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Sample records for healthy irish postmenopausal

  1. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently...... healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] showed a clear seasonal variation with significantly higher (p ... during late summer than late winter. Both urinary pyridinoline (Ur-Pyr) (p women into those with S-25(OH)D levels...

  2. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels in Irish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad

    2006-05-01

    Low phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. Phylloquinone intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels were assessed in ninety-seven apparently healthy, free-living Irish women aged 50-75 years. Phylloquinone intakes were estimated using a detailed dietary history, which measured habitual food intakes from a typical 14 d period, and recently published food composition data for phylloquinone. Fasting serum ucOC was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The median daily intake of phylloquinone in the group from all sources was 108.8 microg and from food sources only was 106.6 microg, indicating that approximately 99 % of the phylloquinone came from food. Vegetables and vegetable dishes contributed 67 % of the total phylloquinone intake, but further analysis showed that broccoli, cabbage and lettuce were the primary sources, making a total contribution of 44 %. Twenty per cent of the women had a phylloquinone intake below the UK recommendation of 1 microg/kg body weight per day and 34 % failed to meet the US Adequate Intake value of 90 microg/day. Mean serum ucOC levels in the women were 6.2 (SD 1.7) ng/ml and were predicted by phylloquinone intake (beta -2.20, generated from log-transformed phylloquinone intake data; P=0.04). On the basis of comparisons with both UK recommendations and US Adequate Intakes for phylloquinone, the habitual intakes of phylloquinone in a high proportion of Irish postmenopausal women may not be adequate.

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...

  4. The effect of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women.

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    Vakili, Mahdis; Abedi, Parvin; Afshari, Poorandokht; Kaboli, Nayereh Esmael

    2015-01-01

    Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups). Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc.,) were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week). The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.

  5. The effect of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Vakili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups. Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc., were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week. The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. Results: The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. More women in the intervention group consumed fish after intervention (P = 0.02. The consumption of green leafy vegetables showed a nonsignificant increase in the intervention group. Conclusion: Using mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.

  6. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

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    Mitra Niafar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in  ostmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran.
    • METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by fully automated chemiluminescent  mmunoassay. In addition, the study included survey questions regarding age, body weight and height, use of supplements and skin protection agents and clinical and reproductive histories.
    • RESULT: Our cases had the mean age of 63.41 ± 4.64 years with menopause duration of 16.79 ± 6.15 years. Median and interquartile 25-75 range of vitamin D were 14.20 ng/ml and 7-37.2 ng/ml  espectively. We found hypovitaminosis D [25(OH D < 10 ng/ml] in 38.3% of our cases. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were not  ignificantly correlated with age or BMI.
    • CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that 25(OH D levels in postmenopausal women of north-west Iran are low. Studies to elucidate and assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in elderly women of this region can be of further benefit.
    • KEYWORDS: Vitamin D Deficiency, Dietary Supplement, Postmenopausal Period, Middle East, Iran.

  7. [Microbiota of urine and vagina of healthy postmenopausal women (a pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, Yu L; Rymashevsky, A N; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Borovleva, O A; Jalagonia, K T; Zarutskiy, S A

    2016-02-01

    Studying microbiota of different urogenital tract habitats in healthy postmenopausal women is of practical importance in deciding on the appropriateness of correction of dysbiotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the vaginal and urine microbiota of healthy postmenopausal women. The study included 20 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 59,0+/-2,1 years). Duration of menopause in all subjects was more than 8 years. Bacteriological testing of urine and vaginal specimen was carried out on the extended media (15) for cultivating facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) and nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) and included PCR of midstream morning urine. Among FAB in the urine and vagina dominated coagulase-negative staphylococci and NAB. Bacterial patterns of studied habitats turned out to be similar in many respects. In the urine Megasphaera spp., Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Mobiluncus spp., Fusobacterium spp. were found, whereas in the vagina these microorganisms were not present. Cluster analysis revealed no significant differences in the concentration of the same microorganisms isolated from the urine and vagina. When comparing the frequency of microorganism detection in urine by bacteriological method and by PCR, bacterial patterns were identical in 56% of cases.

  8. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women.

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    Fournier, L R; Ryan Borchers, T A; Robison, L M; Wiediger, M; Park, J S; Chew, B P; McGuire, M K; Sclar, D A; Skaer, T L; Beerman, K A

    2007-01-01

    The decline in estrogen concentrations in women after menopause can contribute to health related changes including impairments in cognition, especially memory. Because of the health concerns related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alternative approaches to treat menopausal symptoms, such as nutritional supplements and/or diet containing isoflavones, are of interest. This study investigated whether soy isoflavones (soy milk and supplement) could improve cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION AND DESIGN: A total of 79 postmenopausal women, 48-65 years of age, completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: cow's milk and a placebo supplement (control); soy milk and placebo supplement (soy milk, 72 mg isoflavones/day); or cow's milk and isoflavone supplement (isoflavone supplement, 70 mg isoflavones/day). Cognitive functioning was assessed using various cognitive tasks before the intervention (baseline) and after the intervention (test). In contrast to predictions, soy isoflavones did not improve selective attention (Stroop task), visual long-term memory (pattern recognition), short-term visuospatial memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), or visuo-spatial working memory (color match task). Also, the soy milk group showed a decline in verbal working memory (Digit Ordering Task) compared to the soy supplement and control groups. Soy isoflavones consumed as a food or supplement over a 16-week period did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women.

  9. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston

    2013-12-16

    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h\\/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years\\' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  10. Relationship between attitudes towards healthy eating and dietary behaviour, lifestyle and demographic factors in a representative sample of Irish adults.

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    Hearty, A P; McCarthy, S N; Kearney, J M; Gibney, M J

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes towards healthy eating were explored according to dietary, lifestyle and socio-demographic correlates in a random sample of 1256 Irish adults. Data were obtained from an Irish cross-sectional survey (1997-1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain attitudinal information. Food consumption was estimated using a 7-d food diary. A majority of the sample had a positive attitude or motivation towards their healthy eating behaviour. Those who perceived their own eating habits to be healthy were more likely to comply with current dietary guidelines than those who did not. Females, increasing age, higher social class, tertiary education, non-smokers, lower body-weights and increased recreational activity were associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for having a negative attitude towards their healthy eating behaviour. An increased intake (g/d) of breakfast cereals, vegetables, fruit and poultry dishes were associated with decreased OR for negative attitudes towards their healthy eating behaviour, while an increased intake of high-calorie beverages (g/d) was associated with an increased OR. It can be concluded that attitudes or motivation towards eating healthily was related to measured dietary and lifestyle behaviour in this sample. Future research is warranted to devise appropriate methods of instituting attitude change towards dietary behaviour in certain subgroups of the population.

  11. Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cateno; Privitera, Maria Giovanna; Melilli, Barbara; Incognito, Tiziana; Marano, Maria Rosa; Leggio, Gian Marco; Roxas, Matilde Amico; Drago, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation. The objective was to assess the influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations after intake of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They consumed 40 mg of a conjugated form of soybean isoflavones (6 mg daidzein and 18 mg genistein as free form) with or without 3.66 g inulin twice daily in two 21-d experimental phases. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 h after intake of isoflavones with breakfast and dinner at the end of each 21-d experimental phase. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were assessed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Plasma 24-h areas under the curve indicated that the intake of soybean isoflavones with inulin for 21 d was followed by higher plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein (38% and 91%, respectively) compared with the formulation without inulin. Furthermore, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein appeared to be lower after the 21-d intake of soybean isoflavones, with or without inulin. However, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein after supplementation with the inulin-containing formulation on day 21 was not significantly different from that after supplementation with the formulation without inulin. Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin.

  12. Comparing exercise responses to aerobic plus resistance training between postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Thais R S de; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Viezel, Juliana; Rossi, Fabricio E; Aro, Bruna L; Trindade, Ana Carolina A C; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Junior, Ismael F

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, and nine months, respectively. The exercise program was performed three times/week over nine months and consisted of 40 min of machine-based strength training (seated cable row, bench press, leg extension, leg press, and leg curl, as well as bridge, abdominal, and standard plank exercises) followed by 30 min of treadmill walking. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare the groups over time. Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy postmenopausal women presented similar improvements in estimated lower body strength, predicted VO 2max and V max , and body fat mass. For maximal upper body strength, there was a significant group x time interaction after six months of training (p = 0.01). The healthy postmenopausal women presented a significant increase in upper body strength after six months, while postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy demonstrated an improvement only at nine months of training. The breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy presented increased lean mass while healthy postmenopausal women maintained values over time (Breast cancer: 33.7 ± 3.9(Pre) vs. 34.1

  13. Pharmacokinetics, Dose Proportionality, and Bioavailability of Bazedoxifene in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeand, William

    2017-09-01

    Bazedoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogen agonist effects on bone and lipid metabolism while having neutral or estrogen antagonist effects on the breast and endometrium. The present report describes findings from 3 Phase I clinical studies that evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics (study 1; n = 84), multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (study 2; n = 23), and absolute bioavailability (study 3; n = 18) of bazedoxifene. All 3 studies enrolled healthy postmenopausal women who were either naturally postmenopausal or had undergone bilateral oophorectomy at least 6 months before the start of the study. Study 1 showed that unconjugated and total (unconjugated and conjugated) bazedoxifene levels increased proportionally with ascending oral doses of bazedoxifene (through the dose range of 5-120 mg). Evaluation with or without food intake was conducted at the 10-mg dose, with no clinically relevant effect on pharmacokinetic parameters. Study 2 showed that bazedoxifene achieved steady state in 1 week and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics in doses of 5 to 40 mg with no unexpected accumulation over the dose range. In accordance with a linear pharmacokinetic profile, mean maximum plasma concentration values increased with increasing dose, with values of 1.6, 6.2, and 12.5 ng/mL for the 5-, 20-, and 40-mg doses, respectively. In study 3, tablet and capsule formulations of bazedoxifene formulations had an estimated oral bioavailability of ~6%. The clearance of bazedoxifene was 0.4 (0.1) L/h/kg based on intravenous administration. The oral formulations had comparable exposure profiles with respect to AUC and AUC0-t, and the 90% CIs for these values were within the bioequivalence limits of 80% to 125%. Bazedoxifene was safe and well tolerated in all 3 studies. These pharmacokinetic evaluations in healthy postmenopausal women found that bazedoxifene displayed linear pharmacokinetics with doses ranging from 5 to 40 mg, with no unexpected accumulation

  14. Serum IGF-1 concentrations change with soy and seaweed supplements in healthy postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R; Savarese, Todd M; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations.

  15. Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R; Franke, Adrian A; Sepkovic, Daniel W; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2009-05-01

    Seaweed and soy foods are consumed daily in Japan, where breast cancer rates for postmenopausal women are significantly lower than in the West. Likely mechanisms include differences in diet, especially soy consumption, and estrogen metabolism. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women participated in this double-blind trial of seaweed supplementation with soy challenge. Participants were randomized to 7 wk of either 5 g/d seaweed (Alaria) or placebo (maltodextrin). During wk 7, participants also consumed a daily soy protein isolate (2 mg isoflavones/kg body weight). After a 3-wk washout period, participants were crossed over to the alternate supplement schedule. There was an inverse correlation between seaweed dose (mg/kg body weight) and serum estradiol (E2) (seaweed-placebo = y = -2.29 x dose + 172.3; r = -0.70; P = 0.003), [corrected] which was linear across the range of weights. Soy supplementation increased urinary daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and O-desmethylangolensin (P = 0.0001) and decreased matairesinol and enterolactone (P seaweed plus soy (SeaSoy) increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHE) (P = 0.0001) and the ratio of 2-OHE:16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE(1)) (P = 0.01). For the 5 equol excretors, soy increased urinary equol excretion (P = 0.0001); the combination of SeaSoy further increased equol excretion by 58% (P = 0.0001). Equol producers also had a 315% increase in 2:16 ratio (P = 0.001) with SeaSoy. Seaweed favorably alters estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism and these changes likely include modulation of colonic bacteria.

  16. Baseline Results of the First Healthy Schools Evaluation among a Community of Young, Irish, Urban Disadvantaged Children and a Comparison of Outcomes with International Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Catherine M.; O'Sullivan, Karin; Quirke, Mary B.; Wynne, Ciara; Hollywood, Eleanor; MGillloway, Sinead

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Irish Government initiated a pilot Healthy Schools Programme based on the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Model among children attending schools officially designated as urban and disadvantaged. We present here the first results on physical and emotional health and the relationship between childhood…

  17. Interleukins 6 and 8 and abdominal fat depots are distinct correlates of lipid moieties in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Dyer, Roy B; Trushin, Sergey A; Bondar, Olga P; Singh, Ravinder J; Klee, George G

    2016-12-01

    Available data associate lipids concentrations in men with body mass index, anabolic steroids, age, and certain cytokines. Data were less clear in women, especially across the full adult lifespan, and when segmented by premenopausal and postmenopausal status. 120 healthy women (60 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal) in Olmsted County, MN, USA, a stable well studied clinical population. Dependent variables: measurements of 10 h fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. testosterone, estrone, estradiol, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin (by mass spectrometry); insulin, glucose, and albumin; abdominal visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat [abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, total abdominal fat by computerized tomography scan]; and a panel of cytokines (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Multivariate forward-selection linear-regression analysis was applied constrained to P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal fat and interleukin-8 (P = 2.0 × 10 -5 , 16.9 % of variance; and P = 0.0031, 9.4 % of variance, respectively). Premenopausal vs. postmenopausal comparisons identified specific relationships that were stronger in premenopausal than postmenopausal individuals, and vice versa. Age was a stronger correlate of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; interleukin-6 of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein; and both sex-hormone binding globulin and total abdominal fat of non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. Conversely, sex-hormone binding globulin, abdominal visceral fat, interleukin-8, adiponectin were stronger correlates of triglycerides; abdominal visceral fat, and testosterone of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and age of both non high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Our data

  18. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

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    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBPwomen identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Habitual aerobic exercise does not protect against micro- or macrovascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Vorwald, Victoria M; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-01

    Aging causes micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), which can be prevented and reversed by habitual aerobic exercise (AE) in men. However, in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, whole forearm microvascular EDD has not been studied, and a beneficial effect of AE on macrovascular EDD has not been consistently shown. We assessed forearm blood flow in response to brachial artery infusions of acetylcholine (FBF ACh ), a measure of whole forearm microvascular EDD, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of macrovascular EDD, in 12 premenopausal sedentary women (Pre-S; 24 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 37.5 ± 1.6 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), 25 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal sedentary women (Post-S; 62 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 24.7 ± 0.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), and 16 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal AE-trained women (Post-AE; 59 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 40.4 ± 1.4 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). FBF ACh was lower in Post-S and Post-AE compared with Pre-S women (135 ± 9 and 116 ± 17 vs. 193 ± 21 AUC, respectively, both P stress. This is the first study to demonstrate that habitual aerobic exercise may not protect against age/menopause-related whole forearm microvascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy nonobese estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, consistent with recent findings regarding macrovascular endothelial function. This is in contrast to what is observed in healthy middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained men. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...

  1. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  2. Hormone replacement therapy dependent changes in breast cancer-related gene expression in breast tissue of healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; De Napoli, Giuseppina; van Galen, Anne; Kloosterboer, Helenius J; de Weerd, Vanja; Zhang, Hong; Martens, John W M; Foekens, John A; De Geyter, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment of future breast cancer risk through exposure to sex steroids currently relies on clinical scorings such as mammographic density. Knowledge about the gene expression patterns in existing breast cancer tumors may be used to identify risk factors in the breast tissue of women still free of cancer. The differential effects of estradiol, estradiol together with gestagens, or tibolone on breast cancer-related gene expression in normal breast tissue samples taken from postmenopausal women may be used to identify gene expression profiles associated with a higher breast cancer risk. Breast tissue samples were taken from 33 healthy postmenopausal women both before and after a six month treatment with either 2mg micronized estradiol [E2], 2mg micronized estradiol and 1mg norethisterone acetate [E2+NETA], 2.5mg tibolone [T] or [no HRT]. Except for [E2], which was only given to women after hysterectomy, the allocation to each of the three groups was randomized. The expression of 102 mRNAs and 46 microRNAs putatively involved in breast cancer was prospectively determined in the biopsies of 6 women receiving [no HRT], 5 women receiving [E2], 5 women receiving [E2+NETA], and 6 receiving [T]. Using epithelial and endothelial markers genes, non-representative biopsies from 11 women were eliminated. Treatment of postmenopausal women with [E2+NETA] resulted in the highest number of differentially (pbreast tissue with a change in the expression of genes putatively involved in breast cancer. Our data suggest that normal mammary cells triggered by [E2+NETA] adjust for steroidogenic up-regulation through down-regulation of the estrogen-receptor pathway. This feasibility study provides the basis for whole genome analyses to identify novel markers involved in increased breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between dynapenia and cardiorespiratory functions in healthy postmenopausal women: novel clinical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat-Artigas, Seébastien; Dupontgand, Sophie; Fex, Annie; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2011-04-01

    Muscle strength seems to be a better indicator of physical limitations than skeletal muscle mass is. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using a new developed clinical tool, the relationship between type I dynapenia and cardiorespiratory functions in postmenopausal women. Forty-six postmenopausal women were recruited and divided into two groups (dynapenic vs nondynapenic). Body composition (bioelectrical impedancemetry), muscle strength (dynamometer), cardiorespiratory functions (maximum oxygen consumption and forced expiratory volume in 1 second), resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and dietary intake (3-d dietary journal) were measured. Type I dynapenia was defined as less than 1.53 kg per skeletal muscle mass (kg) based on handgrip dynamometer. Significant differences were found between dynapenic (n=23) and nondynapenic (n=23) postmenopausal women for cardiorespiratory functions (maximum oxygen consumption, P=0.003; and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, P=0.046). We observed no differences between groups for age, age at menopause, use of hormone therapy, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, resting energy expenditure, and total energy intake, which are known to be potential confounders. No differences were observed for cardiorespiratory functions when our population was divided into sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic groups. Type I dynapenic women have significantly poorer cardiorespiratory functions that do nondynapenic women even if they presented the same skeletal muscle mass index. Thus, based on our results, dynapenia could potentially be used as a marker of cardiorespiratory functions. The clinical method developed to identify dynapenic women could be used by health professionals. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society

  4. Association between lumbar bone mineral density and serum uric acid in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study of healthy Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen; Bai, Xiaojuan; Wang, Nan; Han, Lulu; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-12-01

    Partial correlation and regression analyses were used in this study. We showed that there is a linear relationship between bone mineral density and serum uric acid within the normal physiologic range, and higher serum uric acid levels had a protective effect on bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The significance of the relationship between lumbar bone mineral density ( BMD) and serum uric acid (SUA) levels is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate on a population-level the association between lumbar BMD and SUA within the normal physiologic range and to determine whether SUA plays a protective role in bone loss in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This was a community-based cross-sectional study involving 390 healthy postmenopausal women, 47-89 years of age, conducted in Shenyang, China. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The SUA levels were obtained at each DXA visit. Partial correlation and regression analyses were applied to determine the associations. The SUA levels were significantly different between the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups. The lumbar BMD was positively correlated with SUA in postmenopausal women after adjustment for age (r = 0.212). After adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hip circumference, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, milk intake, physical exercise, fracture history, total protein, total bilirubin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum calcium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, the lumbar BMD was associated with SUA and the odds ratio of the third SUA quartile was 0.408 (95%CI, 0.198-0.841, P = 0.015), compared to the first quartile of SUA levels. The lumbar BMD was linearly associated with SUA levels within the normal physiologic range of postmenopausal women. Higher SUA levels had a protective effect on bone loss

  5. Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Flokatoula, Maria; Armeni, Eleni; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Augoulea, Areti; Antoniou, Aris; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Panoulis, Constantinos; Dendrinos, Spyridon; Papacharalambous, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited. To evaluate the frequency of asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VFs), and potential risk factors, in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study at the University Menopause Clinic. Four hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women aged 35 to 80 years, with an average menopausal age of 9.2±7.1 years. They included medical history, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), and LS lateral radiographs. Lumbar spine lateral radiographs were evaluated according to quantitative procedures, aiming to identify VFs. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and values of BMD were compared according to the presence of VFs. A total of 37 (8.15%) women had at least one VF. Lumbar spine and FN-osteoporosis was identified in up to 23.1% and 40.9% subjects with prevalent VFs, respectively. The prevalence of VFs was largely associated with age, with women aged 60 years or more presenting an up to fourfold risk compared with younger women. Moreover, the presence of VFs was associated with higher menopausal age, advanced age at menarche, a history of early menopause, and prolonged lactation. Lower LS-BMD and, especially, FN-BMD were negatively associated with VF prevalence (prevalent VF vs. no VF: LS-BMD, 0.89±0.16 g/cm(2) vs. 0.98±0.16 g/cm(2), p=.010; FN-BMD, 0.72±0.10 g/cm(2) vs. 0.81±0.12 g/cm(2), p=.008). Asymptomatic VFs are common among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women. More than 50% subjects with prevalent VFs present with normal BMD or osteopenia. Age and bone density classification at the FN presented the strongest association with the prevalence of VFs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D status in relation to obesity, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and vitamin D receptor genotypes in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, M-S M; Qari, M H; Rouzi, A A; Maimani, A A; Raddadi, R M

    2011-02-01

    The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency were examined among healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among studied Saudi women with obesity, poor sunlight exposure, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation and age as the main risk factors. The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in relation to bone health among Saudi women are not known. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the factors influencing vitamin D status in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and vitamin D receptor genotype (VDR) in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. A total number of 1,172 healthy Saudi women living in the Jeddah area were randomly selected and studied. Anthropometric parameters, socioeconomic status, sun exposure index together with serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcitriol, intact PTH, Ca, PO4, Mg, creatinine, albumin, and biochemical BTMs were measured. BMD was measured by a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and VDR genotypes were also determined. About 80.0% of Saudi women studied exhibited vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D75 nmol/L). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was evident in 18.5% and 24.6% in pre- and postmenopausal women with 25(OH)Dobesity, poor exposure to sunlight, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation, and age.

  7. Cytokines and T-lymphocyte subsets in healthy post-menopausal women: estrogen retards bone loss without affecting the release of IL-1 or IL-1ra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    resorptive cytokines and have also been linked with bone metabolism and the development of osteoporosis. Cytokine secretion from whole blood cell cultures was compared between two randomized groups of healthy early post-menopausal women (mean age 52.5 yrs, N = 91) and lymphocyte subsets were quantitated....... There was no association between cytokine release and bone mass or loss assessed over 2 yrs. The only exception was a weak estrogen-independent correlation between basal IL-1ra secretion and bone loss (r = -0.21, p loss...... cells may be important in the pathophysiology of post-menopausal bone loss. The possibility that IL-1ra acts as an independent bone-sparing factor unrelated to estrogen withdrawal warrants further investigation. In conclusion, ERT maintains bone without affecting the release of the IL-1 family...

  8. Baseline results of the first healthy schools evaluation among a community of young, Irish, urban disadvantaged children and a comparison of outcomes with international norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Catherine M; O'Sullivan, Karin; Quirke, Mary B; Wynne, Ciara; Hollywood, Eleanor; MGillloway, Sinead

    2012-11-01

    In 2008, the Irish Government initiated a pilot Healthy Schools Programme based on the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Model among children attending schools officially designated as urban and disadvantaged. We present here the first results on physical and emotional health and the relationship between childhood depression and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The Healthy Schools Programme evaluation was a 3-year longitudinal outcome study among urban disadvantaged children aged 4 to 12 years. Physical and psychological health outcomes were measured using validated, international instruments at baseline. Outcomes at baseline were compared with international norms and where differences were found, results were statistically modeled to determine factors predicting poor outcomes. A total of 552 children responded at baseline, representing over 50% of all eligible children available to participate from 7 schools. Findings at baseline revealed that in general, children did not differ significantly from international norms. However, detailed analysis of the childhood depression scores revealed that in order of importance, psychological well-being, the school environment, social support, and peer relations and age were statistically significant predictors of increased childhood depression in children under 12 years of age. Future health and well-being studies in schools among urban disadvantaged children need to broaden their scope to include measures of depression in children under 12 years of age and be cognisant of the impact of the school environment on the mental and emotional health of the very young. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  9. Both raloxifene and estrogen reduce major cardiovascular risk factors in healthy postmenopausal women: A 2-year, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk-de Roo, G.W. de; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Meijer, P.; Mijatovic, V.; Kluft, C.; Kenemans, P.; Cohen, F.; Watts, S.; Netelenbos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Currently raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is being investigated as a potential alternative for postmenopausal hormone replacement to prevent osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. We compared the 2-year effects of raloxifene on a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors with

  10. Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Fiona; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Chajès, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Batlle, Jordi; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Baglietto, Laura; Dartois, Laureen; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Rosso, Stefano; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and prevention strategies are needed to reduce incidence worldwide. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated to investigate the joint effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The study included 242,918 postmenopausal women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, with detailed information on diet and lifestyle assessed at baseline. The HLIS was constructed from five factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0-4 to categories of each component, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviours. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression models. During 10.9 years of median follow-up, 7,756 incident breast cancer cases were identified. There was a 3% lower risk of breast cancer per point increase of the HLIS. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with a high HLIS when fourth versus second (reference) categories were compared [adjusted HR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.83]. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a lower risk for hormone receptor double positive (adjusted HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and hormone receptor double negative breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90). Findings suggest having a high score on an index of combined healthy behaviours reduces the risk of developing breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Programmes which engage women in long term health behaviours should be supported. © 2014 UICC.

  11. Daily consumption of fermented soymilk helps to improve facial wrinkles in healthy postmenopausal women in a randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Kano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soymilk fermented by lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria is attracting attention due to the excellent bioavailability of its isoflavones. We investigated the effects of fermented soymilk containing high amounts of isoflavone aglycones on facial wrinkles and urinary isoflavones in postmenopausal women in a randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial. Healthy Japanese women were randomly divided into active (n = 44, mean age 56.3 ± 0.5 or control (n = 44, mean age 56.1 ± 0.5 groups, who consumed or did not consume a bottle of soymilk fermented by Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and Lactobacillus mali for 8 weeks. Maximum depth of wrinkles around the crow’s feet area and other wrinkle parameters were evaluated as primary and secondary endpoints respectively at weeks 0, 4, and 8 during the consumption period. Urinary isoflavone levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The active group demonstrated significant improvements in the maximum depth (p=0.015 and average depth (p=0.04 of wrinkles, and significantly elevated urinary isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein; each p < 0.001 compared with the control during the consumption period. No serious adverse effects were recorded. Conclusion: These findings suggest that fermented soymilk taken daily may improve facial wrinkles and elevate urinary isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women.

  12. No differences in performance on test of working memory and executive functioning between healthy elderly postmenopausal women using or not using hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorova, M; Sherwin, B B

    2006-06-01

    On average, ovarian function ceases at the age of 52 years so that estrogen (E) levels are chronically low following the menopause. Numerous studies have found that hormone therapy (HT) helps to protect verbal memory, a hippocampal function. Estrogen receptors are also found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), suggesting that estrogen may modulate executive and working memory functions, both mediated by the PFC. The possible role of progesterone (P) on executive functions and working memory is unknown. To examine the relationship between neuropsychological performance, age of initiation of HT, and duration of HT use. In this cross-sectional study, the neuropsychological performance of 37 postmenopausal women (mean age, 65 years) who used either estrogen-only or sequential E + P (E-alone group)(n = 22) or E + P continuously (n = 15) was compared to that of 28 healthy postmenopausal women matched for age and education who had never used HT. It was hypothesized that the E-only users would perform better then the E + P and the never-users on neuropsychological tests of verbal memory, executive function and working memory. Results showed only minor between-group differences on working memory scores such that the E + P users were slowest to generate a response on the N-Back test of working memory. No group differences on tests of executive functions were found. There was no relationship between neuropsychological performance, age of initiation of HT, or duration of HT use.

  13. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  14. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  15. Irish Literature in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Gerda

    After a brief description of some historical and cultural interchanges between Ireland and Austria, the paper examines Irish fiction that has been translated into German and Irish plays that have been performed in Vienna over the past 25 years. The paper also describes German translations of Irish children's fiction, including classics like…

  16. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  17. Effect of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on bone disease in postmenopausal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nanda, Kavinderjit S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data are available on the contribution of chronic HCV infection to the development of bone disease in postmenopausal women. We studied whether women who acquired HCV infection through administration of HCV genotype 1b-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin from a single source had decreased bone mineral density (BMD) or altered levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs), compared with women who spontaneously resolved infection or age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: From a cohort of postmenopausal Irish women, we compared BMD, determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and a panel of BTMs in 20 women chronically infected with HCV (PCR(+)), 21 women who had spontaneously resolved infection (PCR(-)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of BTMs and BMD were similar in PCR(+) and PCR(-) women and healthy age-matched controls. However, there was an increased frequency of fractures in PCR(+) (n = 6) compared with PCR(-) women (n = 0, P = .007). PCR(+) women with fractures were postmenopausal for a longer time (median, 15.5, range, 5-20 years vs 4.5, range, 1-20 years in PCR(+) women without fractures; P = .033), had lower BMD at the hip (0.79, range, 0.77-0.9 g\\/cm(2) vs 0.96, range, 0.81-1.10 g\\/cm(2); P = .007), and had a lower body mass index (23.7, range 21.2-28.5 kg\\/m(2) vs 25.6, range 22.1-36.6 kg\\/m(2); P = .035). There was no difference in liver disease severity or BTMs in PCR(+) women with or without fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV infection did not lead to discernable metabolic bone disease in postmenopausal women, but it might be a risk factor for bone fractures, so preventive measures should be introduced. To view this article\\'s video abstract, go to the AGA\\'s YouTube Channel.

  18. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  19. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79. For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I while walking only (single task, (II walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT (dual task, and (III walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT (dual task. Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7% and right (by 7% foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%, reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11% and right (by 8% extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%. Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task.

  20. Low-fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Thomas, William; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K

    2013-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in healthy individuals are not well defined. Three test diets-high-fat diet (40% energy as fat), low-fat diet (LF; 20% energy as fat), and a diet with low fat and high omega-3 fatty acid (LFn3; 23% energy as fat)--were tested in a randomized crossover designed controlled feeding trial in healthy postmenopausal women. Plasma IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, glucose, and ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in response to diets. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance We hypothesized that IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations would decrease and IGFBP-3 concentration would increase in response to the low-fat diets. Eight weeks of the LFn3 diet increased circulating IGF-I (P diet increased IGFBP-3 (P = .04), resulting in trends toward an increased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LFn3 diet and a decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LF diet (P = .13 for both comparisons). No statistically significant differences were detected between treatments at baseline or 8 weeks for IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Insulin, glucose, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were not altered by the interventions. Low-fat diet with high n-3 fatty acids may increase circulating IGF-I concentrations without adversely affecting insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Sequences of Regressions Distinguish Nonmechanical from Mechanical Associations between Metabolic Factors, Body Composition, and Bone in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Schoenmakers, Inez; Goldberg, Gail R; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A

    2016-03-09

    There is increasing recognition of complex interrelations between the endocrine functions of bone and fat tissues or organs. The objective was to describe nonmechanical and mechanical links between metabolic factors, body composition, and bone with the use of graphical Markov models. Seventy postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 62.3 ± 3.7 y and body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 24.9 ± 3.8 were recruited. Bone outcomes were peripheral quantitative computed tomography measures of the distal and diaphyseal tibia, cross-sectional area (CSA), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical CSA. Biomarkers of osteoblast and adipocyte function were plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UCOC), and phylloquinone. Body composition measurements were lean and percent fat mass, which were derived with the use of a 4-compartment model. Sequences of Regressions, a subclass of graphical Markov models, were used to describe the direct (nonmechanical) and indirect (mechanical) interrelations between metabolic factors and bone by simultaneously modeling multiple bone outcomes and their relation with biomarker outcomes with lean mass, percent fat mass, and height as intermediate explanatory variables. The graphical Markov models showed both direct and indirect associations linking plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations with CSA and vBMD. At the distal tibia, lean mass, height, and adiponectin-UCOC interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.45); at the diaphysis, lean mass, percent fat mass, leptin, osteocalcin, and age-adiponectin interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.49). The regression models exploring direct associations for vBMD were much weaker, with R 2 = 0.15 and 0.18 at the distal and diaphyseal sites, respectively. Lean mass and UCOC were associated, and the global Markov property of the graph indicated that this association was explained by osteocalcin. This study, to our

  2. SPE–UPLC–MS/MS assay for determination of letrozole in human plasma and its application to bioequivalence study in healthy postmenopausal Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin G. Vanol

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS method is described for determination of letrozole in human plasma. Following solid phase extraction (SPE of letrozole and letrozole-d4 on Orochem DVB-LP cartridges, chromatography was performed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column using methanol-0.1% formic acid in water (85:15, v/v as the mobile phase. Detection was carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray source, operated under positive ionization mode. Quantitation of letrozole and letrozole-d4 was done using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM following the transitions at m/z 286.2→217.0 and m/z 290.2→221.0, respectively. The calibration plots were linear through the concentration range of 0.10–100 ng/mL (r2≥0.9990 using 100 µL human plasma. The extraction recovery of letrozole ranged from 94.3% to 96.2% and the intra-batch and inter-batch precision was ≤5.2%. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of letrozole after oral administration of 2.5 mg tablet formulation to 16 healthy postmenopausal Indian women. The assay reproducibility was also established through incurred sample reanalysis (ISR of 74 subject samples.

  3. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  4. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Joseph J; Holick, Michael F; Lerman, Robert H; Konda, Veera R; Minich, Deanna M; Desai, Anuradha; Chen, Tai C; Austin, Melissa; Kornberg, Jacob; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Hsi, Alex; Bland, Jeffrey S; Tripp, Matthew L

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome poses additional risk for postmenopausal women who are already at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesized that a nutritional supplement containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and essential bone nutrients would produce a favorable bone biomarker profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. In this 14-week, randomized trial, 51 women were instructed to consume a modified Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet and to engage in aerobic exercise. Those in the intervention arm (n = 25) additionally received 200 mg hop rho iso-alpha acids, 100 mg berberine sulfate trihydrate, 500 IU vitamin D₃, and 500 μg vitamin K₁ twice daily. Forty-five women completed the study. Baseline nutrient intake did not differ between arms. Compared with baseline, the intervention arm exhibited an approximate 25% mean decrease (P vitamin D₃, and vitamin K₁ produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  6. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Adám

    2004-01-04

    Due to its incidence and clinical consequences osteoporosis followed by vertebral, hip, and forearm fractures represents an outstanding problem of nowadays' health care. Because of its high mortality rate hip fractures are of special interest. The number of fractures caused by postmenopausal osteoporosis increases with age. Costs of examinations and treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and fractures are also increasing and represent a significant amount all over the world. Organization of Osteoporosis Centres in Hungary was founded in 1995 and has been since functioning, however, only the one-sixth of osteoporotic patients are treated. Several risk factors are known in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, first of all the lack of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake, age, genetic factors, and circumstances known to predispose falling. Estrogen deficiency is the most likely cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteodensitometry by DEXA is the most important method to evaluate osteoporosis, since decrease in bone mineral density strongly correlates with fracture incidence. Physical, radiologic, and laboratory examination are also required at the first visit and during follow-up. The quantity of bone can hardly be influenced after the 35th year of age, thus prevention of osteoporosis has special significance: appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, weight-bearing sports and physical activity can prevent fractures. According to the results from studies fulfilling the criteria of evidence-based medicine, first choice treatment of osteoporosis involves hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, the tissue specific tibolone, raloxifen and calcitonin. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are always necessary to be added to any antiporotic treatment. Other combinations of different antiporotic drugs are useless and make the treatment more expensive. Other treatments like massage, physiotherapy, hip-protecting pants, etc. as well as

  7. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  8. Reawakening the Irish Language through the Irish Education System: Challenges and Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Ceallaigh, T. J.; Ní Dhonnabháin, Áine

    2015-01-01

    As a language, Irish is unique to Ireland and is, therefore, of crucial importance to the identity of the Irish people, to Irish culture and to world heritage. The Irish language however has had a turbulent and traumatic history and has endured a complex and varied relationship with the Irish people. Since the foundation of the Irish Free State,…

  9. Irish-Israelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazell, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    This article re-considers the language of racial stereotype that is at the forefront of the “Cyclops” episode in Ulysses. Critics have long characterized the conflict between Leopold Bloom and the Citizen in terms of how each character defines the Irish nation. According to these readings, Bloom’...

  10. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT

  11. Partial dependency parsing for Irish

    OpenAIRE

    Uí Dhonnchadha, Elaine; van Genabith, Josef

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a partial dependency parser for Irish, in which Constraint Grammar (CG) rules are used to annotate dependency relations and grammatical functions in unrestricted Irish text. Chunking is performed using a regular-expression grammar which operates on the dependency tagged sentences. As this is the first implementation of a parser for unrestricted Irish text (to our knowledge), there were no guidelines or precedents available. Therefore deciding what constitutes a syntac...

  12. Irish Baking Book

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ruth Isabel

    1995-01-01

    Published by Gill & Macmillan, Goldenbridge, Dublin 8 in 1995 at a cost of £4.99 Irish pounds.Editorial consultant Roberta Reeners, Illustrations by Tom Brady, Design and print origination by Identikit Design Consultants Dublin, index compiled by Helen Litton, printed by the Guernsey Press Ltd. 98p., 19cm., paperback. Access the publisher's website here http://arrow.dit.ie/irckbooks/1006/thumbnail.jpg

  13. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  14. Effects of consumption of whole grain foods rich in lignans in healthy postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, A; Carcea, M; Adlercreutz, H; Azzini, E; Polito, A; Olivieri, L; Zaccaria, M; Meneghini, C; Maiani, F; Bausano, G; Martiri, F; Samaletdin, A; Fumagalli, A; Raguzzini, A; Venneria, E; Foddai, M S; Ciarapica, D; Mauro, B; Volpe, F; Maiani, G

    2014-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of an experimental period of intake of whole grain foods rich in lignans as part of an habitual diet on the plasma and urinary excretion of enterolignans, the biomarkers of lipid metabolism and the immunological and antioxidant status in a group of postmenopausal women with moderate serum cholesterol. A randomized double-blind crossover study was completed on 13 subjects in 12-weeks after protocol approval of an ethical committee. The subjects consumed whole grain foods high in lignans (30 g/d of breakfast cereals or biscuits, etc., 80 g/d of whole grain pasta) or refined grain foods for 4 weeks, separated by a 2-weeks wash-out period. A modest hypocholesterolemic effect (p < 0.05) of the whole grain diet was observed and the intake of whole grain products rich in lignans was also associated with an increase in urinary enterodiol excretion (p < 0.05).

