paulus, Jessica K

    2013-01-01

    ...) incidence but few studies have examined metformin's influence on CRC survival. We examined the relationships among metformin use, diabetes, and survival in postmenopausal women with CRC in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI...

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone for women in the peri- or postmenopausal phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Carola S.; Armstrong, Sarah; Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background During menopause a decreasing ovarian follicular response generally causes a fluctuation and eventual decrease in estrogen levels. This can lead to the development of various perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms (for example hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness).

  8. Effects of Yogasanas on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Motorwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Integrated yoga is a safe mode of physical activity which includes weight bearing as well as not weight bearing asanas, Pranayama, and suryanamaskar, all of which helps induce improvement in BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic females.

  9. Morphological and functional changes of cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, N; Piccioni, M G; Isabelli, V; Alessandri, G; Di Matteo, A; Padovani, D; Rondoni, G; Camardella, B; Parlapiano, C

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular events in reproductive age women is 3 times lower than in men, whereas this ratio noticeably changes on menopausal beginning. Postmenopausal women are more exposed to the effects of risk factors, which are present in a noticeably different entity in physiological or surgical menopause; and in the latter whether on substitutive hormonal treatment or not. This study, carried out in Rome and Latina, has involved 743 postmenopausal women, of whom 545 with physiological menopause and 198 with iatrogenic menopause. The average blood pressure value as well as the incidence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking have a significantly different trend in physiological versus iatrogenic postmenopausal women; and in the latter whether on substitutive hormonal treatment or not. Studying life-style and evaluating risk factors in postmenopausal women, and giving an up-to-date view about the prevalence oh health conditions at risk, will allow us to promote both primary and secondary prevention actions.

  10. Risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenting; Ni, Cheng; Yu, Ren; Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Zheren; Zheng, Guoqing

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. A total of 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures were included. In all, 173 patients with unstable distal radius fractures were included (unstable fracture group), while there were 438 patients with stable distal radius fractures (stable fracture group). The control group comprised 800 postmenopausal women with no fracture. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Compared with the control group, the 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures had a higher body mass index (BMI). Advanced age and higher BMI were more common in the unstable fracture group than in the stable fracture group (P Osteoporosis in the two fracture groups (P obesity, falls, unknown osteoporosis status, and osteoporosis are associated with high risk of distal radius fracture. If comorbidities and advanced age are also present, this group of persons may be at higher risk for unstable distal radius fractures.

  11. Chronic kidney disease in Chinese postmenopausal women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with kidney pathology included nephrotoxic drug use, history of cardiovascular disease, hyperuricemia, hypertension, and diabetes (the lower limit of multivariable adjusted odds ratios > 1). Conclusion: The current study revealed a high prevalence of CKD in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  12. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Involvement in moderate to vigorous physical activities among menopausal women in Nigeria should be encouraged. This may reduce hypertension and adiposity with a possible control of cardiovascular disease risk. Keywords: Postmenopausal, Hypertension, Physical Activity, Blood Pressure, Adiposity ...

  13. Binding sites for gonadotropins in human postmenopausal ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, R.; Shima, K.; Yamoto, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Nishimori, K.; Hiraoka, J.

    1989-02-01

    The binding of human LH and human FSH to postmenopausal ovarian tissue from 21 patients with cervical carcinoma was analyzed. The binding sites for FSH and LH were demonstrated in postmenopausal ovarian tissue. The surface-binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the cells of cortical stroma of the postmenopausal ovary. In addition, diffuse cytoplasmic staining of endogenous estrogen and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity were detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in the cells of the cortical stroma. Electron microscopic study also suggested steroidogenic function in the cells of the cortical stroma. The results of the present study suggest that postmenopausal ovaries contain specific binding sites for pituitary gonadotropins and play a role in ovarian steroidogenesis.

  14. Intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiene Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the characteristics and intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive study with systematic sampling, consisting of 247 women in post menopause, who answered the Questionnaire of Women’s Health. To evaluate the intensity of climacteric symptoms the Menopausal Index of Blatt and Kupperman was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17, a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence intervals for all analyzes were adopted. Results: 36.8% of women had mild climacteric symptoms, 56.3% moderate and 6.9% severe. In descending order hot flushes, irritability and sleep disorders reached the highest intensity ratios. Conclusion: the Menopausal index of Blatt and Kupperman (25.34 showed symptoms of moderate intensity. Hot flushes showed to be the symptom of highest intensity of discomfort.

  15. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    . This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes......The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  16. Neuromuscular adaptations to water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women: effects of intrasession exercise sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Bagatini, Natália C; Zaffari, Paula; Cadore, Eduardo L; Radaelli, Régis; Baroni, Bruno M; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Pinto, Ronei S; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different exercise sequences on the neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women. Twenty-one healthy postmenopausal women (57.14 ± 2.43 years) were randomly placed into two water-based concurrent training groups: resistance training prior to (RA, n = 10) or after (AR, n = 11) aerobic training. Subjects performed resistance and aerobic training twice a week over 12 weeks, performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper (elbow flexors) and lower-body (knee extensors) one-repetition maximal test (1RM) and peak torque (PT) (knee extensors) were evaluated. The muscle thickness (MT) of upper (biceps brachii) and lower-body (vastus lateralis) was determined by ultrasonography. Moreover, the maximal and submaximal (neuromuscular economy) electromyographic activity (EMG) of lower-body (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was measured. Both RA and AR groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM and PT, while the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the RA was greater than AR (34.62 ± 13.51 vs. 14.16 ± 13.68 %). RA and AR showed similar MT increases in upper- and lower-body muscles evaluated. In addition, significant improvements in the maximal and submaximal EMG of lower-body muscles in both RA and AR were found, with no differences between groups. Both exercise sequences in water-based concurrent training presented relevant improvements to promote health and physical fitness in postmenopausal women. However, the exercise sequence resistance-aerobic optimizes the strength gains in lower limbs.

  17. The effect of melatonin supplementation on the quality of sleep and weight status in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Walecka-Kapica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : We evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation on the nutritional status of postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study included 56 women (51-65 years and 25 healthy women (27-36 years. The emotional state was assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, the quality of sleep using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. Body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were also calculated. The patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (control – 25 women with normal body weight, group II – 26 postmenopausal women with normal body weight, group III – 30 postmenopausal women with high body weight. In women from group II and III, routine laboratory tests, levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, 17-estradiol, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and the concentration of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate (6-HMS in day/night urine fractions were determined. On the day of the examination, women remained on a liquid diet (1800 kcal. Next, a balanced diet of 1500 kcal and 5 mg of melatonin administration were recommended. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks. Results : The patients from groups II and III showed similar mild levels of anxiety and depression and a significant degree of sleep disorders. In group III, lower urinary 6-HMS excretion was observed at night. In both groups a negative correlation was found between urinary 6-HMS excretion and the degree of sleep disorders. After 24 weeks, a statistically significant improvement of quality of sleep was obtained. A negative correlation was detected between urinary 6-HMS excretion and BMI. Conclusion : Melatonin supplementation contributed to body weight reduction.

  18. The epidemiology and management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a viewpoint from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has an aging population, with an associated increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is of particular concern because it leads to an increased risk of fractures, with subsequent negative impacts on health in older women. In recent years, efforts have been made to better understand the epidemiology of osteoporosis in Brazil, and to manage both direct and indirect costs to the Brazilian health care system. The reported prevalence of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women in Brazil varies from 15% to 33%, depending on the study methodology and the use of bone densitometry data or self-reporting by participants. A diagnosis of osteoporosis can be made on the basis of fractures occurring without significant trauma or on the basis of low bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. To reduce the risk of osteoporosis, all postmenopausal women should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle, which includes physical activity and a balanced diet. Smoking and alcohol use should also be addressed. Special attention should be given to interventions to reduce the risk of falls, especially among older women. Calcium intake should be encouraged, preferably through diet. The decision to recommend calcium supplementation should be made individually because there is concern about a possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this treatment. Brazilian women obtain a minimal amount of vitamin D from their diet, and supplementation is warranted in women with little exposure to solar ultraviolet-B radiation. For women diagnosed with osteoporosis, some form of pharmacologic therapy should be initiated. Compliance with treatment should be monitored, and the treatment period should be individualized for each patient. The Brazilian government provides medication for osteoporosis through the public health system free of charge, but without proper epidemiological knowledge, the implementation of public

  19. Ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh-Andersen, Pernille; Tankó, László B; Andersen, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of ovariectomy on cartilage turnover and degradation, to evaluate whether ovariectomized (OVX) rats could form an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoarthritis. The effect of ovariectomy on cartilage was studied using two cohorts of female Sprague-Dawley rats...... a useful experimental model for the evaluation of the chondroprotective effects of estrogens and estrogen-like substances and the model may be an in vivo representation of osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women....

  20. Apoptosis in ovarian cells in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laszczyńska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a natural process which accompanies human ovary from the moment of birth until old age. While it is a well-known process at the reproductive age, it still needs to be thoroughly examined when referring to the postmenopausal age. The study involved 30 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed by laparotomy due to nonneoplastic diseases of the uterus. The women were divided into 3 groups depending on the time that had passed since the last menstruation. Group A consisted of women who had their last menstruation no more than 5 years earlier. In group B menopause occurred 5 to 10 years earlier. Group C was composed of patients who had the last menstruation over 10 years earlier. In all the patients concentrations of follitropin (FSH and estradiol (E2 in blood plasma were measured. Ovarian tissue was obtained during surgery. For morphological studies, ovaries were fixed in Bouin's solution and 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Morphological analysis was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin (H-E staining. For histochemical detection of apoptotic cells (in situ localization of fragment DNA, the TUNEL method was used. The expression of caspase-3 positive cells was determined immunohistochemically in paraffin-embedded specimens. Comparing to groups A and B, the ovaries in group C contained small number of corpora albicantia located in the medullary part as well as thinned blood vessels and few lymphatic vessels and nerves. In contrast to group A where the number of TUNEL-positive cells was high and caspase-3 expression was observed, no TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspase-3 expression were found in the examined ovaries of group C women.

  1. Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women with Central Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selima Akhter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following menopause there are changes in values of lipid profile parameters. Abdominal obesity has also been linked to significant metabolic abnormalities including changes in lipid parameter values. So, we designed this study to observe the pattern of lipid profile parameters in postmenopausal central obese women. Objective: To assess the lipid profile status of postmenopausal women with central obesity. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of January 2005 to December 2005. Seventy four postmenopausal women with central obesity and age matched 56 nonobese postmenopausal women were included in the study. Central obesity was defined having waist hip ratio more than 0.8. All statistical analyses were done by SPSS 12.0. p values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Statistically no significant difference was observed between the central obese women and nonobese women in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. But HDL-cholesterol was found lower and triacylglycerol was found higher in postmenopausal central obese women. Conclusion: Dyslipidaemia is a feature of postmenopausal women with central obesity.

  2. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  3. Health in middle-aged and elderly women : A conceptual framework for healthy menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; Van Dijk, Gabriella M.; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M. Carola; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H.; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the

  4. Healthy Ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. C.P. van der Schans

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin

  5. Use of gelatinized maca (lepidium peruvianum) in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Kapczynski, W; Mscisz, A; Lutomski, J

    2005-06-01

    This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene's Menopausal Index. Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (PMaca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (PMaca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program.

  6. Premenstrual symptoms in fertile age are associated with impaired quality of life, but not hot flashes, in recently postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautamäki, Hanna; Haapalahti, Petri; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S

    2014-12-01

    Because premenstrual symptoms in fertile age resemble menopausal symptoms, many women with premenstrual symptoms fear that they have an increased risk for developing vasomotor symptoms in menopause. We investigated the impact of premenstrual symptoms on the occurrence and severity of menopausal vasomotor symptoms and quality of life. One hundred fifty recently postmenopausal healthy women recorded hot flashes prospectively (23, none; 34, mild; 30, moderate; 63, severe), and their quality of life was assessed using the Women's Health Questionnaire. We measured the occurrence of premenstrual symptoms in fertile age using the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool and calculated a premenstrual score reflecting symptom severity. One hundred seven women (89.2%) reported premenstrual symptoms (median score, 7.0; range, 0-38), which had impaired work efficiency or social relations in 64 women (53.3%). The occurrence of premenstrual symptoms was similar in women with and without hot flashes of different magnitudes, as the mean (SEM) premenstrual score was 7.8 (1.4) for no hot flashes, 5.0 (1.0) for mild hot flashes, 7.7 (1.3) for moderate hot flashes, and 9.4 (1.2) for severe hot flashes (P = 0.10). The severity of premenstrual symptoms failed to correlate with the severity of postmenopausal hot flashes (r = 0.087, P = 0.346). A history of premenstrual symptoms was associated with impaired memory and concentration capacity (r = -0.448, P hot flashes, in recently postmenopausal women.

  7. Markers of Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: Focus on Oxidized-LDL and HDL Subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Sereno, José; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiovascular risk (CVR) in a healthy population based on both classical and nontraditional markers. Methods. 56 men and 68 women (48 pre- and 20 postmenopause) were enrolled in the study. The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL), HDL-c and subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 activity, hsCRP, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM1). Results. Relative to the women, men present significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, total-c, TGs, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, uric acid, and TNF-α and reduced adiponectin and total and large HDL-c. The protective profile of women is lost after menopause with a significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, and VEGF and decreased total and large HDL-c. Significant correlations were found in women population and in postmenopausal women between Ox-LDL and total, large, and small HDL-c and between TNF-α and total, large, and small HDL-c, LDL-c, and Ox-LDL. Conclusions. Men present higher CVR than women who lost protection after menopause, evidenced by nontraditional markers, including Ox-LDL and HDL subpopulations. PMID:24167352

  8. Endometrial, breast and liver safety of soy isoflavones plus Lactobacillus sporogenes in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacurci, Nicola; De Franciscis, Pasquale; Atlante, Marco; Mancino, Pasquale; Monti, Marco; Volpini, Giuseppe; Benvenuti, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    To assess the safety of a nutraceutical compound containing soy isoflavones and Lactobacillus sporogenes on endometrium, breast and liver function. Outpatient Menopausal Clinic. 130 healthy postmenopausal women suffering from menopausal symptoms were randomized to receive soy isoflavones 60 mg and Lactobacillus sporogenes 1 billion spores (group E: 65 women) or calcium and vitamin D₃ (group C: 65 women). Safety of the treatment was assessed at baseline and after 1 year taking into account endometrial thickness, mammographic density, serum levels of transaminases, γ-GT and bilirubin. Efficacy of the treatment was evaluated rating the score of menopausal symptoms at baseline and every 3 months. The statistical analysis was carried out with χ², Fisher exact's test and ANOVA. After 12 months of treatment mammographic density, endometrial thickness and hepatic function did not show significant differences between groups, while menopausal symptoms were progressively and significantly reduced in severity and frequency during treatment with soy isoflavones plus Lactobacillus sporogenes versus calcium plus vitamin D₃. A 12 months treatment with a nutraceutical compound based on isoflavones and Lactobacillus sporogenes at the recommended doses is safe for endometrium, mammary glands and liver function in postmenopausal women.

  9. Influences of hormone replacement therapy on olfactory and cognitive function in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L; Tourbier, Isabelle; Ng, Victoria; Neff, Jessica; Armstrong, Deborah; Battistini, Michelle; Sammel, Mary D; Gettes, David; Evans, Dwight L; Mirza, Natasha; Moberg, Paul J; Connolly, Tim; Sondheimer, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Olfactory dysfunction can be an early sign of Alzheimer's disease. Since hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may protect against Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women, the question arises as to whether it also protects against olfactory dysfunction in such women. A total of three olfactory and 12 neurocognitive tests were administered to 432 healthy postmenopausal women with varied HRT histories. Serum levels of reproductive hormones were obtained for all subjects; APOE-ε4 haplotype was determined for 77 women. National Adult Reading Test and Odor Memory/Discrimination Test scores were positively influenced by HRT. Odor Identification and Odor Memory/Discrimination Test scores were lower for women who scored poorly on a delayed recall test, a surrogate for mild cognitive impairment. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised, as a Neuropsychological Instrument Spatial Span Backwards Test scores were higher in women receiving estrogen and progestin HRT and directly correlated with serum testosterone levels, the latter implying a positive effect of testosterone on spatial memory. APOE-ε4 was associated with poorer odor threshold test scores. These data suggest that HRT positively influences a limited number of olfactory and cognitive measures during menopause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Omega-3 versus isoflavones in the control of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S; Lilue, M; Mejia, A; Menendez, C

    2017-12-01

    Determine the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids versus soybean isoflavones in reducing the vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) frequency in postmenopausal women. A randomized, prospective, two-arm study was performed in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65. The two arms were: two capsules/day of omega-3 (425 mg of omega-3/capsule) administered orally (n = 38) and two tablets/day of soybean isoflavones (54.4 mg of isoflavones/tablet) (n = 30), over 16 weeks. The mean baseline frequency of moderate and severe VMSs per week in the omega-3 group was 24.56 and 23.90, respectively, and 19.65 and 19.51 in the isoflavone group. After 4 months, the reduction in moderate and severe hot flashes with omega-3 was significant (p Omega-3 did not demonstrate significant efficacy differences versus isoflavones over time. The use of omega-3 has a beneficial effect on hot flash reduction after 4 months of treatment. This is comparable to the benefits found with soybean isoflavones after 3-4 weeks and after 4 months in severe hot flash women, but higher than those found with soybean isoflavones in moderate symptom women.

  11. Brain blood flow and cardiovascular responses to hot flashes in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebekah A I; Ganio, Matthew S; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G

    2013-03-01

    This study tested two related hypotheses: (1) brain blood flow is reduced during postmenopausal hot flashes, and (2) the magnitude of this reduction in brain blood flow is greater during hot flashes when blood pressure is reduced. Eleven healthy, normotensive postmenopausal women rested in a temperature-controlled laboratory (∼ 25°C) for approximately 120 minutes while waiting for a hot flash to occur. The onset of a hot flash was objectively identified by an abrupt increase in sternal sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry). Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv; transcranial Doppler) and mean arterial pressure (Finometer) were measured continuously. Each hot flash was divided into eight equal segments, and the segment with the largest reduction in MCAv and mean arterial pressure was identified for each hot flash. During experimental sessions, 25 hot flashes occurred (lasting a mean [SD] of 6.2 [2.8] min, with a mean frequency of 3 [1] hot flashes per participant). Seventy-six percent of hot flashes were accompanied by a clear reduction (>5%) in brain blood flow. For all hot flashes, the mean maximal decrease in MCAv was 12% (9%) (7 [6] cm s). This value did not correlate with corresponding changes in mean arterial pressure (R = 0.36). These findings demonstrate that hot flashes are often accompanied by clear reductions in brain blood flow that do not correspond with short-term reductions in mean arterial blood pressure.

  12. Markers of Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: Focus on Oxidized-LDL and HDL Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiovascular risk (CVR in a healthy population based on both classical and nontraditional markers. Methods. 56 men and 68 women (48 pre- and 20 postmenopause were enrolled in the study. The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glucose, total cholesterol (total-c, triglycerides (TGs, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL, HDL-c and subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 activity, hsCRP, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM1. Results. Relative to the women, men present significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, total-c, TGs, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, uric acid, and TNF-α and reduced adiponectin and total and large HDL-c. The protective profile of women is lost after menopause with a significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, and VEGF and decreased total and large HDL-c. Significant correlations were found in women population and in postmenopausal women between Ox-LDL and total, large, and small HDL-c and between TNF-α and total, large, and small HDL-c, LDL-c, and Ox-LDL. Conclusions. Men present higher CVR than women who lost protection after menopause, evidenced by nontraditional markers, including Ox-LDL and HDL subpopulations.

  13. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral hormone therapy (HT on oxidative stress (OS in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. We formed four groups of 25 women each; healthy (HW and MetS women (MSW were assigned to HT (1 mg/day of estradiol valerate plus 5 mg/10 day of medroxiprogesterone or placebo. We measured plasma lipoperoxides, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, total plasma antioxidant status and uric acid, as OS markers. Alternative cut-off values of each parameter were defined and a stress score (SS ranging from 0 to 7 was used as total OS. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Participants were seen at baseline, 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, MetS decreased in MSW-HT (48%, their triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c improved; in the other groups no difference was found. SS in MSW-HT decreased (3.8 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3, p < 0.05 and OS was also reduced (44%, this effect was evident since 3 mo. HW-HT with high OS also decreased (40%. In placebo groups there was no change. Our findings suggest that HT improve lipids and OS associated to MetS in postmenopausal women.

  14. Bazedoxifene effects on the reproductive tract in postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Archer, David F; Utian, Wulf H; Menegoci, José C; Levine, Amy B; Chines, Arkadi A; Constantine, Ginger D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the endometrial, ovarian, and breast safety of bazedoxifene, a novel selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis. Healthy postmenopausal women (N = 1,583; mean age, 57.6 y) with lumbar spine or femoral neck bone mineral density T scores between -1 and -2.5 and/or other clinical risk factors for osteoporosis were enrolled in a 24-month, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial. They received daily treatment with bazedoxifene 10, 20, or 40 mg; placebo; or raloxifene 60 mg. Reproductive safety assessments included periodic transvaginal ultrasound measurements of endometrial thickness, ovarian volume, and presence of ovarian cysts; periodic endometrial biopsies; and adverse event reporting. Bazedoxifene was not associated with a significant change from baseline in mean endometrial thickness at month 24. The percentage of participants with a change from baseline in endometrial thickness or endometrial thickness greater than 5 mm at month 24 was similar among groups. There was no consensus diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or malignancy in the bazedoxifene or raloxifene groups; the rates of other histologic findings, including endometrial polyps, were low (risk for osteoporosis.

  15. Progestational effects of combinations of gestodene on the postmenopausal endometrium during hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrjalsen, I; Bjarnason, N H; Christiansen, C

    1999-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the dose-response effects on the postmenopausal endometrium of 3 sequential combined hormone replacement regimens and 1 continuous combined hormone replacement regimen of estradiol and gestodene. In this 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 healthy postmenopausal women received either 2 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 50 microg or 25 microg gestodene, 1 mg estradiol sequentially or continuously combined with 25 microg gestodene, or placebo. All 4 hormone treatment regimens produced a safe endometrial histologic appearance. The regimens that were based on the lower dose of 1 mg estradiol was associated with less uterine bleeding than were those that were based on 2 mg estradiol. For sequentially opposing the 2 mg dose of estradiol, the dose of 25 microg gestodene was less efficient in producing secretory activity than was the dose of 50 microg gestodene. The measurement of placental protein 14 in serum reflected the secretory transformation of the endometrial buildup. The reduction in bleeding episodes associated with regimens with lower estradiol doses may lead to improved long-term therapy compliance by menopausal women. The potency of progestogens can be assessed by measuring the serum concentration of placental protein 14.