  15. The other "Irish question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, H

    1992-05-01

    The influence of the Roman Catholic Church on Irish society makes it difficult for sex and health educators and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Divorce, abortion, consensual sex between consenting adult men, and contraception for those under 18 years is banned in Ireland. Public opinions and recent court decisions do appear to bring a measure of hope for more lenient attitudes. The trends vary from the recent Supreme Court case of the 14-year old rape victim being permitted an abortion because she was suicidal to a radio talk show host, Father Michael Cleary who suspected she was "set-up" to test the ban on abortion. Father Cleary also outraged health educators by stating inaccurately that condoms did not prevent AIDS. It is estimated that 500 Irish women have abortions each year in Britain; there have been 262 reported AIDS cases and estimates of up to 10,000 HIV infected out of a population of 3.5 million. An AIDS education campaign was mounted in 1987, but in the 37-minute Department of Health video only 1 minute was devoted to condoms and no sex was promoted as the only safe sex. Access is limited to consenting pharmacies and clinics for people 18 years of older; rural chemists may exercise discretion and refuse sales. In 1991, the government proposed lowering the age to 17 years for condom availability and assigning the regional health boards, the responsibility of determining who sells contraceptives. A university lecturer reported that inaction on this bill was close to "criminal inactivity." Challenges in February 1991 were made by the Irish Family Planning Association (IFPA) in setting up a condom sales kiosk in Dublin. The IFPA was fined, but opinion polls indicated that 57% supported condom availability for 16 year olds. On Valentines Day in 1992, condom vending machines, which are illegal, were installed in pubs and nightclubs, police action has been cautious. A new health minister is concerned about AIDS prevention and the republic's first woman President

  16. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  17. Nature tourism and Irish film

    OpenAIRE

    Brereton, Pat

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview and reading of seminal Irish film from the perspective of nature tourism. Within Irish cultural studies, tourism is frequently equated with an overly romantic image of the island, which has been used to sell the country abroad. However, using notions like the tourist gaze and taking on board influential debates around space/place, one can posit a more progressive environmental vision of nature and landscape in our readings of film.

  18. Florence Nightingale and Irish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    To challenge statements made about 'Careful Nursing' as a 'distinctive system' of nursing established by the Irish Sisters of Mercy, prior to Florence Nightingale, and which is said to have influenced her. Numerous publications have appeared claiming the emergence of a 'distinctive system' of nursing as 'Ireland's legacy to nursing', which, it is claimed, influenced Nightingale's system. One paper argues that the Irish system has its philosophical roots in Thomist philosophy. Several papers argue the ongoing relevance of the Irish system, not Nightingale's, for contemporary nursing theory and practice. Nightingale's influence on and legacy to Irish nursing are not acknowledged. A Discursive paper. Archival and published sources were used to compare the nursing systems of Florence Nightingale and the Irish Sisters of Mercy, with particular attention to nursing during the Crimean War. Claims were challenged of a 'distinctive system' of nursing established by the Irish Sisters of Mercy in the early nineteenth century, and of its stated influence on the nursing system of Florence Nightingale. The contention of great medical satisfaction with the 'distinctive' system is refuted with data showing that the death rate at the Koulali Hospital, where the Irish sisters nursed, was the highest of all the British war hospitals during the Crimean War. Profound differences between the two systems are outlined. Claims for a 'distinctive' Irish system of nursing fail for lack of evidence. Nightingale's principles and methods, as they evolved over the first decade of her school's work, remain central to nursing theory and practice. Nightingale's insistence on respect for patients and high ethical standards remains relevant to practice no less so as specific practices change with advances in medical knowledge and practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors

    2006-01-01

    Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density....... We analyzed dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) from 872 women, who participated in the non-HRT arms of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study and had remained on no HRT, bisphosphonates or raloxifene since inclusion 10 years ago. We defined...... development of a T -score below -2.5 at the LS and/or FN or incident fracture as end-point, and we derived prognostic thresholds for baseline BMD, defining 90% NPV (negative predictive value) and 90% sensitivity, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the variation in BMD of the LS at 10 years was predicted...

  20. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors

    2006-01-01

    Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density....... We analyzed dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) from 872 women, who participated in the non-HRT arms of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study and had remained on no HRT, bisphosphonates or raloxifene since inclusion 10 years ago. We defined...... development of a T -score below -2.5 at the LS and/or FN or incident fracture as end-point, and we derived prognostic thresholds for baseline BMD, defining 90% NPV (negative predictive value) and 90% sensitivity, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the variation in BMD of the LS at 10 years was predicted...

  1. Irish treebanking and parsing: a preliminary evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Teresa; Cetinoglu, Ozlem; Foster, Jennifer; Uí Dhonnchadha, Elaine; Dras, Mark; van Genabith, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Language resources are essential for linguistic research and the development of NLP applications. Low- density languages, such as Irish, therefore lack significant research in this area. This paper describes the early stages in the development of new language resources for Irish – namely the first Irish dependency treebank and the first Irish statistical dependency parser. We present the methodology behind building our new treebank and the steps we take to leverage upon the few existing resou...

  2. The Irish Maritime Transport Economist Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Office, Irish Maritime Development

    2006-01-01

    The Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) of the Marine Institute publishes the Irish Maritime Transport Economist each year to provide a descriptive statistical analysis of the Irish ports and shipping services sector, as well as the many factors influencing its performance.

  3. The Irish Maritime Transport Economist Volume 4

    OpenAIRE

    Office, Irish Maritime Development

    2007-01-01

    The Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO) of the Marine Institute publishes the Irish Maritime Transport Economist each year to provide a descriptive statistical analysis of the Irish ports and shipping services sector, as well as the many factors influencing its performance.

  4. The core faecal bacterial microbiome of Irish Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donnell, M M; Harris, H M B; Jeffery, I B; Claesson, M J; Younge, B; O' Toole, P W; Ross, R P

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we characterized the gut microbiota in six healthy Irish thoroughbred racehorses and showed it to be dominated by the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Fibrobacteres and Spirochaetes. Moreover, all the horses harboured Clostridium, Fibrobacter, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Oscillospira, Blautia Anaerotruncus, Coprococcus, Treponema and Lactobacillus spp. Notwithstanding the sample size, it was noteworthy that the core microbiota species assignments identified Fibrobacter succinogenes, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, Eubacterium hallii, Eubacterium ruminantium, Oscillospira guillermondii, Sporobacter termiditis, Lactobacillus equicursoris, Treponema parvum and Treponema porcinum in all the horses. This is the first study of the faecal microbiota in the Irish thoroughbred racehorse, a significant competitor in the global bloodstock industry. The information gathered in this pilot study provides a foundation for veterinarians and other equine health-associated professionals to begin to analyse the microbiome of performance of racehorses. This study and subsequent work may lead to alternate dietary approaches aimed at minimizing the risk of microbiota-related dysbiosis in these performance animals. Although Irish thoroughbreds are used nationally and internationally as performance animals, very little is known about the core faecal microbiota of these animals. This is the first study to characterize the bacterial microbiota present in the Irish thoroughbred racehorse faeces and elucidate a core microbiome irrespective of diet, animal management and geographical location. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  6. Constituency Orientation in Irish Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The constituency orientation of Irish politicians is a recurring topic in Irish political science. Its analysis has predominantly focused on TDs. This article uses a content analysis of candidate video statements in the general election 2016 in order to assess the strength of constituency...... this pattern, indicated by the weak constituency orientation in Dublin and Cork constituencies. Results also indicate differences between parties and some political statuses, while the gender of the candidates is of no relevance. Although the material does not permit a clear distinction between effects...... of political culture and short-term considerations, taken together the results indicate that localism in Irish politics matters, but in more complicated ways than usually depicted....

  7. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  8. Profiling vocabulary acquisition in Irish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and semantically rich prepositions. This study used a parent report adapted for Irish, to measure vocabulary development longitudinally for children aged between 1,04 and 3,04. The findings indicated that the children learned closed-class words at relatively smaller vocabulary sizes compared to children acquiring other languages, and had a strong preference for nouns.

  9. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  10. Entangled geographies of "Irish" finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper dissects the financial crisis through an analysis of financial development in Ireland. Although a single system, Irish finance is split in two. Illustrative of national financial developments, this paper details how public officials aimed to create a financial center in Cork. Exemplifying

  11. Correlation between bone mineral density and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects large fraction of elderly women. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in its pathogenesis. The scarcity of human studies focusing on the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD and OS in postmenopausal women has prompted us to study on this issue. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in 95 subjects, between 21-65 years of age, including postmenopausal osteoporotic females (n = 35, healthy postmenopausal females (n = 30 and healthy females in reproductive age group (n = 30. We measured serum antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and total antioxidant power (TAP. BMD was obtained at lumbar spine and femur neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results: Serum GPx, SOD, catalase and TAP level were found significantly lower in osteoporotic postmenopausal group as compared to healthy postmenopausal women and women in healthy reproductive age group healthy reproductive women (P 0.005. Conclusion: These findings support that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We did not find any significant association between BMD and serum level of antioxidants (P > 0.05. The failure to detect this association does not preclude the role of OS in osteoporosis because OS is complex and dynamic process.

  12. Eating and drinking habits of young London-based Irish men: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Aidan; Ciclitira, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London about their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using combined thematic and discourse analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for not adopting healthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking. Views about the status of different foods also affected their eating habits: they considered red mea...

  13. Pinworms and postmenopausal bleeding.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Rufaie, H K; Rix, G H; Pérez Clemente, M P; al-Shawaf, T

    1998-01-01

    The human pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is normally found within the human gastrointestinal tract. Pregnant females migrate out of their host's anus at night to lay their eggs perianally. As a consequence of this nocturnal migration some worms find their way into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract, producing irritative symptoms such as vulvovaginitis. A case of pinworm infestation of the uterus presented as postmenopausal bleeding.

  14. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  15. Music Therapy Through Irish Eyes: A Student Therapist’s Experience of Irish Traditional Music

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines my personal experience of Irish traditional music and considers how it can inform music therapy practice. The use of Irish music may be particularly meaningful for some clients and help them connect with their culture and identity. Music therapy can also draw on specific features; including the melodic, rhythmic and social aspects of the music. The melody is prominent in Irish traditional music, and its expression is very important. The word draíoght (meaning "spell" or ...

  16. ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2008-12-01

    Scientific studies and clinical experiences have not provided until now the answers to thequestion: »Whom to treat, when, why and for how long should androgens be used for HRTin postmenopausal women?«

  17. Irish Intercultural Cinema: Memory, Identity and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray, Enda Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irish intercultural cinema looks at the development of a cinematic genre which focuses on issues of Irish migrancy but is produced outside of Ireland. This paper has as its focus the cultural landscape of Irish-Australia. The essay uses methodologies of ethnographic and documentary theory plus textual analysis of film and written texts to establish a throughline of Irish intercultural film. The essay begins by contextualising the place of the Irish diaspora within the creation of Irish identity globally. The discussion around migrancy is widened to consider the place of memory and intergenerational tensions within not just the Irish migrant population, but also within the diverse cultures which comprise the contemporary Australian landscape. The historical development of intercultural cinema is then explored internationally within a context of colonial, gender and class struggles in the 1970s and1980s. The term intercultural cinema has its origins in the Third Cinema of Argentinians Solanas and Getino in the 1970s and covers those films which deal with issues involving two countries or cultures. The term was refined by Laura Marks in 2000 and further developed by Hamid Naficy in 2001 in his discussion of accented cinema which narrows its definition to include the politics of production. The paper then traces the development of Irish intercultural cinema from its beginnings in England in the 1970s with Thaddeus O'Sullivan through to Nicola Bruce and others including Enda Murray in the present day. The essay concludes by bringing these various strands together to see where intercultural film might have a place in today's globalised cultural landscape. Common traits within intercultural film such as the notion of place, autobiographical film and personal identity are explored using examples of intercultural filmmaking from around the globe. These commonalities point to a way forward for the future of a sustainable multicultural film culture.

  18. Corned Beef: an Enigmatic Irish Dish

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    Corned beef and cabbage, which is consumed in America in large quantities each Saint Patrick’s Day (17th March), is considered by most Americans to be the ultimate Irish dish. However, corned beef and cabbage is seldom eaten in modern day Ireland. It is widely reported that Irish immigrants replaced their beloved bacon and cabbage with corned beef and cabbage when they arrived in America, drawing on the corned beef supplied by their neighbouring Jewish butchers, but not all commentators beli...

  19. Irish Corned Beef: A Culinary History

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes that a better knowledge of culinary history enriches all culinary stakeholders. The article will discuss the origins and history of corned beef in Irish cuisine and culture. It outlines how cattle have been central to the ancient Irish way of life for centuries, but were cherished more for their milk than their meat. In the early modern period, with the decline in the power of the Gaelic lords, cattle became and economic commodity that was exported to England. The Cattle...

  20. Forecasting Irish Inflation: A Composite Leading Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Terry; Mawdsley, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into the construction of a composite leading indicator of the Irish rate of inflation, as measured by the annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). It follows the work of Fagan and Fell (1994) who applied the business cycle leading indicator methodology, initially established by Mitchell and Burns (1938,1946), to construct a composite leading indicator of the Irish business cycle.

  1. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  2. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis.

  3. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis. PMID:3628144

  4. Effect of microdose transdermal 17beta-estradiol compared with raloxifene in the prevention of bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women: a 2-year, randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefers, Matthias; Muysers, Christoph; Alexandersen, Peter; Christiansen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Declining estrogen levels after menopause result in bone loss and increased fracture risk. This study investigated whether transdermal microdose 17beta-estradiol (E2) has efficacy and safety comparable to those of raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study involved a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trial in 500 osteopenic postmenopausal women comparing transdermal microdose E2 (0.014 mg/d) versus oral raloxifene (60 mg/d), administered for 2 years. Percent change from baseline in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was measured after 2 years of treatment. Secondary endpoints included proportion of women with no loss of bone mineral density in lumbar spine, change in bone mineral density at hip, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and safety parameters. In the per protocol set, lumbar spine bone mineral density increased by 2.4% (95% CI, 1.9-2.9) with microdose E2 versus 3.0% (95% CI, 2.5-3.5) with raloxifene after 2 years; 77.3% of E2 recipients and 80.5% of those taking raloxifene had no bone loss in the lumbar spine. Both treatments were well tolerated. Most women (99% in the E2 group and 100% in the raloxifene group) showed no histological evidence of endometrial stimulation after 2 years. Mean dense area in breast mammograms was 19.8% in the E2 group versus 19.0% in the raloxifene group after 2 years. Transdermal microdose E2 was similarly effective as raloxifene in preventing bone loss at the lumbar spine. Both treatments were well tolerated, with no clinically significant effect on endometrium or breast density.

  5. Pharmacokinetic and tolerability of i.m. disodium clodronate 200 mg/lidocaine 1%, given twice monthly, in comparison with i.m. disodium clodronate 100 mg/lidocaine 1%, given weekly, in healthy postmenopausal female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicioni, Milko; Cremonesi, Giovanni; Baraldi, Enrica; Leuratti, Chiara; Mariotti, Fabrizia

    2013-04-01

    Clodronate is a bisphosphonate effective in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Non-adherence to bisphosphonates, however, is a major issue in clinical practice. Simplifying dose regimens may increase compliance. To assess bioequivalence between an intramuscular (i.m.) clodronate 200 mg/lidocaine 1% twice-a-month formulation and a clodronate 100 mg/lidocaine 1% weekly formulation in 32 postmenopausal women. In this double-blind, randomized, two-way crossover study, test and reference formulations were administered in single dose, with a 2-week wash-out between administrations. The primary endpoint was clodronic acid cumulative excretion in the first 24 hours after injection (Xu0-24h). Cumulative excretion in the 72 hours post-dose (Xu0-72h) and maximum excretion rate (Ratemax) were also evaluated. Bioequivalence was assumed if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric means ratios of the dose-normalized parameters were within the 80.00 - 125.00% range. Local tolerability was evaluated. Mean Xu0-24h values were 114.03 ±23.13 mg and 55.22 ±9.73 mg for clodronate 200 mg and 100 mg. The 90% CIs for dose-normalized Xu0-24h, Xu0-72h and Ratemax ere 95 -110%, 94 -107% and 95 - 113%. Local tolerability of both treatments was good. The differences in pain intensity between formulations were not sigificantly different at most assessment times. Headache was the only treatment-related adverse event. Bioequivalence of the two formulations was confirmed in terms of dose-normalized rate and amount of clodronic acid excretion. This result, together with the favorable tolerability of the novel 200 mg formulation, suggests the possibility of reducing the number of i.m. administrations from once-a-week to twice-a-month.

  6. Horslips in Irish Musical and Literary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Murphy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the literary impact of a musical electric-folk band. Horslips combined psychedelic, and hard rock with Irish traditional motifs and Celtic narrative themes. Spanning the decade from 1970 to 1980, their success and decline followed the trajectory of the countercultural movement, which came late to Ireland. The band’s revival of mythic characters and historical events drawn from the Irish past attracted fans from all over the island, as well as the diaspora; many young people gained an appreciation of their Irish heritage for the first time, as Horslips became the first electric folk-rock band to fuse disparate genres, and to succeed as an Irish-based independent collective who controlled the graphics, marketing, distribution, and promotion of their music. They inspired the likes of U2 and the Irish punk and new-wave rock musicians who followed them, and without the pioneering efforts of Horslips, Irish music and culture today may never have reached its current success, three decades later.

  7. An Irish Revolution Without A Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Beatty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a conventional view among Irish historians that a revolution occurred in that country between the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill of 1912 and the end of the Civil War in 1923.  The violence of those years, the collapse in support for the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP, the meteoric rise to power of Sinn Féin, a new sense of meritocracy, a greater sense of democracy and a widespread radicalism; all are seen as elements of a major change in Irish politics and life, a ‘Revolution.’  Drawing on Gramsci's notion of a “revolution without a revolution”, this paper seeks to understand the events in Ireland of 1912-23, not as a sudden rupture with the past but as the culmination of a much longer period of (often British-backed capitalist development in post-Famine Ireland. This paper argues that Irish nationalist politics in the decades before 1912 is better understood via categories such as class, gender, capitalism and the pervasive power of the British state.  As such, as well as pursuing a reassessment of the project of Irish historical development and state-building, this paper also seeks a reassessment of the project of (an equally statist Irish historiography.

  8. Ascorbic acid selectively improves large elastic artery compliance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Kerrie L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Plum, Angela E; Seals, Douglas R

    2005-06-01

    The compliance of large elastic arteries in the cardiothoracic region decreases with advancing age/menopause and plays an important role in the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. We determined whether oxidative stress contributes to the reduced large elastic artery compliance of postmenopausal women. Carotid artery compliance was measured during acute intravenous infusions of saline (baseline control) and supraphysiological doses of the potent antioxidant ascorbic acid in premenopausal (n=10; 23+/-1; mean+/-SE) and estrogen-deficient postmenopausal (n=21; 55+/-1 years) healthy sedentary women. Carotid artery compliance was 56% lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women during baseline control (PAscorbic acid infusion increased carotid artery compliance by 26% in postmenopausal women (1.11+/-0.07 to 1.38+/-0.08 mm2/mm Hgx10(-1); Pascorbic acid. In the pooled population, the change in arterial compliance with ascorbic acid correlated with baseline waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.56; P=0.001), plasma norepinephrine (r=0.58; P=0.001), and LDL cholesterol (r=0.54; P=0.001). These results suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mechanism contributing to the reduced large elastic artery compliance of sedentary, estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Increased abdominal fat storage, sympathetic nervous system activity, and LDL cholesterol may be mechanistically involved in oxidative stress-associated suppression of arterial compliance in postmenopausal women.

  9. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  10. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  11. Study on reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with estriol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Zhou Zhenli; Zhou Jiwen; Li Xin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with ultralente estriol for 3 years. Methods: Serum levels of six reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, T, E 2 , P) were measured with RIA in 1) 136 normal 1-5yrs post-menopausal women 2) 48 post-menopausal women treated with estriol for 3 years 3) 131 healthy women of child-bearing age during follicular and luteal phases. Results: Serum levels of the six reproductive hormones in women of child-bearing age at both follicular and luteal phases were significantly different from those in post-menopausal women (p 2 , P and T levels were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum reproductive hormones assay is important for monitoring hormone replacement therapy in aging women

  12. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  13. A Survey of Tritium in Irish Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currivan, L.; Kelleher, K.; McGinnity, P.; Wong, J.; McMahon, C.

    2013-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive record of the study and measurements of tritium in Irish seawater undertaken by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII. The majority of the samples analysed were found to have tritium concentrations below the limit of detection and a conservative assessment of radiation dose arising showed a negligible impact to the public. Tritium is discharged in large quantities from various nuclear facilities, and mostly in liquid form. For this reason it is included in the list of radioactive substances of interest to the OSPAR (Oslo-Paris) Convention to protect the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. To fulfil its role within OSPAR, to provide technical support to the Irish Government, RPII carried out a project to determine the levels of tritium in seawater from around the Irish coast to supplement its routine marine monitoring programme. A total of 85 seawater samples were collected over a three year period and analysed at the RPII's laboratory. Given that the operational discharges for tritium from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, UK, are expected to increase due to current and planned decommissioning activities RPII will continue to monitor tritium levels in seawater around the Irish coast, including the Irish Sea, as part of its routine marine monitoring programme

  14. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmozherova, N V; Popov, A A

    2008-01-01

    assessment of frequency of obesity and comorbidities in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). cross-sectional study included 243 postmenopausal symptomatic women with OP diagnosed by dual energy lumbar spine absorptiometry. normal body mass was found in 74 women (30.5%), 105 persons (43.2%) had overweight and 64 patients (26.3%) were obese. Obese OP patients had significantly higherfrequency of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, osteoarthritis and glucose metabolism disorders than those with normal body mass. Obese persons also had more severe menopausal symptoms than women with normal body mass. There was no difference in non-traumatic fractures between obese, overweight and slim patients. Thus, postmenopausal OP in obese women was associated with numerous comorbidities and more severe menopausal symptoms.

  15. CULTURAL NATIONALISM AND THE IRISH LITERARY REVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pierce

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of cultural nationalism on the Insh Literary Revival is a topic of continuing interest for the cultural critic and literary historian alike. In recent years, with the Fa11 of the Berlin Wall, political scientists and others, suchas A.D. Smith, Ernest Gellner, and E.J. Hobsbawm, have also focused on the subject of nationalism. The intention here in this article is to revisit a familiar site in the light of these new ideas and to test their validity or appropriateness in the Irish context. The article, part of a larger project to be published in 2003 by Polity Press under the title A Cultural History of Twentieth-Century Irish Literature, is divided into 5 sections: What ish my Nation?; What is a Nation?; Do Nations Have Navels?; 1890s: Winds of Change; English As We Speak It In Ireland. Among Irish authors discussed are Hyde, Shaw. Yeats, Wilde, Lady Gregory, Joyce, and Beckett.

  16. Universal precautions--do Irish anaesthetists comply?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Rourke, N

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Anaesthetists are at high risk from blood-borne pathogens. Universal Precautions (UP) include the routine use of appropriate barrier precautions and techniques to reduce the likelihood of exposure to blood, body fluids and tissues that may contain pathogens. The compliance of Irish anaesthetists with these precautions has not been studied. AIM: To study the attitudes of Irish anaesthetists to Universal Precautions. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was sent to 210 anaesthetists currently practising in Ireland. The questionnaire was based on a model used in Australia and New Zealand. RESULTS: There was a 50% response rate to the survey. Only 15% of respondents had taken a risk history from a patient in the preceding four weeks. Resheathing of needles was commonplace. The effectiveness of hepatitis B immunisation was rarely checked and only 66% of respondents believe implementation of Universal Precautions to be practical. CONCLUSION: Irish anaesthetists comply poorly with Universal Precautions.

  17. Plasma leptin values in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Hikmet; Bal, Serpil; Atay, Ayşenur; Koseoglu, Mehmet; Gurgan, Alev

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has a protective effect against osteoporosis and this effect has been attributed to a high body fat content. It has been shown that the leptin concentration is higher in obese patients. Leptin, the protein product of obesity gene, is a hormone produced in adipose tissue. Some studies suggest that endogenous leptin might influence bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated plasma leptin concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and also analyzed the relationship between plasma leptin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in order to understand the potential role of leptin in maintaining bone mass. Forty-two postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and thirty seven age and BMI-matched healthy postmenopausal women were included in the study. The mean femoral neck BMD value in the patient group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.691±0.1 g/cm2 and 0.863±0.1 g/cm2, respectively; p0.05). Plasma leptin levels were correlated with BMI in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p=0.001 in controls). There was also a strong positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and %fat in both groups (p<0.001 in the patient group and p<0.001 in controls). But there was no correlation between plasma leptin levels and femoral neck BMD values in both groups. Our results do not support the hypothesis that leptin itself plays an important role in maintaining bone mass in postmenopausal women.

  18. Critical review of health effects of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, A.; Albertazzi, P.; Nielsen, I. L.

    2006-01-01

    or extracts, supplements or pure compounds. A comprehensive literature search was conducted with well-defined inclusion or exclusion criteria. For areas for which substantial research exists only placebo-controlled double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCT) conducted on healthy post-menopausal women were...... to reach conclusions on the effects of isoflavones on breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes or cognitive function. The health benefits of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in healthy post-menopausal women are subtle and even some well-designed studies do not show protective effects. Future studies should focus...... on high-risk post-menopausal women, especially in the areas of diabetes, CVD, breast cancer and bone health....

  19. Technetium-99 in the Irish marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Ryan, T.P

    2001-07-01

    Technetium-99 activity concentrations in seawater and biota from Irish coastal waters are presented. Time series measurements of {sup 99}Tc in seawater and Fucus vesiculosus from the western Irish Sea show that activity concentrations have increased in line with the increase in discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield. The peak in activity concentrations in both seawater and Fucus vesiculosus occurred in 1997 approximately two years after the peak in {sup 99}Tc discharges. The highest activity concentration recorded in Fucus vesiculosus showed a 29-fold increase over the mean concentration for the period 1988-1993. Technetium-99 activity concentrations were measured in fish, lobsters, prawns, mussels and oysters landed at major fishing ports on the east and northeast coasts of Ireland between 1996 and 1998. Concentration factors for {sup 99}Tc in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and certain species of fish, crustaceans and molluscs from the Irish Sea were estimated. In general, these concentration factors were higher than those in the literature which were derived from laboratory studies, but agreed well with values which were based on field studies. The mean committed effective doses to Irish typical and heavy seafood consumers due to {sup 99}Tc in the period 1996-1998 were 0.061 and 0.24 {mu}Sv, respectively.

  20. Strategic Planning and Accountability in Irish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Jim; O Donnabhain, Diarmaid

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the New Public Management culture on Irish education and calls for a debate in relation to the prevailing bureaucratic model of accountability. The influence of the Lisbon Agenda (2000) on education planning is identified and the 2005/7 Education Strategy Statement is analysed using the relevant OECD framework.…

  1. Radiological mass screening in the Irish Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mass chest screening was first introduced to Ireland in the late 1940's. Routine mammography has never been used in the Irish Republic. For some years it has been customary to carry our routine clinical screening for congenital dislocation of hips on new born babies. Pre-- employment and pre- surgery x-ray screening were also being practiced

  2. Ecocriticism and Irish Poetry A Preliminary Outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Mc Elroy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a brief thumbnail sketch of how Irish poetry has situated “nature” inside its competing narrative forms. Beginning with Irish poetry’s earliest lyrics and concluding with some of Ireland’s most recent, and most experimental, writers, the goal of the piece is to introduce some rudimentary eco-critical theory as a means of better understanding how nature acts as a complex cultural and political semiotic, so often overlooked, in Irish literature. En route, the article examines and in part deconstructs those critical categories that have often divided Irish literature into two distinct ecological camps: the picturesque (read colonialist/tourist and the oral (read native/indigenous. The article also considers the importance of ecofeminist theory and asks how critics might better read Ireland’s women poets as nature poets in their own right. In closing, the piece turns its attention to a number of recent poets, both men and women, who have exceeded the picturesque/oral divide and now require eco-alternative readings of nature as we enter the second decade of the 21st Century.

  3. Irradiation could help Irish food processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Edward

    1985-01-01

    The applications of irradiation processing in the food industry are reviewed, and the present situation in Ireland outlined. The caution of legislators, choice of product labelling and consumer acceptance are seen as major factors in the adoption of this technology by Irish industry, although at least two concerns are considering setting up a service facility near Dublin

  4. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, Birgitte; Suetta, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON). METH...

  5. 'HAs fail to consult Irish people in UK'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Health authorities are failing to consult local people on their health needs, a conference on the mental health of Irish people living in the UK heard last week. Consulting Irish people was often only 'symbolic', despite the requirements of the NHS and Community Care Act, conference Chair Padraic Kenna, Director of Innisfree Housing Association, told delegates. 'The Irish caught the boat in the 1950s only to miss the boat ever since,' he said.

  6. The Impact of Oil Prices on Irish Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Derry; Weymes, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Oil prices have been characterised by large fluctuations in recent years. Strong volatility in oil prices has important implications for the Irish economy as Ireland has a relatively poor fuel endowment and relies heavily on imported oil. Energy price increases have been one of the principal drivers behind HICP inflation rates in Ireland in recent years. This article highlights the distinctive features of the Irish energy market which render the impact of oil price changes on Irish inflation ...

  7. Irish Culinary Manuscripts and Printed Books:a Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Cashman, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of Irish Culinary Manuscripts and Printed Cookbooks. It covers Gaelic hospitality and aristocratic hospitality, setting the background for the Anglo-Irish households from which many manuscripts emerge. It charts the growing sources of information on Irish culinary history. It outlines Barbara Wheaton's framework for reading historic cookbooks and discusses the growing manuscript cookbook collection in the National Library of Ireland.

  8. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, J.; Currivan, L.

    1990-06-01

    This report represents the results of the Board's monitoring of radioactivity levels in the Irish marine environment during 1987. The principal objective of the monitoring programme is to obtain estimates of radiation doses to the Irish public arising from caesium-137 and caesium 134, the main contaminating radionuclides. Estimates are presented of the radiation doses to the Irish public arising from the consumption of fish and shellfish contaminated with radiocaesium

  9. Periodontal Status of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Melkumyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Material and Methods: We examined 43 postmenopausal women aged from 55 to 74 years. Material assessment of bones in every patient was performed by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from two points on the skeleton – part of the femur neck and between the first and fourth lumbar vertebrae. A lipid blood test was done for patients of both groups. All patients were divided into two groups (the 1st with osteopenia, and the 2nd with osteoporosis. All patients were subjected to an oral clinical examination: the periodontal examination was composed of Plaque Index (PI, Pocket Score (PS, and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI. X-ray analysis was performed for every patient. Results: The results of the clinical periodontal examination demonstrated that the mean PBI in patients in the 1st group had no significant differences from the PBI in patients in the 2nd group. PI value and PS findings in patients with general osteoporosis also had no statistical differences from the same parameters in patients with osteopenia. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of these patients’ characteristics and within the limits of the present study, we concluded that there is no significant difference in the periodontal status of postmenopausal women with systemic osteopenia and with osteoporosis.

  10. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, M.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; Smith, V.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2008-10-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in 2007. This programme aims to assess the exposure of the Irish population to artificial radioactivity in the envorinment, to review the temporal and geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides and to maintain systems and procedures which would allow a rapid assessment of environmental contamination to be made in the event of a radiological emergency. In additiopn, some natural radioactivity exposure pathways are included in the programme including radioactivity in surface and ground drinking water. Radioactivity is present in the environment due to natural oprocesses, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, past nuclear accidents such as that at Chernobyl in the Ukraine and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. Liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Group reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the north-west of England continue to be the dominant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment. The key elements of the monitoring programme implemented by the RPII in 2007 included; assessment of ambient radioactivity based on measurements of radioactivity in air and of external gamma dose rate at permanent monitoring stations located throughout the country; assessment of levels of radioactivity in drinking water; assessment of levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs based on measurements of total diet, milk and various ingredients; assessment of levels of radioactivity in the Irish marine environment based on sampling and measurement of seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. The RPII monitored airborne radioactivity at twelve stations located throughout the country. One of these stations is equipped with a high volume sampler, which allows background concentrations of caesium-137 to be measured; another is equipped to

  11. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.; Dowdall, A; Fegan, M.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McEvoy, I.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2007-10-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in 2006. This programme aims to assess the exposure of the Irish population to artificial radioactivity in the environment, to review the temporal and geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides and to maintain systems and procedures which would allow a rapid assessment of environmental contamination to be made in the event of a radiological emergency. Radioactivity is present in the environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, past nuclear accidents such as that at Chernobyl in Ukraine and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. Liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Group reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the north-west of England, which are licensed by the UK Environment Agency, continue to be the dominant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment. The key elements of the monitoring programme implemented by the RPII in 2006 included; assessment of ambient radioactivity based on measurements of radioactivity in air and of external gamma dose rate at permanent monitoring stations located throughout the country; assessment of levels of radioactivity in drinking water; assessment of levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs based on measurements of total diet, milk and various ingredients; assessment of levels of radioactivity in the Irish marine environment based on sampling and measurement of seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. The RPII monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations located throughout the country. One of these stations is equipped with a high volume sampler, which allows concentrations of caesium-137 to be measured; another is equipped to detect the presence of the gas krypton-85. This gas is released into the environment primarily as a result of the

  12. Currents in the Eastern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Low level radioactive waste is discharged from the nuclear re-processing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria. Its movement away from the discharge point is determined by the Irish Sea's dynamics, both for the soluble compounds and for those compounds which become attached to the sediment. Near Sellafield the tidal currents are weak and parallel to the shore, becoming stronger east/west to the north and south of the Isle of Man. Wind driven currents near Sellafield are predominantly north-westward, strongest near the coast, and oppose the other low frequency currents. Hence, the soluble effluent will initially be dispersed parallel to the shore by the weak tidal currents, moving episodically, southeastward during weak winds and northwestward during storms. Eventually it will leave the Irish Sea, flowing northward through the North Channel. (author)

  13. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Post-menopausal hormone replacement (HRT) might protect against cardiovascular disease, possibly by arterial vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Progestogens are needed to avoid endometrial disease but vascular effects are controversial. The objective was to assess temporal changes...... in blood pressure (BP) by two measurement techniques during a cyclic hormone replacement regimen. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy and normotensive post-menopausal women (age 55 +/- 3 years) were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, and were randomized to 17beta-oestradiol plus...

  14. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane PA; O'Dowd, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT)...

  15. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    ALLWRIGHT, SHANE PATRICIA ANN; DARKER, CATHERINE; BARRY, JOSEPH; O'DOWD, THOMAS

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods: This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of ...

  16. Who is the Populist Irish Voter?

    OpenAIRE

    Reidy, Theresa; Suiter, Jane

    2017-01-01

    read before the Society, 20 April 2017; Symposium 2016-2017: Globalisation, Inequality and the Rise of Populism Across the EU, the Great Recession begot economic and political crisis heralding a renewed march towards populism and party system fragmentation. Much commentary about Ireland remarked on the absence of a populist surge of the type seen in many other bailout states (Clifford, 2016; Pappas, 2015). But is this characterization of the Irish experience accurate? The imposition of aus...

  17. Strategic Planning in Irish Quantity Surveying Pracitces

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Roisin

    2011-01-01

    The role and usefulness of strategic planning has been well documented over several decades of strategic management research. Despite the significant body of existing knowledge in the field of strategic planning, there remains a paucity of investigation into the construction sector, specifically in Professional Service Firms (PSF’s) operating within it. The aim of this research was to ascertain the type, scope and extent of strategic planning within Irish Quantity Surveying (QS) practices and...

  18. Institutional Design and Irish Political Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    Part of Symposium: Resolving Ireland's Fiscal Crisis (read before the Society, 26th November 2009) The financial and economic crisis that erupted in 2008 exposed significant weaknesses in Irish decision-making and policy implementing processes. In contrast with other European countries in the grip of crisis, the political system was not fundamentally challenged and the incumbent government held onto power. But confidence in government?s capacity to respond adequately fell to historically l...

  19. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted.

  20. Aerobic exercise training lowers platelet reactivity and improves platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg Slingsby, Martina Helena; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of atherothrombotic events increases after menopause. Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce platelet reactivity in younger women, but it is unknown how regular exercise affects platelet function after menopause. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of regular aerobic...... exercise in late pre- and recent postmenopausal women by testing basal platelet reactivity and platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin and nitric oxide. METHODS: 25 sedentary, but healthy, late premenopausal and 24 matched recently postmenopausal women, mean (95% confidence interval) 49.1 (48.2-49.9) and 53...... postmenopausal women, platelet reactivity was tested ex vivo after femoral arterial infusion of prostacyclin, acetylcholine, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and after acute one-leg knee extensor exercise. RESULTS: Basal platelet reactivity (%aggregation) to TRAP-6(1μM) was higher in the postmenopausal; 59% (50...

  1. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  2. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. PMID:29354612

  3. Investment in Edification: Reflections on Irish Education Policy since Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Muiris

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with a historical review of Irish education policy since the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, this paper focuses on the issue of investment in education through the lens of the "Investment in Education" report. Following this historical review, the author explores how the legacy of the past continues to define the…

  4. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

  5. Contemporary Irish identity on the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Ryzewski, Krysta; Cherry, John F

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the island of Montserrat has been noticeably repositioning itself within the Caribbean as a place with a unique Irish heritage. Using the tag-line ‘the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean’, there has been an explicit attempt to evoke images of a verdant, green island with a long Irish...

  6. Is Bank Finance the Achilles' Heel of Irish SMEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Dermot; Flynn, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to examine the implications of new banking regulations (Basel II) for the Irish SME sector. Training gaps are identified and recommendations to advance social capital networks are provided. Design/methodology/approach: The Irish SME dependence on external (bank) finance and their susceptibility to…

  7. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  8. Host Students' Perspectives of Intercultural Contact in an Irish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Ciaran

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of international students in Ireland and the lack of attention afforded to host culture students in existing research on intercultural relations in higher education, a grounded theory study was conducted in an Irish university exploring host (Irish) students' perspectives on intercultural contact. The study focused on…

  9. Irish International Cultural and Educational Exchange: Two Models for Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy.......An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy....

  10. Travellers and Cowboys: Myths of the Irish West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    The recent Irish film "Into the West" (1992) explores the myth of the West on two continents. Images from television and movies appear as a visual reference point within "Into the West"; the main characters, two young Irish boys, are fascinated with the American West of cowboys and Indians as depicted in countless Hollywood…

  11. 75 FR 10159 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... America A Proclamation From long before American independence to today, countless individuals have reached... the Emerald Isle. Irish Americans fought for our independence, and their signatures adorn our founding documents. When famine ravaged Ireland in the 1840s and 1850s, many Irish men and women sought a new...

  12. Alendronate in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Weiss, S R; Rodriguez-Portales, J A

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect on bone mass of alendronate treatment for 5 yr and its withdrawal. Four hundred and forty-seven postmenopausal women with normal bone mass entered a 3-yr randomized trial followed by a 2-yr open label extension. Three hundred and eleven women completed the first 3 yr, and 263...... consented to continue and completed the extension. We are reporting data from groups using the dose of alendronate currently approved for osteoporosis prevention (5 mg) or from the group in which alendronate treatment was withdrawn: 52 women received alendronate (5 mg) for 5 yr (group I), 56 received 3 yr...

  13. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  14. The sword and the prayerbook: ideals of authentic Irish manliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    As the Catholic Church responded to secular models of the nineteenth-century hero by refurbishing its saints, the Irish Church promoted its native saint, Colmcill, as the sole authentic positive stereotype deserving of the Irishman's emulation. At a time when the concepts of Irishness and manliness were being contested, the League of St. Columba proposed that the physical, psychological, and spiritual characteristics of Colmcill be materialized in the new Irish youth. By folding the mystical rhetoric of Catholicism into the search for national identity, the League altered the course of Irish nationalism and inflected the trajectory of Irish masculine development. While Colmcill's ascendance as an emulatory type was brief, the qualities he was shaped to embody were reinscribed in the Catholic priest, who became installed as the aspirational model for the youth of Ireland.

  15. Welcome to the Irish Journal of Paramedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Batt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of the Irish Journal of Paramedicine (IJP. It gives me great pleasure to launch this journal, a first for Irish paramedics, and pre-hospital care in Ireland. I am also honoured to announce that the IJP has been adopted as the official journal of the Irish College of Paramedics, the professional body for prehospital emergency care practitioners in Ireland.               A newly emerging profession, paramedicine is now poised at  a crossroads. Previously alluded to with  colleagues from around the globe, the role of the paramedic is one that is rapidly evolving, and yet paramedicine as a discipline has yet to figure out where it belongs.(1 Are we public safety professionals, first responders or healthcare professionals? Williams has previously stated that the road less travelled requires the paramedic profession to pursue identity as a healthcare profession and not as emergency responders, EMS workers, or ambulance drivers, which we are so commonly identified as.(2 Initiatives within Ireland such as the Centre for Prehospital Research national research agenda, the move to higher education for paramedics in University College Dublin and the University of Limerick, and the publication of high-quality peer-reviewed research, undertaken for paramedics, led by paramedics, and published in paramedicine journals are key components in this pursuit of professionalism. It is our hope that the Irish Journal of Paramedicine will play its part as a vehicle in this endeavour. It is important however to point out that the Irish Journal of Paramedicine is not exclusively for paramedics. Within Ireland, and around the world, there are many other prehospital care providers, including community responders, volunteer first responders, EMT practitioners, nurses, physicians and others who deliver high quality patient care and are as committed to their personal and professional development as any paramedic. This journal is for

  16. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  17. Solar Orientation of Irish Early Christian Oratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, V. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Hiberno-Latin literary metaphor of "Xpistus sol verus" (Christ the True Sun) finds an architectural analogue in the orientation of the single eastern window of Irish monastic stone chapels or oratories. The author's field surveys in Ireland, Hebrides, Orkney and Shetlands revealed that the window of Irish rectangular dry stone oratories framed the rising solar disk on the Feast Days of selected saints of the Celtic Early Christian Church, AD 800-1100. The most frequent target skyline declinations were to sunrise on the Feast Days of St. Patrick (March 17th) and St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (August 31st). During the Early Christian period, St. Patrick's Day coincided with the Vernal Equinox, and heralded the Paschal Full Moon (i.e., Passover crucifixion) and Easter Sunday as proclaimed by Emperor Constantine at the Council of Nicaea (AD 325). St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (d. AD 651) inspired the Irish monks who, at the Synod of Whitby (AD 664), remained loyal to the Jewish 84-year cycle determining Passover and refused to replace it with the new orthodox 19-year computus for Easter adopted by the Roman Catholic Church (AD 527). Hypothetical affiliation between monastic communities whose oratories share common solar orientation, interior length/width ratios (e.g., 4:3 and 3:2) and units of measurement (e.g., Scottish ell, Coptic cubit, or Roman pes) is discussed. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the Michael D. Coe Fund and Augusta Hazard Fund of Yale University for research grant support in 1999.

  18. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90 Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90 Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so that

  19. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K. (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Radiation Monitoring, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so

  20. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnity, P.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Fegan, M.; Hanley, O.; Kelleher, K.; McKittrick, L.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2009. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually so as to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The principal aims of the RPII's monitoring programme are; to assess the level of radioactivity to which the Irish population is exposed as a result of radioactivity in the environment; to study trends and establish the geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides so as to better understand the long term behaviour of artificial radioactivity in the food chain and the environment; to ensure that any increase in radiation levels resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity to the environment is detected and assessed rapidly. During 2009 radioactivity was measured in a wide range of foods and environmental materials including: air, water, milk, seafood, foodstuffs and complete meals. The most significant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment is the discharge of low level liquid radioactive waste from the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant on the north east coast of England. In order to assess the exposure arising from the source extensive sampling of fish and shellfish landed at ports along the north east coast of Ireland is undertaken. The most exposed group of individuals to discharges from Sellafield have been identified as commercial oyster and mussel farmers working along the north east coastline and their families. Manmade radioactivity is also present in the terrestrial environment due primarily to residual global fallout arising primarily from atmospheric testing of nuclear

  1. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, M.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McKittrick, L.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2008. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually so as to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The principal aims of the RPII's monitoring programme are; to assess the level of radioactivity to which the Irish population is exposed as a result of radioactivity in the environment; to study trends and establish the geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides so as to better understand the long term behaviour of artificial radioactivity in the food chain and the environment; to ensure that any increase in radiation levels resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity to the environment is detected and assessed rapidly. During 2008 radioactivity was measured in a wide range of foods and environmental materials including: air, water, milk, seafood, foodstuffs and complete meals. The most significant source of artificial radioactivity in the Irish marine environment is the discharge of low level liquid radioactive waste from the Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant on the north east coast of England. In order to assess the exposure arising from the source extensive sampling of fish and shellfish landed at ports along the north east coast of Ireland is undertaken. The most exposed group of individuals to discharges from Sellafield have been identified as commercial oyster and mussel farmers working along the north east coastline and their families. Manmade radioactivity is also present in the terrestrial environment due primarily to residual global fallout arising primarily from atmospheric testing of nuclear

  2. Teleworking: An Examination of the Irish Dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Donovan

    2013-07-01

    Given the attitudinal challenges to telework within Irish organisations, the research findings suggest that there would be clear merit in piloting telework initiatives with carefully selected candidates. Multinationals and young dynamic businesses which remain open to innovative work practices, particularly in the services and technology sectors, are ideally positioned for such an initiative. Coupled with the extension of broadband, a successful outcome, with government sponsored PR, could pave the way for expanding the practice of teleworking in Ireland. This research would be of particular benefit to organisations and individuals considering the option of telework in the future.

  3. Cardiovascular risk assessment with oxidised LDL measurement in postmenopausal women receiving intranasal estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Yildirim, Mulazim; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Bilgihan, Ayse; Goktas, Bulent

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effect of intranasal estrogen replacement therapy administered to postmenopausal women alone or in combination with progesterone on markers of cardiovascular risk. The study was conducted with 44 voluntary postmenopausal women. In group I (n = 15), the patients were treated with only intranasal estradiol (300 μg/day estradiol hemihydrate). In group II (n = 11), the patients received cyclic progesterone (200 mg/day micronized progesterone) for 12 days in each cycle in addition to continuous intranasal estradiol. Group III (n = 18) was the controls. Serum lipid profiles, oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed at baseline and at the 3rd month of the treatment. Lipid profile, LDL apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein a, homocysteine, oxidised LDL values and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratio were not observed to change after 3 months compared to baseline values within each group (p > 0.016). In comparison to changes between the groups after the treatment, only oxidised LDL levels and oxidised LDL/LDL cholesterol ratios of group II were increased compared to control group (p < 0.05). Intranasal estradiol alone did not appear to have an effect on markers of cardiovascular risk in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the addition of cyclic oral micronized progesterone to intranasal estradiol influenced the markers of cardiovascular risk negatively in comparison to non-users in healthy postmenopausal women.

  4. Comparison of cluster and principal component analysis techniques to derive dietary patterns in Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Aine P; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine and compare dietary patterns in adults using cluster and factor analyses and to examine the format of the dietary variables on the pattern solutions (i.e. expressed as grams/day (g/d) of each food group or as the percentage contribution to total energy intake). Food intake data were derived from the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey 1997-9, which was a randomised cross-sectional study of 7 d recorded food and nutrient intakes of a representative sample of 1379 Irish adults aged 18-64 years. Cluster analysis was performed using the k-means algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract dietary factors. Food data were reduced to thirty-three food groups. For cluster analysis, the most suitable format of the food-group variable was found to be the percentage contribution to energy intake, which produced six clusters: 'Traditional Irish'; 'Continental'; 'Unhealthy foods'; 'Light-meal foods & low-fat milk'; 'Healthy foods'; 'Wholemeal bread & desserts'. For PCA, food groups in the format of g/d were found to be the most suitable format, and this revealed four dietary patterns: 'Unhealthy foods & high alcohol'; 'Traditional Irish'; 'Healthy foods'; 'Sweet convenience foods & low alcohol'. In summary, cluster and PCA identified similar dietary patterns when presented with the same dataset. However, the two dietary pattern methods required a different format of the food-group variable, and the most appropriate format of the input variable should be considered in future studies.

  5. The Ulster Cycle: Cultural Significance for Irish Composers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Goff

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than three hundred years, Irish composers have engaged with tales from early Irish saga-literature which comprises four main series: Mythological, Ulster and Fenian cycles as well as the Cycle of Kings. This literary corpus dates from 600–1200 CE and is amongst the oldest in Europe. The fragmented history of the literature reveals a continuity of tradition in that the ancient sagas evolved from the oral Irish tradition, were gradually recorded in Irish, and kept alive in modern times through translation into the English language. The timelessness and social impact of these sagas, centuries after they were documented, resonate with Irish composers through the identification of local features and/or universal themes of redemption, triumph or tragedy depicted in the literature. The focus here is on sagas from the Ulster Cycle as they have been most celebrated by Irish composers; the majority of which have been composed since Thomas Kinsella’s successful translation of the Táin Bó Cuailnge in 1969. How the composers chose to embrace the Irish past lies in each composer’s execution of the peculiar local and universal themes exhibited in the sagas. The aim of this article is to initiate an interdisciplinary discussion of the cultural significance of this literary corpus for Irish composers by exploring an area of Irish musicological discourse that has not been hitherto documented. A brief literary background to the Ulster Cycle leads to a discussion of what prompted the composers to engage with Ulster Cycle themes at a particular time in their respective careers. An exploration of the various stylistic features employed in selected works sheds light on the cultural ideologies that prevailed in Ireland at the time of their respective composition.

  6. Bowery to Broadway. The American Irish in Classic Hollywood Cinema (Christopher Shannon & New Irish Storytellers. Narrative Strategies in Film (Díóg O’Connell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Menéndez-Otero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reseñas de los libros de cine Bowery to Broadway. The American Irish in Classic Hollywood Cinema (Christopher Shannon 2010 & New Irish Storytellers. Narrative Strategies in Film (Díóg O’Connell 2010

  7. Primary medical care in Irish prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Joe M; Darker, Catherine D; Thomas, David E; Allwright, Shane P A; O'Dowd, Tom

    2010-03-22

    An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS) took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT) inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  8. Primary medical care in Irish prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwright Shane PA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.

  9. TV sonographic assessment in postmenopausal asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, P; Galazios, G; Liberis, V; Bouzaki, A; Grapsas, X; Maroulis, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the usefulness of transvaginal sonography for the detection of endometrial disease in postmenopausal women without symptoms. The study involved 750 postmenopausal women aged 52-65 (mean 58.5). None of them were on hormone replacement therapy and all had had amenorrhea for more than two years. Transvaginal sonography was performed in 750 women. An endometrium of women) was not investigated further. The 627 cases of this group were reassessed one year later. In the remaining 123 postmenopausal women with suspicious endometrium > 5 mm, 19 endometrial polyps (7.13%), one cervical polyp with extension in the cavity (0.8%), 90 endometrial atrophies (73.17%), ten atrophic endometritis (8.13%), two simple hyperplasias (1.62%), and one hyperplasia with atypia (0.8%) were found. Transvaginal sonography is an efficient and acceptable noninvasive method for the early detection of endometrial pathology in postmenopausal asymptomatic women.

  10. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olfa Berriche

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Received 12 February 2016; revised 26 March 2016; accepted 31 March 2016. Available online 26 ... greatly affects the health of postmenopausal women and is rec- ognized as a major ..... for public comment. Washington.

  11. Postmenopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Oxytrol have helped women with urinary issues. Memory and Concentration Problems Issues with memory loss and ... the elevator. Dance to some of your favorite music. Or take the dog out for a long ...

  12. Effects of vitamin K in postmenopausal women: mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Onur; Erel, Cemal Tamer

    2014-03-01

    Possible benefits of vitamin K on bone health, fracture risk, markers of bone formation and resorption, cardiovascular health, and cancer risk in postmenopausal women have been investigated for over three decades; yet there is no clear evidence-based universal recommendation for its use. Interventional studies showed that vitamin K1 provided significant improvement in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels in postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD); however, there are inconsistent results in women with low BMD. There is no study showing any improvement in bone-alkaline-phosphatase (BAP), n-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (NTX), 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and urinary markers. Improvement in BMD could not be shown in the majority of the studies; there is no interventional study evaluating the fracture risk. Studies evaluating the isolated effects of menatetrenone (MK-4) showed significant improvement in osteocalcin (OC); however, there are inconsistent results on BAP, NTX, and urinary markers. BMD was found to be significantly increased in the majority of studies. The fracture risk was assessed in three studies, which showed decreased fracture risk to some extent. Although there are proven beneficial effects on some of the bone formation markers, there is not enough evidence-based data to support a role for vitamin K supplementation in osteoporosis prevention among healthy, postmenopausal women receiving vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Interventional studies investigating the isolated role of vitamin K on cardiovascular health are required. Longterm clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of vitamin K on gynecological cancers. MK-4 seems safe even at doses as high as 45 mg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of prior oophorectomy on changes in bone mineral density and carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucowski, Sara J; Mack, Wendy J; Shoupe, Donna; Kono, Naoko; Paulson, Richard; Hodis, Howard N

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effect of prior oophorectomy in healthy postmenopausal women on the rate of loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and rate of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). Secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial. University-based research clinic. Two hundred twenty-two healthy postmenopausal women in the Greater Los Angeles area. Baseline and annual screening of BMD and assessment of CIMT every 6 months for a total of 3 years. Changes in BMD and CIMT during postmenopausal years. Among women who were menopausal for more than 10 years, the rate of CIMT progression was statistically significantly less in women with intact ovaries compared with those in women with prior oophorectomy. In women 5-10 years postmenopause, there was a trend toward a slower loss of BMD in those who retained their ovaries, and in women more than 10 years postmenopause there was significantly less BMD loss in those who retained their ovaries. As time from menopausal transition increases, retained ovaries are associated with a slower rate of bone loss and a slower rate of thickening of the carotid artery wall compared with rates in menopausal women with oophorectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Portrayal of Women’s Contribution to Irish Society through a Sample from the Irish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Lirola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to approach the representation of womanhood in the Irish press from 2006 to 2012. The corpus comprises all the texts dealing with women, from January 1 to 31 December of four years within this time range, taken from one of the main Irish broadsheet newspapers: The Irish Independent. The research database LexisNexis Academic was employed to compile the corpus. For the purposes of this research, I apply Teun van Leeuwen’s (2008 social actor network model. This paper points out that Corpus Linguistics (CL can be a powerful complementary tool to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA.

  15. GABA+ levels in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensong; Zhang, Aiying; Zhao, Bin; Gan, Jie; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Gong, Tao; Liu, Wen; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of the ACC/mPFC and PCC using the “MEGA Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence” (MEGA-PRESS) technique. The severity of depression was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Quantification of MRS data was performed using Gannet program. Differences of GABA+ levels from patients and controls were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the linear associations between GABA+ levels and HAMD scores, as well as estrogen levels. Results: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were detected in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression compared to healthy controls (P = 0.002). No significant correlations were found between 17-HAMD/14-HAMA and GABA+ levels, either in ACC/mPFC (P = 0.486; r = 0.170/P = 0.814; r = −0.058) or PCC (P = 0.887; r = 0.035/ P = 0.987; r = −0.004) in the patients; there is also no significant correlation between GABA+ levels and estrogen levels in patients group (ACC/mPFC: P = 0.629, r = −0.018; PCC: P = 0.861, r = 0.043). Conclusion: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were found in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression, suggesting that the dysfunction of the GABAergic system may also be involved in the pathogenesis of depression in postmenopausal women. PMID:27684829

  16. 76 FR 11929 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... life in a new Nation, these intrepid immigrants built strong communities and helped forge our country's... the American story. Through hard work, perseverance, and patriotism, women and men of Irish descent...

  17. Glacigenic landforms and sediments of the Western Irish Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier; Toms, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Vibrocoring of possible glacigenic landforms identified from high resolution bathymetric coverage of the Irish Shelf by the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) has provided several clusters of short (<3m) cores that, due to a regional post-glacial erosional event, comprise last glacial age stratigraphies. In addition, new shallow seismic data and sedimentological information from across the Western Irish Shelf provide new insights into aspects of the nature, timing and pattern of shelf occupation by grounded lobate extensions of the last Irish Ice Sheet. Restricted chronological control of deglacial sequences in several cores indicates that northern parts of the western mid-shelf (south of a prominent outer Donegal Bay ridge) were ice free by ~24 ka B.P., and that ice had also probably retreated from outer shelf positions (as far west as the Porcupine Bank) at or before this time.

  18. Performance Of Irish Potato Varieties Under Aeroponic Conditions In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, National University of Rwanda. (NUR) ... Though Irish potato is very important in Rwanda, average yields ... One plausible solution to this problem is to adopt a soil-less seed production.

  19. The Advent of Representative Associations in the Irish Defence Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    year period from 1975 to 1988. The Submission Group had difficulty finding appropriate groups in the Irish labour market against which to compare the...in the Irish Labour market , the average male industrial worker was chosen. In choosing the male industrial worker, it was not suggested that this...Defence Forces to have all young officers attend University College Galway ( UCG ) or a similar third level institute for the purpose of acquiring a

  20. Organising methods and member recruitment in Irish Trade Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Michelle; D'Art, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Purpose This paper explores the recruiting and organising methods used by Irish full-time union officials to recruit new members in the private sector of the economy. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is based on a survey of full-time union officials in eight Irish trade unions. Findings Results indicate that the use of organising techniques by officials had no significant impact on changes in membership numbers but did have a significant and po...

  1. Debbie Ging, Men and Masculinities in Irish Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Epinoux, Estelle

    2013-01-01

    Men and Masculinities in Irish Cinema was written by Debbie Ging, who is a lecturer in Film and Media Studies at Dublin City University’s School of Communications in Ireland. Her book falls into the field of media studies and more precisely film studies. It is divided into nine chapters which interweave the notions of gender, nation, identity and masculinity. The author centres her research around the concept of masculinity, unveiling its multiple understandings within the context of Irish so...

  2. Irish nurses’ and midwives’ understanding and experiences of empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Corbally, Melissa; Scott, Anne; Matthews, Anne; MacGabhann, Liam; Murphy, Catriona

    2007-01-01

    Aim This study explored conceptualisations of empowerment amongst Irish nurses and midwives. Background Current literature on the meaning of empowerment in the literature lacks consensus. As a result there is a likelihood that empowerment will be conceptualised differently between managers and sub-ordinates. Method In order to get a sense of how Irish practitioners viewed empowerment, ten focus groups were held in locations throughout Ireland (n = 93). A national distribution of par...

  3. Modelling travel and residence times in the eastern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Hartnett, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Irish Sea, which lies between 51 deg. N-56 deg. N and 2 deg. 50'W-7 deg. W, provides a sheltered environment to exploit valuable fisheries resource. Anthropogenic activity is a real threat to its water quality. The majority of freshwater input down rivers flows into the eastern Irish Sea. The structure of the water circulation was not well understood during the planning of Sellafield nuclear plant outfall site in the eastern Irish Sea. A three-dimensional primitive equation numerical model was applied to the Irish Sea to simulate both barotropic and baroclinic circulation within the region. High accuracy was achieved with regard to the prediction of both tidal circulation and surface and nearbed water temperatures across the region. The model properly represented the Western Irish Sea Gyre, induced by thermal stratification and not known during planning Sellafield. Passive tracer simulations based on the developed hydrodynamic model were used to deliver residence times of the eastern Irish Sea region for various times of the year as well as travel times from the Sellafield outfall site to various locations within the Irish Sea. The results indicate a strong seasonal variability of travel times from Sellafield to the examined locations. Travel time to the Clyde Sea is the shortest for the autumnal tracer release (90 days); it takes almost a year for the tracer to arrive at the same location if it is released in January. Travel times from Sellafield to Dublin Bay fall within the range of 180-360 days. The average residence time of the entire eastern Irish Sea is around 7 months. The areas surrounding the Isle of Man are initially flushed due to a predominant northward flow; a backwater is formed in Liverpool Bay. Thus, elevated tracer concentrations are predicted in Liverpool Bay in the case of accidental spills at the Sellafield outfall site

  4. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D.; Gutai, J.P.; Powell, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  5. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  6. Irish and Scandinavian objection to Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the objection of Ireland and the Scandinavian countries to the radioactive emissions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. This contamination follows the sea currents northward and radioactive material from this plant has been found in seaweed and crustaceans along the coast of Norway. The concentration in lobster from the Irish Sea is much higher than in Norwegian crustaceans and above the action limit set by the EU for the radioactive isotope Technetium 99 in the event of a new atomic accident. British authorities have refused to stop the pollution and even plan to start production of MOX fuel at Sellafield. They say new purification techniques will be developed within three or five years. For Norway, the opposition against Sellafield is a priority

  7. Quality management in Irish health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, K; Harrington, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a quantitative research study of quality management in the Irish health-care sector. The study findings suggest that quality management is what hospitals require to become more cost-effective and efficient. The research also shows that the culture of health-care institutions must change to one where employees experience pride in their work and where all are involved and committed to continuous quality improvement. It is recommended that a shift is required from the traditional management structures to a more participative approach. Furthermore, all managers whether from a clinical or an administration background must understand one another's role in the organisation. Finally, for quality to succeed in the health-care sector, strong committed leadership is required to overcome tensions in quality implementation.

  8. An Irish perspective on Cryptosporidium. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zintl Annetta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptosporidiosis, a protozoal disease which causes significant morbidity in humans, is one of the chief causes of diarrhoea in neonatal ruminants. Although the parasite poses a significant threat to public health and animal health in Ireland, its epidemiology on the island is only poorly understood. Environmental studies have shown the waterborne parasite to be widespread in some untreated waterbodies around Ireland. The island's hydrogeological situation, combined with high stocking rates of livestock and the absence of filtration from regular water treatment, render it vulnerable to large-scale outbreaks. This review discusses the parasite in the Irish context and underlines the need for a reference facility to provide active surveillance on the island.

  9. An Irish perspective on Cryptosporidium*. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zintl Annetta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptosporidiosis, a protozoal disease which causes significant morbidity in humans, is one of the chief causes of diarrhoea in neonatal ruminants. although the parasite poses a significant threat to public health and animal health in Ireland, its epidemiology on the island is only poorly understood. Environmental studies have shown the waterborne parasite to be widespread in some untreated waterbodies around Ireland. The island's hydrogeological situation, combined with high stocking rates of livestock and the absence of filtration from regular water treatment, render it vulnerable to large-scale outbreaks. This review discusses the parasite in the Irish context and underlines the need for a reference facility to provide active surveillance on the island.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of Irish Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P. J.

    1986-09-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been carried out on three cores from areas of muddy sediments in the N. Irish Sea to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. 14C age profiles of the two eastern basin cores revealed a near-constant age from the sediment surface to the base of the core (12 500±1000 years bp). The 14C age profile of the western basin core revealed a zone of apparent mixing to a depth of 55 cm, underlain by a zone of constant sedimentation rate (0·018 cm y -1) to 160 cm. These data are discussed in relation both to previously reported sedimentological studies of the area and to the authorised discharges of low-level radioactive waste from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

  11. Valuing Equality in Irish Social Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author critiques Irish social care by presenting an equality perspective on practice. An equality perspective involves developing emancipatory practices, that is, ways of helping that provide egalitarian solutions and outcomes. Although emancipatory values are often contrasted with traditional social care values, the author seeks a pragmatic and integrated approach to emancipatory practices rather than a restatement of traditional dichotomies. Emancipatory practice begins with an appreciation of the nature and relevance of inequalities on the lives of diverse social care users. Building a commitment to equality within social care education and practice is an important step in altering many individual and institutional social care practices by focussing on equality processes and outcomes as central social care objectives. Using a well credited framework that outlines five dimensions of inequality (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon and Walsh, 2004, the author argues that social care educators and practitioners need to debate the issues raised and develop emancipatory practices.

  12. The Irish Theme in the Writings of Bill Naughton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pierce

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The student interested in cultural assimilation, hybridity, and naturalization, in masculinity, authorship, and identity, in what happened to the Irish in Britain in the twentieth century, will turn at some point to the Mayo-born, Lancashire writer Bill Naughton (1910-1992, author of a classic children’s story collection The Goalkeeper’s Revenge and Other Stories (1961, ofAlfie (1965, the film which helped define 1960s London, and of a series of autobiographies largely centering on his Irish childhood and upbringing in Bolton. It has been the historic role of Irish writers from Richard Brinsley Sheridan to Oscar Wilde, from Elizabeth Bowen to William Trevor, to give the English back to themselves in a gallery of portraits. Naughton is part of this tradition, but, unlike these other writers, his subject is the English working class, which he writes about from within, with both sympathy and knowledge. It can be readily conceded that his work is not at the forefront of modern English or Irish writing, but it does deserve to be better known and appreciated. Here in this discursive essay, with an eye on his Irish background, I move back and forth across his writing to reflect on his contribution not so to much the cultural greening of Britain as to the mass observation of the English and of the Irish in Britain.

  13. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  14. A Feminism of Their Own?: Irish Women’s History and Contemporary Irish Women’s Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ryan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, Irish women’s lives were strictly confined to the private domain, and women’s issues were largely silenced and hidden from public knowledge. Additionally, both Church and state maintained that women should hold a certain morality, particularly relating to areas of sexuality and reproduction. As a result, until relatively recently, Irish women’s issues remained largely ignored and therefore unremarked upon. This paper will examine two major areas in which Irish women’s lives have traditionally been repressed: women’s sexuality and domestic violence, both issues which were once considered taboo for open discussion. This paper will also discuss how these same issues are being represented in Irish chick lit novels, thus providing a frank and positive voice for these largely female issues and for the everyday experiences of women in Ireland.

  15. The contribution of radioactivity in the Irish Sea to the radiation exposure of the Irish population during 1982-'83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; O'Grady, J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents an estimate of the exposure of members of the Irish public during the period of May 1982 to June 1983 due to the consumption of fish and shellfish, the most important route by which exposure of the Irish public can occur from radioactivity, in particular radiocaesium, in the Irish Sea. Radiation exposure from other pathways, such as external radiation, is neglegible. The results are examined in terms of the dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the basic radiation safety standards of the European Community. The results show a small decrease on the levels of recent years and indicate a decreasing trend probably reflecting the reduction in the quantity of radiocaesium being discharged annually from Sellafield. The monitoring programme enables the radioactivity levels of the Irish Sea to be kept under review and will be continued to enable trends to be identified. (author)

  16. Chronic kidney disease in Chinese postmenopausal women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CKD), there is ongoing uncertainty regarding the prevalence of CKD in postmenopausal women. This study was designed to investigate both CKD prevalence and related risk factors in a cohort of postmenopausal Chinese women. Materials and ...

  17. Fracture risk assessment in postmenopausal women with diabetes: comparison between DeFRA and FRAX tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Messina, Carmelo; Cervellati, Carlo; Maietti, Elisa; Medini, Matilde; Rossini, Maurizio; Massari, Leo; Greco, Pantaleo

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) with that of Derived FRAX (DeFRA) in estimating fracture risk in a cohort of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) postmenopausal women. One hundred nineteen T2DM postmenopausal women and 118 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled. Fracture risk was assessed with FRAX (adjusted or non- for trabecular bone score, TBS) and DeFRA. Bone mineral density (BMD) and TBS were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The outcome was the presence of vertebral/non-vertebral fragility fractures (FFs). T2DM women showed higher spinal BMD T-score (p < .05), but lower TBS (p < .05), than controls. Diabetic patients had higher prevalence of FFs compared to controls (p < .05), but no significant difference were found in the scores of any of the predictor tools. Differently, in the T2DM group, the scores of DeFRA, FRAX and adjusted-FRAX were significantly (p < .01 for all) higher in fractured compared with non-fractured women. DeFRA showed the best discriminative power among all fracture risk predictor tools (area under curves: DeFra: 0.89; adjusted FRAX: 0.80; non-adjusted FRAX: 0.73). In summary, all fracture risk assessment tools appeared to be effective in predicting bone fractures in T2DM postmenopausal women, with DeFRA showing a slightly better diagnostic accuracy.

  18. Vitamin D status of 51-75-year-old Irish women: its determinants and impact on biochemical indices of bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T. R.; O'Brien, M. M.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.

    2006-01-01

    in these women were investigated. Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Cork City, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: Ninety-five apparently healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status...

  19. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  20. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  1. Angels and IPOs: Policies for Sustainable Equity Financing of Irish Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Mulcahy, Diane

    2005-01-01

    Angels and IPOs: Policies for Sustainable Equity Financing of Irish Small Businesses explores the rationale for the Irish government?s investments of more than 300 million Euro in Irish companies and the domestic venture capital industry. It challenges the conventional wisdom that there is an `equity gap? of early stage risk capital in Ireland. In the context of the equity financing cycle, it discusses the limited supply of angel capital available to Irish firms as well as the `exit gap? resu...

  2. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Working Memory Task in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Hormone Therapy: A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Huang, Xiaoyan; Han, Yingping; Zhang, Jun; Lai, Yuhan; Yuan, Li; Lu, Jiaojiao; Zeng, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Hormone therapy (HT) has long been thought beneficial for controlling menopausal symptoms and human cognition. Studies have suggested that HT has a positive association with working memory, but no consistent relationship between HT and neural activity has been shown in any cognitive domain. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the convergence of findings from published randomized control trials studies that examined brain activation changes in postmenopausal women. A systematic search for fMRI studies of neural responses during working memory tasks in postmenopausal women was performed. Studies were excluded if they were not treatment studies and did not contain placebo or blank controls. For the purpose of the meta-analysis, 8 studies were identified, with 103 postmenopausal women taking HT and 109 controls. Compared with controls, postmenopausal women who took HT increased activation in the left frontal lobe, including superior frontal gyrus (BA 8), right middle frontal gyrus (BA 9), anterior lobe, paracentral lobule (BA 7), limbic lobe, and anterior cingulate (BA 32). Additionally, decreased activation is noted in the right limbic lobe, including parahippocampal gyrus (BA 28), left parietal lobe, and superior parietal lobule (BA 7). All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Hormone treatment is associated with BOLD signal activation in key anatomical areas during fMRI working memory tasks in healthy hormone-treated postmenopausal women. A positive correlation between activation and task performance suggests that hormone use may benefit working memory.

  3. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  4. Dietary inflammation potential and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a German case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Isabell; Rudolph, Anja; Shivappa, Nitin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Hébert, James R; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Unhealthy dietary habits can increase the risk for serious medical conditions, such as cancer, yet the association between diet and breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated whether individual diets based on their inflammatory potential are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk by employing an energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index. In a German population-based case-control study, 2887 postmenopausal breast cancer patients (aged 50-74 years, first diagnosed between 2002 and 2005) and 5512 healthy age-matched controls provided information on dietary habits for the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or recruitment (controls) using a 176-items food frequency questionnaire. Associations between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index (E-DII) score (both as continuous variable and in quintiles) and risk for breast cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. No significant associations between the E-DII score and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were observed (adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17). Associations did not differ by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status (ER + PR+: adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88-1.27; ER + or PR+: OR Q5 vs Q1: 1,07, 95% CI: 0.79-1.45; ER-PR-: OR Q5 vs Q1: 0.87 95% CI: 0.63-1.20). Our results regarding E-DII are consistent with previous studies reporting a lack of association between C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The findings may reflect a real absence of association between dietary inflammatory potential and postmenopausal cancer risk or an underestimation of association due to recall bias. Further investigation is warranted in cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation of parity and homocysteine to bone mineral density of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Necat; Kepkep, Necip; Ciçek, Hülya Kanbur; Celik, Ahmet; Meram, Iclal

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major problem in contemporary society. However, there is not enough data on multiparity and osteoporosis from developing and/or undeveloped countries on a large scale. Selection of participants in this study was aimed at the detection of bone status in healthy (normal bone mineral density) postmenopausal (n = 46, 55.3 +/- 6.7 years) and osteoporotic postmenopausal women (n: 33) of similar age. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. At the DEXA evaluation, 33 women had osteoporotic (T score below -2.5) and 46 had normal BMD values. The number of pregnancies was found to range from 3 to 12 (with an overall mean of 6.7 +/- 2.5), while 2.6 +/- 1.9 (range, 1-7) were miscarriages in all of the 33 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Serum homocysteine (t-Hcy) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic postmenopausal women (11.96 +/- 3.84 micromol/L, 15.4 +/- 7.0 nM/mM cr) than in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women (10.93 +/- 3.6 micromol/L, 10.6 +/- 9.1 nM/mM cr), p pregnancies is unclear, and the relationship may only be by chance. In conclusion, the present study firstly suggests that the number of pregnancies has an effect on the t-Hcy levels. In addition, our study indicates that there is a significant negative correlation between the number of pregnancies and the lumbar spine BMD.

  6. Advocating Commodification: An Ethnographic Look at the Policing of Irish as a Commercial Asset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sara C.

    2018-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in two towns in the Republic of Ireland, this article explores the local negotiation, endorsement, and contestation of two community-level Irish language advocacy organizations' attempts to regulate the use of Irish in business by mobilizing discourses of language commodification to position Irish as a commercial…

  7. Gaeilge Gaming: Assessing How Games Can Help Children to Learn Irish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Gene; Devitt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In the 2011 census almost one in three Irish teenagers claimed to be unable to speak Irish (Central Statistics Office, Ireland, 2012), despite the language being taught daily in school. The challenges facing the Irish language in schools are complex and multifaceted. The research reported here attempts to address some of these challenges by…

  8. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 945 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated... among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur County... Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from March 5 to...

  9. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY... suspends the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states (order), and the rules and regulations implemented thereunder, through March 1, 2014. The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes...

  10. Database in Theory and Practice: The Bibliography of Irish Literary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on "The Bibliography of Irish Literary Criticism" (BILC, 2010), a bibliographical database of Irish literary criticism developed by humanities and information and communications technology (ICT) researchers in NUI Maynooth, this chapter investigates the opportunities and implications afforded the field of Irish literary studies…

  11. EJBEVol.1 No.1/2010 Page 134 The Conditionality of Irish aid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    focus will be on the impact of Irish development assistance in Sudan. Irish aid administered by .... 'priority' countries and the relationships between Irish Aid and trade. ..... of excessive government spending, budget deficits and inflation, and overvalued ..... indemnified against any credit risk from overseas customers by the.

  12. The Role of Irish Language Teaching: Cultural Identity Formation or Language Revitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatinská, Anna; Pecníková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The focal point of the article is Irish language teaching in the Republic of Ireland. Firstly, we deal with the most significant documents where the status of the Irish language is being defined. In this respect, for the purposes of analysis, we have chosen the document titled "20 Year Strategy for the Irish language" which plays a…

  13. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  14. Vascular resistance of central retinal and ophthalmic arteries in postmenopausal women after use of tibolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins; de Souza, Bruno Martins; Geber, Selmo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tibolone on vascular resistance of the central retinal and ophthalmic artery in postmenopausal women and to compare this effect with that of placebo using transorbital ultrasound with Doppler velocimetry. We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women (follicle-stimulating hormone, >40 IU/L) younger than 65 years were studied. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: placebo (n = 50) and tibolone (2.5 mg; n = 50). Transorbital Doppler velocimetric ultrasound was performed before treatment and 80 days after. The mean age was similar in both groups. Participants who received tibolone did not show any difference in pulsatility index, resistance index, and systole/diastole ratio of the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries after treatment. The same was observed in participants who received placebo. Our study demonstrates that tibolone administration to healthy postmenopausal women does not affect the resistance of small-caliber cerebral arteries.

  15. Sexuality in Irish women with gynecologic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Vicki; Hegarty, Josephine; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2011-03-01

    To investigate sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, and the relationship between these and certain demographic variables of Irish women, following a diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Descriptive, correlational. Outpatient gynecologic oncology clinic in a large university hospital in Southern Ireland. 106 women with a diagnosis of and treatment for various gynecologic cancers (cervical, ovarian, endometrial, and vulvar). The Body Image Scale, Sexual Esteem Scale, and Sexual Self-Schema Scale were administered to women a minimum of six weeks postdiagnosis of any form of gynecologic cancer to measure sexual self-concept; the Intimate Relationships Scale to measure sexual relationships; and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale to measure sexual functioning. Sexual self-concept, body image, sexual esteem, sexual self-schema, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to all stages of the sexual response cycle. Gynecologic cancer has the potential to negatively affect a woman's sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Sexuality is a multidimensional construct and must be measured in this way. Healthcare professionals must use a holistic approach when providing information and support to patients with gynecologic cancer. Information must be provided to women on how cancer and its treatment has the potential to affect their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, including information on how to overcome these alterations.