  16. Relationship between long sleep duration and functional capacities in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fex, Annie; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Dupontgand, Sophie; Filion, Marie-Eve; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between long sleep duration and functional capacities. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Department of Kinanthropology at the University of Quebec at Montreal. Forty eight non-frail postmenopausal women aged between 49 to 75 years were recruited using advertisements in local papers. Body weight, body mass index, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, number of steps per day, SF-36 total (healthy questionnaire), resting metabolic rate, total energy intake, sleep duration, knee extensor strength (dynamometer), chair stand test and balance opened eyes test were measured. WE FOUND A SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN HOURS OF SLEEP AND FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY: chair stand test (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), balance opened eyes test (r = -0.45, p = 0.001), muscle strength (r = -0.43, p = 0.002) and skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.39, p = 0.007). In addition, long sleepers (> 9 h) had significantly lower values for skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.03), muscle strength (p = 0.01), chair stand test (p = 0.03), and balance opened eyes test (p = 0.001). Finally, linear regression analysis showed that sleep duration was an independent predictor of the chair stand test (p = 0.024), balance opened eyes test (p = 0.001), and muscle strength (p = 0.035) in our cohort. Long sleepers were associated with lower functional capacities in our cohort of sedentary postmenopausal women.

  17. Estrogen or raloxifene during postmenopausal weight loss: adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R E; Gozansky, W S; Wolfe, P; Kittelson, J M; Jankowski, C M; Schwartz, R S; Kohrt, W M

    2014-04-01

    Estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) attenuates abdominal fat gain after menopause, but whether HT improves abdominal fat loss during weight loss is unknown. It was hypothesized that HT or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene) would augment reductions in abdominal visceral fat during weight loss when compared to placebo, potentially increasing improvements in glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 119; age 50-70 yr) underwent a 6-month weight-loss (primarily exercise) intervention with randomization to raloxifene (60 mg/d), HT (conjugated estrogens, 0.625 mg/d), or placebo. Outcomes were change in total and abdominal (visceral and subcutaneous) fat mass, lipid profile, and fasting and post-challenge glucose and insulin. Neither HT nor raloxifene augmented loss of total or abdominal fat mass during exercise-induced weight loss when compared with placebo. Weight loss-induced improvements in risk factors were similar among the three groups, except for a greater reduction in fasted glucose in the HT group (difference in change [95%CI] from placebo; -0.40 [-0.76, -0.05]) and greater reductions in LDL (-0.36 [-0.63, -0.09]) and increases in HDL (0.15 [0.07, 0.24]) in both treatment groups. Postmenopausal HT and raloxifene did not increase abdominal fat loss during weight loss, but did improve some cardiometabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. "Fat is your fault". Gatekeepers to health, attributions of responsibility and the portrayal of gender in the Irish media representation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brún, Aoife; McCarthy, Mary; McKenzie, Kenneth; McGloin, Aileen

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of obesity in the Irish media by conducting an inductive thematic analysis on newspaper articles (n=346) published in 2005, 2007 and 2009 sampled from six major publications. The study analysed the media's construction of gender in discussions of obesity and associated attributions of blame. Three dominant themes are discussed: the caricatured portrayal of gender, women as caregivers for others, and emotive parent-blaming for childhood obesity. Men were portrayed as a homogenous group; unaware and unconcerned about weight and health issues. Dieting and engaging in preventative health behaviours were portrayed as activities exclusively within the female domain and women were depicted as responsible for encouraging men to be healthy. Parents, specifically mothers, attracted much blame for childhood obesity and media messages aimed to shame and disgrace parents of obese children through use of emotive and evocative language. This portrayal was broadly consistent across media types and served to reinforce traditional gender roles by positioning women as primarily responsible for health. This analysis offers the first qualitative investigation into the Irish media discourse on obesity and indicates a rather traditional take on gender roles in diet and nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation between blood pressure and vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in sedentary postmenopausal women

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    Bakhtyar Tartibian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The studies show that factors such as vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus are involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure with vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus in sedentary postmenopausal women. Methods: This investigation is in the form of a descriptive correlational study that was performed in September 2015. The statistical population was all healthy and sedentary postmenopausal women 50-70 years old in Urmia city, Iran. Fifty-four sedentary postmenopausal women were selected as subjects and voluntarily and bona fide participated in this study. General and anthropometric characteristics of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI in subjects were measured by wall-meter with an accuracy of one millimeter, digital scale with precision of 100 g (Beurer, Germany, and dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (Hologic, USA machines, respectively. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure was measured by indicator machine. Serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus were measured by ELISA and Auto-analyzer (BT 1500, Biotecnica, Italy machines, respectively. Results: The mean general, anthropometric, and physiological/laboratory variables of subjects were: age 54 yr, height 156 cm; weight 72 kg; BMI 29 kg/m2; systolic and diastolic blood pressure 76.20 and 110.70, respectively; vitamin D 25.22 ng/ml, parathyroid hormone 33.29 ng/ml, calcium 9.44 ng/ml, and phosphorus 3.26 ng/ml. Moreover, results showed that there was no significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and vitamin D (P>0.581 and P>0.619, respectively. There was no significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and parathyroid hormone (P>0.623 and P>0.341, respectively. There was no significant

  20. Community rating in the absence of risk equalisation: lessons from the Irish private health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian; Shinnick, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market operates on the basis of community rating, alongside open enrolment and lifetime cover. A risk equalisation scheme was introduced in 2003 to bolster community rating. However, in July 2008 the Irish Supreme Court set aside this scheme, on the basis of the interpretation of community rating in Irish legislation. This decision has significant implications for the Irish private health insurance market. This paper reviews the development of the market, focusing in particular on community rating. The breakdown of community rating in a market with multiple insurers with differing risk profiles is discussed. Applying this to the Irish market, it can be seen that the Irish Supreme Court judgment has significant implications for the application of community rating. Specifically, while community rating operates within plans, it no longer operates across the market, leading to high-risk lives paying more, on average, than low-risk lives. It has also led to greater opportunities for insurers to engage in market segmentation. This may have relevance for the design and operation of other community rated markets.

  1. The Irish organic food market: shortfalls, opportunities and the need for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Rachel; Larkin, Tracey; Moane, Siobhan

    2011-09-01

    In 2009 the Irish organic food market was forecasted to grow from €120 m to €239 m by 2013; however, recent figures set its value at just €90 m. An estimated 70% of this market is imported. Surveys of Irish consumers reveal that 66% of consumers prefer to buy local produce and most organic consumers are buying organic at supermarkets. This evidence reveals that Irish producers must trade at supermarkets, and promote 'local produce' to ensure their produce reach the majority of buyers. Seventy-eight % of organic rejecters state price and 21% state unawareness of the benefits as reasons for not buying organic. Many Irish consumers are buying organic food on the perceived belief that it is healthier, safer and tastes better; however, a review of studies on organic versus conventional foods in terms of health benefits, safety and sensory quality has shown that existing data is limited in scope and fails to show a clear trend. The review concludes with the need for a comprehensive study of a range of organic and conventional foods available to the Irish consumer in order to determine if differences in organic cultivation result in statistically significant differences in health linked compounds and sensory quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. HIV and AIDS in Irish Theatre: Queer Masculinities, Punishment, and 'Post-AIDS' Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cormac

    2017-02-27

    This essay provides a critical survey of key Irish theatre productions that present queer men with HIV or AIDS as a central theme while also seeking to situate several of these productions within the controversial discourse of 'post-AIDS' as it plays out in Irish cultural and social discourses. Through this survey, this essay finds and critically elaborates how a discourse of AIDS as punishment is a common denominator in all of these plays; whether that be as a central metaphor in the drama or conversely as a trope that theatre makers seek to disrupt. Throughout, this essay simultaneously attends to the ways in which non-realist, non-linear dramatic structures (as opposed to social realist narratives) have proved to be better positioned to present the realities of living with HIV or dying with AIDS in Ireland since the emergence of the first Irish AIDS epidemic in 1982. By approaching 'post-AIDS' discourses through the lens of HIV and AIDS in Irish theatre, this essay critically analyses the insidious ways in which 'post-AIDS' Irish culture is bound up with neoliberal discourses of homonormative assimilation and cultural respectability, especially the figuring of HIV/AIDS as punishment for non-assimilation.

  3. The development of nutritional-supplement fact sheets for Irish athletes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpa, Kate L; Madigan, Sharon M; Wood-Martin, Ruth E; Flanagan, Richelle; Roche, Noreen

    2012-06-01

    The use of sport supplements presents a dilemma for many of those involved in supporting athletes, including coaches, families, support staff, and the athletes themselves. Often the information that they source can be incorrect and promote a biased view regarding the use of nutritional supplements. The aim of this case study was to describe the process that occurred around the development of a series of targeted educational fact sheets on a range of nutritional supplements for Irish athletes. It describes the initiation and support of the process by the Irish Sports Council; one of its subgroups, the Food and Food Supplements Committee; and the Irish Institute of Sport. A needs assessment through questionnaires was carried out to establish the most commonly used sport nutrition supplements by athletes age 16 or over in Ireland. Respondents completed 105 questionnaires over a 4-mo period in 2008-09 that led to the production of 20 supplement fact sheets. These supplement fact sheets will enable Irish athletes to access high-quality, up-to-date, scientific information about the supplements they have reported consuming. Since personal reading had a strong influence over athletes' decision-making process for taking nutritional supplements, as did scientific research, fact sheets available on the Internet from a reliable source are an ideal way to educate Irish athletes.

  4. Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Polagruto, Janice F; Villablanca, Amparo C; Polagruto, John A; Lee, Luke; Holt, Roberta R; Schrader, Heather R; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Steinberg, Francene M; Schmitz, Harold H; Keen, Carl L

    2006-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction characterizes many disease states including subclinical atherosclerosis. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and cocoa-based products has been shown to improve endothelial function in both compromised and otherwise normal, healthy individuals when administered either acutely or over a period of several days, or weeks. Women experience increased risk for cardiovascular disease after menopause, which can be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Whether a flavanol-rich cocoa-based product can improve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women is not known. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic dietary administration of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular health in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Thirty-two postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women were randomly assigned to consume a high-flavanol cocoa beverage (high cocoa flavanols (CF)--446 mg of total flavanols), or a low-flavanol cocoa beverage (low CF--43 mg of total flavanols) for 6 weeks in a double-blind study (n=16 per group). Endothelial function was determined by brachial artery-reactive hyperemia. Plasma was analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone), total nitrate/nitrite, activation of cellular adhesion markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-Selectin, P-Selectin), and platelet function and reactivity. Changes in these plasma markers were then correlated to brachial reactivity. Brachial artery hyperemic blood flow increased significantly by 76% (Pflavanol-rich cocoa consumption in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. In addition, our results suggest that reductions in plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 after chronic consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa may be mechanistically linked to improved

  5. Weight loss reduces breast ductal fluid estrogens in obese postmenopausal women: a single arm intervention pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of excess body fat increases breast cancer risk after menopause. Whether the localized breast is differently influenced by adipose tissue compared to the rest of the body, has not been well studied. Our purpose was to demonstrate feasibility and preliminarily evaluate serum-based and localized breast biomarker changes resulting from a weight loss intervention among obese postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a 12-week pilot controlled dietary and exercise intervention among healthy obese postmenopausal women, collected serum and breast ductal fluid before and after the intervention, and estimated the association with systemic and localized biomarker changes. We recruited 7 obese (mean body mass index = 33.6 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. We collected samples at baseline and the 12th week for: anthropometry; phlebotomy; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean and fat mass; exercise fitness (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2Max; 1-repetition strength maximum; and breast ductal lavage. Results Changes from baseline occurred in body composition and exercise performance including fat mass loss (14% average drop, VO2Max (+36% increase and strength improvement (+26%. Breast ductal fluid markers declined from baseline with estradiol showing a 24% reduction and IL-6 a 20% reduction. We also observed serum biomarker reductions from baseline including leptin (36% decline, estrone sulfate (−10%, estradiol (−25%, and Il-6 (−33%. Conclusions Conduct of the diet and exercise intervention, collection of ductal fluid, and measurement of hormones and cytokines contained in the ductal fluid were all feasible. We preliminarily demonstrated estradiol and IL-6 reductions from baseline in both serum and breast ductal fluid among obese postmenopausal women who participated in the 12-week weight loss diet and exercise intervention.