  16. Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Caroline; Alvehus, Malin; Burén, Jonas; Ryberg, Mats; Larsson, Christel; Lindahl, Bernt; Mellberg, Caroline; Söderström, Ingegerd; Chorell, Elin; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-05-01

    Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed. Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters. Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Post-menopausal hormone replacement (HRT) might protect against cardiovascular disease, possibly by arterial vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Progestogens are needed to avoid endometrial disease but vascular effects are controversial. The objective was to assess temporal changes...... in blood pressure (BP) by two measurement techniques during a cyclic hormone replacement regimen. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy and normotensive post-menopausal women (age 55 +/- 3 years) were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, and were randomized to 17beta-oestradiol plus...... and in the ninth weeks of treatment in both periods. RESULTS: Clinic systolic and diastolic BP were reduced after 10 days of oestradiol (-5.1 and -3.2 mmHg respectively, P

  18. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  19. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Marjo; Rikkonen, Toni; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Kröger, Heikki; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Twenty-year follow-up data from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study cohort were used. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to all women aged 47–56 years, residing in Kuopio Province starting in 1989 until 2009, every 5th year. Register-based information on HT prescriptions was available since 1995. Probable AD cases, based on DSM-IV and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria, were identified from the special reimbursement register (1999–2009). The study population included 8,195 women (227 cases of incident AD). Results: Postmenopausal estrogen use was not associated with AD risk in register-based or self-reported data (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval 0.92/0.68–1.2, 0.99/0.75–1.3, respectively). Long-term self-reported postmenopausal HT was associated with reduced AD risk (0.53/0.31–0.91). Similar results were obtained with any dementia diagnosis in the hospital discharge register as an outcome. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong evidence for a protective association between postmenopausal HT use and AD or dementia, although we observed a reduced AD risk among those with long-term self-reported HT use. PMID:28202700

  20. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve

  1. Endometrial biopsy findings in postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study endometrial histopathology in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. A two-year study from January 2003 to December 2004 of 100 cases of postmenopausal bleeding was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Sialkot. The histopathology of endometrial biopsy specimens was done to find out the causes of postmenopausal bleeding in these ladies. All these 100 patients had confirmed menopause and the average age was 55 years and above. The most common histopathological diagnosis was senile endometrial atrophy (27%), followed by simple cystic hyperplasia in (17%). Three cases of simple cystic hyperplasia had coexistent ovarian tumors. Glandular hyperplasia without atypia was seen in 6% and with atypia in 4%. Other causes were endometritis (13%), endometrial polyps (8%), proliferative phase endometrium (6%) and secretary phase endometrium (5%). Endometrial carcinoma was seen in (6%) cases, (8%) biopsy specimens were non-representative. Although senile endometrial atrophy was most commonly found in these ladies but a significant percentage of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer implies the need for investigating all cases of postmenopausal bleeding. Bimanual examination and pelvic ultrasonography should be combined with endometrial sampling so that rare pelvic pathologies may not be missed. (author)

  2. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  3. Immature ovarian teratoma in a postmenopausal woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornvold, K; Detlefsen, G U; Horn, T

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of immature ovarian teratoma occurring after menopause in a 57-year-old, 3 years postmenopausal woman. Within one year after resection of the teratoma she developed peritoneal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, which probably originated from initially unrecognized rhabdomyoblasts...

  4. Attitudes of Irish dental graduates to vocational training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, G

    2010-05-01

    Vocational training (VT) is a mandatory 12 month period for UK dental graduates after graduation. Graduates of Irish Dental Schools are eligible to enter the general dental service in Ireland or obtain an NHS performers list number in the UK immediately after qualification. Reports would suggest that some graduates of Irish Dental Schools are choosing to take part in VT in the UK and find the experience beneficial. This study aimed to record the uptake of VT amongst recent graduates from University College Cork and to document their experiences. It was designed to compare the attitudes and experiences of graduates of Irish Dental Schools who undertook VT compared with those who entered the general dental service.

  5. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Cunningham, J.D.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  6. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilization from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  7. The Irish glaciated margin: processes and environments of deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier; Scott, Gill

    2015-04-01

    High resolution bathymetric data for Donegal Bay and parts of the western Irish Continental Shelf have become available in recent years due to the Irish National Seabed Survey [INSS] (2000-2009). Relative to onshore glacigenic landform preservation and visibility on the shelf and on the floor of Donegal Bay is excellent. Here we describe some of the the data, paying particular attention to the area close to the north Mayo coastline. We discuss inferred connections between well exposed and age constrained glacial geology along the coastal fringe and the submarine evidence of deglcial processes and timing. It is argued that the sediment and landform assemblage within the Bay is derived from multiple, lobate extensions of the last British Irish Ice Sheet into the Donegal Bay topographic low from source areas to the southeast (north Mayo) and east/northeast (Sligo and Donegal/Fermanagh) during overall deglaciation (Termination 1).

  8. Ghost Stories, Ghost Estates: Melancholia in Irish Recession Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Slavin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers representations of melancholia in post-Celtic Tiger Irish literature. By situating their post-recession fictions in “ghost estates,” or largely uninhabited housing developments, Donal Ryan and Tana French present neoliberally-inflected varieties of melancholia for their contemporary readers to contemplate. The settings of the ghost estates – and the accompanying supernatural elements to the texts – call to mind ghosts of Ireland’s past and legacies of recent economically unsound policies, spurring the reader to think about the imagined loss of futurity that accompanied the Irish economic crash. “Ghost stories for ghost estates,” then, represent an important contribution to the growing field of post-recession Irish literature.

  9. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki

    2005-01-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress

  10. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  11. The effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Yang Weiwen; Zhang Xueguang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in healthy women, and to assess the pathogenesis of the postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Methods: One hundred and thirty one healthy women aged 31-72 including 64 sexual maturity women aged 31-52 were enrolled in four groups and 67 postmenopausal women, the years of menopause from 1 month to 23 years, were also enrolled in four groups. The bone mass of the lumbar-spine and femur were measured using dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry; the serum E 2 , FSH, BGP by radioimmunoassay (RIA); the serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 by ELISA; the serum AKP, calcium, phosphate by auto-biochemistry instrument. Results: The BMD of lumbar-spine and right femur decreased following increase of age and the duration of menopause. Significant positive correlation was observed between BMD and E 2 . The serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 level was low, and stable before menopause. The level of IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 increased with variation of age and the duration of menopause. Significant negative correlation was observed between IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 and E 2 , BMD. Serum AKP and BGP level was higher in postmenopausal women than that in sexual maturity women. The serum calcium level increased significantly soon after menopausal, then decreased to the normal level. The serum phosphate level had no difference in these groups. Conclusion: The main cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis is the unbalance of the bone formation and resorption

  12. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Norrozi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women.Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG and control (CG. Individuals in the SG (n = 34 received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23 received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3. The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL questionnaire.A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05 years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031, while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical.Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.

  13. Soy-isoflavone supplementation tends to reduce menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Wratsangka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women tend to decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The present study’s objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones on menopausal symptoms of healthy postmenopausal women. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens abundantly found in soy beans, and several studies have demonstrated that isoflavones are the best among the phytoestrogens. Methods The study was a community-based double blind randomized controlled trial involving 60 healthy postmenopausal women, aged between 48–60 years, in the Mampang Prapatan District, South Jakarta. Participants were block-randomized to receive either 100 mg soy-isoflavone + 500 mg calcium carbonate (intervention group or 500 mg calcium carbonate only (control group. Both supplements were taken daily for 12 weeks, from January to April 2010. Menopausal symptoms (measured by Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire were assessed at baseline and after supplementation. Chi-square test was used to examine the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal symptoms. Results Fifty-six (93.3% of participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the prevalence of menopausal symptoms between the isoflavone group and the control group. However, supplementation of soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tended to decrease the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in women with normal body mass index and adequate daily dietary isoflavone intake. Conclusion Daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tend to decrease the incidence of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  14. Reawakening the Irish language through the ırish education system: Challenges and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J. Ó Ceallaigh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a language, Irish is unique to Ireland and is, therefore, of crucial importance to the identity of the Irish people, to Irish culture and to world heritage. The Irish language however has had a turbulent and traumatic history and has endured a complex and varied relationship with the Irish people. Since the foundation of the Irish Free State, the education system has been targeted as an agency and model for Irish language planning, education and language revitalisation and has had a critical role in generating linguistic ability in the Irish language. This paper reviews the complex and controversial relationship between the Irish language, the State and the education system from an historical perspective. Some key acts of recent legislation and government initiatives, which impact on the status of the Irish language are considered and barriers and challenges to progress in the education system are outlined. The paper concludes with a discussion on significant positive factors which may revolutionise and reawaken the Irish language through our education syste

  15. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  16. An international study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and postmenopausal estradiol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavaler, J S; Love, K; Van Thiel, D

    1991-01-01

    Because of the beneficial effect of estrogens on the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, the factors which influence endogenous postmenopausal estrogen levels are of substantial importance. The major source of postmenopausal estrogen is the aromatization...

  17. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Styles of Irish Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Helen G.

    2010-01-01

    The research on child developmental outcomes underscores the importance of exploring parenting styles and identifying their multifactorial and intergenerational influences. This descriptive study examined the individual parenting styles of a sample of 82 Irish immigrant mothers and investigated the factors that influenced their individual…

  18. The Efficacy of Entrepreneurship Education: Perspectives of Irish Graduate Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the views of Irish graduate entrepreneurs on the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in fostering their development as entrepreneurs. It answers three key questions: (a) what was the graduate entrepreneurs' experience of undergraduate entrepreneurship education; (b) what was the graduate entrepreneurs'…

  19. Obesity and disability in the symptomatic Irish knee osteoarthritis population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, N L

    2010-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common disorder with significant social and financial implications. Obesity is the strongest modifiable risk factor of knee OA. There is little data on obesity in Irish knee OA populations and its relationship to other measures of disease severity.

  20. New Uses of Traditional Healing in Contemporary Irish Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lynch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a comparative study in two ways.  After a summary of the historical and cultural research into traditional healing which is relevant to this article, then some comments about the general usage of such themes in contemporary Irish literature, the article moves on to examine the role and function of traditional healing as a motif in four specific literary texts.  These are: two Irish plays, Brian Friel’s Faith Healer, and Jim Nolan’s Blackwater Angel, and two pieces of Irish fiction, P.J. Curtis’ novel The Lightning Tree and Claire Keegan’s short story “The Night of the Quicken Trees”.  Strong similarities are found on many fronts between the texts, especially in the acceptance of healing and the mystery associated with it.  However, differences also occur, depending on the artistic choices of the authors, the gender and community emphasis used, and the relative importance of healing in the context of the work.  Women healers seem to be more rooted and less tragic than their male counterparts, but all healers are seen paradoxically as both an asset and a potential threat to society. When these texts are compared with research into historical and cultural aspects of Irish folk medicine, they clearly draw on tradition for their plot elements, but only in the fiction and plays can the full dramatic potential of these life and death situations be explored.

  1. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Pollard, D.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out be the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1996 and 1997. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure to the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continue to be the principal source of this contamination. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected each year. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radioanalytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentration of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites during the reporting period. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public is the consumption of seafood. The committed effective dose to heavy consumers of seafood due to artificial radionuclides in 1996 was 1.6 μSv and in 1997 was 1.4 μSv. in 1996 was 1.6 μSv and in 1997 was 1.4 μSv

  2. Sequencing and analysis of an Irish human genome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tong, Pin

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies generating complete human sequences from Asian, African and European subgroups have revealed population-specific variation and disease susceptibility loci. Here, choosing a DNA sample from a population of interest due to its relative geographical isolation and genetic impact on further populations, we extend the above studies through the generation of 11-fold coverage of the first Irish human genome sequence.

  3. Personal Development in Secondary Education: The Irish Transition Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Secondary education in Ireland includes an optional Transition Year (TY) between the junior and senior examination cycles, when students are typically about 15 years old. Transition Year is an innovative programme, unique to Irish education, which is intended as a non-academic year devoted to personal and social development in the absence of…

  4. 78 FR 14431 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... to pursue their dreams. Millions among them were born in Ireland, separated from our shores but... principle, may America and Ireland always continue to move forward together in common purpose. NOW... me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim March 2013 as Irish...

  5. The Changing Identities of History Teachers in an Irish School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Ailish

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how the nature of history as a subject has shaped the subcultural identities of the eight teachers in the History Department of an Irish post-primary school. Using a biographical, cultural and micropolitical framework popular within symbolic interactionism, this case study is based on data gathered over three years from…

  6. Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria Associated With Irish Potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 15 samples of spoilt Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were collected from five grocery shops in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria and were analysed for aerobic mesophilic bacterial load. The isolated aerobic mesophilic bacteria were phenotypically characterized by biochemical tests and their susceptibility to ...

  7. Introducing Farouk's Process Consultation Group Approach in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Marie; Stringer, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that teacher consultation groups increase teachers' behaviour management skills through discussion and collaborative problem-solving. Unlike the United Kingdom, at the time of this research consultation groups were not widely used in Irish schools. This research introduced Farouk's process consultation approach in three Irish…

  8. Accumulation of technetium-99 in the Irish Sea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Kinson S.; McCubbin, David; Bonfield, Rachel; McDonald, Paul; Service, Matthew; Conney, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    An assessment has been carried out to determine the impact of continued 99 Tc discharges into the Irish Sea from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Samples of surface and bottom seawater and sediment have been collected from the Irish Sea and analysed for 99 Tc. The information has been used, together with supporting data, to determine the effect of summer stratification upon the seawater concentrations and to evaluate whether sediments provide a sink for 99 Tc. Hydrographic data provide clear evidence of thermal stratification of waters above the muddy sediment in the western Irish Sea. Surface water contained higher 99 Tc concentrations than bottom water, and concentrations were inversely related to water salinity. This inverse relationship was not observed in the eastern Irish Sea close to Sellafield. 99 Tc activities in surficial sediments were greatest (>20 Bq/kg) at sites closest to the Cumbrian coastline. Activity, from equivalent sampling sites, remained similar between surveys carried out in 1995 and 1998. The muted response of the seabed sediments, to fluctuations in the Sellafield discharges, compared with the water column is to be expected given that they reflect the integrated radionuclide discharge history

  9. Satellite derived bathymetry: mapping the Irish coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, X.; Cahalane, C.; Harris, P.; Hanafin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Ireland has a varied coastline in excess of 3000 km in length largely characterized by extended shallow environments. The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and costly environment in which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods or airborne LiDAR techniques as demonstrated in the Irish INFOMAR program. Thus, large coastal areas in Ireland, and much of the coastal zone worldwide remain unmapped using modern techniques and is poorly understood. Earth Observations (EO) missions are currently being used to derive timely, cost effective, and quality controlled information for mapping and monitoring coastal environments. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to different depths and are routinely sensed by EO satellites. A large selection of multispectral imagery (MS) from many platforms were examined, as well as from small aircrafts and drones. A number of bays representing very different coastal environments were explored in turn. The project's workflow is created by building a catalogue of satellite and field bathymetric data to assess the suitability of imagery captured at a range of spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Turbidity indices are derived from the multispectral information. Finally, a number of spatial regression models using water-leaving radiance parameters and field calibration data are examined. Our assessment reveals that spatial regression algorithms have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of the predictions up to 10m WD and offer a better handle on the error and uncertainty budget. The four spatial models investigated show better adjustments than the basic non-spatial model. Accuracy of the predictions is better than 10% WD at 95% confidence. Future work will focus on improving the accuracy of the predictions incorporating an analytical model in conjunction with improved empirical methods. The recently launched ESA Sentinel 2 will become the

  10. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Berriche; Amrouche Chiraz; Rym Ben Othman; Hamdi Souheila; Ines Lahmer; Chaabani Wafa; Imen Sebai; Haifa Sfar; Feten Mahjoub; Henda Jamoussi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and witnesses. Methods: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including 60 postmenopausal women and screening for osteoporosis by a bone densitometry, recruited the outp...

  11. Vascular resistance of central retinal artery is reduced in postmenopausal women after use of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alice Fátima Melgaço; de Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins; Geber, Selmo

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of estrogen on the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery in postmenopausal women, compared with placebo, using transorbital ultrasound with Doppler velocimetry. We performed a prospective, randomized, triple-blinded placebo-controlled study. A total of 51 healthy postmenopausal women (follicle-stimulating hormone, >40 IU/L) with a mean (SD) age of 53.6 (4.8) years were studied. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: placebo (n = 23) and estrogen (0.625 mg conjugated estrogens; n = 28). Transorbital Doppler velocimetric ultrasound was performed before and after treatment in sitting and supine positions. The mean age was similar in both groups. The pulsatility index of the central retinal arteries had a significant decrease after the use of estrogen, when women were evaluated in the sitting position. Women who received placebo did not show any difference in pulsatility index of the central retinal arteries after treatment. When the same comparison was done with participants in the supine position, no difference was observed in either group. Our study demonstrates that estrogen reduces the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery in postmenopausal women because of a vasodilatory effect.

  12. Cultural Scripts and the Speech Act of Opinions in Irish English: A Study amongst Irish and Polish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Gąsior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies in pragmatics have been limited to a handful of illocutionary acts such as requests, apologies or compliments, and opinions remain underrepresented in the existing literature. In this paper I present the results of a study of opinions in Irish English, conducted in an intercultural environment of Irish-Polish interactions. Departing from a traditional approach of speech act realisation studies, I applied the theory of cultural scripts to analyse opinions. In contrasting the Irish and Polish formulas for expressing opinions, as well as sociopragmatic attitudes towards this speech act, a difference in the cultural scripts for opinions in each culture was observable. Apart from already documented Polish frankness in opinions, the study discovered also a rational approach to presenting good arguments to support one’s assertions among the participants. In relation to the Irish script for opinions, the findings are in line with previous classifications of opinions in Australian English, showing a certain level of variational uniformity amongst the English-speaking cultures in this regard.

  13. Adspots and Green Eyes: 'National' Identity in Irish TV Commercials and Other 'Marginal' Areas of Irish Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Stephanie

    This paper discusses the relationship between national identity and the so-called "marginal" areas of Irish television, i.e., advertisements, continuity announcements, and promotional trailers. The following issues are considered: (1) how these "spaces" between television programs compare in terms of use and influence to…

  14. Functioning of active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristiane Binda

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The multiple aspects of disability in patients with osteoporosis require comprehensive tool for their assessment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is designed to describe the experience of such patients with theirs functioning. Objective: This study aimed to describe the functioning in a sample of active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis according to the brief ICF core set for osteoporosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among active community-dwelling older adults in a southern Brazilian city. Participants were enrolled by convenience sampling from a group conducting supervised aquatic and land-based exercises. Active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were included. Thirty-two women (mean age 68.0 ± 5.1 years old participated in the evaluation. The brief ICF core set for osteoporosis was used to establish functional profiles. The categories were considered valid when ≥20% of participants showed some disability (according to ICF qualifiers. Results: No category showed a high level of disability, as >50% of women rated by qualifiers .3 or .4. Only the category e580 was considered by all participants as a facilitator. Conclusion: The brief ICF core set for osteoporosis results demonstrated that this classification system is representative to describe the functional profile of the sample. Active postmenopausal women with osteoporosis presented few impairments related to body functions and structures, activities and participation and environmental factors.

  15. Uterine Sarcoma Presenting with Sepsis from Clostridium perfringens Endometritis in a Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J. Kao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic gram positive rod that is found in normal vaginal and cervical flora in 1–10% of healthy women. Uterine infection with Clostridium perfringens is seen rarely but is often related to underlying uterine pathology and can progress quickly to sepsis. Early recognition of sepsis, prompt treatment with antibiotics, and source control with surgical management allow for optimal chance of recovery. We present a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with sepsis, vaginal bleeding, and back pain who was found to have Clostridium perfringens infection in the setting of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

  16. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...

  17. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnity, P.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Kelleher, K.; McKittrick, L.; Pollard, D.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; McMahon, C.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII during 2010 and 2011. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the Irish environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The data presented in this report confirm that while the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment are detectable, they are low. They do not pose a significant risk to the human health of the Irish population. Trace amounts of radioactive isotopes consistent with the Fukushima nuclear accident were detected in air, rainwater and milk samples during the period March to May 2011. These increases in levels of radioactivity were not of concern from a public health point of view. For the remainder of the reporting period, activity concentrations of radionuclides in airborne particles were low and consistent with measurements made in recent years. Radioactivity levels in milk, mixed diet and a wide range of foodstuffs were low and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. All drinking waters tested were found to be in compliance with the total indicative dose defined in national and EU legislation. The doses incurred by the Irish public in 2010 and 2011 as a result of artificial radioactivity in the marine environment are small when compared to dose limits or to natural radiation doses received by the Irish public. The doses to the most exposed individuals, members of the oyster and mussel farmers critical group, were approximately 0.02 per cent and 0.05 per cent of the annual dose limit of 1000 microsieverts for members of the public from practices involving controllable sources of radiation in 2010 and

  18. Comparison of bone densitometry methods in healthy and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Dinkel, E.; Genant, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    To compare methods of noninvasive measurement of bone mineral content, 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied. The methods included mono- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiographic studies were performed and the spinal fracture index calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and moderate correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were moderate in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method were not predictive of measurements obtained by another method for individual patients. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture was provided by QCT and the weakest by SPA. There was good correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results. Osteoporotic women and younger healthy women can be distinguished by the measurement of spinal trabecular bone density using QCT, and this method is more sensitive than the measurement of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT. (orig.) [de

  19. Real exchange-rates, co-integration and purchasing power parity - Irish experience in the EMS

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, R

    1989-01-01

    Dickey-Fuller and Co-Integration techniques are used to test the hypothesis that co-movements in Irish nominal exchange rates and relative prices are consistent with the implications of Purchasing Power Parity. The data reject PPP between Ireland and the US. Results from Irish/UK and Irish/German data are less decisive against the possibility that linear combinations of the nominal exchange rate and corresponding relative prices are stationary series.

  20. Age of menopause and fracture risk in postmenopausal women randomized to calcium + vitamin D, hormone therapy, or the combination: results from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Lehman, Amy; Nathan, Nisha K; Thomson, Cynthia A; Howard, Barbara V

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported that in the absence of hormone therapy (HT) or calcium/vitamin D (Ca/D) supplementation, earlier menopause age was associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Treatment with HT and Ca/D is protective against fractures after menopause. In this analysis, we asked if the age of menopause onset alters fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women receiving HT, Ca/D, or a combination. Hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture among 21,711 healthy postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial, who were treated with HT, Ca/D, or HT + Ca/D, and who reported age of nonsurgical menopause of menopause menopause 40 to 49 or ≥50 years, regardless of treatment intervention (HR [95% CI]: menopause menopause menopause age (menopause ages. The effect of menopause age on fracture risk was not altered by any of the treatment interventions (HT, Ca/D, HT + Ca/D), suggesting that early age of menopause is an independent contributor to postmenopausal fracture risk.

  1. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Making the Case for Irish through English: Eco-critical Politics of Language by Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Murphy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines recent accounts by Americans who have learned Irish. Their narratives from the West of Ireland express what translation theorist Michael Cronin calls ‘individualist politics of language’. He claims that the English-speaking majority will determine the survival of 21st century Irish.  Cronin shifts Irish into a globalized, ‘late modern’ network. Foreign-born learners enter this network when they choose to study Irish. They counter the stereotype of Irish schoolchildren forced into rote recitation of a moribund language.  Patricia Monaghan combines goddess-worship with academic research into indigenous spirituality, place-name lore, literature, and the Irish environmental inheritance. Her travelogue and reports by five other American visitors to Gaeltachtaí are compared with John Montague and Éilís Ní Dhuibhne’s literary depictions of 20th-century Irish-born school-level learners.Feminist, post-colonial, and literary criticisms enrich understanding of how American students apply ecological and cultural strategies that seek to recover this indigenous language. Choosing to make the case for Irish, adult students share Cronin’s ‘individualist politics’. In English-language books, American advocates preserve and expand a linguistic ecology in which Irish may survive.

  3. Head-dependent asymmetries in Munster Irish prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Iosad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose an analysis of stress in Munster Irish which builds on two important premises. First, I argue for a distinction between the notion ‘head of a constituent’ and the notion of ‘stress’: these are separate entities, and the typologically frequent isomorphic distribution of the two is just one possible outcome of the phonological computation. Second, I propose to employ a particular family of constraints requiring head-dependent asymmetries (Dresher and van der Hulst 1998 to account for the mismatch between the placement of foot heads and stress in Munster Irish. Overall, the paper is an argument for elaborate abstract structure as an explanatory factor in phonology, as opposed to relatively shallow, substance-based representations.

  4. Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: diversity, dynamism and medicalization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condell, Sarah L

    2012-11-01

    Gaining ethical clearance to conduct a study is an important aspect of all research involving humans but can be time-consuming and daunting for novice researchers. This article stems from a larger ethnographic study that examined research capacity building in Irish nursing and midwifery. Data were collected over a 28-month time frame from a purposive sample of 16 nurse or midwife research fellows who were funded to undertake full-time PhDs. Gaining ethical clearance for their studies was reported as an early \\'rite of passage\\' in the category of \\'labouring the doctorate\\'. This article penetrates the complexities in Irish clinical research ethics by describing the practices these nurse and midwife researchers encountered and the experiences they had. The key issue of representation that occurred in the context of \\'medicalized\\' research ethics is further explored including its meaning for nursing or midwifery research.

  5. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; O'Grady, J.; Rush, T.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of the monitoring programme for the two-year period from January 1985 to December 1986. Information on the radioactive contamination of the marine environment is obtained from the analysis of environmental samples taken at a number of locations along the coastline and various sampling stations in the western Irish Sea. These usually include samples of surface seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the Irish public from the consumption of fish and shellfish during the period 1985-1986. These doses are assessed in terms of the system of dose limitation recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and embodied in the Basic Safety Standards Directive of the European Community

  6. Equity in Irish health care financing: measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha

    2010-04-01

    This paper employs widely used analytic techniques for measuring equity in health care financing to update Irish results from previous analysis based on data from the late 1980s. Kakwani indices are calculated using household survey data from 1987/88 to 2004/05. Results indicate a marginally progressive financing system overall. However, interpretation of the results for the private sources of health financing is complicated. This problem is not unique to Ireland but it is argued that it may be relatively more important in the context of a complex health financing system, illustrated in this paper by the Irish system. Alternative options for improving the analysis of equity in health care financing are discussed.

  7. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2003-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.W.; Dowdall, A; Fegan, M.F.; Hayden, E.; Kelleher, K.; Long, S.; McEvoy, I.; McKittrick, L.; McMahon, C.A.; Murray, M.; Smith, K.; Sequeira, S.; Wong, J.; Pollard, D.

    2007-05-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) between 2003 and 2005. This programme aims to assess the exposure of the Irish population to anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment, to review the temporal and geographical distribution of contaminating radionuclides and to maintain systems and procedures which would allow a rapid assessment of environmental contamination to be made in the event of a radiological emergency. Radioactivity is present in the environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, past nuclear accidents such as that at Chernobyl and the routine licensed discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. Liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Group reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the North-West of England continue to be the dominant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Irish marine environment. The key elements of the monitoring programme implemented by the RPII during the reporting period include; assessment of ambient radioactivity based on measurements of radioactivity in air and external gamma dose rate at permanent monitoring stations located throughout the country; assessment of levels of radioactivity in drinking water; assessment of levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs based on measurements of total diet, milk and miscellaneous ingredients; assessment of levels of radioactivity in the marine environment based on sampling and measurements of seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. The RPII monitored airborne radioactivity at eleven stations located throughout the country. One station is equipped with a high volume sampler, which allows global fallout concentrations to be measured, and one is equipped to detect the presence of the gas krypton-85. Krypton-85 is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear

  8. Genital tract malign ancies in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, F.; Jatoi, N.; Das, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The most common malignancy in women is breast carcinoma. The next common cancer is genital tract malignancies which constitute 14% of cancers in women. Objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of genital tract malignancy in postmenopausal women and to find the age distribution of genital tract malignancies. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics ad Gynaecology Unit-II at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. All postmenopausal women, admitted in the unit due to various pathologies (abdominal masses, bleeding P/V etc.) from January 2005 to December 2007 were included in the study. Clinical evaluation and investigations were done on all patients. Those women who had benign diseases were excluded from the study. Malignancy was confirmed from histopathology report of biopsy specimen. These women were divided into 3 age groups: group I 70 years. Results: Out of 265 postmenopausal women admitted in ward during the study period, malignancy was confirmed in 68 cases (25.66%). The type of malignancy was cervical carcinoma (41, 60.28%), ovarian carcinoma (11, 16.17%), endometrial carcinoma (8, 11.76%), vulval carcinoma (5, 7.35%) vaginal carcinoma (2, 2.94%), and leiomyosarcoma of uterus (1, 1.47%). Increased frequency of cervical and endometrial carcinomas were seen in Group-I cases, while vulval carcinoma was seen more commonly in Group-II cases ( p =0.004). Conclusion: A very high frequency of cervical carcinoma was seen in our patients. There is need for more public awareness to integrate routine Gynae-Pap screening. (author)

  9. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaor, Melissa Orlandin; Pilbrow, Lesley; Tonkin, Carol; Parker, Richard A; Compston, Juliet

    2010-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a recognized risk factor for fragility fracture, whereas obesity is widely believed to be protective. As part of a clinical audit of guidance from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), we have documented the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity in postmenopausal women younger than 75 years of age presenting to our Fracture Liaison Service (FLS). Between January 2006 and December 2007, 1005 postmenopausal women aged less than 75 years with a low-trauma fracture were seen in the FLS. Of these women, 805 (80%) underwent assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and values for BMI were available in 799. The prevalence of obesity (BMI 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) and morbid obesity (BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2)) in this cohort was 19.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Normal BMD was reported in 59.1% of obese and 73.1% of morbidly obese women, and only 11.7% and 4.5%, respectively, had osteoporosis (p obesity in postmenopausal women presenting to the FLS with low-trauma fracture. Most of these women had normal BMD, as measured by DXA. Our findings have important public heath implications in view of the rapidly rising increase in obesity in many populations and emphasize the need for further studies to establish the pathogenesis of fractures in obese individuals and to determine appropriate preventive strategies. Copyright 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Labour supply and commodity demands : an application to Irish data

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Murphy; Rodney Thom

    1986-01-01

    Annual Irish data are used to estimate a model which allows for the joint determination of commodity demands and labour supply. Consumer preferences are modelled by a cost function of the Gorman polar form which permits exact linear aggregation over individuals with different money wage rates. Separability between goods and leisure is rejected by the data. Labour supply is found to be a positive function of the wage rate.

  11. Do Irish adolescents have adequate functional movement skill and confidence?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Wesley; Duncan, Michael J.; Farmer, Orlagh; Lester, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that post-primary Irish youth are insufficiently active and fail to reach a level of proficiency across basic fundamental movement skills. The purpose of the current research was to gather cross-sectional data on adolescent youth, differentiated by gender, specifically to inform the development of a targeted movement-oriented intervention. Data were collected on adolescents (N=219; mean age: 14.45 ± 0.96 years), within two, mixed gender schools. Data collection inclu...

  12. Wave Energy and Actor-Network Theory: The Irish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the wave energy sector in Ireland using theories from the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Theoretical divisions within the field of STS are examined, particularly the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (SSK) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Any conflicts which these two theories present to each other are examined through the empirical findings of the Irish wave energy sector. In particular, ANT s rejection of macro and micro distinctions when analy...

  13. Independence and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency: A Comparative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Shipan, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is one of the most prominent regulatory agencies in Ireland. Created in 1992, one of the hallmarks of this agency is its independence from other parts of government. Yet little is known about the actual extent of its independence. Independence and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency: A Comparative Assessment addresses several key questions about the agency's independence. Why was independence such a primary justification for the creation of this a...

  14. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  15. Irish Sea Marine Aggregate Initiative (IMAGIN) Technical Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Irish Sea Marine Aggregates Initiative (IMAGIN) is a collaborative project between Ireland and Wales focused on the sustainable management of marine aggregate resources. IMAGIN was a 2-year project with a total budget of €1.1 million. IMAGIN was part funded (66%) under the Ireland/Wales Inter Regional (INTERREG) IIIA Community Initiative Programme 2000-2006. The remaining project budget was met by contributions from partner organisations (19%) and aggregate companies – CEMEX, Lagan Ltd., ...

  16. Ireland's medical brain drain: migration intentions of Irish medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gouda, Pishoy

    2015-12-01

    To provide the optimum level of healthcare, it is important that the supply of well-trained doctors meets the demand. However, despite many initiatives, Ireland continues to have a shortfall of physicians, which has been projected to persist. Our study aimed to investigate the migration intentions of Irish medical students and identify the factors that influence their decisions in order to design appropriate interventions to sustain the supply of trained doctors in order to maintain a viable medical system.

  17. Prevalence of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. Patients and Methods This study was cross-sectional study. In this study, 1280 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years old who were referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014 were randomly enrolled. Hamilton depression scale and demographic questionnaire were used for gathering information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (Independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were carried out (CI 95%. Results The mean ± SD score of depression for the subjects was 9.37 ± 4.62. The results showed that 59.8% of the 1280 samples were depressed; in particular, 39.8% had mild depression, 16% moderate depression, and 4% severe depression. There is a significant and inverse relation between variables of age, exposure to cigarette smoking, and the relationship with their spouses and the level of their depression, so higher age, more exposure to smoking, and better relation with their husbands, lead to the less depression. The results showed that the level of education is associated with depression. The highest rate of depression was in illiterate women; the finding also showed that there is a relationship between income and the severity of depression (Regression Log. T test showed that the mean depression level of employed postmenopausal women is higher than housewives postmenopausal women, and this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions A significant percentage of women in their menopause experience

  18. [Ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Péter

    2008-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects 7-10% of the population of developed countries. During the past decade, a number of new therapeutical modalities have been made available. Among these, bisphosphonates mean the mainstay of medical treatment. Ibandronate belongs to the amino-bisphosphonate group of these drugs. Amino-bisphosphonates act via the mevalonate metabolic pathway, thus, inhibiting protein prenylation. Several clinical studies have shown a significant reduction in the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients treated with ibandronate. This compound can be administered orally once a month or intravenously once in every 3 months. Longer dosing intervals stimulate patient compliance, and consequently increase efficacy and cost effectiveness.

  19. Factors influencing endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-07-01

    Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of

  20. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 2000 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; McMahon, C.A.; Dowdall, A.

    2003-04-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2000 and 2001. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the North West of England continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 2000 and again in 2001. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the artificial radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser radiological significance than caesium-137. The main pathway contributing to the

  1. Responses to the Holocaust in Modern Irish Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Keatinge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines twentieth and twenty-first century responses by Irish poets to the Holocaust. It argues that, despite the illiberal tendencies of the Irish state towards Jewish immigration during and after the 1939-1945 war, recent commemorative activities in Ireland have included the Holocaust and are part of a wider commemorative ‘opening up’ in Ireland towards twentieth-century historical events. Important contemporary Irish poets have written Holocaust poems of notable merit including: Seamus Heaney, Harry Clifton, Derek Mahon, Pearse Hutchinson, Paul Durcan, Paul Muldoon, Thomas Kinsella and Tom Paulin, all of whom are discussed here. These poets are noted as second-generation Holocaust poets, more at home in the lyric form and less troubled by communicative dilemmas than their precursors such as Paul Celan and Samuel Beckett whose resemblance is briefly discussed. The essay concludes by arguing that Giorgio Agamben’s arguments about testimony after Auschwitz are strikingly pertinent to some of the poems under discussion. It also suggests that the historical essays of Hubert Butler may have acted as an unseen influence on some of these writers.

  2. Altered phosphorylation of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic Irish Setters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnick, J.; Takemoto, D.J.; Takemoto, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The carboxyl-terminus of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic (rd) Irish Setters is altered near a possible phosphorylation site. To determine if this alteration affects ATP-mediated phosphorylation they compared the phosphorylation of rhodopsin from rd affected Irish Setters and normal unaffected dogs. Retinas from 8-week-old Irish Setters were phosphorylated with γ- 32 P-ATP and separated on SDS-PAGE. Compared to unaffected normal retinas, equalized for rhodopsin content, phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin was drastically reduced. When rd retinas were mixed with normal dog retinas, phosphorylation of the latter was inhibited. Inhibition also occurred when bovine retinas were mixed with rd retinas. The rd-mediated inhibition of phosphorylation was prevented by including 1mM NaF in the reaction mixture. Likewise, 1mM NaF restored phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin to normal levels. Phosphopeptide maps of rd and normal rhodopsin were identical and indicated 5 phosphopeptides present in each. Results suggest that one cause of the depressed rd rhodopsin phosphorylation is an increased phosphatase activity

  3. Student voice: An emerging discourse in Irish education policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domnall Fleming

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland’s ratification of the United Nations Charter on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC in 1992. Initially emerging in policy from a rights-based and democratic citizenship perspective, the student council became the principal construct for student voice in Irish post-primary schools. While central to the policy discourse, the student council construct has become tokenistic and redundant in practice. School evaluation policy, both external and internal, became a further catalyst for student voice in Ireland. Both processes further challenge and contest the motivation for student voice and point to the concept as an instrument for school improvement and performativity that lacks any centrality for a person-centered, rights-based, dialogic and consultative student voice within an inclusive classroom and school culture.

  4. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1993 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.; McGarry, A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland during the period 1993 to 1995. The principal objective of this programme is to assess the exposure to the Irish population arising from radioactive contamination in the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to human health arising from such exposure. In addition, the programme aims to assess the distribution of the significant contaminating radionuclides in the marine environment and to identify tends with a view to assessing possible future effects. The results show that by 1995 the mean concentration of caesium-137 in fish landed at north-east ports had fallen to 1.6 Bq/kg, from a figure of 68 Bq/kg in 1979-82 and 3.0 Bq/kg in 1993. A similar decline is evident for seawater, sediment and seaweed. In addition, the Irish Sea data show the progressive dilution of artificial radioactivity with increasing distance from Sellafield

  5. Changes with age in left ventricular function and volumes at rest and postexercise in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Isobe, Satoshi; Hirai, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, it has been reported that the plasma estrogen levels diminish immediately after menopause, and that this phenomenon affects left ventricular (LV) function and volumes. However, the effects of age on LV function and volumes for a relatively short period in the postmenopausal women remain to be established. Electrocardiographically gated-myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has recently provided accurate estimations of perfusion, cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. We investigated the age-related changes in LV function and volumes in postmenopausal women using electrocardiographically gated-myocardial scintigraphy. Twenty-two consecutive healthy postmenopausal women (mean age of 63.8±9.4 years, from 42 to 77 years) without cardiac disease underwent stress/rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated-myocardial SPECT with 16 frames per cardiac cycle at baseline and follow-up (1.0±0.3 years later). LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV volumes were calculated by quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. Fourier series were retained for the analysis of the volume curve. From this volume curve, we derived the following diastolic indices: peak filling rate (PFR) and time to PFR (TPFR). End-systolic volume index (ESVI) significantly decreased at postexercise (p=0.02) and tended to decrease at rest (p=0.06) from the baseline to the follow-up study. LVEF significantly increased at both postexercise (p=0.01) and rest (p=0.03) from the baseline to the follow-up study. The TPFR at rest tended to be prolonged from the baseline to the follow-up study (p=0.07). The absolute increase in LVEF at postexercise tended to decrease with age [4.8% (50s) vs. 3.4% (60s) vs. 1.2% (70s)]. An age-related change in cardiac performance is apparent at an approximately 1 year follow-up in postmenopausal women. In particular, the increase in LV systolic function tends to show the greatest value in the 50s subjects among the 3 generations. (author)

  6. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  7. Management of postmenopausal osteoporosis for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P; Lukert, B; Broy, S; Civitelli, R; Fleischmann, R; Gagel, R; Khosla, S; Lucas, M; Maricic, M; Pacifici, R; Recker, R; Sarran, H S; Short, B; Short, M J

    1998-01-01

    The shift in health care delivery from a subspecialty to primary care system has transferred the responsibility of preventing osteoporotic fractures from specialists in metabolic bone disease to the web of physicians--family practitioners, general internists, pediatricians, and gynecologists--who provide the bulk of primary care. The challenge for this group of physicians is to decrease the rising prevalence of osteoporotic hip and vertebral fractures while operating within the cost parameters. It is the goal of this brief summary to provide primary practitioners with focused guidelines for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis based on new and exciting developments. Prevention and treatment will change rapidly over the next decade and these advances will require changes in these recommendations. We identified patients at risk for osteoporosis and provided indications for bone mass measurement, criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis, therapeutic interventions, and biochemical markers of the disease. Prevention and treatment are discussed, including hormone replacement therapy and use of calcitonin, sodium fluoride, bisphosphonates, and serum estrogen receptor modulators. Postmenopausal osteoporosis should no longer be an accepted process of aging. It is both preventable and treatable. Primary care physicians must proactively prevent and treat osteoporosis in their daily practice, and combination therapies are suggested.