  6. Adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and menopausal symptoms in relation to overweight/obesity in Spanish perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Santiago, Susana; Cuervo, Marta; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Garcia, Aquilino; Martínez, Jose Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to assess the relationship of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, as well as the presence of menopausal symptoms, with overweight/obesity in Spanish perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 8,954 Spanish perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and all women were interviewed to assess their adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, using a validated questionnaire and the Menopause and Health subscale of the validated Cervantes Scale. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between categories of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the odds of being overweight/obese. Multinomial logistic regression was used to study the association between menopausal symptoms and the odds of being overweight/obese (reference categories: participants in the low-adherence category and participants with no menopausal problems). After adjustment for relevant confounders, the odds ratio (95% CI) for being overweight/obese among women in the highest category of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was 0.68 (0.60-0.78; P for trend obese was 3.05 (1.98-4.71) for the category "severe problems" in comparison with the category "no problems." Higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet) is inversely associated with overweight/obesity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The occurrence of low to severe problems during perimenopause or postmenopause is positively associated with overweight/obesity. Therefore, high adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and a body mass index of 25kg/m(2) or lower might improve quality of life in women at these stages.

  7. The effect of raloxifene on left ventricular hypertrophy in postmenopausal women: A prospective, randomized, and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Uğur Abbas; Atar, İlyas; Öktem, Mesut; Zeyneloğlu, Hulusi B; Yıldırır, Aylin; Kuşcu, Esra; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2015-06-01

    In healthy women, there is a progressive age-related increase in myocardial mass that is not seen in their male counterparts and occurs primarily in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogenic actions on bone and the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raloxifene on myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal patients. A total of 22 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were included in this open-label, randomized, prospective, controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups: 11 of the patients (group 1) were treated with raloxifene 60 mg/day, and the other 11 patients
(group 2) were defined as the control group. Quantitative 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic examination was performed in all patients at the beginning and repeated at the end of the 6-month follow-up period. Left ventricle mass (LVM) and left ventricle mass index (LVMI) were calculated for all patients. The mean age of the patients was 57.2±3.9 years, and baseline clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were similar between the two groups. After 6 months of raloxifene treatment, there was no difference in echocardiographic parameters of LVM and LVMI compared with the control group (201.2±25.9 gr vs. 169.7±46.2 gr, p=0.14 and 120.4±25.9 gr/m2 vs. 105.5±26.3 gr/m2, p=0.195, respectively). There was also no significant difference in LVM and LVMI in the within-group analysis of both groups. Raloxifene therapy does not affect myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal women after 6 months of treatment.

  8. "One Man One Job": The Marriage Ban and the Employment of Women Teachers in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Jennifer; Harford, Judith

    2010-01-01

    In 1932, the Irish government, facing an economic downturn, introduced a marriage ban which required that female primary school teachers were required to resign on marriage. This followed a series of restrictive legislative measures adopted by Irish governments throughout the 1920s which sought to limit women's participation in public life and the…

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Effects of Chronic Resveratrol Supplementation on Cerebrovascular Function, Cognition, Mood, Physical Function and General Well-Being in Postmenopausal Women—Rationale and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Michael Evans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This methodological paper presents both a scientific rationale and a methodological approach for investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on mood and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, which may be at least partly due to loss of beneficial effects of estrogen on the cerebrovasculature. We hypothesise that resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, may counteract this risk by enhancing cerebrovascular function and improving regional blood flow in response to cognitive demands. A clinical trial was designed to test this hypothesis. Method: Healthy postmenopausal women were recruited to participate in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled (parallel comparison dietary intervention trial to evaluate the effects of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg twice daily on cognition, cerebrovascular responsiveness to cognitive tasks and overall well-being. They performed the following tests at baseline and after 14 weeks of supplementation: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Cambridge Semantic Memory Battery, the Double Span and the Trail Making Task. Cerebrovascular function was assessed simultaneously by monitoring blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Conclusion: This trial provides a model approach to demonstrate that, by optimising circulatory function in the brain, resveratrol and other vasoactive nutrients may enhance mood and cognition and ameliorate the risk of developing dementia in postmenopausal women and other at-risk populations.

  10. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens in Irish farmhouse cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Martina; Hunt, Karen; McSweeney, Sara; Jordan, Kieran

    2009-12-01

    Food safety is a critical factor in the production of farmhouse cheese. In Ireland the varieties of farmhouse cheese produced reflect a much broader range than those produced commercially and some of these cheese varieties are associated with greater microbiological risk. These include cheese produced from unpasteurised milk and soft ripened cheese such as mould or smear-ripened cheeses which have high pH and relatively short ripening times. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of farmhouse cheeses in Ireland. Three hundred and fifty one cheese samples, from 15 cheese producers, were analysed for microbiological quality on a monthly basis throughout the year. The analyses included enumeration of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes (using the relevant agars) and enrichment for L. monocytogenes. The cheeses selected were produced from ovine, caprine and bovine milk. Both unpasteurised and pasteurised milk cheeses were sampled and these included hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses, internal/external mould-ripened and smear-ripened cheeses and the cheeses represented different geographic regions. Of the cheeses tested, 94% were free of L. monocytogenes, all were within the EU limits for E. coli and only one cheese variety had S. aureus levels above the recommended numbers for the first 6 months of the year. Due to a modified production process the numbers were within the guidelines for the second six months. The results indicate that Irish farmhouse cheeses are of a high microbiological quality.

  11. Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.

  12. Perspectives on Female Sexual Offending in an Irish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Lambert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women has received little recognition by researchers and when the subject is addressed it is often dismissed as being a rare event. It is only in the last decade that greater interest has been shown in the area of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children. This is due to the dramatic increase of research into all types of sexual offending and the decrease in the taboo surrounding victimisation. Current literature in the area has largely looked at the development of typologies and establishing prevalence rates. More recently research has focused on ‘barriers’ to recognising this type of abuse. The purpose of this paper is to identify Irish perspectives on female sexual abusers and how this relates to the current literature. A questionnaire was distributed to health care professionals and volunteer workers in children’s charities. The results indicate that there is confusion about how to manage female sexual abusers and this is similar to other research findings in the area.

  13. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  14. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  15. Personhood, dementia policy and the Irish National Dementia Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, Niamh; O'Shea, Eamon

    2017-01-01

    Personhood and its realisation in person-centred care is part of the narrative, if not always the reality, of care for people with dementia. This paper examines how personhood is conceptualised and actualised in Ireland through a content analysis of organisational and individual submissions from stakeholders in the development of the Irish National Dementia Strategy, followed by an examination of the Strategy itself. The organisational submissions are further categorised into dementia care models. A structural analysis of the Strategy examines its principles, actions and outcomes in relation to personhood. Of the 72 organisational and individual submissions received in the formulation of the Strategy, 61% contained references to personhood and its synonyms. Of the 35 organisational submissions, 40% fit a biomedical model, 31% a social model and 29% a biopsychosocial model. The Strategy contains one direct reference to personhood and 33 to personhood synonyms. Half of these references were contained within its key principles and objectives; none were associated with priority actions or outcomes. While stakeholders value personhood and the Strategy identifies personhood as an overarching principle, clearer direction on how personhood and person-centred care can be supported in practice and through regulation is necessary in Ireland. The challenge, therefore, is to provide the information, knowledge, incentives and resources for personhood to take hold in dementia care in Ireland.

  16. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  17. Attitudes to anatomy dissection in an Irish medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C; Ettarh, Raj R

    2009-04-01

    Many studies around the world have looked at the stresses placed on medical students by cadaveric dissection. Although these studies have linked the use of cadavers in medical teaching to stress, some investigations have suggested an association with severe psychological stress and even post-traumatic stress disorder. This study assessed the attitudes of medical and biomedical sciences students in an Irish medical school towards cadaveric dissection by recording, through a questionnaire, their perceptions and experience before initial exposure to dissection and subsequently examining their attitudes after the first dissection and after 9 weeks. Student attitudes towards the dissecting room remained consistently positive for the duration of the study with only a minority of respondents reporting negative symptoms. Pre-existing attitudes to the idea of dissection were unaffected by exposure and subsequent continuous experience of dissection. The majority of students in this study did not find the dissecting room experience stressful, and considered time spent in the dissecting room valuable. However, the proportion of students with negative experiences in the dissecting room was higher than has been reported in previous studies. Many respondents felt they could be better prepared for the dissecting room experience, indicating an increasing requirement for effective preparatory programmes. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Reproductive health in Irish female renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the pregnancy outcomes in Irish female renal transplant recipients on modern maintenance immunosuppression. METHODS: The Republic of Ireland transplant database was accessed to identify the patient cohort in question. All female renal transplant recipients whose transplantation was in Ireland before or during their reproductive years were included. A questionnaire was sent to the identified women. A chart review was performed for those women who reported a pregnancy following renal transplantation. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten women met the inclusion criteria. There was a response rate of 70% (n = 148). Eighteen women reported 29 pregnancies. The live birth rate was 76%. The mean gestation of the live births was 36.2 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg. There were six cases of pre-eclampsia. Twin pregnancies and those entering pregnancy with a creatinine greater than 135 micromol\\/l had particularly complicated clinical courses. Four women had not conceived post transplant despite actively trying for over 1 year. Two women utilised assisted fertility methods (in vitro fertilisation), one of whom became pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of women who attempt to conceive following renal transplantation are successful, without the use of assisted fertility. Pregnancy in this setting warrants meticulous multidisciplinary care.

  19. Irish medical students’ understanding of the intern year

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gouda, P,

    2016-03-01

    Upon completion of medical school in Ireland, graduates must make the transition to becoming interns. The transition into the intern year may be described as challenging as graduates assume clinical responsibilities. Historically, a survey of interns in 1996 found that 91% felt unprepared for their role. However, recent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated that this is changing with preparedness rates reaching 52%. This can be partially explained by multiple initiatives at the local and national level. Our study aimed evaluate medical student understanding of the intern year and associated factors. An online, cross-sectional survey was sent out to all Irish medical students in 2013 and included questions regarding their understanding of the intern year. Two thousand, two hundred and forty-eight students responded, with 1224 (55.4%) of students agreeing or strongly agreeing that they had a good understanding of what the intern year entails. This rose to 485 (73.7%) among senior medical students. Of junior medical students, 260 (42.8%) indicated they understood what the intern year, compared to 479 (48.7%) of intermediate medical students. Initiatives to continue improving preparedness for the intern year are essential in ensuring a smooth and less stressful transition into the medical workforce

  20. Attitudes and perceived risk of cannabis use in Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P; Bradley, C

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the developed world and its use is associated with several adverse physical and mental health effects and negative social outcomes. Earlier use of cannabis increases the risk of adverse effects. Attitudes and perceived risk towards drugs are regarded as strong influences in determining whether or not a person uses cannabis, but there is little existing research on Irish teenagers' attitudes to the risks of this drug. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a structured, anonymous questionnaire. The study was undertaken in nine public and private secondary schools in Cork City and suburbs. Students aged 15-18 and in fourth, fifth or sixth year of school were included. Of the 507 participating students, 39.3 % (n = 199) reported previous cannabis use. There were significantly lower levels of perceived risk of cannabis among those who had used the drug compared with those who had not, for all categories of risk (p drug. A minority of students (n = 92; 18.2 %) support legalisation of cannabis. The majority of teenagers (n = 382; 75.8 %) believe that they are not given enough information about the drug. Cannabis use is very widespread among teenagers in Cork. There are relatively low levels of perceived risk of mental and physical health problems with use of the drug. Attitudes towards cannabis are associated with personal use of the drug and gender.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of endometrial thickness to exclude polyps in women with postmenopausal bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Anne; Gerritse, Maaike B. E.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Jansen, Frank W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Veersema, Sebastiaan

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of endometrial thickness measurement with transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) to diagnose endometrial polyps in women with postmenopausal bleeding in whom a carcinoma has been ruled out. METHODS: In women with postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial thickness was

  2. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Rejnmark, Lars; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the long term effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in recently postmenopausal women.......To investigate the long term effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in recently postmenopausal women....

  3. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  4. Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency: presence of the Cys36Ser beta-2 integrin mutation in an affected US Irish Setter cross-breed dog and in US Irish Red and White Setters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureman, Polly; Whiteley, Mary; Giger, Urs

    2002-01-01

    Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in the presence of marked leukocytosis. The disease was 1st described in the mid-1980s in a cross-breed Irish Setter Dog in the United States. It results from a defective beta-2 subunit of heterodimeric leukocyte adhesion proteins. The causative mutation for CLAD in Irish Setter Dogs from Europe has been identified as a missense mutation at base pair position 107 in the beta-2 integrin subunit gene (ITGB2) that results in an amino acid change from cysteine to serine at amino acid 36 (Cys36Ser) in the beta-2 integrin subunit protein. In the current work, the originally described dog with CLAD has been genetically tested and shown to have the same mutation as the European Irish Setters. This suggests that the mutation has been in the Irish Setter population for many generations spanning more than 2 decades. A related breed, the Irish Red and White Setter, has a history of interbreeding with Irish Setters and shares a common ancestry with the Irish Setter breed. DNA from Irish Red and White Setters residing in the United States was screened either by sequencing or by the newly developed restriction enzyme test for the Irish Setter Cys36Ser CLAD mutation. Seven of 54 dogs tested (13%) were found to be carriers of the Irish Setter CLAD mutation. Five of these were directly related to a sire from the UK, demonstrating the importation of an allele from another continent and establishing the need for genetic testing in this breed in the United States.

  5. Cardiac Responses to Exercise with Age in Healthy Women

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Masako; Yoneda, Junko; Tsukahara, Masato; Haraguchi, Masahiko

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the cardiac responses during exercise across the age groups in healthy women. Cordiopilmonary indices and Borg scale were obstained at rest and during exercise in twenty0one young female university students and 23 healthy postmenopausal volunteers. Exercise workloads in the younger group were significantly higher than those in the older group at anaerobic threshold (85±13 vs 58±13 watts, respectively ; p < 0.001) and at peak exercise (141±18 vs 93±17 watts, respectively : p < 0.00...

  6. A Medieval Irish Treatise on Astronomy Recalled, with a Memoir of its Translator and Editor, Maura Power (1887-1916)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, M. T.; Conway-Piskorski, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 15th century treatise on astronomy in Irish, an adaptation of a Latin translation of an older Arabic text, was transcribed and published together with an English translation and commentaries under the title An Irish Astronomical Tract in 1914. This work is familiar to Celtic language scholars but is little known among astronomers. Here we briefly describe the text, and include a memoir of its editor and translator Maura Power, a young woman who combined a specialist knowledge of the Irish language with an understanding of medieval science. We also recall two other Irish scholars - the geologist Maxwell Close and the astronomer John Ellard Gore - who played their part in recognizing the value of this early Irish scientific text.

  7. Familial non-rcd1 generalised retinal degeneration in Irish setters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S C; Boevé, M H; Stades, F C; van Oost, B A

    2003-03-01

    Four Irish setters were diagnosed with bilateral retinal degeneration and cataracts at an age ranging from six to 11 years. In three of these dogs, progressive night blindness was reported from an age of eight to 11 years. In the fourth dog, aged six, no signs of visual impairment had been noticed. In all four dogs, the rod-cone dysplasia type 1 (rcd1) mutation was excluded as a cause, using an allele-specific PCR. From their three-generation pedigrees, a familial relationship was detected in three out of four dogs, which were also related to four additional Irish setter dogs with a history and clinical signs suggestive of late-onset progressive retinal degeneration. These results suggest the existence of a possibly hereditary, late-onset, progressive retinal atrophy in the Irish setter breed, that is distinct from rcd1.

  8. ‘Death and Renewal’: Translating Old Irish Texts in Nineteenth-Century Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran McDonough

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the conflicted cultural identity of those Irish-speaking antiquarians working on translations of Old Irish texts. Giving voice to the translators, this article will show how they were frustrated in attempts to turn their own knowledge into authority by being members of the Catholic Gaelic Irish in a country dominated by the Protestant Ascendancy. It will examine contemporaneous writings and correspondence to reveal how the translators felt about being accused of being accomplices to the Anglicisation of Ireland’s literary heritage they were participating in the erasure of their own language, traditions, and their world by means of their translations into English for the Anglophone world.

  9. Is Irish set dancing feasible for people with Parkinson's disease in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Joanne; Morris, Meg E; Bhriain, Orfhlaith Ni; Volpe, Daniele; Richardson, Margaret; Clifford, Amanda M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate if community-based Irish set dancing is feasible in Irish adults with Parkinson's disease. Over an eight week period, ten participants attended one set dancing class per week and completed a home programme in parallel. Feasibility was assessed by monitoring adverse effects, participants' verbal feedback, compliance rates and feedback from an exit questionnaire. Participants were assessed using the Berg balance scale, 6-min walk test, UPDRS-3 and PDQ-39, before and after the intervention. No adverse effects were detected. Attendance at classes was 86%. Compliance with the home programme was 67%. Findings from the exit questionnaire showed participants enjoyed participating and reported improvements in aspects of health including balance. Quality of life improved with the dance programme and there was a trend toward improvement on the UPDRS-3. These findings suggest community-based Irish set dancing is a feasible form of exercise that can positively influence quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sam Thompson, Stewart Parker, and the lineage of northern Irish drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilynn Richtarik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Northern Irish dramatist Stewart Parker (1941-1988 wrote plays typically valued for their wit, intellectual content, and formal experimentation. Nonetheless, he was profoundly influenced as a young man by a very different sort of playwright. Sam Thompson (1916-1965, who began his working life in the Belfast shipyards, squarely confronted Northern Irish sectarianism in his plays. His sense of the political potential of drama left an enduring mark on Parker, who organized and edited Thompson's manuscripts several years after his untimely death. Although their dramatic writings bear little resemblance to each other, the two writers should be regarded as united in a common Northern Irish dramatic tradition by virtue of their shared socialist outlook, belief in the importance of individual stands against conformity, and sense of theatre's social mission.

  11. Role clarity and clinical governance: keeping irish hospitals efficient and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andy; Chapman, Ysanne; Boyd, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The notion of role clarity, and its impact on clinical governance, has not been previously considered within academic literature. The purpose of this research article was to add to theoretical knowledge surrounding the clinical governance and the effect that role clarity has on governance operationally. The context of Irish health care and Irish hospital boards is used to explore this phenomenon. A mixed-methods approach was used to appreciate the central phenomenon. The doctoral dissertation this article was drawn from identified that the adoption of similar or consistent structures and processes between Irish acute care hospitals would aid efficiencies, both human and cost, on multiple levels. Ultimately, the article concludes that role clarity is a significant component in the determination of effective health care. Hospital boards and their individual members should be cognizant of the implications of role clarity and its impact on effective and efficient clinical governance.

  12. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. Association Between Perceived Social Support and Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon Najafabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods This correlation-analytic study was conducted on 321 postmenopausal women using 2-stage cluster sampling in Ahvaz in 2014. Data collecting instruments were comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a social support questionnaire (PRQ 85-Part 2. Data analysis was done using SPSS, version 20. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and depression, and the χ2 test was employed to assess the relationship between perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Results The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression (r = -0.468; P = 0.001. There were significant relationships between perceived social support and some personal variables such as marital status, education level, and job status (P 0.05. Conclusions We found a reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Raising awareness in society apropos the relationship between social support and depression in postmenopausal women can enhance their quality of life.

  14. Lasofoxifene for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Michael Lewiecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E Michael LewieckiNew Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, NM, USAAbstract: Lasofoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (estrogen agonist/antagonist that has completed phase III trials to evaluate safety and efficacy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and for the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal women with low or normal bone mineral density (BMD, lasofoxifene increased BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo. In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, lasofoxifene increased BMD, reduced bone turnover markers, reduced the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and decreased the risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, lasofoxifene improved the signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy. Clinical trials show that lasofoxifene is generally well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events that commonly resolve even with drug continuation. Lasofoxifene has been associated with an increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolic events, hot flushes, muscle spasm, and vaginal bleeding. It is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women at increased risk for fracture in some countries and is in the regulatory review process in others.Keywords: osteoporosis, SERM, fracture, efficacy, safety, BMD, CP-336,156

  15. Denosumab in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: What the Clinician Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiecki, E. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Denosumab is a subcutaneously (SC) administered investigational fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), a cytokine member of the tumor necrosis factor family that is the principal mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. RANKL stimulates the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders associated with increased bone remodeling. Denosumab binds RANKL, preventing it from binding to RANK, thereby reducing the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts and slowing the rate of bone resorption. Postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) treated with denosumab have a reduction of bone turnover markers and an increase in BMD that is rapid, sustained, and reversible. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, denosumab reduces the risk of vertebral, hip, and nonvertebral fractures. In postmenopausal women with low BMD randomized to receive denosumab or alendronate, denosumab is associated with a significantly greater increase in BMD and further reduction in bone turnover markers compared with alendronate. In postmenopausal women with low BMD who were previously treated with alendronate, those who switched to denosumab have a significantly greater BMD increase and further reduction in bone turnover markers compared with those continuing alendronate. Denosumab is well tolerated with a favorable safety profile. It is a promising emerging drug for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, offering a long dosing interval of every 6 months and convenient SC dosing, with the potential of improving long-term adherence to therapy compared with current oral treatments. PMID:22870424

  16. Hormonal replacement therapy reduces forearm fracture incidence in recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sørensen, O.H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the fracture reducing potential of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in recent postmenopausal women in a primary preventive scenario. METHODS: Prospective controlled comprehensive cohort trial: 2016 healthy women aged 45-58 years, from three to 24 months past last menstrual...... bleeding were recruited from a random sample of the background population. Mean age was 50. 8+/-2.8 years, and the number of person years followed was 9335.3. There were two main study arms: a randomised arm (randomised to HRT; n=502, or not; n=504) and a non-randomised arm (on HRT; n=221, or not; n=789...... by own choice). First line HRT was oral sequential oestradiol/norethisterone in women with intact uterus and oral continuous oestradiol in hysterectomised women. RESULTS: After five years, a total of 156 fractures were sustained by 140 women. There were 51 forearm fractures in 51 women. By intention...