  8. Training Cubs for the Celtic Tiger: The Volume Production of Technical Graduates in the Irish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, James; Boucher, Gerard W.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the claim that the Irish educational system was one cause of Ireland's rapid economic growth in the 1990s. For decades Irish economic policy has assumed that economic growth depended on foreign direct investment (FDI). During the 1990s, Irish exports largely comprised high-technology manufacturing products; foreign-owned…

  9. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss

  10. Codeswitching in the Irish-Latin Leabhar Breac: Mediæval homiletic culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, Th.J.E. ter

    2017-01-01

    An Leabhar Breac ('The Speckled Book'; c.1410) is a manuscript containing a collection of mostly religious material in both Latin and Irish, now housed in Dublin at the Royal Irish Academy. The present publication explores the make-up of the manuscript, focusing on the question which languages are

  11. Minority Language Advertising: A Profile of Two Irish-Language Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Holmes, Helen; Atkinson, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the Irish-language adscape through an analysis of the profile of two Irish-language newspapers, "Foinse," published in the Republic of Ireland, and "La," published in Northern Ireland. The advertising in both papers is analysed in terms of products and services advertised, advertisers represented and…

  12. 3 CFR 8350 - Proclamation 8350 of March 2, 2009. Irish-American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pursue the American Dream. Many took on the difficult work of constructing America’s... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8350 of March 2, 2009. Irish-American... 2, 2009 Proc. 8350 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2009By the President of the United States of...

  13. Training and Developing Non-Irish Workers: The Perspectives of Interested Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges facing Irish organisations in the training and development of non-Irish workers. It analyses the importance of fluency in the host country's language and the approach taken by organisations in relation to language training. In-depth semi-structured interviews provide significant insights for the…

  14. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  15. The Farm as an Educative Tool in the Development of Place Attachments among Irish Farm Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the educative role of the farm in the development of relationships between young people and the homeplace they grew up on. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with a cohort of 30 Irish university students (15 men and 15 women) brought up on Irish family farms who would not become full-time farmers. The farm acts as…

  16. Early Reading Strategies in Irish and English: Evidence from Error Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christine E.; Lyddy, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    For the majority of people in Ireland, Irish is a second language acquired primarily through the schooling system. This study examined the reading strategies children used in response to English and Irish words (presented in isolation), through an analysis of their oral reading errors. Children in their 4th year of schooling attending…

  17. Yield gap analysis and resource footprints of Irish potato production systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Irish potato is the third most important carbohydrate food crop in Zimbabwe after maize and wheat. In 2012, the Government of Zimbabwe declared it a strategic national food security crop. In this study, we examine the country's potential for increasing Irish potato yield and help ease the nation's

  18. What Stick Figures Tell Us about Irish Politics: Creating a Critical and Collaborative Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Sharon; Hogan, John; Donnelly, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the interpretation of freehand drawings produced by a small sample of 220 first-year students taking an Irish politics introductory module in response to the question, "What is Irish Politics?" By sidestepping cognitive verbal-processing routes, through employing freehand drawing, we aim to create a critical and…

  19. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  20. Is the Price Right?: Stereotypes, Co-Production Policy and Irish Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Luke

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how recent demand for greater realism in portrayals of Irish life in the television and film industries serves to authenticate existing stereotypes and romantic images which characterize "Irishness" in the popular imagination rather than refute or undermine them. Discussions of a political thriller…

  1. Engaging with Leadership Development in Irish Academic Libraries: Some Reflections of the Future Leaders Programme (FLP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Helen; Maxwell, Jane; McCaffrey, Ciara; McMahon, Seamus

    2011-01-01

    Four librarians from Irish university libraries completed the U.K. Future Leaders Programme (FLP) in 2010. In this article they recount their experience and assess the effect of the programme on their professional practice and the value for their institutions. The programme is explored in the context of the Irish higher education environment,…

  2. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  3. "The Next Level": Investigating Teaching and Learning within an Irish Traditional Music Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2013-01-01

    Online music communities offer a new context and culture for musical participation globally. This article, employing a socio-cultural theoretical lens, examines how the Online Academy of Irish Music (OAIM) functions as a teaching and learning online community for Irish traditional music. Findings from qualitative case study research present…

  4. What is the recurrence rate of postmenopausal bleeding in women who have a thin endometrium during a first episode of postmenopausal bleeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. C.; Timmermans, A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Kruitwagen, R. F. M. P.; Dijkhuizen, F. P. H. L. J.; Kooi, G. S.; van de Weijer, P. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence and significance of recurrent postmenopausal bleeding among women diagnosed with an endometrial thickness <= 4 mm after a first episode of postmenopausal bleeding. Methods. Consecutive patients not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) presenting with a first

  5. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  6. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT......) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...

  7. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  8. Radon in Irish schools: the results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H; Hanley, O; Fenton, D; Colgan, P A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of radon concentrations in Irish primary and post-primary schools. The objective of this survey was to assess the distribution of radon in Irish schools and to identify those requiring remedial work to reduce radon exposure to children and staff. All primary and post-primary schools were invited to participate in the survey. Indoor radon concentrations were measured during the academic year using integrating passive alpha track-etch detectors with a measurement period from three to nine months. The survey was carried out on a phased basis from 1998 to 2004 and is one of the most comprehensive of its kind undertaken in Europe. Measurements were completed in 38 531 ground floor classrooms and offices in 3826 schools, representing over 95% of the approximate 4000 primary and post-primary schools in Ireland. Of these, 984 schools had radon concentrations greater than 200 Bq m -3 in 3028 rooms and 329 schools had radon concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m -3 in 800 rooms. The average radon concentration in schools was 93 Bq m -3 . This results in an annual average effective dose to an Irish child from exposure to radon of 0.3 mSv per year, assuming that the long-term radon concentration is equal to the radon concentration present during the working hours and that the annual average occupancy is 1000 h per year. A programme of remediation of schools with radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 has been put in place

  9. Glyphosate in Irish adults - A pilot study in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Alison; Leahy, Michelle; Jones, Kate; Kenny, Laura; Coggins, Marie A

    2018-05-02

    Glyphosate is the highest volume herbicide used globally and has recently been classified as a 2 A 'probably carcinogenic to humans' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). There is limited data to evaluate the public health impacts from glyphosate exposure. The objective of this study is to conduct an exploratory glyphosate exposure assessment study among Irish adults, who were non-occupational users of glyphosate. A convenient sampling method was used, collecting one first morning void spot urine sample from each participant. A biomonitoring survey involving the collection and analysis of 20 ml spot urine samples from 50 Irish adults was conducted in June 2017. Participants completed a short questionnaire to collect information on demographics, dietary habits and lifestyle. Glyphosate was extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MC/MS). Of the 50 urine samples analysed, 10 (20%) contained detectable levels of glyphosate (0.80-1.35 µg L -1 ). Exposure concentrations are higher than those reported in comparable studies of European and American adults. Glyphosate was detectable in 20% of the samples collected from Irish adults. The low proportion of detectable glyphosate levels could be due to lower localised use of pesticides, having a small sample size or the higher analytical detection limit used in this study (0.5 µg L -1 ), which could underestimate the true exposure and warrants further investigation. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, further information on population exposure is required to advance our understanding of the relationship between chronic low dose exposure to glyphosate and human health risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of growth hormone administration on bone mineral metabolism, PTH sensitivity and PTH secretory rhythm in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Franklin; Ahmad, Aftab M; Ul-Haq, Mazhar; Durham, Brian H; Whittingham, Pauline; Fraser, William D; Vora, Jiten P

    2008-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) replacement improves target organ sensitivity to PTH, PTH circadian rhythm, calcium and phosphate metabolism, bone turnover, and BMD in adult GH-deficient (AGHD) patients. In postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis, GH and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations are low, and administration of GH has been shown to increase bone turnover and BMD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We studied the effects of GH administration on PTH sensitivity, PTH circadian rhythm, and bone mineral metabolism in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis. Fourteen postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were compared with 14 healthy premenopausal controls at baseline that then received GH for a period of 12 mo. Patients were hospitalized for 24 h before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo after GH administration and half-hourly blood and 3-h urine samples were collected. PTH, calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO(4)), nephrogenous cyclic AMP (NcAMP), beta C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (betaCTX), procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Circadian rhythm analysis was performed using Chronolab 3.0 and Student's t-test and general linear model ANOVAs for repeated measures were used where appropriate. IGF-1 concentration was significantly lower in the women with established osteoporosis compared with controls (101.5 +/- 8.9 versus 140.9 +/- 10.8 mug/liter; p bone mineral metabolism. GH administration to postmenopausal osteoporotic women improves target organ sensitivity to PTH and bone mineral metabolism and alters PTH secretory pattern with greater increases in bone formation than resorption. These changes, resulting in a net positive bone balance, may partly explain the mechanism causing the increase in BMD after long-term administration of GH in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis shown in previous studies and proposes a further component in the development of age

  11. A depressed post-menopausal woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-11-01

    Post-menopausal women are at significant risk for coronary artery disease, have increased rates of depression compared to their male counterparts, and often present atypically with coronary insufficiency. The symptoms of depression and coronary ischemia overlap greatly. Complaints like fatigue, body aches, and sleep disturbance reported by a depressed elderly woman may be cardiac related and need to be investigated seriously without physician bias. To ensure that clinicians are cautious when evaluating older women with a history of depression who are presenting with atypical complaints. A 61-year-old woman with history of depression presented to the Emergency Department with multiple complaints atypical for acute coronary syndrome. She had an immediate electrocardiogram and troponin-T Biosite point-of-care test (Biosite Incorporated, San Diego, CA) performed, which were positive for cardiac ischemia and myocardial infarction. The patient underwent immediate cardiac catheterization, which revealed occlusion of the mid left circumflex. After aspiration of thrombus and balloon dilatation of the site, a bare metal stent was deployed, restoring excellent flow. The patient did well medically but her depression worsened after the procedure and continues despite psychiatric intervention. For years there have been gender differences in medical treatment of coronary artery disease, and often women's complaints are not investigated aggressively. Post-menopausal women are at great risk for cardiac ischemia and depression, and their symptoms, which are often atypical, may not be diagnosed as anginal equivalents. In addition, depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, if it occurs after myocardial infarction, may lead to poor quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. Patients who have had a coronary event must be thoroughly evaluated for signs of depression and receive the necessary treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Apoptosis in ovarian cells in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laszczyńska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a natural process which accompanies human ovary from the moment of birth until old age. While it is a well-known process at the reproductive age, it still needs to be thoroughly examined when referring to the postmenopausal age. The study involved 30 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed by laparotomy due to nonneoplastic diseases of the uterus. The women were divided into 3 groups depending on the time that had passed since the last menstruation. Group A consisted of women who had their last menstruation no more than 5 years earlier. In group B menopause occurred 5 to 10 years earlier. Group C was composed of patients who had the last menstruation over 10 years earlier. In all the patients concentrations of follitropin (FSH and estradiol (E2 in blood plasma were measured. Ovarian tissue was obtained during surgery. For morphological studies, ovaries were fixed in Bouin's solution and 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Morphological analysis was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin (H-E staining. For histochemical detection of apoptotic cells (in situ localization of fragment DNA, the TUNEL method was used. The expression of caspase-3 positive cells was determined immunohistochemically in paraffin-embedded specimens. Comparing to groups A and B, the ovaries in group C contained small number of corpora albicantia located in the medullary part as well as thinned blood vessels and few lymphatic vessels and nerves. In contrast to group A where the number of TUNEL-positive cells was high and caspase-3 expression was observed, no TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspase-3 expression were found in the examined ovaries of group C women.

  13. Potential applications of process irradiation in Irish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Dr. Mary Upton draws attention to the U.S.A. Food and Drugs Administration agreement to allow irradiation for fresh fruit and vegetables of up to one kilogray and of spices up to 30 kilograys. There is also the likelihood of favourable legislation in the U.K. later this year. The potential for Irish industry may well lie in the extension of shelf-life of poultry, fish, fruit and vegetables; salmonella eradication; control of sprouting in potatoes and onions; treatment of food additives such as spices and enzymes; the replacement of ethylene oxide or of ethylene dibromide as preservatives, residues of which are currently considered somewhat suspect for health reasons

  14. Publishing the confidential: an ethnographic study of young Irish bloggers

    OpenAIRE

    Fowley, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    From blogs to social network sites, young people have been early adopters of all forms of Web 2.0 communication. Diary-style blogs have been one of the tools they have used as outlets for creativity and communication, whilst simultaneously bringing into a public forum a genre which was inherently private. This thesis is the result of a three year ethnographic study of two groups of young Irish bloggers on the LiveJournal platform, which mixes blogging tools with social network facilities...

  15. Speckle tracking echocardiography in mature Irish Wolfhound dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westrup, Ulrik; McEvoy, Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken...... under normal clinical conditions.The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error....

  16. Application of CAFE-I to the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, F.L.; Onishi, Y.

    1983-08-01

    The two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic model, CAFE, has been applied to the Irish Sea as part of a study to simulate radionuclide transport with sediment-radionuclide interactions for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The flow circulation pattern simulated by CAFE shows good agreement with flow patterns described in the literature. The model results were evaluated by comparing simulated current ellipses at 5 points in the grid with measured current ellipses generated from velocity data collected during April 1968. The computed and measured phases of the maximum flood and ebb currents were also compared

  17. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1988 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, John; Currivan, Lorainne; McEnri, Catherine; O'Colmain, Mairin; Colgan, P.A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents estimates of the radiaiton doses to the Irish public arising from caesium-137 and caesium-134, the contaminating radionuclides of greatest radiological significance. The doses are expressed in terms of individual and collective doses and are assessed against the system of dose limitation recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which is embodied in the Basic Safety Standards Directive of the European Community. The doses are also compared with doses arising from background radiation and the associated risks are considered in the context of some of the common risks in everyday life

  18. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1991 and 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.; Lyons, S.; McEnri, C.; Ryan, T.; O'Colmain, M.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Radiological Protection Institute's programme of monitoring of radioactivity in the seas around Ireland during 1991 and 1992. The principal objective of the monitoring programme is to review the risks to human health arising from the Sellafield discharges. Secondary objectives include studies of the distribution of the significant contaminating radionuclides in the marie environment and the identification of trends with a view to assessing possible future effects. Estimates of the radiation doses to the Irish public are also presented in this report. 23 refs. 24 tabs. 9 figs

  19. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Chisato; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  20. Microdose transdermal estrogen therapy for relief of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Gloria A; Schaefers, Matthias; Uddin, Alkaz; Utian, Wulf H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of microdose transdermal 17beta-estradiol (E2) therapy in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe vulvovaginal symptoms. This report is based on a subset of 121 women who reported most bothersome moderate or severe vulvovaginal symptoms at baseline, from a previous randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of 425 healthy, symptomatic, postmenopausal women. Recruits had experienced at least 7 moderate or severe hot flushes daily for at least 1 week or at least 50 moderate or severe hot flushes per week for at least 1 week. Effects on coprimary efficacy variables have been reported previously. Participants received low-dose transdermal E2 plus levonorgestrel (n = 43; nominal delivery 0.023 mg/d E2/0.0075 mg/d levonorgestrel), microdose E2 (n = 42; nominal delivery 0.014 mg/d), or placebo (n = 36) for 12 weeks. Secondary efficacy variables reported herein include mean change from baseline in vaginal pH and vaginal maturation index, the proportion of women with symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy at baseline and week 12, and the proportion of women with moderate-to-severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy. Microdose transdermal E2 treatment was associated with a consistent benefit versus placebo in women with vulvovaginal atrophy. There was a statistically significant difference between both E2 versus placebo for changes in vaginal pH and vaginal maturation index. Microdose transdermal E2 offers a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for postmenopausal women in whom vulvovaginal symptoms are particularly troublesome.

  1. Effects of age at first pregnancy and breast-feeding on the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, Peter F; Barker, Kathaleen G; Marakovits, Kimberly A; O'Sullivan, David M

    2010-01-01

    Although pregnancy and breast-feeding require adequate calcium mobilization, it is not known if these affect the acquisition of a healthy peak bone mass (PBM) and, hence, postmenopausal osteoporosis (OPS). The objective of this study was to analyze previous pregnancies and/or breast-feeding and their association with OPS. After obtaining institutional review board approval, postmenopausal women (>49 y) presenting for a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone density scan were invited to participate. Risk factors for OPS, including previous fractures, pregnancy information, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry results, were collected. OPS was defined as a T score of -2.5 or lower. Data were obtained from 619 women. Of these, 49.8% were smokers, 27.2% used a bisphosphonate, 64.1% used hormone therapy, and 5.5% had used steroids. Based on PBM, ages at first pregnancy were dichotomized to younger than 27 years and 27 years or older. Women with a history of breast-feeding had a lower prevalence of OPS (7.6%) versus women who had never breast-fed (18.7%; P pregnancy when they were 27 years or older and a history of breast-feeding had the lowest prevalence of OPS (4.6%) versus women with a first pregnancy when they were younger than 27 years and no history of breast-feeding (16.3%; P = 0.001). Breast-feeding seems to significantly decrease the incidence of postmenopausal OPS. Women whose first pregnancy occurs after PBM (≥27 y of age) and who have a history of breast-feeding had the lowest prevalence of OPS. Thus, an association between OPS and both breast-feeding and age of pregnancy seems to be present.

  2. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hayashi, Makoto [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Takeda, Noriyuki [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Yasuda, Keigo [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTMENOPAUSAL BLEEDING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Arora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A woman is considered menopausal after 12 months of amenorrhea. The most feared symptom during menopause is postmenopausal bleeding which unless proved otherwise indicates genital malignancy. Objectives: To study Socio-demographic factors related to postmenopausal bleeding and to find time lapse between bleeding and reporting of these cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional was done in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College & DR. B. R. Ambedkar Memorial, Hospital, Raipur (C. G. The participants were 146 women who came with the complaint of postmenopausal bleeding. A detailed, preceded, pre-tested, structured, close ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. By interviewing these women, information was collected about different demographic factors like age, socio-economic status, parity etc. The collected data was put in the master chart and analyzed. Results: The proportion of postmenopausal bleeding cases was 3.5% .Maximum cases(50% with postmenopausal bleeding were found in the age group of 45-54yrs . 60 % of patients were from rural areas and 62% were illiterate. 65% of the patients were grand multipara (Parity4. Most of the patients belonged to lower socioeconomic strata. Almost half (48% of patients presented after, more than 6 months since the first episode of bleeding . Conclusions: The proportion of postmenopausal bleeding is high, requiring immediate investigation. Lack of awareness led to very late presentation of most of the patients, so education at community level is required to reduce this time lapse for earlier diagnosis and management

  4. Use of Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum) in Early Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H. O.; Kapczynski, W.; Mscisz, A.; Lutomski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index. Design: Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. Results: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (PMaca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (PMaca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674952

  5. Psychosocial predictors of coronary artery calcification progression in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Carissa A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been associated with psychosocial factors in some but not all cross-sectional analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether positive and negative psychosocial factors prospectively predict CAC progression in postmenopausal women. Participants from the Healthy Women Study who also participated in the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center protocol (n = 149) completed self-report psychosocial measures before two electron beam computed tomographic scans of CAC separated by an average of 3.3 years. Results of exploratory factor analysis were used to create aggregate psychosocial indices: psychological risk (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, cynicism, and anger-in) and psychosocial resources (optimism, purpose in life, mastery, self-esteem, and social support). The psychological risk index predicted significantly greater CAC progression over 3 years (β = 0.16, p = .035, ΔR(2) = 0.03), whereas the psychosocial resources index was not predictive of CAC progression (β = -0.08, p = .30, ΔR(2) = 0.01). On individual scales, higher scores on cynicism emerged as a significant predictor of CAC progression, along with a trend linking anger-in to atherosclerosis progression. A post hoc analysis showed a significant interaction between cynicism and anger-in (β = 0.20, p = .01, ΔR(2) = 0.03), such that women reporting high levels of both cynicism and anger suppression exhibited the most CAC progression. These findings highlight psychosocial risk factors that may accelerate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in older women, suggest the potential importance of examining combinations of psychosocial risk factors, and identify potential targets for psychological interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  6. Vitamin D Status in Irish Children and Adolescents: Value of Fortification and Supplementation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Aoife

    2014-07-07

    Background. Vitamin D has important skeletal and extraskeletal roles but those living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal levels because of reduced sunlight exposure. Aim. To describe the vitamin D status of Irish children and identify factors predictive of vitamin D status. Methods. A prospective cross sectional study was undertaken over a 12 month period. Two hundred and fifty two healthy children attending for minor medical or surgical procedures were recruited. All had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone and bone profiles measured. Results. The mean (standard deviation) for 25OHD was 51(25) nmol\\/L (20.4 (10) ng\\/mL). Forty-five percent had levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). The following variables were significantly associated with 25OHD levels >50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL): sample drawn in April-September, use of vitamin D supplements, consumption of formula milk, and non-African ethnicity. Conclusion. More than half of the children in this study had 25OHD levels less than 50 nmol\\/L (20 ng\\/mL). Vitamin D status was significantly improved by augmented oral vitamin D intake.

  7. A Woman Alone: The Depictions of Spinsters in Irish Women’s Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the manner in which single women are represented in contemporary Irish women’s short stories.  Typically in these stories, such women are portrayed as a distinctive social group within a society in which a traditionally negative image of the spinster has been reinforced by a dominant social ideology which has as objective the exertion of social control over women.  Contemporary Irish female writers attempt to ridicule this problematic “single-woman phobia” by demonstrating that this phenomenon is actually the result of women’s “selflessness” rather than the “selfishness” associated with the spinster stereotype.  Irish women’s stories demonstrate also a fundamental unfairness inherent within Irish society in which women are compelled to sacrifice their own lives and needs for the benefit of others by assuming a surrogate mothering role as “social mothers”.  Ironically, this paradox acts as the main obstacle preventing Irish spinsters from fulfilling their roles as wives and biological mothers.  In response, Irish female writers de-demonise the witch-like spinster stereotypes by deconstructing through their narratives those paradoxical social norms which have actually nurtured and reinforced negative perceptions of the “single women” within Irish society.

  8. ‘Old Ireland and Himself’: William Orpen and the Conflicts of Irish Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Foster

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Irish painter William Orpen (1878-1931, defined here as Ireland’s most ‘Spanish’ painter, was out of fashion for fifty years after his death; but he has recently been dramatically revalued, with his works fetching huge prices in salerooms and an unprecedentedly large exhibition of his work being mounted in London and subsequently Dublin. Best known for his Edwardian portraits and his devastating paintings of the First World War, he also produced a series of allegorical paintings of his native Ireland. These are discussed in this article, and linked to his admiration for J.M.Synge, his dislike of clericalism and repression in Irish life, and his celebration of sensuality. The same themes lie behind ‘Homage to Manet’, a celebrated group portrait which includes the Irish novelist George Moore and the art collector Hugh Lane —a close friend of Orpen’s. Orpen knew other figures of the cultural Revival, and his relation to them is discussed; as is the conflict of identity he experienced (like other middle-class Irish Protestants when the radicalisation of Irish politics and the outbreak of the First World War put a new strain on the allegiances of people who had previously thought of themselves as both ‘British’ and ‘Irish’. After the trauma of the War, and Irish separation, Orpen opted for Britain; but, it is argued, he was closer to elements of the Irish cultural revival, and more involved with Irish politics and Irish history, than is usually accepted.

  9. The negative correlation between thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies and bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Medea; Korinteli, Maka; Zerekidze, Tamar; Jikurauli, Nino; Shanava, Shorena; Tsagareli, Marina; Giorgadze, Elen

    2013-06-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder with various clinical manifestations. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs), the circulating autoantibodies specific to Graves' disease, are the cause for hyperthyroidism, the most prevalent abnormality. Hyperthyroidism leads to increased bone turnover and a negative bone balance. The aims of the present study were to determine the relationship between TRAbs and bone mineral density (BMD), to assess the extent of BMD change in patients with Graves' disease, and to determine the impact of conservative and surgical therapy on BMD. Fifty female postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease were chosen for this study. Twenty women had a recent diagnosis of Graves' disease, 30 women presented with a compensated disease state after either conservative or surgical treatment, and 30 healthy postmenopausal women served as controls. Thyroid parameters were measured, and BMD values were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and T-scores were significantly lower in newly diagnosed patients compared with the control group, but a difference was not observed between the treated and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed a strong and significant negative correlation between femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and TRAb values.Both surgical and conservative therapies are effective for restoring BMD in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease, and the increased level of TRAb can be a useful marker of bone density impairment.

  10. Serum myostatin in central south Chinese postmenopausal women: Relationship with body composition, lipids and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yulin; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Hongbin; Ou, Yangna; Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Shuang; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

    2016-08-01

    Previous data suggest that myostatin has direct effects on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. The relationships between serum myostatin, body composition lipids and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women remain unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationships between serum myostatin, body composition, lipids and bone mineral density in central south Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 healthy postmenopausal women, aged 51-75 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum myostatin, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(25OH-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast to the osteoporotic women, the women without osteoporosis had higher BMI, fat mass and lean mass (Pmyostatin after adjusted by age. BMD at each site was positively correlated with age at menopause, fat mass and lean mass, and also negatively correlated with age and serum BAP. Serum myostatin was positively correlated with tryglicerides, not correlated with either body composition or BMD at each site. Our data indicated that serum myostatin concentration did not correlate with muscle and bone mass. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the role of myostatin in regulating the bone metabolism.

  11. The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica S. Giolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15 or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17 groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001 in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05, with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.

  12. Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin C

    2011-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.

  13. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  14. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  15. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L; Mulligan, Finbar J

    2008-04-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a significant production disease of dairy cattle. Previous concerns have been raised over the occurrence of SARA in pasture-fed dairy cattle and the potential consequences of laminitis and lameness. Highly digestible perennial rye grass contains high concentrations of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate and low concentrations of physical effective fibre that may result in SARA. This study conducted a point prevalence survey of rumen health status in grazing Irish dairy cattle fed predominantly perennial rye grass-based pasture. The survey assessed rumen fluid, animal health status, milk production data and pasture composition. A total of 144 cows between 80 and 150 days in milk were sampled on 12 farms. Eleven percent of cows were classified as affected with SARA (pH 5.8). The study showed that low rumen pH is prevalent in grazing Irish dairy cattle consuming perennial rye grass-based pasture and raises concerns regarding effective pasture utilisation and possible consequences for animal health.

  16. The Era of Tadeusz Pawlikowski and Irish Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Keane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tadeusz Pawlikowski was arguably Poland’s greatest theatre director of the fin de siècle. With stints as Theatre Manager in both Kraków and Lwów municipal theatres, Pawlikowski excelled in developing ensemble casts and cultivating audiences without kowtowing to popular tastes. He was also responsible for bringing many western plays to partitioned Poland, and indeed he oversaw theatrical premieres of Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw and John Millington Synge. This paper will look at the production and reception of these plays and will record how there was a growing conviction amongst Polish critics that Irish dramatists would soon make a towering impact on the age. That said, not all the productions were as successful as perhaps they should have been. When in Lwów, Pawlikowski attempted to flood the city with drama and this ambition entailed brief run-throughs and the shortening of texts in order to facilitate the learning of lines. Needless to say, there was little time for work on characterization. Consequently, it was often pointed out that performances had failed to bridge the cultural gap where a foreign piece was concerned. To this end, this paper will assess both the contribution of Tadeusz Pawlikowski to Irish theatre, and the reception and legacy of the productions which took place under his directorial guidance.

  17. Dublin and Irish politics in the age of Charles Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J

    2015-09-01

    In addition to his contributions to medicine, Charles Lucas had a long career in politics, starting in the 1740s as a guild representative on the lower house of Dublin corporation, and culminating in his election to the Irish House of Commons in 1761. By examining the background in Dublin and Irish politics, this paper explores Lucas' impact on the electorate, and how it was that he was able to win a parliamentary seat in Dublin and retain it for a decade while he campaigned in support of a range of important Patriot issues. Lucas had none of the qualifications that would normally be required for a successful politician. His father held some land, but as a younger son who had to make a living, Charles was apprenticed to a Dublin apothecary. Nor did he have the political connections that might have compensated for a lack of land, wealth, or status. But Lucas possessed other advantages, notably an education that enabled him to read the city's medieval charters, identifying areas where the Dublin freemen had lost 'ancient rights', and some experience of publishing, so that he could appeal to the electorate. Lucas' remarkable political success stemmed from both local circumstances and his own personal qualities.

  18. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Acoustic Seabed Characterization of the Porcupine Bank, Irish Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ronan; Monteys, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The Porcupine Bank represents a large section of continental shelf situated west of the Irish landmass, located in water depths ranging between 150 and 500m. Under the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS 1999-2006) this area was comprehensively mapped, generating multiple acoustic datasets including high resolution multibeam echosounder data. The unique nature of the area's datasets in terms of data density, consistency and geographic extent has allowed the development of a large-scale integrated physical characterization of the Porcupine Bank for multidisciplinary applications. Integrated analysis of backscatter and bathymetry data has resulted in a baseline delineation of sediment distribution, seabed geology and geomorphological features on the bank, along with an inclusive set of related database information. The methodology used incorporates a variety of statistical techniques which are necessary in isolating sonar system artefacts and addressing sonar geometry related issues. A number of acoustic backscatter parameters at several angles of incidence have been analysed in order to complement the characterization for both surface and subsurface sediments. Acoustic sub bottom records have also been incorporated in order to investigate the physical characteristics of certain features on the Porcupine Bank. Where available, groundtruthing information in terms of sediment samples, video footage and cores has been applied to add physical descriptors and validation to the characterization. Extensive mapping of different rock outcrops, sediment drifts, seabed features and other geological classes has been achieved using this methodology.

  20. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Thornton, Charlene; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  1. Cyproterone acetate, an alternative gestagen in postmenopausal estrogen/gestagen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Jensen, J.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy six healthy, early postmenopausal women (aged 45-54 years) were allocated to 2 years of treatment with a cyclic combination of 2 mg estradiol valerate (21 days) and 1 mg cyproterone acetate (11 days) or placebo. Sixty five women (86%) completed the study. In the hormone treated group there was a significant decrease in biochemical estimates of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase, serum phosphate, fasting urinary calcium and hydroxyproline), whereas these values were unchanged placebo treated group. In the placebo group the bone mineral content in the forearms (measured by single photon absorptiometry) and the bone mineral content in the lumbar spine and in the total skeleton (measured by dual photon absorptiometry) decreased significantly and at the same magnitude (p < 0.001), whereas all bone mass measurements remained unchanged in the hormone treated group. From the present study it can be concluded that treatment with a cyclic combination of 2 mg estradiol valerate and 1 mg cyproterone acetate is effective as prophylaxis in postmenopausal osteoporosis

  2. Omega-3 versus isoflavones in the control of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S; Lilue, M; Mejia, A; Menendez, C

    2017-12-01

    Determine the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids versus soybean isoflavones in reducing the vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) frequency in postmenopausal women. A randomized, prospective, two-arm study was performed in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65. The two arms were: two capsules/day of omega-3 (425 mg of omega-3/capsule) administered orally (n = 38) and two tablets/day of soybean isoflavones (54.4 mg of isoflavones/tablet) (n = 30), over 16 weeks. The mean baseline frequency of moderate and severe VMSs per week in the omega-3 group was 24.56 and 23.90, respectively, and 19.65 and 19.51 in the isoflavone group. After 4 months, the reduction in moderate and severe hot flashes with omega-3 was significant (p Omega-3 did not demonstrate significant efficacy differences versus isoflavones over time. The use of omega-3 has a beneficial effect on hot flash reduction after 4 months of treatment. This is comparable to the benefits found with soybean isoflavones after 3-4 weeks and after 4 months in severe hot flash women, but higher than those found with soybean isoflavones in moderate symptom women.

  3. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral hormone therapy (HT on oxidative stress (OS in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. We formed four groups of 25 women each; healthy (HW and MetS women (MSW were assigned to HT (1 mg/day of estradiol valerate plus 5 mg/10 day of medroxiprogesterone or placebo. We measured plasma lipoperoxides, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, total plasma antioxidant status and uric acid, as OS markers. Alternative cut-off values of each parameter were defined and a stress score (SS ranging from 0 to 7 was used as total OS. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Participants were seen at baseline, 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, MetS decreased in MSW-HT (48%, their triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c improved; in the other groups no difference was found. SS in MSW-HT decreased (3.8 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3, p < 0.05 and OS was also reduced (44%, this effect was evident since 3 mo. HW-HT with high OS also decreased (40%. In placebo groups there was no change. Our findings suggest that HT improve lipids and OS associated to MetS in postmenopausal women.

  4. Cardiac adaptations to high-intensity aerobic training in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jon; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Mandrup, Camilla M

    2017-01-01

    and after a 12-week period of high-intensity aerobic cycle training. LV internal diastolic diameter and LV mass were similar in the 2 groups at baseline and increased by ≈2% to 8% (P=0.04-0.0007) with training in both groups. Left atrial end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were similar for both groups......BACKGROUND: We examined the role of menopause on cardiac dimensions and function and assessed the efficacy of exercise training before and after menopause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of healthy premenopausal (n=36, 49.4±0.3 years) and postmenopausal (n=37, 53.5±0.5 years) women with no history...... and increased by 23% to 36% (P=0.0006-0.0001) with training. Systolic function assessed by mean global strain was similar in both groups at baseline and increased by ≈8% (P=0.0004) with training in the postmenopausal group. LV displacement increased by ≈3% (P=0.04) in the premenopausal women only. Diastolic...

  5. Of Mermaids and Changelings: Human Rights, Folklore and Contemporary Irish Language Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rióna Ní Fhrighil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the intersection of human rights discourse, Irish folklore and contemporary Irish-language poetry. The author contends that contemporary Irish-language poets Louis de Paor and Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill exploit the multi-faceted nature of international folklore motifs, along with their local variants, to represent human rights violations in their poetry. Focusing specifically on the motif of the changeling in De Paor’s poetry and on the motif of the mermaid in Ní Dhomhnaill’s, the author traces how folklore material is reimagined in ways that eschew uncomplicated transnational solidarity but which engender empathetic settlement.

  6. Profiling the Cross-Border Funding of the Irish Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Dermot; Everett, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2008, there was a surge in foreign funding ows to the Irish banking system. This unprecedented increase in in ows was a key driver of the credit boom in Ireland. In the wake of the domestic banking and global nancial crises, the Irish banking system experienced a sharp decrease in its foreign wholesale funding. This Economic Letter addresses two primary questions: (i) who funded the Irish banking system during the boom?; and (ii) how did foreign funding contract in the post-S...

  7. Postmenopausal Health and Disease from the Perspective of Evolutionary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Froehle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Menopause normally occurs between 45-55 years of age, marks the end of a woman’s reproductive lifespan, and is accompanied by a reduction in estrogen that has substantial physiological effects. The standard medical view is that these changes underlie high postmenopausal disease rates, defining menopause as an estrogen deficiency condition needing treatment. This view stems from the idea that extended postmenopausal longevity is a consequence of recent technological developments, such that women now outlive their evolutionarily-programmed physiological functional lifespan.Increasingly, however, researchers employing an evolutionary medicine framework have used data from comparative demography, comparative biology, and human behavioral ecology to challenge the mainstream medical view. Instead, these data suggest that a two-decade human postmenopausal lifespan is an evolved, species-typical trait that distinguishes humans from other primates, and has deep roots in our evolutionary past. This view rejects the inevitability of high rates of postmenopausal disease and the concept of menopause as pathology. Rather, high postmenopausal disease risk likely stems from specific lifestyle differences between industrialized societies and foraging societies of the type that dominated human evolutionary history. Women in industrialized societies tend to have higher estrogen levels during premenopausal life, and experience a greater reduction in estrogen across menopause than do women living in foraging societies, with potentially important physiological consequences. The anthropological approach to understanding postmenopausal disease risk reframes the postmenopausal lifespan as an integral period in the human life cycle, and offers alternative avenues for disease prevention by highlighting the importance of lifestyle effects on health.

  8. The effect of raloxifene on left ventricular hypertrophy in postmenopausal women: A prospective, randomized, and controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Uğur Abbas; Atar, İlyas; Öktem, Mesut; B. Zeyneloğlu, Hulusi; Yıldırır, Aylin; Kuşcu, Esra; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In healthy women, there is a progressive age-related increase in myocardial mass that is not seen in their male counterparts and occurs primarily in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogenic actions on bone and the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raloxifene on myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal patients. Methods: A total of 22 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were included in this open-label, randomized, prospective, controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups: 11 of the patients (group 1) were treated with raloxifene 60 mg/day, and the other 11 patients (group 2) were defined as the control group. Quantitative 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic examination was performed in all patients at the beginning and repeated at the end of the 6-month follow-up period. Left ventricle mass (LVM) and left ventricle mass index (LVMI) were calculated for all patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.2±3.9 years, and baseline clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were similar between the two groups. After 6 months of raloxifene treatment, there was no difference in echocardiographic parameters of LVM and LVMI compared with the control group (201.2±25.9 gr vs. 169.7±46.2 gr, p=0.14 and 120.4±25.9 gr/m2 vs. 105.5±26.3 gr/m2, p=0.195, respectively). There was also no significant difference in LVM and LVMI in the within-group analysis of both groups. Conclusion: Raloxifene therapy does not affect myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal women after 6 months of treatment. PMID:25430415

  9. Weight loss reduces breast ductal fluid estrogens in obese postmenopausal women: a single arm intervention pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of excess body fat increases breast cancer risk after menopause. Whether the localized breast is differently influenced by adipose tissue compared to the rest of the body, has not been well studied. Our purpose was to demonstrate feasibility and preliminarily evaluate serum-based and localized breast biomarker changes resulting from a weight loss intervention among obese postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a 12-week pilot controlled dietary and exercise intervention among healthy obese postmenopausal women, collected serum and breast ductal fluid before and after the intervention, and estimated the association with systemic and localized biomarker changes. We recruited 7 obese (mean body mass index = 33.6 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. We collected samples at baseline and the 12th week for: anthropometry; phlebotomy; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean and fat mass; exercise fitness (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2Max; 1-repetition strength maximum; and breast ductal lavage. Results Changes from baseline occurred in body composition and exercise performance including fat mass loss (14% average drop, VO2Max (+36% increase and strength improvement (+26%. Breast ductal fluid markers declined from baseline with estradiol showing a 24% reduction and IL-6 a 20% reduction. We also observed serum biomarker reductions from baseline including leptin (36% decline, estrone sulfate (−10%, estradiol (−25%, and Il-6 (−33%. Conclusions Conduct of the diet and exercise intervention, collection of ductal fluid, and measurement of hormones and cytokines contained in the ductal fluid were all feasible. We preliminarily demonstrated estradiol and IL-6 reductions from baseline in both serum and breast ductal fluid among obese postmenopausal women who participated in the 12-week weight loss diet and exercise intervention.

  10. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  11. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  12. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......-nine women completed the study. Insulin sensitivity (assessed by ISI(composite)), β-cell function (the disposition index), and the metabolic clearance rate of insulin were not significantly affected by the dietary intervention. Neither was the ability of insulin to suppress plasma nonesterified fatty acid...

  13. Association Between Perceived Social Support and Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon Najafabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods This correlation-analytic study was conducted on 321 postmenopausal women using 2-stage cluster sampling in Ahvaz in 2014. Data collecting instruments were comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a social support questionnaire (PRQ 85-Part 2. Data analysis was done using SPSS, version 20. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and depression, and the χ2 test was employed to assess the relationship between perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Results The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression (r = -0.468; P = 0.001. There were significant relationships between perceived social support and some personal variables such as marital status, education level, and job status (P 0.05. Conclusions We found a reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Raising awareness in society apropos the relationship between social support and depression in postmenopausal women can enhance their quality of life.

  14. Adolescent pregnancy is associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; Shin, Jung-Ho; Yi, Kyong Wook; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2012-04-01

    Adolescence is a critical time of life to accumulate bone for peak bone mass. Factors that may interfere with bone mass accrual during this period may increase the risk of osteoporosis. Several studies have reported that pregnancy during adolescence has detrimental effects on bone mass measurements after pregnancy. However, less is known about how adolescent pregnancy affects bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis after menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adolescent pregnancy and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 719 postmenopausal women, all of whom were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008. BMD was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Postmenopausal women with histories of adolescent pregnancy had lower BMD of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine than did women without histories of adolescent pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that postmenopausal women with history of adolescent pregnancy were at increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.12-4.30) compared with women without history of adolescent pregnancy after adjustments for age, body mass index, marital status, education level, household income, alcohol intake, smoking history, exercise, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, hormone therapy use, intake of energy and calcium, and vitamin D level. Adolescent pregnancy may be a predictor of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  15. Menopause and postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Sharon G; Eliassen, A Heather; Eavey, Roland D; Wang, Molin; Lin, Brian M; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    Menopause may be a risk factor for hearing loss, and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been proposed to slow hearing decline; however, there are no large prospective studies. We prospectively examined the independent relations between menopause and postmenopausal HT and risk of self-reported hearing loss. Prospective cohort study among 80,972 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, baseline age 27 to 44 years, followed from 1991 to 2013. Baseline and updated information was obtained from detailed validated biennial questionnaires. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine independent associations between menopausal status and postmenopausal HT and risk of hearing loss. After 1,410,928 person-years of follow-up, 18,558 cases of hearing loss were reported. There was no significant overall association between menopausal status, natural or surgical, and risk of hearing loss. Older age at natural menopause was associated with higher risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of hearing loss among women who underwent natural menopause at age 50+ years compared with those aged less than 50 years was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.17). Among postmenopausal women, oral HT (estrogen therapy or estrogen plus progestogen therapy) was associated with higher risk of hearing loss, and longer duration of use was associated with higher risk (P trend menopause and longer duration of postmenopausal HT are associated with higher risk of hearing loss.

  16. Lasofoxifene for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Michael Lewiecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E Michael LewieckiNew Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, NM, USAAbstract: Lasofoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (estrogen agonist/antagonist that has completed phase III trials to evaluate safety and efficacy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and for the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal women with low or normal bone mineral density (BMD, lasofoxifene increased BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo. In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, lasofoxifene increased BMD, reduced bone turnover markers, reduced the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and decreased the risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, lasofoxifene improved the signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy. Clinical trials show that lasofoxifene is generally well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events that commonly resolve even with drug continuation. Lasofoxifene has been associated with an increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolic events, hot flushes, muscle spasm, and vaginal bleeding. It is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women at increased risk for fracture in some countries and is in the regulatory review process in others.Keywords: osteoporosis, SERM, fracture, efficacy, safety, BMD, CP-336,156

  17. HYPERTENSION AND OSTEOPOROSIS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rašić Popović

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a frequent, chronic cardiovascular disease both in industrially developed and developing countries; its frequency ranges between 20 and 40 %. Although the prevalence of hypertension in women is lower than that in men, it reaches 70% to 80% in women above 70 years of age, and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk. Osteoporosis (OP is systematic skeletal disorder with lower bone mass and damages of bone tissue microarchitecture. The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between hypertension and osteoporosis as two mass noninfectious deceases.The examination involved three hundred postmenopausal women who came for densitometry inspection; none of them had some major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular stroke and ischemic heart disease. From all of them were taken personal data, personal and familial case histories. The parameters used in the further analysis were: body mass, body height, waist circumference, blood pressure; laboratory analysis: cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glycemia, Ca and P in serum and Ca in urine. In addition, there was calculated a ten-year risk of cardiovascular event according to SCORE system, using tables for high risk; bone mineral density on Hologic Discovery QDR-C was shown as T score on the lumbar part of the spinal column. The patients were divided into tree groups based on the measures of bone density: the patients with osteoporosis - bone density with T score lower than 2.5 SD (100 patients; patients with osteopenia - T score from -1 to -2,5 SD (100, and control group of patients with normal bone density T score from +1 to -1 SD (100.The mean age of postmenopausal women (control group with normal bone density was 54.10±3.90 years; 56.63±4.76 years in the group with osteopenia (group II; and 60.14±3.55 years in the group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.The analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Dunett`s test showed that there were statistically

  18. [Sedentarism and physical fitness in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Silvia; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Casajús, José Antonio; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by several changes, such as a decrease in physical fitness. To establish the relationship between a sedentary behavior (sit ≥4 hours/day) and physical fitness in 457 women aged 65 years or older. Physical fitness was evaluated by 8 adapted tests from "Senior Fitness Test" and "Eurofit Testing Battery". ANOVA was used to analyze differences between groups according to the hours of sitting and logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of the sedentary behavior with low fitness, using as reference the 20th percentile of the normative values in Spain (EXERNET Project). Sedentary women had lower balance, legs and arms strength, arms flexibility, walking speed and endurance (p < 0.05). In addition, those women who sat ≥4 hours/day had higher odds for having low fitness in most of the mentioned tests, regardless of the hours of walking (p < 0.05). Sitting for a long time has a negative influence on physical fitness among postmenopausal women independently of walking time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Norton, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

  20. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  1. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N; Murphy, M; Ramphul, M; O'Connor, N; Kennelly, M M; Turner, M J

    2011-08-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (pIndian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  2. Survey of Selected Multi-National Employers’ Perceptions of Certain Graduates from Irish Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report provides feedback on the suitability of employment of Irish graduates, looking specifically at the disciplinary groups of Science, Engineering, Business and Finance and Humanities, and comparing them to their international counterparts.

  3. The Irish epilepsy surgery experience: Long-term follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunlea, Orla

    2010-05-01

    To assess the long-term seizure outcome of Irish patients who underwent resective surgery for refractory epilepsy since 1975. We also wished to determine the impact of pathology and surgical technique (with particular reference to neocorticectomy) on seizure outcome.

  4. Explaining Responses in Danish and Irish Banking to the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Lynggaard, Kennet

    The 2008 global financial crises produced very different responses in Ireland and Denmark. While both countries embraced depositor guarantee schemes and recapitalization programmes, their design and adoption reveal important variations. Crucially, the Irish state initially assumed full...

  5. The United States Civil War Causal Agent for Irish Assimilation and Acceptance in US Society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillespie, William

    2001-01-01

    The American Civil War was a cornerstone event for the Irish in America. Their participation proved their duty to Union and Confederate causes, increased their acceptance in American society, and hastened assimilation...

  6. A national study on the attitudes of Irish dental faculty members to faculty development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, E M

    2010-02-01

    International studies suggest that dental faculty are resistant to the concept and practice of faculty development. This paper analyses the demographic and educational profile of Irish Dental Faculty, exploring their attitudes to educational initiatives.

  7. Windscale experiment. A study of Windscale's pollution of the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackith, R

    1984-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive waste into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant in Cumbria is discussed from an Irish viewpoint. A history of accidents at the plant is reviewed, and past, present and future levels of discharge to the environment are outlined. The effect on the Irish population of discharges to the marine environment is evaluated by consideration of the food chain and the exposure pathways to man, in particular the concentration of radioactive caesium and plutonium in the flesh of fish in the Irish Sea. The general health effects attributed to radiation exposures are given, and a cluster of Downs Syndrome babies born to mothers who were at the same school in Co. Louth is attributed to increased exposure during the 1957 fire at the Windscale plant. The author concludes that, because of military implications and the need for plutonium for nulcear weapons, the reprocessing plant will continue to operate, but with greatly reduced levels of discharges permitted.

  8. “Is it English what we speak?” Irish English and Postcolonial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariavita Cambria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the case of Ireland as an anti-litteram postcolonial context. Within this context, a main concern is that of the relationship between language and identity. Irish English (the variety of English spoken in Ireland enjoys a unique position within the constellation of world-wide English varieties. Various factors led to the emergence of Irish English, it may well have developed as a resistance to the (contrasting forces of colonialism and has been perceived as a different vehicle for communication when compared to received colonial English. Scholars now generally believe that Irish people, at a certain moment in time, decided to use a language which offered better possibilities for work. Via the analysis of some postcolonial issues, such as the linguistic crisis of the colonial subject, the paper will first illustrate the circumstances that led to the emergence of Irish English and then list the main features of this variety.

  9. Age of Menopause and Fracture Risk in Post-Menopausal Women Randomized to Calcium + Vitamin D, Hormone Therapy, or the combination: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D.; Lehman, Amy; Nathan, Nisha K.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported that in the absence of hormone therapy (HT) or calcium/vitamin D (Ca/D) supplementation, earlier menopause age was associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk in healthy post-menopausal women. Treatment with HT and Ca/D are protective against fractures after menopause. In this analysis, we asked if age of menopause onset alters fracture risk in healthy post-menopausal women receiving HT, Ca/Vit D, or the combination. METHODS Hazard ratios (HR) for any fracture among 21,711 healthy post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI-CT), who were treated with HT, Ca/Vit D, or HT + Ca/D, and who reported age of non-surgical menopause of menopause menopause 40-49 or ≥50, regardless of treatment intervention [HR (95% CI): menopause menopause menopause age (menopause ages. The effect of menopause age on fracture risk was not altered by any of the treatment interventions (HT, Ca/D, HT+Ca/D), suggesting that early age of menopause is an independent contributor to postmenopausal fracture risk. PMID:27801706

  10. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.

  11. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement

  12. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were...... and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) (p less than 0.05). The observed changes may be a consequence of liver disease since similar changes were observed in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, but an additional effect of alcohol cannot be excluded....... significantly (p less than 0.05) younger at the time of natural menopause than controls. Compared to controls, non-cirrhotic alcoholic women had significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced levels of DHAS, significantly (p less than 0.05) more alcoholic cirrhotic women had detectable oestradiol concentrations...

  13. Representing Sikhism: essays in memory of the Irish scholar Max Arthur Macauliffe

    OpenAIRE

    Shackle, Christopher; Bocking, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This is an introduction, by the guest editors, to the special issue of JISASR (Vol 4, 2017) entitled 'Representing Sikhism: Essays in Memory of the Irish Scholar Max Arthur Macauliffe'. The genesis of this special issue lies in pioneering work on Macauliffe's Irish identity and personal and scholarly life undertaken by Professor Tadhg Foley (Galway). The active interest and support of members of the Sikh community in Ireland led to a conference, hosted by the Study of Religions Department at ...

  14. We don't like (to) party : explaining the significance of Independents in Irish political life

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Liam

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explain the significant presence of Independents (non-party representatives) in the Irish political system. This topic was chosen because parties have a monopoly on parliamentary representation in almost all liberal democracies. Ireland is an exception to this pattern, as independents have been elected to every session of parliament since the foundation of the modern Irish state. There have been very few academic analyses of Independents carried out in relation...

  15. Between Apathy and Antipathy: The Vikings in Irish and Scandinavian History

    OpenAIRE

    HOLM, POUL

    1995-01-01

    PUBLISHED "Neither apathy nor antipathy can ever bring out the truth of history" (Eoin MacNeill, Phases of Irish History, Dublin, 1919, vi). Around 1970 the subject of "the Vikings in Ireland" was seen, historiographically, as a non-problem. Scandinavian historians did not deal with Irish history, and except for the casual asides of four or five specialists, there was no particular interest in Ireland as an area in Viking studies. However, during the seventies there was a veritable boom...

  16. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  17. Irish and Scandinavian objection to Sellafield; Norden protesterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-07-01

    The article deals with the objection of Ireland and the Scandinavian countries to the radioactive emissions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. This contamination follows the sea currents northward and radioactive material from this plant has been found in seaweed and crustaceans along the coast of Norway. The concentration in lobster from the Irish Sea is much higher than in Norwegian crustaceans and above the action limit set by the EU for the radioactive isotope Technetium 99 in the event of a new atomic accident. British authorities have refused to stop the pollution and even plan to start production of MOX fuel at Sellafield. They say new purification techniques will be developed within three or five years. For Norway, the opposition against Sellafield is a priority.

  18. Radioactivity monitoring in Irish upland lakes 1988 - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, M.; McGarry, A.T.; Lyons, S.; McEnri, C.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    In 1988, monitoring of radioactivity in upland lakes was initiated in areas of Ireland which had been subjected to highest deposition following the Chernobyl accident. The monitoring programme was continued in 1989 and extended in 1990 to include 25 lakes in 13 counties. This survey provided a comprehensive national picture of the distribution of Chernobyl contamination in Irish freshwater lakes. In 1991 and 1992, the monitoring programme concentrated on those lakes which had shown highest levels in the 1990 survey. This report details the results of the freshwater lake monitoring programme for the years 1988 - 1992. As assessment of the radiation doses to those consumers who include relatively large amounts of freshwater fish in their diet is also made

  19. 99Tc in the Irish Sea. Recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, M.; Rajendran, K.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in discharges of 99 Tc from Sellafield has resulted in an ideal opportunity to study the behaviour of this radionuclide in the aquatic environment. Results, thus far, have demonstrated that 99 Tc uptake by seaweeds collected from around the Irish Sea has followed the anticipated trend, with brown seaweeds accumulating 100-1000 times more 99 Tc than red or green algae. The large increase in discharges of 99 Tc from Sellafield in 1994 had been matched by a similar increase in the levels present in brown seaweeds, mussels and winkles for which concentration factors of 24000, 5000 and 100, respectively, have been derived. This confirms the observation that 99 Tc uptake by marine organisms in the field far exceeds that which would be expected from laboratory studies. Thus, it is concluded that, given the radiological importance of this nuclide, the provision of more accurate information on its environmental behaviour is required. (author)

  20. The Provisional Irish Republican Army and the Development of Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA repeatedly showed itself to be one of the most inventive and adaptive of all the violent non-state actors who operated in the latter part of the twentieth century. Among its most innovative exploits was the PIRA’s successful development and fielding – spanning almost its entire operational lifetime – of improvised mortar systems. This chapter will trace the sustained development of mortars, including the underlying motivations for pursuing mortars as a complex engineering effort, the process by which the development took place and the underpinnings of its success. The discussion will show that the PIRA’s mortar development program was born out of tactical necessity but enabled by good organizational practices and the organization’s access to materials, expertise and places in which to leverage these.

  1. The clinical nurse specialist in an Irish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sheelagh

    2011-01-01

    This study was set in an acute Irish health care setting and aimed to explore the activity of the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in this setting. Quantitative methodology, using a valid and reliable questionnaire, provided descriptive statistics that gave accurate data on the total population of CNSs in the health care setting. The study was set in an acute-care 750-bed hospital that had 25 CNSs in practice. The sample consisted of all 25 CNSs who are the total population of CNSs working in the acute health care institution. The findings show the CNS to be active in the roles of researcher, educator, communicator, change agent, leader, and clinical specialist, but the level of activity varies between different roles. There is variety in the activity of CNSs in the various roles and to what extent they enact the role. The findings merit further study on CNS role activity and possible variables that influence role activity.

  2. The future of UK/Irish surgery: A European solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzgalis, M; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) hospital systems are dependent on junior doctors for their functionality however it is increasingly difficult to recruit UK/ROI trained doctors to fill these posts. Directive 2005/36/EC, which came into force in 2007, is the principal European legislation on the recognition of equivalence of professional qualifications across Europe. European trained doctors are therefore attractive candidates for junior doctor posts. However, although their training is recognised as equivalent by the Irish Medical Council (IMC) and General Medical Council (GMC) they are not being appointed to equivalent posts by the Health Service Executive (HSE) or National Health Service (NHS). With the influence of European Union (EU) centralisation, modification of UK/ROI consultant grade is imminent, possibly to pyramidal structure of the Continental European model with clearer lines of corporate responsibility. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on Irish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwright, S.; Daly, L.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986. (author)

  4. Community nurses working in piloted primary care teams: Irish Republic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Triona

    2010-08-01

    Primary care health services in the Irish Republic have undergone fundamental transformation with the establishment of multidisciplinary primary care teams nationwide. Primary care teams provide a community-based health service delivered through a range of health professionals in an integrated way. As part of this initiative ten pilot teams were established in 2003. This research was undertaken in order to gain an understanding of nurse\\'s experiences of working in a piloted primary care team. The methodology used was a focus group approach. The findings from this study illustrated how community nurse\\'s roles and responsibilities have expanded within the team. The findings also highlighted the benefits and challenges of working as a team with various other community-based health-care disciplines.

  5. Developing a Model of the Irish Energy-System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    to create the model as it accounts for all sectors that need to be considered for integrating large penetrations of renewable energy: the electricity, heat and transport sectors. Before various alternative energy-systems could be investigated for Ireland, a reference model of the existing system needed...... is a vital step due to the scale of the change required for large-scale renewable penetrations. In this paper, a model of the Irish energy system is created to identify how Ireland can transform from a fossil-fuel to a renewable energy-system. The energy-systems-analysis tool, EnergyPLAN, was chosen...... to be created. This paper focuses on the construction of this reference model, in terms of the data gathered, the assumptions made and the accuracy achieved. In future work, this model will be used to investigate alternative energy-systems for Ireland, with the aim to determine the most effective energy system...

  6. Post-menopausal Women Exhibit Greater Interleukin-6 Responses to Mental Stress Than Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrighi, Romano; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Acute stress triggers innate immune responses and elevation in circulating cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effect of sex on IL-6 responses remains unclear due to important limitations of previous studies. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in IL-6 responses to mental stress in a healthy, older (post-menopausal) sample accounting for several moderating factors. Five hundred six participants (62.9 ± 5.60 years, 55 % male) underwent 10 min of mental stress consisting of mirror tracing and Stroop task. Blood was sampled at baseline, after stress, and 45 and 75 min post-stress, and assayed using a high sensitivity kit. IL-6 reactivity was computed as the mean difference between baseline and 45 min and between baseline and 75 min post-stress. Main effects and interactions were examined using ANCOVA models. There was a main effect of time for the IL-6 response (F 3,1512 = 201.57, p = stress compared to males. Results were independent of age, adiposity, socioeconomic position, depression, smoking and alcohol consumption, physical activity, statin use, testing time, task appraisals, hormone replacement, and baseline IL-6. Other significant predictors of IL-6 reactivity were lower household wealth, afternoon testing, and baseline IL-6. Healthy, post-menopausal females exhibit substantially greater IL-6 responses to acute stress. Inflammatory responses if sustained over time may have clinical implications for the development and maintenance of inflammatory-related conditions prevalent in older women.

  7. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Burcu; Ayrim, Aylin; Ozol, Duygu; Koktener, Asli; Gokmen, Derya

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Bone mineral density (BMD) scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 +/- 0.29 and 0.88 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2), respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1%) and control (43.3%) groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6%) and in six patients from the control group (10%). We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  8. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yanik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. RESULTS: Bone mineral density (BMD scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.14 g/cm², respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1% and control (43.3% groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6% and in six patients from the control group (10%. We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  9. Determination of osteoporosis risk factors using a multiple logistic regression model in postmenopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeki; Camdeviren, Handan; Celik, Fatma; Gur, Ali; Nas, Kemal

    2005-09-01

    To determine the risk factors of osteoporosis using a multiple binary logistic regression method and to assess the risk variables for osteoporosis, which is a major and growing health problem in many countries. We presented a case-control study, consisting of 126 postmenopausal healthy women as control group and 225 postmenopausal osteoporotic women as the case group. The study was carried out in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey between 1999-2002. The data from the 351 participants were collected using a standard questionnaire that contains 43 variables. A multiple logistic regression model was then used to evaluate the data and to find the best regression model. We classified 80.1% (281/351) of the participants using the regression model. Furthermore, the specificity value of the model was 67% (84/126) of the control group while the sensitivity value was 88% (197/225) of the case group. We found the distribution of residual values standardized for final model to be exponential using the Kolmogorow-Smirnow test (p=0.193). The receiver operating characteristic curve was found successful to predict patients with risk for osteoporosis. This study suggests that low levels of dietary calcium intake, physical activity, education, and longer duration of menopause are independent predictors of the risk of low bone density in our population. Adequate dietary calcium intake in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity, increasing educational level, decreasing birth rate, and duration of breast-feeding may contribute to healthy bones and play a role in practical prevention of osteoporosis in Southeast Anatolia. In addition, the findings of the present study indicate that the use of multivariate statistical method as a multiple logistic regression in osteoporosis, which maybe influenced by many variables, is better than univariate statistical evaluation.

  10. Pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular comorbidities in osteoporotic postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Izmozherova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess tolerability and efficacy of cardiovascular comorbidities pharmacotherapy in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Methods: cross-sectional study included 112 osteoporotic postmenopausal women aged from 49 to 85. Results: 95 persons (84.8% had indications for angiotensine-convertising enzyme inhibitors (ACEI prescription. Cough was associated with significantly higher odds of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and a trend to multiple bone fractures. Valsartan was initiated in 32 coughing patients. Target blood pressure level was reached in 15 women. In 15 cases blood pressure levels decreased by 30% of baseline level. Conclusion: efficacy of cardiovascular diseases in osteoporotic postmenopausal women treatment needs to be assessed in specially designed clinical trials.

  11. TV sonographic assessment in postmenopausal women with bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, P; Liberis, V; Galazios, G; Grapsas, X; Kantari, P; Papageorgiou, S; Maroulis, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the usefulness of transvaginal sonography for the detection of endometrial disease in postmenopausal women with bleeding. This study involved 275 postmenopausal women aged 47-81 years (median 62). None of them were on hormone replacement therapy and all had had amenorrhea for more than one year. Concerning the age of the study patients, we confirm that endometrial cancer occurs at any age, but more commonly in ages above 58 years. Transvaginal sonography was performed in all women. About 89.2% of malignant diseases were discovered in the study women whose endometrial thickness was above 4 mm, but we also found endometrial cancer in 10.2% of the cases in women whose endometrial thickness was below 4 mm. In postmenopausal symptomatic women premalignant or malignant causes of bleeding can not be excluded with just transvaginal ultrasound.

  12. A health and safety survey of Irish funeral industry workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Those handling deceased individuals, including the funeral industry, face a variety of health and safety hazards including occupationally acquired infectious disease. AIMS: To identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Irish funeral industry workers towards occupational hazards and infectious disease in 2009. METHODS: The sample analysed consisted of all listed member premises of the Irish Association of Funeral Directors as at 1 July 2009. A postal survey was sent to each premises in July 2009, with two rounds of follow-up reviews sent to non-responders. Four main areas were covered--occupational hazards, embalming, industry expertise and demographics. The quantitative and qualitative results were analysed to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Data collection was completed on 31 December 2009. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty listed member premises were contacted. Twenty-two were unsuitable for the survey. One hundred and thirty-eight valid replies were received from 130 premises, representing a premises response rate of 63% (130\\/208). Seventy-three premises (56%) identified themselves as embalmers. Embalmers had variable vaccine uptake and variable knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards embalming those with blood-borne viruses. Fifteen per cent of respondents reported a work-related injury, back injury being the most common. Splash and sharps injuries were reported as a work-related injury, and infections believed to be work related were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates widespread occupational health concerns among this professional group. It confirms the need for occupational health advice and services. There is also a strong desire for regulation of this profession in Ireland.

  13. Policies and practices of parental involvement and parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education: a critical discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Brigid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a critical discourse analysis of policies of parental involvement in Irish education from the past decade. It explores three questions: Do discourses of parental involvement and teacher professionalism construct parent-teacher relations in Irish primary education?; What implications do these constructions have for policies and practices of parent-teacher relationships, particularly parent-teacher partnerships, in Irish primary education?; How can these constructions be ch...

  14. Haunting the Text: Nicola Pierce’s Spirit of the Titanic and Irish Historical Children’s Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    My article explores representations of Irish identity, history, and trauma in the Irish writer Nicola Pierce’s contemporary children’s novel, Spirit of the Titanic (2011). I examine the representation of Irish society and culture around the time of the construction of the Titanic,\\ud with a particular emphasis on the portrayal of marginalised individuals and groups. My article analyses the representation of history and the portrayal of trauma and affective ties, and concludes that Spirit of t...

  15. Aspects of the biology of Mya arenaria and Ensis spp. (Mollusca; Bivalvia) in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Maud E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the general biology, including the reproductive cycle and health status, of two clam taxa in Irish waters, with particular reference to the Irish Sea area. Monthly samples of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, were collected from Bannow Bay, Co. Wexford, Ireland, for sixteen months, and of the razor clam, Ensis spp. from the Skerries region (Irish Sea) between June 2010 and September 2011. In 2010, M. arenaria in Bannow Bay matured over the summer mont...

  16. Megaphone Diplomacy in the Northern Irish Peace Process: Squaring the Circle by Talking to Terrorists through Journalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2001-01-01

    In early 1994, British and Irish mainstream media were instrumental in facilitating an indirect dialogue between their governments and the Irish Republican movement about the terms on which Sinn Fein, the political wing of the Irish Republican Army, could be admitted into political talks...... of journalists, but also that it is possible for journalists to strengthen the process and yet stay within the journalistic paradigm. The article concludes with an assessment of the contributions of the media dialogue to the wider peace process....

  17. Effect of tailored educational intervention to improve self-care maintenance and quality of life in postmenopausal osteoporotic women after a fragility fracture: the Guardian Angel® study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilici Zannetti, Emanuela; D'Agostino, Fabio; Cittadini, Noemi; Feola, Maurizio; Pennini, Annalisa; Rao, Cecilia; Vellone, Ercole; Tarantino, Umberto; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis has a significant impact on affected patients. Healthcare providers should encourage postmenopausal women to improve self-care maintenance behaviors and quality of life following a fragility fracture. The aims of this study were to a) develop two new instruments for measuring, respectively, self-care maintenance and quality of life, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis; b) evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored educational intervention to improve self-care maintenance and quality of life after a fragility fracture in postmenopausal women. For the first aim, a cross-sectional study will be performed; for the second aim, a multicenter, quasi-experimental, interventional design will be used. A convenience sample of postmenopausal women admitted to 44 hospitals in Italy with a diagnosis of bone fragility fracture will be enrolled and surveyed at 7, 30, 60 and 180 days after discharge. Trained nurses will conduct the educational intervention. The new instruments will allow the measurement of self-care and quality of life in postmenopausal women following a fragility fracture. Through tailored educational interventions, women can be helped to take their medications correctly, adopt a healthy lifestyle, reduce the occurrence of bone fractures, and have a better quality of life.

  18. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    , a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  19. Running title: Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Tiras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized with low bone mass and deterioration of skeletal microarchitecture. It leads to a fragile bone and increased risk of fracture by minimal trauma. Today, osteoporotic fractures have become a major health concern. Therefore many different studies have been organized to enlighten basic pathology, and to investigate efficient therapeutic modalities. The change in the prescription attitudes in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT increased the value of non-HRT therapies. The purpose of this review is to evaluate all therapeutic modalities which could be used in this setting by analyzing prospective randomized studies. By a general scope of view, the choice of treatment should be individualized with respect to age, risk factors,\tand concomitant disorders. In early menopause HRT can be used for women with severe vasomotor symptoms if there is no contraindication. Since no difference was noted between HRT and bisphosphonates, there is no need to combination regimens.\tAfter vasomotor symptoms are subsided, raloxifene can be used to the patients who have T score of below -2 without non-vertebral fracture. It is obvious that the most efficient therapies to prevent new osteoporotic fractures are bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH. PTH should not be used longer than 24 months. The first two large series showed that strontium ranelate prevents fractures very effectively. In addition the side effects of this unique medication is not higher than placebo which is one of the major advantage of it. Many series identified the important role of bisphosphonates in the prevention of osteoporosis related morbidities. Calcitonin has a role in patients having pain. Daily calcium and vitamin D supplement should be recommended to all patients, and diet and exercise programmes should be organized.

  20. Effects of a12-week endurance exercise program on adiposity and flexibility of Nigerian perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwumike, O O; Arowojolu, A O; Sanya, A O

    2011-12-20

    Menopause is a sign of aging in the woman. Loss of ovarian function induces a reduction in resting metabolic rate, physical energy expenditure, fat-free mass and abdominal adipose tissue accumulation. Location of adipose tissue deposit in abdominal region plays an important role in occurrence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although regular participation in physical exercise have been suggested to improve adiposity and body flexibility which are important health related components of physical fitness, few published studies are available on the effect of exercise on Nigerian menopausal women. This study investigated effects of a twelve-week endurance exercise program (EEP) on central and abdominal obesity as well as flexibility of perimenopausal and postmenopausal Nigerian women. The study employed a pretest- posttest control group design comprising a sample of 175 apparently healthy, literate, sedentary women within age range 40-59 years. They were workers in state and federal establishments in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Based on history of their last menstrual period, women with regular or irregular menstrual cycle status were allocated into perimenopausal group and those who no longer menstruated into postmenopausal group. A table of random numbers was used for further allocation into perimenopausal exercise group (PEMEG, 45), postmenopausal exercise group (POMEG, 45) perimenopausal control group (PEMCG, 42) and postmenopausal control group (POMCG, 43). Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as Hip and Trunk Flexibility (HTF) were evaluated at baseline and 4weekly intervals until end of 12th week. EEP consisted of a 10-station circuit of cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, abdominal and pelvic floor muscle exercises. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean age of participants was 52.3±4.1 years, 95% C.I (51.64-52.88) years. Significant

  1. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause - where we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Franić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The findings of most relevant randomized clinical studies such as HERS, WHI and MWS, performed in the last decade have shown that hormonal replacement therapy (HRT users are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer, stroke and pulmonary edema. On the other hand they are at a lower risk for the development of large bowel cancer and for hip and vertebral fractures; the incidences of endometrial cancer and coronary heart disease have not been proved to be significantly affected by HRT. As for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the findings of these studies differed from those provided by observational studies, it became an imperative to find the causes of these discrepancies. The major criticism of randomized clinical studies was aimed at the inclusion criteria, as the mean women’s age in HERS and in WHI study was 63 years. The women of that age may no longer be healthy, and are particularly exposed to cardiovascular diseases. In all studies the same type of HRT was used, i.e. conjugated equine estrogen alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate. In Europe, this combination is rarely prescribed; we do not prescribe it in Slovenia either. The same type of HRT used in randomized clinical studies was further criticized, the basic idea of HRT being an individual approach to each woman requiring HRT. For rather sensational and often misinterpreted findings of randomized studies, the largest menopause societies worldwide, the International Menopause Society (IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS and the North American Menopause Society (NAMS, have revised the guidelines for HRT use in postmenopause. These guidelines have been adopted by the Slovene Menopause Society as well.Conclusions: The indications for HRT remain to be markedly expressed and severe climacteric symptoms, prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, urogenital syndrome and premature menopause. However, the

  2. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  3. All 25-hydroxyvitamin D-deficient Indian postmenopausal women do not have secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vivek; Tripathi, R L; Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar

    2018-05-27

    This study shows a high 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency among postmenopausal women accompanying secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, a sizable number of subjects did not have secondary hyperparathyroidism despite having low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. This condition arises a research question in clinical practice needed to be addressed in the future. The present study was attempted to determine the prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and also to analyze the mean value (cutoff) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D from where the PTH begins to rise in Indian postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study including 334 postmenopausal women attending the outpatient department (MOPD) of Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, between July 2008 and June 2010. Institutional ethical approval was obtained for this study. The apparently healthy postmenopausal women and attendees of the patients were included in the study. Post-thyroidectomy, thyroid illness, pregnant women, subjects taking drugs that can affect bone mineral metabolism, such as glucocorticoids, antitubercular therapy, antiepileptic, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplement were excluded from the study. BMD parameters such as PTH and 25(OH)D were measured by using commercial kits from DiaSorin, USA, and blood chemistry was evaluated by standard methods from the central facility of the center. Dietary calcium was analyzed by applying a food frequency questionnaire by a trained dietician. Mean (SD) age of the subjects was 56.4 ± 7.7 years. The mean BMI was 24.7 ± 5.5 kg/m 2 . The baseline biochemical investigations such as total bilirubin, liver function test (LFT), kidney function test (KFT), calcium, phosphorous, total protein, and serum albumin were in reference range except alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The mean values of 25(OH)D and PTH were 12.95 ± 8.08 ng/ml and 91.60 ± 75.56 pg/ml respectively. The 24-h dietary calcium intake was 487.06 ± 239.36 mg/24 h. 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was found

  4. Improved age constraints for the retreat of the Irish Sea Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Rachel; Chiverrell, Richard; Duller, Geoff; Scourse, James; Small, David; Fabel, Derek; Burke, Matthew; Clarke, Chris; McCarroll, Danny; McCarron, Stephen; O'Cofaigh, Colm; Roberts, David

    2016-04-01

    BRITICE-CHRONO is a large (> 45 researchers) consortium project working to provide an extensive geochronological dataset constraining the rate of retreat of a number of ice streams of the British-Irish Ice Sheet following the Last Glacial Maximum. When complete, the large empirical dataset produced by BRITICE-CHRONO will be integrated into model simulations to better understand the behaviour of the British-Irish Ice Sheet in response to past climate change, and provide an analogue for contemporary ice sheets. A major feature of the British-Irish Ice Sheet was the dynamic Irish Sea Ice Stream, which drained a large proportion of the ice sheet and extended to the proposed southern limit of glaciation upon the Isles of Scilly (Scourse, 1991). This study will focus on a large suite of terrestrial samples that were collected along a transect of the Irish Sea basin, covering the line of ice retreat from the Isles of Scilly (50°N) in the south, to the Isle of Man (54°N) in the north; a distance of 500 km. Ages are determined for both the eastern and western margins of the Irish Sea using single-grain luminescence dating (39 samples) and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (10 samples). A Bayesian sequence model is then used in combination with the prior information determined for deglaciation to integrate the geochronological datasets, and assess retreat rates for the Irish Sea Ice Stream. Scourse, J.D., 1991. Late Pleistocene stratigraphy and palaeobotany of the Isles of Scilly. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B334, 405 - 448.

  5. Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, S; Cranney, A; Wells, G A; Adachi, J D; Reginster, J Y

    2006-10-18

    Strontium ranelate is a new treatment for osteoporosis therefore, its benefits and harms need to be known. To determine the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We searched MEDLINE (1996 to March 2005), EMBASE (1996 to week 9 2005), the Cochrane Library (1996 to Issue 1 2005), reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings from the last two years. Additional data was sought from authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year duration comparing strontium ranelate versus placebo reporting fracture incidence, bone mineral density (BMD), health related quality of life or safety in postmenopausal women. Treatment (versus prevention) population was defined as women with prevalent vertebral fractures and/or lumbar spine BMD T score gastritis or death. Additional data suggests that the risk of vascular and nervous system side-effects is slightly increased with taking 2 g of strontium ranelate daily over three to four years. There is silver level evidence (www.cochranemsk.org) to support the efficacy of strontium ranelate for the reduction of fractures (vertebral and to a lesser extent non-vertebral) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and an increase in BMD in postmenopausal women with/without osteoporosis. Diarrhea may occur however, adverse events leading to study withdrawal were not significantly increased with taking 2 g of strontium ranelate daily. Potential vascular and neurological side-effects need to be further explored.

  6. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedtke, S.; Schmidt, M.E.; Vrieling, A.; Lukanova, A.; Becker, S.; Kaaks, R.; Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Benner, A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Steindorf, K.

    2012-01-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate

  7. Risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna

    2013-12-01

    Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women.

  8. Interpregnancy interval as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Ersoy, Gulcin; Giray, Burak; Subas, Seda; Simsek, Ersin; Sakin, Onder; Turhan, Omer Talip; Bulut, Sadullah

    2015-10-01

    Bone mass loss associated with pregnancy and lactation is usually regained in the postpartum period. However, it is not known whether the bone loss is completely recovered in women with a shortened interpregnancy interval (IPI). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of IPI and gynecological history on postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study was conducted among 537 postmenopausal women who were divided into two groups in accordance with the osteoporosis status. Prior to bone densitometry, the patients were questioned about reproductive history. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure lumbar spinal, femur neck and total femoral bone mineral density. Association between IPI and postmenopausal osteoporosis was analyzed. The comparison of both groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding did not reveal a considerable variation (p=0.288). In the osteoporosis group the age and duration of menopause were found to be significantly higher (ppregnancy and IPI were notably lower in comparison to the controls group (posteoporosis (OR: 4.306; 95% CI, 1.684-11.01). This analysis confirmed that the occurrence of first pregnancy under 27 years of age conveyed a higher risk for osteoporosis, as well. Shortened IPI may have a detrimental effect on bone mineral density in postmenopausal age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes of postmenopausal women toward interactive video dance for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzitari, Marco; Greenlee, Adam; Hess, Rachel; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2009-08-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is universally recommended, most adults are not regular exercisers. Interactive video dance is a novel form of PA in widespread use among young adults, but interest among adults is not known. Postmenopausal women are an appropriate target for interventions to promote PA because they have an increased risk of health problems related to sedentary behavior. We explored perceived advantages and disadvantages of video dance as a personal exercise option in postmenopausal women. Forty sedentary postmenopausal women (mean age +/- SD 57 +/- 5 years), were oriented in eight small groups to interactive video dance, which uses a force-sensing pad with directional panels: the player steps on the panels in response to arrows scrolling on a screen, synchronized to music. Perceived advantages and disadvantages were elicited through a nominal group technique (NGT) process. Participants generated 113 advantages and 71 disadvantages. The most frequently cited advantages were "it's fun" and "improves coordination" (seven of eight groups), the fact that challenge encourages progress (five of eight groups), the potential for weight loss (four of eight groups), and the flexibility of exercise conditions (three of eight groups). Concerns were the potentially long and frustrating learning process, cost (six of eight groups), and possible technical issues (two of eight groups). The recreational nature of interactive dance exercise was widely appealing to postmenopausal women and might help promote adherence to PA. Initial support to learn basic technical and movement skills may be needed.