  17. Effect of long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy on Plasma Homocysteine in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonna S; Kristensen, Søren R; Klitgaard, Niels A

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of hormone replacement therapy on total homocysteine and to study whether there was any difference in effect between opposed and unopposed hormone replacement therapy or whether the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677......T polymorphism was associated with the effect of hormone replacement therapy on total homocysteine. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred nine healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to hormone replacement therapy (n = 103) or no substitution (n = 106) 5 to 7 years earlier. RESULTS: Women who received...... hormone replacement therapy had significantly lower total homocysteine concentrations than women in the control group; median total homocysteine values were 8.6 micromol/L and 9.7 micromol/L, respectively, in a per-protocol analysis (P =.02). The effect was comparable in all methylenetetrahydrofolate...

  18. Diagnosis of Primary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Vulva in a Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a very rare disease of female genital tract, most commonly seen in vulva and unusual in postmenopausal period. Herein, we report the 8th case of pure vulvar LCH in a postmenopausal woman. We pay attention to the differential diagnosis in postmenopausal state, features of pathologic diagnosis, and treatment options.

  19. HYPERTENSION AND OSTEOPOROSIS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rašić Popović

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a frequent, chronic cardiovascular disease both in industrially developed and developing countries; its frequency ranges between 20 and 40 %. Although the prevalence of hypertension in women is lower than that in men, it reaches 70% to 80% in women above 70 years of age, and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk. Osteoporosis (OP is systematic skeletal disorder with lower bone mass and damages of bone tissue microarchitecture. The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between hypertension and osteoporosis as two mass noninfectious deceases.The examination involved three hundred postmenopausal women who came for densitometry inspection; none of them had some major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular stroke and ischemic heart disease. From all of them were taken personal data, personal and familial case histories. The parameters used in the further analysis were: body mass, body height, waist circumference, blood pressure; laboratory analysis: cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glycemia, Ca and P in serum and Ca in urine. In addition, there was calculated a ten-year risk of cardiovascular event according to SCORE system, using tables for high risk; bone mineral density on Hologic Discovery QDR-C was shown as T score on the lumbar part of the spinal column. The patients were divided into tree groups based on the measures of bone density: the patients with osteoporosis - bone density with T score lower than 2.5 SD (100 patients; patients with osteopenia - T score from -1 to -2,5 SD (100, and control group of patients with normal bone density T score from +1 to -1 SD (100.The mean age of postmenopausal women (control group with normal bone density was 54.10±3.90 years; 56.63±4.76 years in the group with osteopenia (group II; and 60.14±3.55 years in the group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.The analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Dunett`s test showed that there were statistically

  20. Association between Postmenopausal Osteoporosis and Experimental Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO and the pathogenesis of periodontitis, ovariectomized rats were generated and the experimental periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature. The inflammatory factors and bone metabolic markers were measured in the serum and periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats using an automatic chemistry analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. The bone mineral density of whole body, pelvis, and spine was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and image analysis. All data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical software. It was found that ovariectomy could upregulate the expression of interleukin- (IL-6, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, and osteoprotegerin (OPG and downregulate IL-10 expression in periodontal tissues, which resulted in progressive alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. This study indicates that changes of cytokines and bone turnover markers in the periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats contribute to the damage of periodontal tissues.

  1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis.

  2. Postmenopausal Vaginal Endometriotic Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengul Turkyilmaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A seventy-three-year-old patient%u2019s vaginal examination revealed a semi-mobile cystic structure visualised at the middle third portion of the posterior vaginal wall. The cyst was excised and the cyst wall was sent for pathological examination. The histopathological examination of the cyst with CD10 staining and tests for nuclear estrogen receptor positivity and nuclear progesteron receptor positivity revealed that the cyst wall contained endometrial stromal cells, endometrial surface epithelial cells, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Endometriosis externa was diagnosed based on the above findings. The case we report here, of an isolated vaginal endometriotic cyst, is unique because of its presentation in a postmenopausal woman without any history of infertility, any gynecologic surgery, or hormone replacement therapy. The reasonable explanation for this case might include certain mechanisms such as the self-sustaining existence of endometriotic cells that were implanted during the premenopausal period to the vagina and that maintain local estrogen production. No single hypothesis can explain the pathophysiology of endometriosis, given all of its various forms and presentations.

  3. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yanik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. RESULTS: Bone mineral density (BMD scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.14 g/cm², respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1% and control (43.3% groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6% and in six patients from the control group (10%. We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  4. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Burcu; Ayrim, Aylin; Ozol, Duygu; Koktener, Asli; Gokmen, Derya

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Bone mineral density (BMD) scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 +/- 0.29 and 0.88 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2), respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1%) and control (43.3%) groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6%) and in six patients from the control group (10%). We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  5. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  6. Battling for the Rights to Privacy and Data Protection in the Irish Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Darcy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Far-reaching mass surveillance by the US National Security Agency and other national security services has brought issues of privacy and data protection to the fore in recent years. Information and technology companies have been embroiled in this scandal for having shared, unwittingly or otherwise, users’ personal data with the security services. Facebook, the world’s largest social media company, has long-been criticised by privacy advocates because of its treatment of users’ data. Proceedings before the Irish courts concerning the role of national data protection authorities have seen an examination of these practices in light of relevant Irish and EU law.

  7. Votail: A Formally Specified and Verified Ballot Counting System for Irish PR-STV Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochran, Dermot Robert; Kiniry, Joseph Roland

    2010-01-01

    Votail is an open source Java implementation of Irish Proportional Representation by Single Transferable Vote (PR-STV). Its functional requirements, derived from Irish electoral law, are formally specified using the Business Object Notation (BON) and refined to a Java Modeling Language (JML......) specification. Formal methods are used to verify and validate the correctness of the software. This is the first public release of a formally verified PR-STV open source system for ballot counting and the most recent of only about half a dozen releases of formally verified e-voting software...

  8. The Experience of Migrant Students in an Irish Second Level School

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, John

    2017-01-01

    Immigration to Ireland in the late 20th and early 21st century has transformed Irish society from being a largely mono-cultural to a more intercultural society. This study is concerned with the experience of migrant students in a second level school. It explores the experiences of a small number of migrant students who completed five years of second level education in a provincial Irish town. The students came from a range of countries in Eastern Europe and Africa. This is a...

  9. Chasing the Intangible: a Conversation on Theatre, Language, and Artistic Migrations with Irish Playwright Marina Carr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rapetti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Offally born Marina Carr is amongst the most prolific, influential and internationally renowned Irish playwrights of our times. Since her debut on the avant-garde side of the Dublin theatre scene in the late Eighties, she has had  seventeen plays professionally produced, both in and outside Ireland. Her earlier work is influenced by Samuel Beckett’s Absurdist drama, while in her most mature and recent plays she draws on both classical and Irish mythology, Greek tragedies and Shakespeare’s poetics. In this interview, Marina Carr recalls and discusses some pivotal moments of her upbringing and career; she also speaks about language, landscape, dream

  10. A flow analysis of the link between Irish and British unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Michael J.; Patrick P. Walsh

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the research on Irish unemployment which for the first time models the flows into and out of the Live Register. Using the quarterly flow data contructed by the authors (see A Flow Analysis of the Irish Live Register,Economic and Social Review, Volume 26, pp. 45-58, 1994), the analysis proceeds within a small open labour market framework, making use of the concepts of cointegrations and error-correction to model the flows and hence the migratory movements betwee...

  11. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  12. Comparing Indices of Diet Quality With Chronic Disease Mortality Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study: Evidence to Inform National Dietary Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    George, Stephanie M.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Manson, JoAnn E.; Reedy, Jill; Shikany, James M; Subar, Amy F; Tinker, Lesley F.; Vitolins, Mara; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Poor diet quality is thought to be a leading risk factor for years of life lost. We examined how scores on 4 commonly used diet quality indices—the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI), the Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)—are related to the risks of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer among postmenopausal women. Our prospective cohort study included 63,805 parti...

  13. Effect of tailored educational intervention to improve self-care maintenance and quality of life in postmenopausal osteoporotic women after a fragility fracture: the Guardian Angel® study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilici Zannetti, Emanuela; D'Agostino, Fabio; Cittadini, Noemi; Feola, Maurizio; Pennini, Annalisa; Rao, Cecilia; Vellone, Ercole; Tarantino, Umberto; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis has a significant impact on affected patients. Healthcare providers should encourage postmenopausal women to improve self-care maintenance behaviors and quality of life following a fragility fracture. The aims of this study were to a) develop two new instruments for measuring, respectively, self-care maintenance and quality of life, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis; b) evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored educational intervention to improve self-care maintenance and quality of life after a fragility fracture in postmenopausal women. For the first aim, a cross-sectional study will be performed; for the second aim, a multicenter, quasi-experimental, interventional design will be used. A convenience sample of postmenopausal women admitted to 44 hospitals in Italy with a diagnosis of bone fragility fracture will be enrolled and surveyed at 7, 30, 60 and 180 days after discharge. Trained nurses will conduct the educational intervention. The new instruments will allow the measurement of self-care and quality of life in postmenopausal women following a fragility fracture. Through tailored educational interventions, women can be helped to take their medications correctly, adopt a healthy lifestyle, reduce the occurrence of bone fractures, and have a better quality of life.

  14. Correlation between Hormonal Statuses and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ziaei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To compare the hormonal status in postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome.In this cross sectional study 110 postmenopausal women were enrolled. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent a medical exam and serum evaluation for serum lipids including cholesterol (Chol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, estradiol and testosterone. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel III. In this study P value less than 0.05 was accepted as significant.There were significant differences between the two groups of participants with and without metabolic syndrome in age, years after menopause, BMI, weight, SHBG and testosterone (p< 0.01.SHBG and testosterone are the most significant correlated factors to metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  15. Attitudes toward postmenopausal long-term hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolip, Petra; Hoefling-Engels, Nicole; Schmacke, Norbert

    2009-02-01

    In this article we address the question of why postmenopausal women undergo hormone therapy. Thirty-five women aged 46 to 75 years living in Bremen (Germany) and taking postmenopausal hormones for at least 12 months were interviewed. Following Fritz Schütze, the interviews were analyzed according to a reconstructive analytical procedure. Five different types of users were identified. They differed from each other in terms of their reasons for using hormones, their expectations of this type of therapy, and their personal habits and circumstances, including an integrity-preserving attitude, a performance-oriented attitude, a searching attitude, a faith-in-medicine attitude, and a benefit-generalizing attitude. The interviews show that there is a need for target-oriented counseling, taking into account the individual attitudes toward menopause and postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  16. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. After menopause, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes and women are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared to fertile women. The aim...... of this study was to determine the prevalence of serum oxLDL in postmenopausal women and to identify possible associations of clinical and laboratory features with oxLDL in these patients. METHOD: After clinical examination and completing a clinical questionnaire, an ultrasound examination of both carotid...... arteries was conducted and blood was drawn from 533 postmenopausal women. oxLDL concentration was determined using proton NMR spectroscopy. RESULTS: Oxidized LDL was detected in 12.4% (95% confidence interval 9.7-15.5) of postmenopausal women with a median of 0.18 mg/dl (interquartile range 0...