  10. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  11. Menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of incident gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Hak (Liesbeth); G.C. Curhan (Gary); F. Grodstein (Francine); H.K. Choi (Hyon)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To prospectively study the relation between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of gout, since female sex hormones have been postulated to decrease gout risk among women. Methods: In the Nurses' Health Study, the association between menopause, age at menopause,

  12. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  13. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient ...

  14. Bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.; Ahmad, M.; Hasan, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Diminished bone strength increases the frequency of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Weight and gonadal status are important determinants of bone mass in women. This study tried to find out the bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal age groups of women. Methods: One hundred and twenty females with age range 25 - 66 years were included in the study. According to their age and menstrual status they were divided into premenopausal (30) peri menopausal (50) and postmenopausal (40). Body Mass Index (MBI) and bone related blood parameter, serum calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and estradiol were estimated. Bone mineral density was taken by peripheral densitometer. Results: Blood chemical parameters were not significantly different in these groups. The p-value of serum estradiol was highly significant in peri- and postmenopausal groups. BMI was significantly high in postmenopausal as compared to pre and perimenopausal groups. Conclusion: Early menopause, low levels of oestrogen and BMI values can all affect the health of bones in elderly women. (author)

  15. Postmenopausal symptoms in a group of rural Xhosa women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To describe the incidence and understanding of early postmenopausal symptoms in rural Xhosa women. Methods: After written informed consent, 137 women were interviewed within five years after natural menopause using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Body mass indices were calculated, and blood levels of ...

  16. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  17. An assessment of osteoporosis and low bone density in postmenopausal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of bone mineral density and other risk factors of osteoporosis in postmenopausal age group of Pakistani population and to compare them with premenopausal group. The risk factors of osteoporosis were studied both in premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. These risk factors can be exogenous or endogenous. Endogenous risk factors are aging, altered menstrual status, low bone mass, positive family history and oestrogen deficiency. Exogenous factors include lack of adequate nutrition (milk, calcium, vitamin D etc.) and lack of physical exercise. These risk factors were evaluated by taking history, recording height and weight, doing blood parameters and checking bone mineral density. Oestrogen level was carried out by the Eliza technique. Bone mass density was carried out by the bone heel densitometer. The data was analyzed statistically and the values of two groups were compared. The risk factors in postmenopausal group were low BMD, low oestrogen levels, poor intake of milk and calcium and lack of physical exercise. All women should get checked their BMD in this age group. Regular exercise and adequate calcium intake can still help in postmenopausal age group. (author)

  18. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  19. Training of support afferentation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kholodina, N V; Nikolenko, E D; Payet, J

    2017-12-01

    We have recently shown a diminishing of the Menopause Index in old-aged women who underwent special training directed at the enhancement of support afferentation by increasing the plantar forefoot sensitivity (Bazanova et al., 2015). Based on these results we hypothesized, that purposeful training of support afferentation through stimulation of plantar graviceptors by Aikido practice will decrease excessive postural and psychoemotional tension not only in rest condition, but during cognitive and manual task performance too. Fluency of cognitive and motor task performance, EEG alpha power as an index of neuronal efficiency of cognitive control, amount of alpha power suppression as a visual activation measure and EMG power of forehead muscles as a sign of psychoemotional tension were compared in three groups of post-menopausal women: i) 8years training with forefeet support afferentation with Aikido practice (A), ii) 8years fitness training (F) and iii) no dedicated fitness training for past 8years (N). Simultaneous stabilometry, EEG, and frontal EMG recording were performed in sitting and standing up position in eyes closed and eyes open condition. Recording done at rest and while performing cognitive and finger motor tasks. We compared studied parameters between groups with one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, followed by post hoc two-tailed unpaired t-tests. The fluency of tasks performance, EMG and alpha-EEG-activity displayed similar values in all groups in a sitting position. Center of pressure (CoP) sway length, velocity and energy demands for saving balance increased when standing up, more in group N than in groups F and A (all contrasts p values0.89). Post hoc t-tests showed increased fluency in standing in both Aikido (p0.77). Fluency in motor task and alpha EEG power decreased, but frontal EMG power increased in response to standing in untrained women (group N) and did not change in F group

  20. "Fat is your fault". Gatekeepers to health, attributions of responsibility and the portrayal of gender in the Irish media representation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brún, Aoife; McCarthy, Mary; McKenzie, Kenneth; McGloin, Aileen

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of obesity in the Irish media by conducting an inductive thematic analysis on newspaper articles (n=346) published in 2005, 2007 and 2009 sampled from six major publications. The study analysed the media's construction of gender in discussions of obesity and associated attributions of blame. Three dominant themes are discussed: the caricatured portrayal of gender, women as caregivers for others, and emotive parent-blaming for childhood obesity. Men were portrayed as a homogenous group; unaware and unconcerned about weight and health issues. Dieting and engaging in preventative health behaviours were portrayed as activities exclusively within the female domain and women were depicted as responsible for encouraging men to be healthy. Parents, specifically mothers, attracted much blame for childhood obesity and media messages aimed to shame and disgrace parents of obese children through use of emotive and evocative language. This portrayal was broadly consistent across media types and served to reinforce traditional gender roles by positioning women as primarily responsible for health. This analysis offers the first qualitative investigation into the Irish media discourse on obesity and indicates a rather traditional take on gender roles in diet and nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The importance of continued exercise participation in quality of life and psychological well-being in previously inactive postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Chandrruangphen, Pornpat; Collins, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity provide a wide range of health benefits for postmenopausal women, although the impact of maintained exercise participation on psychological well-being is unclear. An exploration of continued exercise participation in psychological well-being after a moderate-intensity exercise program in previously inactive postmenopausal women was therefore undertaken. : Twenty-three healthy sedentary postmenopausal women (age 56 +/- 4 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. All participants completed the Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) and then began a 6-week walking program at 50% heart rate reserve defined by (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing. Post-intervention, all participants underwent (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing and questionnaires. Group 1 was then instructed to continue exercising, whereas group 2 was instructed to desist for an additional 6-week period. On completion of the 6-week follow-up, participants completed a final set of questionnaires. Participants performed 97% of the prescribed 15-hour (900 minute) exercise program (875.1 +/- 177.4 minutes) in an average of 26 +/- 5 sessions. Total HAQ (P = 0.001), health worry (P = 0.001), fear of illness (P = 0.037), reassurance seeking behavior (P = 0.037), SF-36 well-being (P = 0.037), total HADS (P = 0.019), and HADS depression (P = 0.015) improved significantly following the exercise program. At follow-up, group 1 had lower HADS anxiety (P = 0.013), total HADS (P = 0.02), total HAQ (P = 0.03), and HAQ interference with life (P = 0.03) and significantly higher SF-36 energy (P = 0.01) than group 2. Healthy postmenopausal women gain significant psychological benefit from moderate-intensity exercise. However, exercise participation must continue to maintain improvements in psychological well-being and quality of life.

  2. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Faye S; Hinderliter, Alan L; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A; Paine, Nicola J; Sherwood, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events, and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared with men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between nighttime SBP and endothelial function, as assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP ≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared with women with normal nighttime SBP. One hundred postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [7.5] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 28.3 [4.7] kg/m; hypertension, 47%; coronary artery disease, 51%; mean [SD] clinic SBP, 137 [17] mm Hg; mean [SD] clinic diastolic blood pressure, 67 [11] mm Hg; nighttime hypertension, 34 women) underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessment. Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjustment for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower mean (SD) FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95% [0.65%] vs 5.52% [0.46%], P = 0.002). Nighttime hypertension is associated with reduced endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of nighttime hypertension treatment on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted.

  3. Between Irish National Cinema and Hollywood: Neil Jordan’s Michael Collins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raita Merivirta-Chakrabarti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available When Neil Jordan’s film Michael Collins was released in 1996, it was seen by some as a Hollywood epic, by others as a great national film. I would argue that Michael Collins combines these two traditions and occupies a space between Irish national cinema and Hollywood. The subject matter, the creative talent and the locations were Irish and the film was produced by using the Irish filmmaking infrastructure and the Irish government’s support mechanisms, but it was largely financed and distributed by a Hollywood studio. Also, to make it more appealing especially globally, but probably also locally (since Hollywood is now the international standard, it makes use of Hollywood conventions, making it accessible to international audiences as well. Despite the Hollywood mode, the fact remains that Michael Collins is a national film text, and Jordan does not make too many concessions to the non-Irish audiences.

  4. Community rating in the absence of risk equalisation: lessons from the Irish private health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian; Shinnick, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market operates on the basis of community rating, alongside open enrolment and lifetime cover. A risk equalisation scheme was introduced in 2003 to bolster community rating. However, in July 2008 the Irish Supreme Court set aside this scheme, on the basis of the interpretation of community rating in Irish legislation. This decision has significant implications for the Irish private health insurance market. This paper reviews the development of the market, focusing in particular on community rating. The breakdown of community rating in a market with multiple insurers with differing risk profiles is discussed. Applying this to the Irish market, it can be seen that the Irish Supreme Court judgment has significant implications for the application of community rating. Specifically, while community rating operates within plans, it no longer operates across the market, leading to high-risk lives paying more, on average, than low-risk lives. It has also led to greater opportunities for insurers to engage in market segmentation. This may have relevance for the design and operation of other community rated markets.

  5. The Irish organic food market: shortfalls, opportunities and the need for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Rachel; Larkin, Tracey; Moane, Siobhan

    2011-09-01

    In 2009 the Irish organic food market was forecasted to grow from €120 m to €239 m by 2013; however, recent figures set its value at just €90 m. An estimated 70% of this market is imported. Surveys of Irish consumers reveal that 66% of consumers prefer to buy local produce and most organic consumers are buying organic at supermarkets. This evidence reveals that Irish producers must trade at supermarkets, and promote 'local produce' to ensure their produce reach the majority of buyers. Seventy-eight % of organic rejecters state price and 21% state unawareness of the benefits as reasons for not buying organic. Many Irish consumers are buying organic food on the perceived belief that it is healthier, safer and tastes better; however, a review of studies on organic versus conventional foods in terms of health benefits, safety and sensory quality has shown that existing data is limited in scope and fails to show a clear trend. The review concludes with the need for a comprehensive study of a range of organic and conventional foods available to the Irish consumer in order to determine if differences in organic cultivation result in statistically significant differences in health linked compounds and sensory quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. 75 FR 3333 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2 AGENCY... requirement under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by the Colorado Potato...

  7. 75 FR 17034 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...; FV09-948-2 IFR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3...: This rule relaxes the size requirement prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by...

  8. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...; FV12-948-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2...: This rule modifies the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado and is...

  9. 78 FR 70191 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...-FV-13-0001; FV13-948-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and..., without change, an interim rule that modified the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes...

  10. 78 FR 35743 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for.... SUMMARY: This interim rule modifies the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado...

  11. 78 FR 43827 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Modoc and Siskiyou Counties, California, and in All Counties in Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 947 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0036; FV13-947-1 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Modoc and Siskiyou... handling of Irish potatoes grown in Modoc and Siskiyou Counties, California, and in all counties in Oregon... by the Oregon-California Potato Committee (Committee), which recommended termination of the marketing...

  12. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  13. Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabagh, Sarah; Hartley, David E; File, Sandra E

    2005-03-01

    Gingko biloba has cognitive benefits both in populations suffering from dementia and after acute treatment in healthy volunteers, with some evidence indicating that those with poorer cognitive performance show greater benefit. We have previously found that 1 week of treatment with ginkgo improved attention, memory and mental flexibility in post-menopausal women, but the evidence for any beneficial effects of longer treatment is less well-established. The present study aimed to determine whether cognitive benefits, similar to those previously found after 1 week of treatment, would persist after 6 weeks of treatment, and whether those with poorer cognitive performance would benefit more. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study, postmenopausal women (aged 51-67 years) were randomly allocated to receive a standardized extract of ginkgo (LI 1370, Lichtwer Pharma, Marlow, UK) (one capsule/day of 120 mg, n = 45) or matching placebo (n = 42) for 6 weeks. According to an established reproductive staging system, subjects were divided into those in the early (Stage +1; mean age 55 years) and late (Stage +2: mean age 61 years) stages of menopause. At baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment, subjects completed tests of mental flexibility, planning, memory and sustained attention, and ratings of mood, sleepiness, bodily and menopausal symptoms. The only significant effects of ginkgo were in the test of mental flexibility, in which there were significant menopausal stage-ginkgo interactions. This was because subjects in Stage +2 required fewer trials to complete the task and made fewer errors after ginkgo treatment, whereas those in Stage +1 showed no benefits. Subjects in Stage +2 had poorer performance at baseline compared to those in Stage +1 both in this task and the test of planning ability. The beneficial effects of ginkgo were limited to the test of mental flexibility and to those with poorer performance.

  14. Dietary intakes and antioxidant status in mind-body exercising pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, A; Margaritis, I; Soogarun, S; Rousseau, A-S

    2011-08-01

    The decline in antioxidant defenses due to both estrogen loss and frequent adoption of poor dietary choices exposes postmenopausal women to cardiovascular diseases. Adequate nutrition and physical exercise are two factors of health promotion. This study investigated whether regular practice of mind-body exercise (yoga and/or tai chi) alters dietary intake and antioxidant status and balances the menopause-related increases in lipid peroxidation and cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in an urban community in Bangkok (Thailand) between May and August 2007. Premenopausal (Pre M; 39±8 yrs; n=56) and postmenopausal (Post M; 54±5 yrs; n=39) women who had been practicing yoga (Y) and/or tai chi (TC) more than 3 hours/week for a year, or who had no regular physical activity practice (sedentary, S). All participants completed food frequency questionnaires and 4-day food and activity records. Blood was collected on day 5. Factorial ANOVA tests were performed according to menopause status, exercise, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) groups. Post M had higher (p = 0.01) dietary fiber intake compared with Pre M. Yoga practitioners had lower BMI (p = 0.004) and lower fat intake (p = 0.02) compared with their S and TC counterparts. Plasma total antioxidant status was significantly and independently lower and higher in Y and Post M groups, respectively. However, no difference was shown after adjusting for BMI. Regardless of menopause status and HRT, the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase - an aerobic training-responsive enzyme - was higher (p healthy lifestyles (balanced diet and moderate intensity exercise) in vulnerable populations, such as menopausal women, in order to prevent aging induced oxidative stress-related diseases.

  15. Submaximal doses of ghrelin do not inhibit gonadotrophin levels but stimulate prolactin secretion in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messini, Christina I; Malandri, Maria; Anifandis, George; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Sveronis, Georgios; Garas, Antonios; Daponte, Alexandros; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2017-07-01

    An inhibitory effect of ghrelin on gonadotrophin secretion has been reported in normally menstruating women possibly modulated by endogenous oestrogen. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ghrelin on gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) secretion in oestrogen-deprived postmenopausal women. Prospective intervention study. Ten healthy postmenopausal volunteer women were studied during two 15-days periods of oestrogen treatment (A and B) a month apart. Four experiments (Exp) were performed in total, two on day 1 (Exp 1A and Exp 1B) and two on day 15 (Exp 15A and Exp 15B) of the two periods. The women received in Exp 1A and in Exp 15A two iv injections of ghrelin (0.15 μg/kg at time 0 minute and 0.30 μg/kg at time 90 minutes) and in Exp1B and in Exp 15B normal saline (2 mL), respectively. Blood samples were taken at -15, 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes. After oestrogen treatment, late follicular phase serum oestradiol levels were attained on day 15 of periods A and B. Ghrelin administration did not affect serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas it increased significantly those of growth hormone (GH) and PRL. In Exp 15A, serum PRL increment in response to ghrelin (area under the curve, net increment) was significantly greater than in Exp 1A (Pghrelin administration affects neither FSH nor LH levels but stimulates PRL secretion, that is amplified by exogenous oestrogen administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Multimorbidity predicts falls differentially according to the type of fall in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Nadia; Honkanen, Risto; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Lukkala, Pyry; Rikkonen, Toni; Sirola, Joonas; Williams, Lana J; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain whether the risk of falls of different types is related to morbidity (number of chronic medical conditions) among postmenopausal women. This cohort study uses data from a population-based prospective cohort study (OSTPRE). The study population consisted of 10,594 women aged 47-56 years living in Kuopio Province, Eastern Finland, in 1989, who responded to postal enquiries at both baseline and 5-year follow-up, in 1994. Morbidity (i.e. number of diagnosed chronic medical conditions) was reported in 1989 and falls in 1994. Falls were categorized as slip or nonslip, and 'frequent falls' was defined as two or more in a 12-month period. The risk (odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI) of a fall increased with the number of chronic medical conditions. The OR was 1.28 (1.17-1.40) for those with 1-2 conditions and 1.41 (1.24-1.60) for those with multimorbidity (≥3 conditions) compared with healthy respondents. Multimorbidity was associated with a greater risk of the woman experiencing frequent nonslip falls (OR=2.57; 2.01-3.29) than frequent slip falls (OR=1.46; 1.17-1.80). Adjusting with logistic regression for age, number of medications and smoking did not affect the risk estimates. Multimorbidity has a much smaller effect on slip than on nonslip falls in postmenopausal women. This should be taken into account when investigating the effects of multimorbidity on fall risk in varying weather conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  18. The association between genetic variants of RUNX2, ADIPOQ and vertebral fracture in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Chol; Chun, Hyejin; Lai, ChaoQiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jongho; Ordovas, Jose M

    2015-03-01

    Contrary to the traditional belief that obesity acts as a protective factor for bone, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that body fat might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture. Accordingly, we evaluated the association between the phenotypes of osteoporosis or vertebral fracture and variants of obesity-related genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), leptin receptor (LEPR), and adiponectin (ADIPOQ). In total, 907 postmenopausal healthy women, aged 60-79 years, were included in this study. BMD and biomarkers of bone health and adiposity were measured. We genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes (PPARG, RUNX2, LEPR, ADIPOQ). A general linear model for continuous dependent variables and a logistic regression model for categorical dependent variables were used to analyze the statistical differences among genotype groups. Compared with the TT subjects at rs7771980 in RUNX2, C-carrier (TC + CC) subjects had a lower vertebral fracture risk after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, total calorie intake, total energy expenditure, total calcium intake, total fat intake, weight, body fat. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% interval (CI) for the vertebral fracture risk was 0.55 (95% CI 0.32-0.94). After adjusting for multiple variables, the prevalence of vertebral fracture was highest in GG subjects at rs1501299 in ADIPOQ (p = 0.0473). A high calcium intake (>1000 mg/day) contributed to a high bone mineral density (BMD) in GT + TT subjects at rs1501299 in ADIPOQ (p for interaction = 0.0295). Even if the mechanisms between obesity-related genes and bone health are not fully established, the results of our study revealed the association of certain SNPs from obesity-related genes with BMD or vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal Korean women.

  19. Poor Sleep Quality is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Women With and Without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2018-05-01

    Poor sleep quality has previously been shown to be related to insulin resistance in apparently healthy adults. However, it is unclear whether an association between sleep quality and insulin resistance exists among adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Participants included 347 overweight/obese postmenopausal women without type 2 diabetes (age: 57.5 ± 6.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 31.7 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ; 54% with MetS). Sleep quality was assessed with the six-item Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale; values were categorized into quartiles. Insulin resistance was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) method. Analysis of covariance models were used to examine the association between sleep quality and HOMA2-IR after accounting for MetS and covariates (e.g., BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness, and energy intake). Women with the worst sleep quality had significantly higher HOMA2-IR values than women in all other quartiles (P ≤ 0.05 for each), and women with MetS had significantly higher HOMA2-IR values than women without MetS (P quality and HOMA2-IR did not differ between those with or without MetS (P = 0.26). Women with MetS in the worst quartile of sleep quality had higher HOMA2-IR values than all other women (P 30 min to fall asleep, frequent restless sleep, and frequent daytime drowsiness were each related to higher HOMA2-IR values (each P quality is an important correlate of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without MetS. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether improving sleep improves insulin resistance in populations at elevated cardiometabolic risk.

  20. Industrial peat utilization and its importance to the Irish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Over the centuries peat has been used as a valuable source of fuel for domestic heating and cooking. In contrast to earlier times when all peat extraction and harvesting was carried out by hand, peat production in Ireland to-day has become a highly mechanised, large scale commercial industry, making a significant contribution to the Irish economy. Bord na Mona, the state agency assigned the responsibility for peatland development in Ireland, has developed 88,000 hectares of Ireland's 1.2 million hectares of peatlands. Over 5.2 million tonnes of fuel peat are currently sold each year for electricity generation and for the manufacture of peat briquettes for heating installations. With the introduction of a new 120 MW peat fired power station, the overall sales for fuel peat will be increased by 1.0 million tonnes per annum. On the horticultural front, Bord na Mona produces and sells over 1.5 million cubic metres of horticultural peat products to the domestic and international markets. (author)

  1. Radiation doses from radon and progeny in Irish houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.

    1985-08-01

    In the United Kingdom, the estimated average annual effective dose equivalent to members of the public from all sources is 2.4 mSv (240 mrem). 40% of this dose is contributed by exposure to radon, and it is not unreasonable to assume that the situation in Ireland is very similar. During 1982-84 a preliminary study of radon and penetrating radiation on 300 Irish houses showed seasonally averaged indoor radon concentrations in the range 3 Bq/m 3 of air to 700 bq/m 3 , with a median value of about 40 bq/m 3 . A national survey of indoor radon has now been undertaken; 3000 households, randomly selected from the electoral register are to be monitored and the result correlated with energy conservation practices. The final part of this document deals with the regulatory aspects of radon control and reviews the practices for reduction of indoor radon daughter doses presently in hand in Scandinavia. An appendix of radiation units and terms is also given

  2. The glass ceiling in Irish healthcare: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore from the perspectives of top-level nurses holding the formal position of director of nursing their perceptions and interpretations of their experiences in the Irish healthcare system. This paper presents some findings from a nation-wide study, which is qualitative in approach using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 directors of nursing representing general and psychiatric nursing. The study in this paper was conducted in the context of a changing healthcare system, which emphasises the flattening of organisational pyramids. However, this study's findings indicate that, while structures might be changing, behaviours remain unaltered. In particular, the medicine nursing power base remains unchanged, while the power shift between nursing and general management continues to widen in favour of general management. Research in this paper shows that directors of nursing who chose to participate in this study may have different perceptions of experiences from those who chose not to participate. In the paper the reality is neither medicine nor general management, individually or collectively, are going to share or devolve power and influence to nursing. This study's findings indicate that nursing needs to confront this power imbalance. Nursing needs to take the first steps towards shattering the glass ceiling by really examining its own behaviours, in maintaining the status quo, in the traditional balance of power.

  3. Post-mortem findings in Irish culled hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, H; Callanan, J J; McElroy, M C; Sammin, D J; Bassett, H F

    2011-07-01

    Little is known of the common diseases of hunting dogs or of the reasons why they are culled. To address these questions, necropsy examinations were conducted on 52 hounds aged 1.5-12 years (mean 6.5 ± 2.5 years) and culled from 10 Irish hunting kennels over a 3-year period. Progressive systemic disease was seen in six dogs only and encompassed individual cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis, bronchioalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, renal amyloidosis, suppurative pneumonia, extramedullary plasmacytoma in the atrial wall of the heart and foreign body-induced hepatitis with focal peritonitis. Single or multiple localized tumours were identified in five dogs and, apart from the aforementioned, included two cutaneous haemangiomas, a trichoepithelioma, a lipoma and a mammary ductal adenoma. Three dogs were culled for lameness; one of these dogs had torn musculature, another had cellulitis and the third had a healed fracture of the tibia and fibula. Chronic renal changes were present in 48% of the dogs and included focal proliferative, exudative or crescentic glomerulonephritis (33%) or low-grade interstitial inflammatory changes (50%). The most frequently diagnosed skin lesions reported in this study were mild healed decubitus ulcers (33%), scars (33%) and stereotypic dermatitis (13%). These findings indicate that hounds are likely to be culled for reasons other than the presence of disease in most cases. In addition, this survey highlights different disease patterns in hounds than are typically observed in pet dogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitudes of Irish patients with chronic pain towards medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Ciaran; Edgeworth, Deirdre; Hashim, Mohammad; Harmon, Dominic

    2018-02-08

    Medicinal cannabis use is topical in the media in Ireland. A recent Health Products Regulatory Authority review, however, has recommended against its use for patients with chronic pain. This is despite evidence for its effectiveness in this patient's cohort and the inadequate pain management of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Irish patients with chronic pain towards medicinal cannabis. After institutional ethics committee approval, a 12-item questionnaire (excluding demographics) was randomly assigned to patients attending a chronic pain clinic (University Hospital Limerick). The questionnaire was designed to incorporate patient's attitudes on a variety of medicinal cannabis related topics. Ninety-six adult patients were surveyed. 88.54% agreed that cannabis should be legalised for chronic pain medicinal purposes. 80.21% believed it would have health benefits for them and 73.96% agreed it would be socially acceptable to use cannabis for this purpose. 33.33% perceived cannabis to be addictive while 68.75% would be willing to try it if prescribed by a medical professional. The study highlights the attitudes of chronic pain patients in Ireland towards medicinal cannabis. It shows their desire to have medical cannabis legalised for chronic pain and that they view it as a reasonable pain management option.

  5. Eating concerns and media influences in an Irish adolescent context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: EPICA is the first large-scale Irish study of a school-going population examining the impact of media influences on eating attitudes. METHOD: Students were screened using the EAT-26, EDI-III and a study-specific questionnaire. A sub-sample of parents\\' views was included. RESULTS: Three thousand and thirty-one students (mean age 14.74) and 56 parents enrolled. The majority (71.4%) of adolescents felt adversely affected by media portrayal of body weight and shape, with more than a quarter (25.6%) believing it to be \\'far too thin\\'. A significant correlation between media impact and high EAT scores (chi2 = 450.78, df = 2, p < 0.05) and EDI-III scores (chi2 = 387.51, df = 4, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Parents also view media portrayal as too thin (94.7%), less than half are adversely affected by it (49.2%) but the majority (71.9%) believe their children to be. CONCLUSION: Media portrayal of body weight and shape is correlated with eating psychopathology and may affect adolescents more than adults. School psycho-educational programmes and media policies are urgently needed to minimise any detrimental effect.

  6. Interconnections and market integration in the Irish Single Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, Rabindra; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2012-01-01

    Interconnections can be an effective way to increase competition and improve market integration in concentrated wholesale electricity markets with limited number of participants. This paper examines the potential for interconnections and increasing market integration in the Irish Single Electricity Market (SEM). We use a time-varying Kalman filter technique to assess the degree of market integration between SEM and other large, mature and interconnected wholesale electricity markets in Europe including Great Britain (GB). The results indicate no market integration between SEM and other European markets except for Elspot and GB. We show that the current state of market integration between SEM and GB is just 17% indicating potential to improve market integration via increased interconnector capacity. The results indicate that liquidity of wholesale markets might be a crucial factor in the market integration process while our results remain inconclusive in determining whether increased trade of renewables can improve market integration. - Highlights: ► We assess the degree of market integration between SEM and other EU electricity markets. ► Our results indicate no market integration between SEM and other European markets except for Elspot and GB. ► We show that the current state of market integration between SEM and GB is just 17%.

  7. Pedestrian fatalities and injuries involving Irish older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, A J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We studied the pattern of pedestrian RTAs in Ireland over a five-year period with the aim of identifying differences between older pedestrians (aged 65 or older) and younger adults. METHODS: We examined the datasets of the Irish National Road Authority (now the Road Safety Authority) from 1998-2002. We analysed patterns of crashes involving older pedestrians (aged 65) and compared them with younger adults (aged 18-64). RESULTS: Older people represented 36% (n = 134) of pedestrian fatalities and 23% of serious injuries while they only account for 19% of total RTAs. Mortality in RTA is more than doubled for older pedestrians compared to younger adults (RR 2.30). Most accidents involving older pedestrians happen in daylight with good visibility (56%) and in good weather conditions (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Older pedestrians are particularly vulnerable in RTAs. These occur more frequently during daylight hours and in good weather conditions. This may point to a need for prevention strategies that are targeted at the traffic environment and other road users rather than at older people.

  8. Irish medical students’ understanding of the intern year

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gouda, P,

    2016-03-01

    Upon completion of medical school in Ireland, graduates must make the transition to becoming interns. The transition into the intern year may be described as challenging as graduates assume clinical responsibilities. Historically, a survey of interns in 1996 found that 91% felt unprepared for their role. However, recent surveys in 2012 have demonstrated that this is changing with preparedness rates reaching 52%. This can be partially explained by multiple initiatives at the local and national level. Our study aimed evaluate medical student understanding of the intern year and associated factors. An online, cross-sectional survey was sent out to all Irish medical students in 2013 and included questions regarding their understanding of the intern year. Two thousand, two hundred and forty-eight students responded, with 1224 (55.4%) of students agreeing or strongly agreeing that they had a good understanding of what the intern year entails. This rose to 485 (73.7%) among senior medical students. Of junior medical students, 260 (42.8%) indicated they understood what the intern year, compared to 479 (48.7%) of intermediate medical students. Initiatives to continue improving preparedness for the intern year are essential in ensuring a smooth and less stressful transition into the medical workforce

  9. Multiple Genetic Associations with Irish Wolfhound Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Dunning, Mark D; Brownlie, Serena; Patel, Janika; Godden, Megan; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs and humans, with dilated cardiomyopathy being a large contributor to this. The Irish Wolfhound (IWH) is one of the most commonly affected breeds and one of the few breeds with genetic loci associated with the disease. Mutations in more than 50 genes are associated with human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet very few are also associated with canine DCM. Furthermore, none of the identified canine loci explain many cases of the disease and previous work has indicated that genotypes at multiple loci may act together to influence disease development. In this study, loci previously associated with DCM in IWH were tested for associations in a new cohort both individually and in combination. We have identified loci significantly associated with the disease individually, but no genotypes individually or in pairs conferred a significantly greater risk of developing DCM than the population risk. However combining three loci together did result in the identification of a genotype which conferred a greater risk of disease than the overall population risk. This study suggests multiple rather than individual genetic factors, cooperating to influence DCM risk in IWH.

  10. Multiple Genetic Associations with Irish Wolfhound Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs and humans, with dilated cardiomyopathy being a large contributor to this. The Irish Wolfhound (IWH is one of the most commonly affected breeds and one of the few breeds with genetic loci associated with the disease. Mutations in more than 50 genes are associated with human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, yet very few are also associated with canine DCM. Furthermore, none of the identified canine loci explain many cases of the disease and previous work has indicated that genotypes at multiple loci may act together to influence disease development. In this study, loci previously associated with DCM in IWH were tested for associations in a new cohort both individually and in combination. We have identified loci significantly associated with the disease individually, but no genotypes individually or in pairs conferred a significantly greater risk of developing DCM than the population risk. However combining three loci together did result in the identification of a genotype which conferred a greater risk of disease than the overall population risk. This study suggests multiple rather than individual genetic factors, cooperating to influence DCM risk in IWH.

  11. Reproductive health in Irish female renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the pregnancy outcomes in Irish female renal transplant recipients on modern maintenance immunosuppression. METHODS: The Republic of Ireland transplant database was accessed to identify the patient cohort in question. All female renal transplant recipients whose transplantation was in Ireland before or during their reproductive years were included. A questionnaire was sent to the identified women. A chart review was performed for those women who reported a pregnancy following renal transplantation. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten women met the inclusion criteria. There was a response rate of 70% (n = 148). Eighteen women reported 29 pregnancies. The live birth rate was 76%. The mean gestation of the live births was 36.2 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg. There were six cases of pre-eclampsia. Twin pregnancies and those entering pregnancy with a creatinine greater than 135 micromol\\/l had particularly complicated clinical courses. Four women had not conceived post transplant despite actively trying for over 1 year. Two women utilised assisted fertility methods (in vitro fertilisation), one of whom became pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of women who attempt to conceive following renal transplantation are successful, without the use of assisted fertility. Pregnancy in this setting warrants meticulous multidisciplinary care.

  12. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  13. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  14. Alendronate for fracture prevention in postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Kathryn K; Kerley, Sara Shelton

    2008-09-01

    Osteoporosis is an abnormal reduction in bone mass and bone deterioration leading to increased fracture risk. Alendronate (Fosamax) belongs to the bisphosphonate class of drugs, which act to inhibit bone resorption by interfering with the activity of osteoclasts. To assess the effectiveness of alendronate in the primary and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. The authors searched Central, Medline, and EMBASE for relevant randomized controlled trials published from 1966 to 2007. The authors undertook study selection and data abstraction in duplicate. The authors performed meta-analysis of fracture outcomes using relative risks, and a relative change greater than 15 percent was considered clinically important. The authors assessed study quality through reporting of allocation concealment, blinding, and withdrawals. Eleven trials representing 12,068 women were included in the review. Relative and absolute risk reductions for the 10-mg dose were as follows. For vertebral fractures, a 45 percent relative risk reduction was found (relative risk [RR] = 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.67). This was significant for primary prevention, with a 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80) and 2 percent absolute risk reduction; and for secondary prevention, with 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.69) and 6 percent absolute risk reduction. For nonvertebral fractures, a 16 percent relative risk reduction was found (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94). This was significant for secondary prevention, with a 23 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.92) and a 2 percent absolute risk reduction, but not for primary prevention (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04). There was a 40 percent relative risk reduction in hip fractures (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.92), but only secondary prevention was significant, with a 53 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.47; 95% CI

  15. Prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-07-01

    lines of therapy. First OPG was used as a therapy to block RANKL was initially successful but later antibodies against OPG developed and this line of treatment had to be discontinued. The next step was to develop a monoclonal antibody against RANKL and this proved to be highly effective in blocking bone resorption. It led to development of a drug Denosumab that successfully reduces fractures and is now one of the therapeutic options for osteoporosis treatment. On the anabolic side bone biology research showed that osteocytes produces sclerostin an inhibitor of the anabolic WNT signaling pathway. Recent development of a monoclonal antibody against sclerostin has shown remarkable anabolic activity in bone showing large increases in bone density and fracture trials are now underway. The newer treatments for osteoporosis are likely to be based on our understanding of bone biology and the design of new highly specific compounds with fewer side effects. This review summarizes the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and various available non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies available for its management. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE DATA OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE FUNCTIONAL POWER IN IRELAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gataullina, K.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization processes put a number of regional languages on the verge of extinction, therefore, they have raised awareness of protecting and maintaining the minority languages among a great number of foreign and Russian scholars. The paper deals with Irish that is under protection of the European Charter for regional and Minority Languages in UK and is an official language of Ireland. The research is aimed at comparing the Irish language position in both regions: Ireland and Northern Ireland. Reviewing the quantitative data in the regions under the study allows us to see clearly the language situation, monitor development, and relying on the achieved results, assess the current state and predict the future of Irish in both regions. The research results are considered to be of practical use for further language planning, improving the efficiency of language policies.

  17. Is Irish set dancing feasible for people with Parkinson's disease in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Joanne; Morris, Meg E; Bhriain, Orfhlaith Ni; Volpe, Daniele; Richardson, Margaret; Clifford, Amanda M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate if community-based Irish set dancing is feasible in Irish adults with Parkinson's disease. Over an eight week period, ten participants attended one set dancing class per week and completed a home programme in parallel. Feasibility was assessed by monitoring adverse effects, participants' verbal feedback, compliance rates and feedback from an exit questionnaire. Participants were assessed using the Berg balance scale, 6-min walk test, UPDRS-3 and PDQ-39, before and after the intervention. No adverse effects were detected. Attendance at classes was 86%. Compliance with the home programme was 67%. Findings from the exit questionnaire showed participants enjoyed participating and reported improvements in aspects of health including balance. Quality of life improved with the dance programme and there was a trend toward improvement on the UPDRS-3. These findings suggest community-based Irish set dancing is a feasible form of exercise that can positively influence quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Eight Weeks of Resistance Exercise on Adaptive Responses of Cortisol and Androgens in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decreased anabolic to catabolic ratio during menopause, can lead to a reduction in muscle size and strength. Hence, the current study amed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of resistance exercise on adaptive responses of cortisol and androgens in postmenopausal women. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 16 healthy postmenopausal women with the age range of 48 to 62 years and a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were selected (via paposeful and convenience sampling who participated in an eight-week program of circular shape resistance training (8 stations, 3 sets with 12 repeatation with intensity of 65-40% of one repetition maximum. Serum levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cortisol were measured 48 hours before and after the intervention. The study data were analyzed by paired student’s t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The study results following resistance training, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (58%, P=0.000, testosterone (71%, P=0.017, testosterone to cortisol ratio (125%, P=0.016 and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to cortisol ratio (61%, P=0.002 significantly increased. Although the amount of post-test cortisol levels was decreased, this change was not held to be significant (P=0.459. Conclusion: Eight weeks of resistance training leads to a significant increase in levels of androgens as well as androgens to cortisol ratio. Therefore, resistance training by increasing the ratio of anabolic to catabolic hormones can prevente muscle size and strength, and aid to wellbeing and health of postmenopausal women.

  19. Comparable sensitivity of postmenopausal and young women to the effects of intranasal insulin on food intake and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Rosemarie; Benedict, Christian; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    We have previously shown that enhancing brain insulin signaling by intranasal administration of a single dose of the hormone acutely reduces food intake in young men but not women, whereas its improving effects on spatial and working memory are restricted to young women. Against the background of animal studies suggesting that low estrogen concentrations are a prerequisite for the anorexigenic impact of central nervous insulin, we extended our foregoing study by assessing intranasal insulin effects in postmenopausal women with comparatively low estrogen concentrations, expecting them to be more sensitive than young women to the anorexigenic effects of the hormone. In a within-subject, double-blind comparison performed at the University of Lübeck, 14 healthy postmenopausal women (body mass index, 23.71±0.6 kg/m2; age, 57.61±1.14 yr) were intranasally administered 160 IU regular human insulin or vehicle. Subjects performed a working memory task (digit span) and a hippocampus-dependent visuospatial memory task. Subsequently, free-choice food intake from an ad libitum breakfast buffet was measured. Contrary to expectations, results in postmenopausal women mirrored those found in young women (22.44±0.63 yr), i.e. insulin administration did not affect food intake (P>0.46), but did enhance performance in the prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory task (Pwomen do not modulate the effects of intranasal insulin in females, suggesting that in humans as opposed to rats, estrogen signaling does not critically alter central nervous system sensitivity to the effects of insulin on energy homeostasis and cognition.