  17. To a Deeper Understanding of Loneliness amongst Older Irish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Susan Elaine

    2015-06-01

    Loneliness can play a significant role in the wellbeing of older adults. This article describes a qualitative method for using case notes from the clinical records of older individuals in order to investigate the priority concerns spontaneously reported by older adults to deepen our understanding of both the context in which reported loneliness occurs in Ireland and the potential triggers. The participants in this study represent a cross-section of older adults who participated in the Technology Research for Independent Living Clinic (TRIL). Data were collected from participants through interviewer case notes at the TRIL centre in St James's hospital, Dublin. 624 participants (431 females; 193 males) ranging in age from 60-92 years (Mean 73 years, SD 7 years) took part in the study. All were community dwelling and provided consent. A thematic analysis from grounded theory was used to evaluate the case notes for each participant. Preliminary results highlight the richness of phenomenological experience to enhance our understanding of loneliness and provide an opportunity to better understand the precursors and variability that loneliness may take. In this study we found themes in the case note analysis linking social loneliness with self-imposed limitations on social engagement due to declining health while predominate themes for emotionally lonely focused on psychological issues of stress and anxiety associated with adverse life events. The results suggest the importance of case notes to inform clinical practice. Qualitative results provided insights into differing live events of older Irish adults, which help distinguish the causal differences between social and emotional loneliness.

  18. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  19. Interval cancer rates in the Irish national breast screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Katie M; Dwane, Fiona; Kelleher, Tracy; Sharp, Linda; Comber, Harry

    2015-09-01

    To compare interval cancer rates from the Irish breast screening programme, BreastCheck, for the period 2000-2007 with those from other European countries. Data from BreastCheck was linked to National Cancer Registry breast cancer registrations, to calculate numbers of women screened, screen-detected cancers, and interval cancers, by year of screening, in the first and second years after screening, and by initial or subsequent screen. Estimated underlying cancer incidence from the period 1996-1999 inclusive was used to calculate proportionate incidence. We calculated the interval cancer ratio as an alternative measure of the burden of interval cancers. There were 372,658 screening records for 178,147 women in the period 2000-2007. The overall interval rate was 9.6 per 10,000 screens. In the first year after screening, the interval cancer rate was 5.8 per 10,000 screens and this increased to 13.4 in the second year after screening. The screen detection rate for the period was 53.6 per 10,000 screened for all screens combined. Initial screens produced a higher detection rate at 66.9 per 10,000 screened compared with subsequent screens with a screen-detected rate of 41.4 per 10,000 screens. Interval breast cancer rates for the first years of the programme are within acceptable limits and are comparable with those in other European programmes. Nationwide roll-out together with the adoption of digital mammography may have an impact on interval cancer rates in future years. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Differential bone metabolism between postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Zhang, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Chen, Wei-Hua; Dai, Li-Yang

    2008-04-01

    A comparative study of bone metabolism between postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis showed that differential levels of bone remodeling markers, leptin, free leptin index, and osteoprotegerin might partly contribute to the proposed inverse relationship in bone mass between postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) are two common disorders affecting the quality of life in the elderly. The association between OA and OP has always been debated. The objective of this study was to compare bone metabolism between postmenopausal women with OA and OP. A total of 120 postmenopausal women with OA and OP (n = 60, respectively) were included in this comparative study. Anthropometric parameters and BMD at the spine and the proximal femur were measured. Serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sLR), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and bone remodeling markers, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), deoxypyridinoline cross-links (DPD), and cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX), were quantified with commercial ELISA or EIA kits. Free leptin index (FLI) was also calculated by the ratio between serum leptin and sLR levels. Postmenopausal women with OA had higher body weight, body mass index, fat mass, and percentage of fat than those suffered from OP. Compared with the patients in OP group, the patients in OA group had significantly higher BMD values at all sites measured. Higher serum leptin and FLI and lower OPG levels were shown in the OA group (leptin: 31.22 +/- 6.4 versus 26.50 +/- 9.27 ng/ml, p bone metabolism between postmenopausal women with OA and OP and provides evidence for the inverse relationship between OA and OP. Differential levels of bone remodeling markers, leptin, FLI, and OPG may partly contribute to the proposed inverse relationship. Roles of leptin and its soluble receptor in bone metabolism regulation should be explored further.

  1. Education, income, and incident heart failure in post-menopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rashmee U; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Van Horn, Linda; Phillips, Lawrence S; Eaton, Charles B; Martin, Lisa W; Rosal, Milagros C; Manson, Joann E; Ning, Hongyan; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Klein, Liviu

    2011-09-27

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of education and income on incident heart failure (HF) hospitalization among post-menopausal women. Investigations of socioeconomic status have focused on outcomes after HF diagnosis, not associations with incident HF. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Trials to examine the association between socioeconomic status levels and incident HF hospitalization. We included 26,160 healthy, post-menopausal women. Education and income were self-reported. Analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and proportional hazards models were used for statistical analysis, with adjustment for demographics, comorbid conditions, behavioral factors, and hormone and dietary modification assignments. Women with household incomes women with household incomes >$50,000 a year (16.7/10,000 person-years; p Women with less than a high school education had higher HF hospitalization incidence (51.2/10,000 person-years) than college graduates and above (25.5/10,000 person-years; p women with the lowest income levels had 56% higher risk (hazard ratio: 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 2.04) than the highest income women; women with the least amount of education had 21% higher risk for incident HF hospitalization (hazard ratio: 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 0.90 to 1.62) than the most educated women. Lower income is associated with an increased incidence of HF hospitalization among healthy, post-menopausal women, whereas multivariable adjustment attenuated the association of education with incident HF. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High Estradiol Levels During Postmenopause – Pitfalls in Laboratory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mebes, I.; Graf, M.; Kellner, M.; Keck, C; Segerer, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a result of high serum estradiol levels (> 4300 pg/ml) and typical postmenopausal symptoms. She had a history of an adnexectomy (normal histopathology) due to the elevated estradiol levels. After surgery, estradiol levels were as high as before. Analyzing the anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, DHEA-S and estrone, typical postmenopausal levels were found. Serum estradiol levels were controlled several times with rabbit-derived polyclonal as well as m...

  3. Current progress in postmenopausal women with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ling Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is one of the most frequently ocular surface diseases. Recent researches found that many reasons caused decrease of ocular surface damage and the quality of tears, such as the change of ocular surface, immuno-inflammatory responses, apoptosis and the reduction of sex hormone. It is reported that the decline of ovarian function and hormone level in postmenopausal women which leads to abnormal structure and function of tear film is more likely to develop dry eye. In this paper, the ocular surface, pathogenesis and progresses of treatment on postmenopausal women with dry eye are reviewed.

  4. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    ) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...... sites (12%-13%, corresponding to about 1.0-1.5 SD), and extrapolation suggested reverse order of the rates of diminution thereafter (forearm > AP > LAT). When bone mineral content of the entire L3 vertebra (tBMC) was measured in vivo, AP tBMC could account for only 67% of the variation in LAT t...

  5. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012...

  6. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012...

  7. [Revised postmenopausal treatments? A new polemic!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foidart, J M; Desreux, J; Pintiaux, A

    2000-03-01

    The study by Schairer et al. aims to determine whether increases in risk of breast cancer associated with the estrogen-progestin regimen are greater than those associated with estrogen alone. This study is a cohort of follow-up data for 1980-1995 from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, a nationwide breast cancer screening program that involved 29 screening centers throughout the United States. A total of 46,355 postmenopausal women were followed. During follow up, 2,082 cases of breast cancer were identified. Increases in risk with estrogen only and estrogen-progestin only were restricted to use within the previous 4 years. The relative risk increased by 0.01 with each year of estrogen-only use and by 0.08 with each year of estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users. Among women with a Body Mass Index of 24.4 kg/m2 or less, increases in relative risk with each year of estrogen-only use and estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users were 0.03 and 0.12, respectively. The authors conclude that the estrogen-progestin regimen increases breast cancer risk beyond that associated with estrogen alone. This study was largely commented in the lay media. Unfortunately the Belgian media introduced the confusion between the relative risk and the risk attributable to estrogen and estrogen-progestin. The aim of this manuscript is to precisely inform our colleagues, to analyze the Schairer study and to present the actual figures of risk associated with the use of estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy. Finally, we formulate some suggestions for the physician to whom the patient declares: "Did you read the negative effects of hormones?". What should we advice?

  8. Square-Toed Boots and Felt Hats: Irish Revolutionaries and the Invasion of Canada (1848-1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ramón-García

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fenian movement was born in 1858 as an alliance between the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary secret society, and the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish-American organisation intended to supply this society with funds and trained officers. This was not the first time that Irish nationalists on both sides of the Atlantic had tried to cooperate, but it was the first time that there was a steady arrangement in place. The Fenian partnership was extremely successful on the surface, but it was undermined by fundamental differences in customs, political attitudes and ultimate goals between Irish and American Fenians. The clearest evidence of these differences was afforded by the Fenian Brotherhood’s successive attempts to invade Canada between 1866 and 1871. As military episodes the Canadian raids were negligible; as Irish revolutionary attempts they seem absurd. However, they were a perfectly coherent manifestation of the Irish-American “hyphenated identity”. The present article traces the parallel evolution of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the Fenian Brotherhood up to 1866, and reconstructs the cultural and political reasons for the revival of the Canadian scheme, the ensuing split in the Fenian Brotherhood, and the final collapse of the Fenian alliance.

  9. Death Education: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perspectives of Irish Parents and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Marguerita; Barry, Margaret M.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of 119 Irish parents and 142 primary school teachers concerning children's grief and the concept of death education. Found high levels of understanding of the nature of children's grief, strong support for discussing death with children before they encounter it, and general support for inclusion…

  10. Initial experience with transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy in an Irish hospital setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Forde, J C

    2009-08-01

    Laparoscopic nephrectomy has gained widespread acceptance as a treatment for both benign and malignant conditions and is becoming increasingly popular in Irish hospitals. We report a single surgeon, single centre experience with 20 consecutive laparoscopic nephrectomies comparing them to 20 open cases performed prior to the establishment of a laparoscopic service.

  11. Application of the DNDC model to predict emissions of N2O from Irish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.

    2009-01-01

    Models are increasingly used to examine the potential impacts of management and climate change in agriculture. Our aim in this paper was to assess the applicability of the field-DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model in Irish agriculture. This study provides the results of that evaluation...

  12. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  13. Human Resource Development in the Irish Hotel Industry: The Case of the Small Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Clara

    2002-01-01

    A profile of small businesses in the Irish hotel industry shows that all claim to believe in human resource development but few practice it. Small hotels favor informal, specific job training focused on solution of immediate problems rather than long-term development. (Contains 119 references.) (SK)

  14. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    .... Clark, Marketing Specialist, or Kenneth G. Johnson, Regional Manager, DC Marketing Field Office... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dawana J. Clark, Marketing Specialist, or Kenneth G. Johnson, Regional Manager, DC... / Friday, June 10, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order...

  16. Narratives of Irishness and the problem of abortion: the X case 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, L

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the ramifications of the 1992 "X Case" in which an Irish High Court rescinded the constitutional right to travel of a 14-year-old rape victim who intended to obtain an abortion in England. The article opens by noting that this decision made the subordinate role of women in Ireland painfully visible, thus allowing Irish feminists to win a degree of national and international support. The article examines newspaper coverage of the injunction to consider how this abortion issue reconstituted discourses of women's status, sexuality, and national identity in Ireland. The article provides background information on women's role in Ireland, relegated by the Constitution to the domestic sphere, and reviews the origins of the 1983 "pro-life" Constitutional amendment. Next the article considers how the discourse surrounding the child's rape and resulting pregnancy submerged the autonomy of the child in the victimhood of her family. The article continues by looking at the internal and international denouncement of the Irish state for its action and the responding Irish construct of a civilized "us" versus a barbaric "other." This was countered by appeals to "the people's" will and reinterpretations of the 1983 amendment to justify a more pragmatic approach to public policy about rape that would de-emphasize the moral status of the fetus. After showing how feminist protest extended the questions raised to embrace the issue of national identity and women's citizenship rights, the article concludes that the battle for female reproductive and sexual hegemony in Ireland continues.

  17. Irish (Republic) versus British (North West) orthopaedic trainees: what are the differences?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Banks, L N

    2012-02-01

    British Trainees have gradually had their working week curtained over the last 8 years. The Republic of Ireland Trainees have not been subjected to the European Working Time Directive prior to 2009 and have therefore worked on average, more hours than their British counterparts. We wanted to see if the differing schemes had an impact on recruiting and training orthopaedic surgeons. We surveyed Republic of Ireland orthopaedic specialist registrars (SpRs) and North West (NW) British SpRs\\/specialist trainees (ST3 and above) to see if there were any discernable differences in working patterns and subsequent training exposure. A standard proforma was given to Irish Trainees and to NW SpRs\\/STs at their National or regional teaching (January\\/February 2009). 62% of Irish and 47% of British NW Trainees responded. Irish trainees were more likely to have obtained a post-graduate degree (p = 0.03). The Irish worked more hours per week (p < 0.001) doing more trauma operative lists (p = 0.003) and more total cases per 6 months than the NW British (p = 0.003). This study suggests that more hours worked, equals more operative exposure, without detriment to the academic side of training. Obviously it is not possible to say whether fewer operations make for a poorer surgeon, but the evidence suggests that it may be true.

  18. Slavoj Zizek's Dialectics of Ideology and the Discourses of Irish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    A number of different languages or discourses are evident in contemporary Irish educational policy, debate and theory: the grammar of commodity and marketisation, the poetry of "Bildung" and culture, the prose of Christian formation and revelation together with the ubiquitous rhetoric of personal developmental psychology. These are among…

  19. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, K.; Richardson, E.; Mee, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n=2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium

  20. The Image of Mathematics Held by Irish Post-Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ciara; Stynes, Martin; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    The image of mathematics held by Irish post-primary students was examined and a model for the image found was constructed. Initially, a definition for "image of mathematics" was adopted with image of mathematics hypothesized as comprising attitudes, beliefs, self-concept, motivation, emotions and past experiences of mathematics. Research…

  1. Maintaining the Mother-Child Relationship within the Irish Prison System: The Practitioner Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Sinead; Devaney, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of motherhood within the Irish prison system. This paper considers the specific issue of facilitating contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. It is based on a study which explores the views of practitioners working directly with mothers in prison on how the mother-child relationship…

  2. Are we prepared for a growing population? Morbid obesity and its implications in Irish emergency departments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    Two percent of the Irish population is morbidly obese with this figure expected to rise significantly. This survey aimed to establish the present logistical capacity of Irish emergency departments (EDs) to adequately cater for the bariatric patients. A telephone survey was carried out of 37 health service executive EDs over a 5-day period in October 2008. Questions were posed to the departmental lead nurse regarding facilities (Supplemental digital content 1). No ED had adequate facilities. Two of 37 units questioned had on-site hoists designed to lift patients of more than 170 kg. Four departments had rapid access to mattresses within the hospital and three of these four had access to beds and trolleys for weighing patients. Two percent of the Irish population is morbidly obese with this figure expected to rise significantly to more than 150 kg. One department had access to commodes, chairs, wheelchairs and trolleys from inpatient services. All departments had extra-wide blood pressure cuffs and 12 had a difficult airways trolley. Necessary infrastructure and equipment for bariatric patients is deficient in the majority of Irish EDs.

  3. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted...

  4. Lifestyles and Gendered Patterns of Leisure and Sporting Interests among Irish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Ann; Collier, Connie; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This paper strives to provide an insight into the multifaceted relationships that young people have, examining the social, cultural and institutional discourses, which shape their lives. We set out to discuss, from an empirical poststructuralist perspective, the way in which Irish adolescents write about the reality of their lives and privilege…

  5. Minority Languages and Performative Genres: The Case of Irish Language Stand-Up Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the potential for language change from the bottom-up given the new domains in which minority languages are present as a result of the process of language mobility. Drawing on a theoretical notion of sociolinguistic scales, this article aims to discuss how the position of the Irish language has been reconfigured. From this…

  6. Parametric Pedagogy: Integrating Parametric CAD in Irish Post-Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Oliver; Seery, Niall

    2011-01-01

    Technology education in Irish post-primary schools is undergoing significant change. In recent years the syllabi of all technology-related subjects have been revised. A new subject, Design and Communication Graphics, has replaced the traditional Technical Drawing subject. This new subject aims to develop students' spatial awareness and graphical…

  7. A Qualitative Study of Irish Teachers' Perspective of Student Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Connor, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Research Aim: This research aimed to provide an anecdotal perception of student substance use according to the teachers' personal experience in the Irish secondary level educational setting. Methodology: Sampling Interviews were conducted with teachers (n=95) at 10 randomly selected schools in County Carlow in the South East of Ireland, as part of…

  8. EJBEVol.1 No.1/2010 Page 134 The Conditionality of Irish aid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    particular towards Sudan..It considers development policy in relation to both economic conditionality and political conditionality. .The study will demonstrate a clear trend in Irish policy towards the norms of other large western ... United Nations Children's' Fund. WB : ..... aid could be linked to free market economic policies.

  9. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee John F

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving.

  10. A Qualitative Study of Perceptions of Bullying in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Anita

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale research examined young children's, aged six to seven (n = 8), perceptions and understanding of bullying in Irish primary schools. It also included the views of the children's parents (n = 8) and teachers (n = 2) on bullying. The participants' views were obtained through semi-structured interviews which were analysed using the…

  11. The Challenges of Distributing Leadership in Irish Post-Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the challenges and opportunities in relation to developing distributed leadership practice in Irish post-primary schools. It considers school leadership within the context of contemporary distributed leadership theory. Associated concepts such as distributed cognition and activity theory are used to frame the study. The study…

  12. Cumulative Disadvantage? Educational Careers of Migrant Students in Irish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Byrne, Delma; McGinnity, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Recent rapid immigration of a diverse group of migrant children into an almost exclusively White Irish school population makes Ireland an interesting case study for migrant education. This article explores key points in the careers of migrant secondary school students in Ireland from an equality perspective. The article draws on data gathered as a…

  13. Monological Drama to Reshape the Northern Irish Identity: A Night in November by Marie Jones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Privas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contemporary one-man theatre play, Marie Jones’s character, Kenneth McCallister, is prompted to break free from the prejudices in and against Northern Ireland. Indeed, the playwright aims at finding new ways to deconstruct the preconceived idea that there are two different identities in Northern Ireland closely linked to the division between two religious communities. Instead, she seeks connections, even with the Irish who migrated (the diasporic dimension, though, is not to be discussed within this paper. The author explores this possibility through the psychological evolution of a Northern Irish Protestant who comes to lack references in terms of identity. On stage, he recalls the events that launched him on a quest to redefine his identity, an identity in which his religious denomination is taken into account but is not the only community marker. Marie Jones eventually offers an insight into what being and feeling Irish means for someone who has always lived as a Protestant in Northern Ireland. Monologue and the notion of “frontiers” (be they social, political, geographical, historical or theatrical that emerge only to be destroyed, are some of the theatrical devices she resorts to in order to voice her aim in  this experimental play which ultimately proposes to reshape the contours of Northern Irish drama about the Troubles.

  14. Guidance Counselling as a Whole School Responsibility in the Irish Post Primary Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Lucy; Geary, Tom; Martin, Noelle

    2017-01-01

    This paper will deliberate upon the relevance of guidance counselling as a "whole school" responsibility in the context of recent policy and practice changes in the Irish post primary sector since the Government of Ireland Budget 2012. Pertinent issues including the complexities of delivering a whole school approach to guidance…

  15. Reconstructing genome evolution in historic samples of the Irish potato famine pathogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Michael David; Cappellini, Enrico; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Responsible for the Irish potato famine of 1845-49, the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans caused persistent, devastating outbreaks of potato late blight across Europe in the 19th century. Despite continued interest in the history and spread of the pathogen, the genome of the famine-era str...

  16. Human Resource Blueprints in Irish High-Tech Start-Up Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Mary A.; Olivares, Mariabrisa

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on Irish high-tech start-ups, this paper reports on the results of an empirical study of organization building by entrepreneurial firms, specifically in relation to human resource practices. The research findings are benchmarked with findings from SPEC, the Stanford Project of Emerging Companies (Baron and Hannan, 2002). Human resources…

  17. The Use of CALL in Irish Language Teaching: The Way Forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Donaill, Caoimhin; Coinnigh, Marcas Mac

    2006-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to explore the issue of the availability and suitability of language learning materials for third level Irish language degree programs. A general outline of resources currently available is given and some tentative ideas are put forward on how the resource gap may begin to be bridged using CALL. Two trialled methods…

  18. A Time Profile of Mathematics in a "Gap Year" in Irish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Meara, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    The Irish education system is unique in an international context as it sets aside a full school year for a transition and youth development programme in the middle of secondary education. The Transition Year (TY) programme is an optional, full time programme offered in the majority of secondary schools. Each school designs its own programme,…

  19. The effects of different shoes on plantar forces in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trégouët, Paul; Merland, François

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different footwear on plantar loading in Irish dance. Participants were 12 open class dancers (the highest level) who were actively engaged in Irish dance competition. Subjects had a mean of 9.2 ± 2.1 years of experience in Irish dance. All dancers completed one bar of a set phrase in each of three shoes: Irish dance soft shoe, hard shoe, and a dance trainer. The order in which the shoes were tested was counterbalanced with a Latin square design. The variables compared were maximum force, maximum pressure, and impulse. Data were collected at 100 Hz using a Pedar insole pressure sensor system. Values were analyzed for the whole foot, forefoot, and rearfoot. Significant differences between shoe types were observed in impulse (p shoes. Differences were also found between shoes in loading on regions of the foot (p shoe. The footwear choice had a significant effect on the measured kinetics of the dancers. The trainer displayed significantly lower values for kinetics than did the soft shoe. Thus, it may be a safer (less injurious) choice for daily training.

  20. Ethical Issues in Internet Research: International Good Practice and Irish Research Ethics Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Heike

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the main research ethical concerns that arise in internet research and reviews existing research ethical guidance in the Irish context in relation to its application to internet research. The chapter begins with a brief outline of high profile cases in the early history of the internet that highlighted specific emerging…