  20. Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, S; van Nieuwpoort, I C; van Bunderen, C C; de Ruiter, M B; Twisk, J W R; Deijen, J B; Veltman, D J; Drent, M L

    2016-11-01

    Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated. An 8-week prospective intervention study of 18 healthy postmenopausal women, with a body mass index of 30-35 kg m -2 . The first 2 weeks subjects were on an isocaloric diet and 4 weeks on a 1000 kcal restricted diet followed by 2 weeks on an isocaloric diet. Anthropometric and laboratory analyses were performed weekly during the isocaloric diet and three times a week during the caloric-restricted diet. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before and after the caloric restriction in four separate sessions (fasting or sated). Generalized Estimating Equations analysis was used for data analysis. A mean weight loss of 4.2±0.5 kg (4.8%) and a 4.2±0.4 cm decline in waist circumference were achieved. In the first week of caloric restriction, triglyceride, leptin, resistin and adiponectin levels as well as systolic blood pressure decreased and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 levels increased. During and after weight loss, a significant increase in ghrelin levels was observed. Before weight loss, increased activation of the right amygdala was seen in response to food stimuli, and free fatty acids and glucose correlated with activity in various areas involved in food reward processing. After weight loss, fasting ghrelin and sated leptin levels correlated with activity in these areas. Already in the first week of caloric restriction in obese postmenopausal women, various favourable metabolic changes occur before clinically relevant weight loss is achieved. Activity in the amygdala region and correlations of metabolic factors with activity in brain areas involved in food reward processing differ substantially before and after weight loss.

  1. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P cocoa content chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency of endometrial carcinoma in patients with postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, S.; Shaheen, M.; Rana, T.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is defined as bleeding that occurs after 1 year of amenorrhea in a woman who is not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT). About 10% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have a primary or secondary malignancy. Common malignancies among them are endometrial cancer (80%), cervical cancer or an ovarian tumour. Endometrial cancer is the second most common cancer associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Ninety percent of patients have benign causes. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of endometrial carcinoma in patients with post-menopausal bleeding. Study Design: Descriptive case series study. Setting: Department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Lady Willingdon, Lahore. Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of six months from January, 1 2009 to June 30, 2009. Subjects and Methods: 50 cases with postmenopausal bleeding. Results: During the period of this study a total number of 50 consecutive patients who met inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Ages of the patients who presented with PMB ranged between 48 years and 80 years with a mean age of 59 years. Malignancy was found in 18 out of 50 cases (36%).Cases with endometrial CA were 14 out of 50 cases (28%) and CA cervix constituted 4 out of 50 cases (8%). Benign pathology was more frequent (64%). 13 of 50 cases (26%) had hyperplasia out of which 1 case (2%) was of atypical hyperplasia. Endometrial polyp was found in 4 of 50 cases (8%). 3 of 50 cases (6%) had chronic endometritis. 5 of 50 cases (10%) had chronic cervicitis. While 7 cases (14%) had postmenopausal bleeding due to decubitus ulcer of uterovaginal prolapse. Among malignancies (36%), endometrial cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women with postmenopausal bleeding with mean age of 65 years. Conclusion: In this study it was concluded that the majority of cases of PMB would be expected to be suffering from benign problems

  3. Prevalence of osteoporosis among postmenopausal females with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maataoug, Mohamad A.; El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Othman, Saleh A.; Mattar, Essam H.; Babay, Zainab A.; Addar, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Saudi postmenopausal women with non-insulin dependent type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was carried out at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from February 2000 to September 2002. bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA; Lunar Wisconsin), were performed in 104 postmenopausal Saudi women with T2DM and 101postmenopausal non-diabetic women (control). Bone mineral density was measured in gm/cm and both T-score and Z-score were measured but only T-score ws used for analysis based on World Health Organization criteria. Bone profile, 25(OH) Vitamin D, 1.25(OH) Vitamin D, parathyroid harmone and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were measured in both patients and controls. Body fit fat measurement aruond the biceps muscles using Futrex (body compostion analyzer) were performed in patients and controls. Years postmenopausal, duration of diabetes mellitus, parity, exercise, sun exposure and milk consumption were also recorded. In the diabetic group, the mean spine BMD was 0.928 gm/cm (T-score=2.28 SD) and for femoral neck the mean BMD was 0.817 gm/cm (T-score=-1.21SD). In control group, the mean spine BMD was 1.036 gm/cm (T-score=-1.2) and mean femoral neck BMD was 0.914 gm/cm (T-score=-0.608). In the diabetic group, there was 16(16.64%)patients with normal BMD of the spine, 42 patients (43.68%) with ostopenia (mean T-score=-1.8SD) and 45 (46.8%) with osteoporosis (mean T-score=-3.3 SD). Osteoporosis is most common among Type2 postmenopausal females in this ethnic group. Since both groups are postmenopausal, having equal percentage of Vitamin D deficiency, multi-parity, non exposure sun, lack of excercise and negligible milk intake, one can conlude that low BMD can be attributed to DM in the absence of other cause of osteoporosis. (author)

  4. Battling for the Rights to Privacy and Data Protection in the Irish Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Darcy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Far-reaching mass surveillance by the US National Security Agency and other national security services has brought issues of privacy and data protection to the fore in recent years. Information and technology companies have been embroiled in this scandal for having shared, unwittingly or otherwise, users’ personal data with the security services. Facebook, the world’s largest social media company, has long-been criticised by privacy advocates because of its treatment of users’ data. Proceedings before the Irish courts concerning the role of national data protection authorities have seen an examination of these practices in light of relevant Irish and EU law.

  5. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  6. Chasing the Intangible: a Conversation on Theatre, Language, and Artistic Migrations with Irish Playwright Marina Carr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rapetti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Offally born Marina Carr is amongst the most prolific, influential and internationally renowned Irish playwrights of our times. Since her debut on the avant-garde side of the Dublin theatre scene in the late Eighties, she has had  seventeen plays professionally produced, both in and outside Ireland. Her earlier work is influenced by Samuel Beckett’s Absurdist drama, while in her most mature and recent plays she draws on both classical and Irish mythology, Greek tragedies and Shakespeare’s poetics. In this interview, Marina Carr recalls and discusses some pivotal moments of her upbringing and career; she also speaks about language, landscape, dream

  7. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  8. The place of the Irish Sea oil and gas industryin the economy of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoney, P.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The economies of two areas close to the Irish Sea, Morecambe Bay and Liverpool Bay, are compared in order to illustrate the effect of the Irish Sea oil and gas industry on these regions. Capital investment projects connected with those industries during the construction and operational lifetime periods are considered in terms of direct, indirect and induced effects. Mathematical modelling is used to provide a conceptual basis for making inferences about the possible size of oil and gas industry effects on local economies. Information on employment in various regions and sectors of industry, including forecasts of future profitability are given. (UK)

  9. The East Irish Sea Basin - from caterpillar to butterfly, a thirty-year metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colter, V.S.

    1997-12-31

    In the thirty years since the award of the first licenses, the East Irish Sea Basin has emerged as a significant hydrocarbon province. This paper first lists some of the occasionally almost arbitrary events that led to the first success in the basin, the discovery of the Morecambe Field, in 1974. An attempt is made to review progress over those thirty years in certain topics, namely (1) stratigraphy, (2) structure, (3) sedimentology, (4) diagenesis `The `Platy Illite problem`; and others, (5) uplift and inversion, (6) hydrocarbon sources and types, (7) East Irish Sea Basin analogues. The paper concludes by summarizing the current state of knowledge. (author)

  10. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Ross, P.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius [bone mineral content (BMC)] and total neutron activation analysis [total body calcium (TBCa)], respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements

  11. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Unlike hot flushes and night sweats which resolve spontaneously in time, atrophic symptoms affecting the vagina and lower urinary tract are often progressive and frequently require treatment. The prevalence of vaginal dryness increases as a woman advances through the postmenopausal years, causing...... for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... for the continued suffering in silence may be cultural and an understandable reluctance to discuss such matters, particularly with a male doctor, but the medical profession must also take much of the blame for failing to enquire of all postmenopausal women about the possibility of vaginal atrophic symptoms. Vaginal...

  12. Profile of teriparatide in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sikon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Sikon1, Pelin Batur21Cleveland Clinic Lerner COM, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Cleveland Clinic Lerner COM, Cleveland Clinic Independence, Independence, OH, USAAbstract: One out of every 2 women within postmenopause are at risk of fracture due to osteoporosis. Fortunately, a growing arsenal of therapies is becoming available to treat this disease and prevent fracture. A new class of anabolic agents has emerged within the last decade that brought with it a new concept in osteoporosis therapy: building new stronger bone rather than simply inhibiting bone turnover. Evidence is accumulating to understand how to best utilize these new agents, and which patients benefit most. This article will review the effectiveness, risks, timing and clinical uses of teriparatide in postmenopausal osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, menopause, teriparatide

  13. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed alarmingly high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and other risk factors in postmenopausal women from rural areas.

  14. Technetium-99 in lobsters from the western Irish sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, Mary

    1999-05-01

    Technetium-99, the most important radionuclide of technetium release to the environment, is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 2.13 x 10(5) years. It behaves conservatively in seawater and is likely to remain available to biota for a long time. The dominant and most stable form of technetium in oxygenated seawater is the pertechnetate ion, Tco4. The principle source of radionuclide contamination of the Irish Sea has been the liquid waste discharges of low level radionuclide effluent from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield on the Cumbria Coast. In 1994 the annual discharge authorization limit for 99Tc was increased from 10 TBq to 200 TBq. Lobster concentrates 99Tc to a high degree with concentration factors of 1x 10(3) reported in the literature. The mean 99Tc activity concentrations in lobsters caught close to Sellafield were reported to have risen by a factor of 20 in 2 years from 390 Bq/kg (wet weight) in 1993 to 8300 Bq/kg (wet weight) in 1995. This study was undertaken to determine the 99Tc activity concentration in lobsters from the western Irish Sea. Lobsters were collected from the east and north east coasts of Ireland over the period June 1997 to July 1998 and analysed using a radioanalytical method which was based on the anion-exchange seperation of technetium as pertechnetate. A gas-flow proportional counter was used to measure to 99Tc activity concentration in each sample. Technetium-99 activity concentrations were measured in the muscle from the tail, the right and the left claws and also in the green gland, the hepatopancreas and the cardiac fore-gut. The results of the measurements showed, as expected, that the 99Tc activity concentrations were not as high as those in the samples from the Cumbrian coast. The mean 99Tc activity concentrations, over the sampling period, in the tail, right and left claw muscles were 214, 124 and 136 BQ/kg (wet weight) respectively. The mean 99Tc activity concentrations in the green gland

  15. The treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with ovestin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicovic, P.M.; Cortesprieto, J.; Milojevic, S.; Haspels, A.A.; Aljinovic, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-four postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal atrophy were treated with either Ovestin® vaginal cream (Group A, 23 women: 1 mg/day E3; Group B, 30 women: 0.5 mg/day E3) or vaginal suppositories (Group C, 21 women: 0.5 mg/day E3), applied daily for 3 wk (A and B) or 2 wk (C) before

  16. Efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Karla Zanolla Dias; Vale, Fabiene Bernardes Castro; Geber, Selmo

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and evaluate its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days. Randomization was performed using sealed envelopes. All participants answered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Quotient-female version questionnaires and had their serum levels of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin measured. A total of 36 participants completed the study, because 3 from each group were excluded due to side effects and 3 dropped out due to personal reasons. FSFI questionnaire results demonstrated an improvement in all domains in both groups (P  0.05). Moreover, free and bioavailable testosterone levels showed a significant increase in the T terrestris group (P < 0.05). Tribulus terrestris might be a safe alternative for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women, because it was effective in reducing symptoms with few side effects. Its probable mechanism of action involves an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

  17. Association Analysis between g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A Genetic Polymorphisms of OPG and Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report that the OPG is an important candidate gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. This study aimed to detect the potential association of OPG gene polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. We recruited 928 subjects containing 463 with primary postmenopausal osteoporosis and 465 healthy volunteers as controls. The BMD of neck hip, lumbar spine (L2–4, and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Through the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing methods, the g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A have been investigated. As for g.18873C>T, our data indicated that subjects with CC genotype have significantly higher BMD value than those of CT and TT genotypes (all P values A, the BMD values of subjects with GG genotype were significantly higher than those of GA and AA genotypes (all P values T and g.27522G>A genetic polymorphisms are associated with the decreased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  19. To a Deeper Understanding of Loneliness amongst Older Irish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Susan Elaine

    2015-06-01

    Loneliness can play a significant role in the wellbeing of older adults. This article describes a qualitative method for using case notes from the clinical records of older individuals in order to investigate the priority concerns spontaneously reported by older adults to deepen our understanding of both the context in which reported loneliness occurs in Ireland and the potential triggers. The participants in this study represent a cross-section of older adults who participated in the Technology Research for Independent Living Clinic (TRIL). Data were collected from participants through interviewer case notes at the TRIL centre in St James's hospital, Dublin. 624 participants (431 females; 193 males) ranging in age from 60-92 years (Mean 73 years, SD 7 years) took part in the study. All were community dwelling and provided consent. A thematic analysis from grounded theory was used to evaluate the case notes for each participant. Preliminary results highlight the richness of phenomenological experience to enhance our understanding of loneliness and provide an opportunity to better understand the precursors and variability that loneliness may take. In this study we found themes in the case note analysis linking social loneliness with self-imposed limitations on social engagement due to declining health while predominate themes for emotionally lonely focused on psychological issues of stress and anxiety associated with adverse life events. The results suggest the importance of case notes to inform clinical practice. Qualitative results provided insights into differing live events of older Irish adults, which help distinguish the causal differences between social and emotional loneliness.

  20. Developing accreditation for community based surgery: the Irish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Riain, Ailís; Collins, Claire; O'Sullivan, Tony

    2018-02-05

    Purpose Carrying out minor surgery procedures in the primary care setting is popular with patients, cost effective and delivers at least as good outcomes as those performed in the hospital setting. This paper aims to describe the central role of clinical leadership in developing an accreditation system for general practitioners (GPs) undertaking community-based surgery in the Irish national setting where no mandatory accreditation process currently exists. Design/methodology/approach In all, 24 GPs were recruited to the GP network. Ten pilot standards were developed addressing GPs' experience and training, clinical activity and practice supporting infrastructure and tested, using information and document review, prospective collection of clinical data and a practice inspection visit. Two additional components were incorporated into the project (patient satisfaction survey and self-audit). A multi-modal evaluation was undertaken. A majority of GPs was included at all stages of the project, in line with the principles of action learning. The steering group had a majority of GPs with relevant expertise and representation of all other actors in the minor surgery arena. The GP research network contributed to each stage of the project. The project lead was a GP with minor surgery experience. Quantitative data collected were analysed using Predictive Analytic SoftWare. Krueger's framework analysis approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings A total of 9 GPs achieved all standards at initial review, 14 successfully completed corrective actions and 1 GP did not achieve the required standard. Standards were then amended to reflect findings and a supporting framework was developed. Originality/value The flexibility of the action-learning approach and the clinical leadership design allowed for the development of robust quality standards in a short timeframe.

  1. The Irish coastal current: A seasonal jet-like circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernand, L.; Nolan, G. D.; Raine, R.; Chambers, C. E.; Dye, S. R.; White, M.; Brown, J.

    2006-10-01

    During 25 July-3 August 2001 a comprehensive cruise was undertaken along the western coast of the Republic of Ireland to resolve the three-dimensional density field and circulation. Towed undulating CTD revealed the strong thermocline beyond the 60 m contour with more diffuse stratification inshore. Argos drifters deployed in the late summer of 1999, 2000 and 2001 demonstrated strongly northward flow, their motion was uncorrelated with wind forcing but was consistent with the predicted geostrophic currents generated by the bottom fronts intersecting the seabed. These flows were evident in the data from the vessel mounted 153.6 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) although the jets are relatively narrow (15-20 km). This region is heavily influenced by storm events and Atlantic influence with high salinity contributing to strong vertical and horizontal density gradients particularly in the south of the region. However, the seasonal heating cycle coupled with tidal mixing is the dominant force of buoyancy production that ensures that the frontal features occur every year. In combination with similar features found in the Celtic Sea [Brown, J., et al., 2003. Observations of the physical structure and seasonal jet-like circulation of the Celtic Sea and St. George's Channel of the Irish Sea. Continental Shelf Research 23, 533-561] these observations demonstrate the existence of a continuous pathway in summer from the north Cornish coast to Malin Head with average residual velocities >7.5 cm s -1. The data set described here provides the necessary basis for environmental management and knowledge of the pathway for contaminants, the dynamics of nutrients and an understanding of the movement of larvae and juvenile fish, in a geographic location that had previously been little studied.

  2. The radiological impact of actinides discharged to the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Smith, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the radiological effects of releases of actinides to the Irish Sea from Sellafield, the major source. Exposure pathways to man since the commencement of discharges in 1952 are reviewed; the importance of actinides began to increase with increased discharges in the 1970s. With the demise of the porphyra/laverbread pathway due to transport difficulties, the pathway due to fish and shellfish consumption became critical, particularly for actinides through molluscan shellfish. A reassessment on the current basis of effective dose shows that peak exposures to the critical group of about 2 mSv yr -1 were received in the mid-1970s, about 30% of which was due to actinides. Effective doses have since reduced but the relative importance of actinides is greater, due to the interplay of discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and their behaviour in the environment. Additive doses through sea food due to releases of natural radionuclides from the Marchon phosphate plant at Whitehaven are also considered, although the actinide component from this source has been small. Exposures due to actinides from Sellafield via other pathways are shown to be much lower than those involving sea food. Collective doses are also considered; these peaked at about 300 man-Sv to the European population (including the UK) in 1979, with only a few percent due to actinides. As in the case of critical group doses, the relative importance of actinides has increased in recent years within the decreasing total collective dose. For both critical group and collective doses, therefore, the actinide component needs to be kept under review. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  4. Attitudes and perceived risk of cannabis use in Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P; Bradley, C

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the developed world and its use is associated with several adverse physical and mental health effects and negative social outcomes. Earlier use of cannabis increases the risk of adverse effects. Attitudes and perceived risk towards drugs are regarded as strong influences in determining whether or not a person uses cannabis, but there is little existing research on Irish teenagers' attitudes to the risks of this drug. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a structured, anonymous questionnaire. The study was undertaken in nine public and private secondary schools in Cork City and suburbs. Students aged 15-18 and in fourth, fifth or sixth year of school were included. Of the 507 participating students, 39.3 % (n = 199) reported previous cannabis use. There were significantly lower levels of perceived risk of cannabis among those who had used the drug compared with those who had not, for all categories of risk (p < 0.01). Attitudes towards cannabis were more liberal among males and those with previous use of the drug. A minority of students (n = 92; 18.2 %) support legalisation of cannabis. The majority of teenagers (n = 382; 75.8 %) believe that they are not given enough information about the drug. Cannabis use is very widespread among teenagers in Cork. There are relatively low levels of perceived risk of mental and physical health problems with use of the drug. Attitudes towards cannabis are associated with personal use of the drug and gender.

  5. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

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    Veronika A. Myasoedova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6 were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020; low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS; high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038; triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by

  6. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Hunjak,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmenopausal at least for a year. Urine samples, as well as urethral and vaginal swabs were taken from each patient and tested for causative agents of urogenital infections, genital mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis.Results Cystitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis in 31.4% women, urethritis in 24.8%, and vaginitis in 15.1%. The most common causative agent of urethritis was Ureaplasma urealyticum, while Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common in vaginal infections. E. coli was concurrently isolated in urine, urethral and vaginal samples in 65.1% of patients with E. coli cystitis, while Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in urethral and vaginal samples in each patient with Streptococcus agalactiae cystitis.Conclusion Mucosal colonization of the urethra and vagina contributes to the incidence of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Microbiological diagnostics is necessary to distinguish between the symptoms of ageing of the urogenital system and infection, with a view to preventing unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  7. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  8. Effect of hormone therapy on postural balance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Barral, Ana Beatriz Cesar; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Buttros, Davi de Araujo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on postural balance in postmenopausal women and its association with risk of falls. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 225 Brazilian postmenopausal women aged 45 to 75 years were included and divided into two groups: HT users (n = 102) and nonusers (n = 123). HT users were women who had continuously taken HT throughout the preceding 6 months, whereas nonusers received no such therapy during the same period. Women with amenorrhea for more than 12 months and aged 45 years or older were included. Those with neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, vestibulopathies, uncorrected visual deficit, or drug use that could affect balance were excluded. Histories of falls (previous 24 mo) as well as clinical and anthropometric characteristics were analyzed. Postural balance was assessed through stabilometry (computerized force platform), Romberg test, and crouching test. Statistical analysis included the median test, χ test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression method (odds ratio). Women users of HT were younger (53.0 vs 57.0 y) and with a shorter time since menopause (5.5 vs 10.0 y) than nonusers (P Romberg test and fall rate (P > 0.05). In the crouching test, 47.1% of the participants showed an adequate level of muscle strength in lower limbs without differences between the groups (P > 0.05). Postmenopausal women using HT showed lower frequency of falls and a better performance in stabilometric parameters than did nonusers.

  9. Postmenopausal hypertension, abdominal obesity, apolipoprotein and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Samir; Belfki-Benali, Hanen; Ahmed, Decy Ben; Haddad, Najet; Jmal, Awatef; Abdennebi, Monia; Romdhane, Habiba Ben

    This study aimed to evaluate the association of abdominal obesity, apolipoprotein and insulin resistance (IR) with the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women. We analyzed a total of 242 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric indices, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess IR. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or current treatment with antihypertensive drugs. Women with hypertension showed significantly higher mean values of age, SBP and DBP, waist circumference (WC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMAIR and the apolipoprotein B (apoB). When analyses were done according to the menopausal status, higher prevalence of hypertension was observed in postmenopausal women (72.8% vs. 26.0%, p menopause (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with higher risk for hypertension. These results suggest that changes in WC, apoB and IR accompanying menopause lead to a greater prevalence of hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  10. Postmenopausal bleeding: causes and risk of genital tract malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, N.S.; Peter, K.; Ibrar, F.; Dawood, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding occurring after 6-12 months of amenorrhea in a woman of age where the menopause can be expected. Objectives of this study were to ascertain various causes and prevalence of genital organ malignancy in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Methods: A prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi comprising of 167 consecutive cases presenting with postmenopausal bleeding one year after menopause. Women having undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy, suffered trauma to the genital tract, having coagulation disorder or on anticoagulant or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. Detailed history was obtained and a thorough clinical examination was conducted. Data were entered into hospital computer database (Medix) system. Mean +- SD were calculated for age, percentage was calculated for types of histopathological findings. Results: The commonest cause of PMB was atrophic endometritis and vaginitis 33 (21.2%). Overall incidence of various genital tract malignancies was 25 (16.0%). Conclusion: The overall incidence of genital tract malignancies in patients presenting with PMB is high (16.0%), therefore, it needs to be taken seriously and requires prompt and thorough investigations. (author)

  11. Soy protein supplementation does not cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devareddy Latha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of soy isoflavones have been widely investigated; however, there are some concerns as to whether soy isoflavones, similar to ipriflavone, a synthetic isoflavone, cause lymphocytopenia in postmenopausal women. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which 12-month supplementation of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones alters lymphocyte counts or other hematological parameters in postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy. Methods Eighty-seven postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive either soy protein or an equivalent amount of control protein devoid of isoflavones. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and at the end of twelve month study period for complete blood count analyses. Results Between the two treatment groups, the percent changes in hematological parameters, including lymphocytes, were not different. While women consuming the soy supplement had an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and red cell distribution width index (RDW; a marker of reticulocytes, women consuming the control diet had higher percentage of only MCHC. Conclusion Overall, the results of the present study indicate that consumption of 25 g soy protein containing 60 mg isoflavones daily for one year does not cause lymphocytopenia.

  12. Cytokine RNA levels in transiliac bone biopsies from healthy early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Shalhoub, V; Larson, E K

    2000-01-01

    RNA was measured by competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The IL-1ra/IL-1beta mRNA slope for the slow-loss group was steeper (deltaF = 23.3, p levels relative to IL-1beta....... During HRT, the IL-1beta mRNA level was inversely correlated with serum estradiol (log r2 = 0.77, p levels identical to the control group. In contrast, IL-1ra mRNA was independent of serum estradiol. Histomorphometric...... for IL-6 mRNA. The findings support the hypothesis that IL-1beta production within bone increases with declining estrogen levels, and that an increase in II-1ra protects against accelerated bone loss....

  13. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD...

  14. The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Tetens, Inge; Bugel, S.

    2008-01-01

    the lignan complex intervention period compared with 0.80 (0.62, 1.62) mg/L at baseline and 1.10 (0.72, 1.62) mg/L after placebo. No significant differences in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble intracellular adhesion motecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte...

  15. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  16. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

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    Caroline Ann Gunn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50 of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months. Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet, with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL. Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01 in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01 in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation.

  17. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  18. ASSESSING THE STATE OF THE PELAGIC HABITAT: A CASE STUDY OF PLANKTON AND ITS ENVIRONMENT IN THE WESTERN IRISH SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Scherer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Much work had been undertaken on tracking change in the condition of marine pelagic ecosystems and on identifying regime shifts. However, it is also necessary to relate change to states of good ecosystem health or what the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD calls 'Good Environmental Status' (GES. Drawing on existing scientific and legislative principles, including those of OSPAR's 'Strategy to Combat Eutrophication', we propose a framework for assessing the status of what the MSFD calls the 'pelagic habitat' in temperate coastal seas. The framework uses knowledge of local ecohydrodynamic conditions, especially those relating to the stratification and optical environment, to guide expectations of what would be recognised as healthy in terms of ecosystem 'organisation' and 'vigour'. We apply this framework to the seasonally stratified regime of the Western Irish Sea, drawing on published and new work on stratification, nutrient and phytoplankton seasonal cycles, zooplankton, and the implications of plankton community structure and production for higher trophic levels. We conclude that, despite human pressures including nutrient enrichment, and the food-web effects of fisheries, the pelagic ecosystem here is in GES, and hence may be used as a reference for the 'Plankton Index' method of tracking change in state space in seasonally stratified waters.

  19. Dietary patterns and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional association in the Irish Nun Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Euan N; Neville, Charlotte E; Silvestri, Giuliana; Montgomery, Shannon; Moore, Evelyn; Silvestri, Vittorio; Cardwell, Christopher R; MacGillivray, Tom J; Maxwell, Alexander P; Woodside, Jayne V; McKay, Gareth J

    2018-04-27

    Associations between dietary patterns and chronic kidney disease are not well established, especially in European populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1033 older Irish women (age range 56-100 years) with a restricted lifestyle. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate. Two dietary patterns were identified within the study population using factor analysis. A significant negative association was found between unhealthy dietary pattern adherence and renal function in both unadjusted and adjusted models controlling for potential confounding variables (p for trend <0.001), with a mean difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate of -6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 between those in the highest fifth of adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern compared to the lowest, in the fully adjusted model. Chronic kidney disease risk was significantly greater for the highest fifth, compared to the lowest fifth of unhealthy dietary pattern adherence in adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio = 2.62, p < 0.001). Adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was not associated with renal function or chronic kidney disease in adjusted models. In this cohort, an unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with lower renal function and greater prevalence of chronic kidney disease.

  20. Effect of 6-months of physical exercise on the nitrate/nitrite levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Camila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidences have showed that the incidence of arterial hypertension is greater in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal. Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major contributor to weight gain and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women and the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause. Additionally, more women than men die each year of coronary heart disease and are twice as likely as men to die within the first year after a heart attack. A healthy lifestyle has been strongly associated with the regular physical activity and evidences have shown that physically active subjects have more longevity with reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO produced by endothelial cells has been implicated in this beneficial effect with improvement of vascular relaxing and reduction in blood pressure in both laboratory animals and human. Although the effect of exercise training in the human cardiovascular system has been largely studied, the majority of these studies were predominantly conducted in men or young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 6 months of dynamic exercise training (ET on blood pressure and plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration (NOx- in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods Eleven volunteers were submitted to the ET consisting in 3 days a week, each session of 60 minutes during 6 months at moderate intensity (50% of heart rate reserve. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, NOx- concentration were measured at initial time and after ET. Results A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was seen after ET which was accompanied by markedly increase of NOx- levels (basal: 10 ± 0.9; ET: 16 ± 2 μM. Total cholesterol was significantly reduced (basal: 220 ± 38 and ET: 178 ± 22 mg/dl, whereas triglycerides levels were not modified after ET (basal: 141 ± 89 and ET: 147 ± 8 mg

  1. Effect of fat mass and lean mass on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namwongprom S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirianong Namwongprom,1 Sattaya Rojanasthien,2 Ampica Mangklabruks,3 Supasil Soontrapa,4 Chanpen Wongboontan,5 Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul61Clinical Epidemiology Program and Department of Radiology, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1579 healthy Thai women aged 40–90 years. Total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck BMD and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the associations between fat mass and lean mass and various measures of BMD, multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the regression coefficients for fat mass and lean mass, first in separate equations and then with both fat mass and lean mass in the same equation.Results: Among the study population, 1448 subjects (91.7% were postmenopausal and 131 (8.3% were perimenopausal. In postmenopausal women, after controlling for age, height, and duration of menopause, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD when they were analyzed independently of each other. When included in the same equation, both fat mass and lean mass continued to show a positive effect, but lean mass had a significantly greater impact on BMD than fat mass at all regions except for total body. Lean mass but not fat mass had a positive effect on BMD at all skeletal sites except the lumbar spine, after controlling for age and height in perimenopausal

  2. Square-Toed Boots and Felt Hats: Irish Revolutionaries and the Invasion of Canada (1848-1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ramón-García

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fenian movement was born in 1858 as an alliance between the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary secret society, and the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish-American organisation intended to supply this society with funds and trained officers. This was not the first time that Irish nationalists on both sides of the Atlantic had tried to cooperate, but it was the first time that there was a steady arrangement in place. The Fenian partnership was extremely successful on the surface, but it was undermined by fundamental differences in customs, political attitudes and ultimate goals between Irish and American Fenians. The clearest evidence of these differences was afforded by the Fenian Brotherhood’s successive attempts to invade Canada between 1866 and 1871. As military episodes the Canadian raids were negligible; as Irish revolutionary attempts they seem absurd. However, they were a perfectly coherent manifestation of the Irish-American “hyphenated identity”. The present article traces the parallel evolution of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the Fenian Brotherhood up to 1866, and reconstructs the cultural and political reasons for the revival of the Canadian scheme, the ensuing split in the Fenian Brotherhood, and the final collapse of the Fenian alliance.

  3. Freedom or Free-For-All in Irish Healthcare? Establishing Improved Consumer Protection Mechanisms in the Irish Complementary and Alternative Medicine Sector

    OpenAIRE

    O LEARY, CLAIRE LOUISE

    2017-01-01

    APPROVED Despite political rhetoric, the establishment of working groups, and the publication of commissioned reports in the early and mid-2000s recommending improvements in the regulation of the Irish complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) sector, little of significance has changed. Controversies undermining public confidence in authority, global digital dissemination of information, and higher levels of education and wealth have, among other factors, contributed to the increas...

  4. Effects of soy protein isolate on bone mineral density and physical performance indices in postmenopausal women--a 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vupadhyayula, Phani M; Gallagher, J C; Templin, Thomas; Logsdon, Susannah M; Smith, Lynette M

    2009-01-01

    Postmenopausal decreases in body composition, physical performance, and bone mass have been shown to be reversed by estrogen, but given the concerns regarding its use, women are looking for alternatives such as soy isoflavones. Most studies on the effects of soy on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women have been short-term, that is, 3 to 6 months, and failed to provide conclusive evidence. There is no evidence of its effects on physical performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of soy plus isoflavones on BMD and physical performance in postmenopausal women. This was a 2-year randomized controlled trial. A total of 203 healthy postmenopausal women were given either 25 g of soy protein without isoflavones, 25 g of soy protein with 90 mg of isoflavones, or 25 g of milk protein (casein and whey) as a control agent for 24 months. Women were followed every 6 months with BMD and physical performance measurements for 2 years. Primary analysis was intent-to-treat analysis. Analysis of variance, chi and Fisher's exact tests, and analysis of covariance were used. There was a significant decrease in the BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in those who completed the study in all groups. Soy isoflavones prevented major bone loss from baseline at the femoral trochanter with no between-group significance. Physical performance measurements decreased in all the groups. : Twenty-five grams of soy protein with 90 mg of isoflavones has no added benefit in preventing bone loss or improving physical performance.

  5. comparison of lipoproteins as coronary risk factors in postmenopausal women with and without hormonal replacement therapy in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.; Ghayur, S.; Sattar, A.; Hashim, R.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare serum concentration of Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) between post menopausal women on HRT and without HRT. Study Design: Comparative, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from 2006 to 2007. Materials and methods: Postmenopausal women with no co-morbidities and on any type of HRT for at least one year were selected as cases and healthy postmenopausal women not taking any type of HRT were taken as controls. All these cases were selected randomly. After clinical history and physical examination, blood sampling was carried out for lipid profile including Lp(a) in fasting state. Results: A total of 50 postmenopausal women on HRT and their age matched healthy controls (postmenopausal women without HRT) were studied. The mean age of HRT treated group was 56.7 +- 0 (mean +- ) years. The mean age of menopause of study group was 50.4 +- 10.6 0 year and the mean years since menopause were 8.4 +- 4.6 years. There was no statistically significant difference in age, age at menopause and years since menopause between study and control groups. The frequencies for the type of HRT were calculated. Thirty two of the women were using combination therapy i.e.; estrogen plus progesterone while 18 of them were using estrogen therapy alone. None of them were using other types of HRT like SERMs or tibolone. The mean values of TC, LDL-C and Lp (a) were lower than the control group. The mean value of HDL-C and TG was higher in study group as compared to control group. On comparative analysis of the lipid profile of the two groups employing unpaired t-test, statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of LDL-C, HDL-C and Lp(a). However TC and TG levels were not significantly different in women belonging to either group. Conclusions: HRT has beneficial

  6. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting blood pressure (BP in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001 and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001 F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50 and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65, four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5 were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  7. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting blood pressure (BP) in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R)-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001) and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001) F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50) and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65), four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5) were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  8. Quality of Life and Poor Oral Health: A Comparison of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-relationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life, such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL in postmenopausal women (PMW with poor oral health (POH with QoL in PMW with good oral health. A total of 200 randomly recruited PMW received a dental evaluation and completed the Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into POH and healthy groups based on a dental exam. Mean scores were calculated for each QoL item, domain and the overall summary score. For each of the four parameters for periodontitis diagnosis, periodontitis b s patients’ QoL outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using a T-test with a threshold of significance at p < 0.05. QoL in all fields measured was significantly poorer in the POH patients compared to the healthy patients: occupational score (19.95 ± 5.35 vs. 27.56 ± 6.13, health score (18.02 ± 8.23 vs. 26.59 ± 6.45, emotional score (15.68 ± 10.22 vs. 21.15 ± 9.15, sexual score (6.2 ± 5.98 vs. 10.02 ± 5.35, and total score (60.21 ± 25.85 vs. 84.26 ± 22.35. This study finds that PMW with POH report significantly poorer quality of life. Clinicians caring for PMW should be aware that oral health impacts QoL and make appropriate referral decisions for patients’ dental care.

  9. Contribution of physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and cognitive stimulation to cognitive function in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Eskes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙ o2max, cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial PCO2, and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.

  10. Working at a Different Level? Curriculum Differentiation in Irish Lower Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Emer

    2018-01-01

    Young people in Irish schools are required to choose whether to sit secondary exam subjects at higher or ordinary level. This paper draws on a mixed methods longitudinal study of students in 12 case-study schools to trace the factors influencing take-up of higher level subjects within lower secondary education. School organisation and process are…

  11. Genetic parameters for production and fertility in spring-calving Irish dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk production and selected fertility traits in Irish dairy cattle. Data were derived from 74 seasonal spring-calving dairy herds with a potential cow population of 6,783 in the 1999 calving season. The average 305-day yields (kg)

  12. "Thousands Waiting at Our Gates": Moral Character, Legitimacy and Social Justice in Irish Elite Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how Irish elite schools negotiate change and maintain their legitimacy in times of economic turmoil and rising social inequality. The paper argues that they have not bowed before the demands of democratisation or economic globalisation. Instead they continue to maintain a high level of social closure and control diversity…

  13. Parametric Pedagogy: Integrating Parametric CAD in Irish Post-Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Oliver; Seery, Niall

    2011-01-01

    Technology education in Irish post-primary schools is undergoing significant change. In recent years the syllabi of all technology-related subjects have been revised. A new subject, Design and Communication Graphics, has replaced the traditional Technical Drawing subject. This new subject aims to develop students' spatial awareness and graphical…

  14. The Image of Mathematics Held by Irish Post-Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ciara; Stynes, Martin; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    The image of mathematics held by Irish post-primary students was examined and a model for the image found was constructed. Initially, a definition for "image of mathematics" was adopted with image of mathematics hypothesized as comprising attitudes, beliefs, self-concept, motivation, emotions and past experiences of mathematics. Research…

  15. Public Policy Towards the Sale of State Assets in Troubled Times: Lessons from the Irish Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorecki, P. K.; Lyons, S.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The sale of state assets, both tangible (e.g. commercial firms) and intangible (e.g. radio spectrum), can address budgetary shortfalls. However, drawing on the Irish experience to inform this important issue, it becomes clear that much more is involved in selling state assets in electricity, gas,

  16. The Irish 'no' to the Lisbon Treaty: Ireland's voice and Europe's exit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "no" of the Irish electorate against the Treaty of Lisbon has hit the European elite hard. However, it was not directed against support for the EU as such but rather against a deliberately unintelligible Treaty. Lack of knowledge seems to have played a pivotal role in the voting behaviour, as

  17. Genome Analyses of an Aggressive and Invasive Lineage of the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, D.E.L.; Cano, L.M.; Raffaele, S.; Bain, R.A.; Cooke, L.R.; Etherington, G.J.; Deahl, K.L.; Farrer, R.A.; Gilroy, E.M.; Goss, E.M.; Grünwald, N.J.; Hein, I.; Maclean, D.; McNicol, J.W.; Randall, E.; Oliva, R.F.; Pel, M.; Shaw, D.S.; Squires, J.N.; Taylor, M.C.; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A.; Birch, P.R.J.; Lees, A.K.; Kamoun, S.

    2012-01-01

    Pest and pathogen losses jeopardise global food security and ever since the 19th century Irish famine, potato late blight has exemplified this threat. The causal oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, undergoes major population shifts in agricultural systems via the successive emergence and

  18. Ethical Issues in Internet Research: International Good Practice and Irish Research Ethics Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Heike

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the main research ethical concerns that arise in internet research and reviews existing research ethical guidance in the Irish context in relation to its application to internet research. The chapter begins with a brief outline of high profile cases in the early history of the internet that highlighted specific emerging…

  19. A Time Profile of Mathematics in a "Gap Year" in Irish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Meara, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    The Irish education system is unique in an international context as it sets aside a full school year for a transition and youth development programme in the middle of secondary education. The Transition Year (TY) programme is an optional, full time programme offered in the majority of secondary schools. Each school designs its own programme,…

  20. Minority Languages and Performative Genres: The Case of Irish Language Stand-Up Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the potential for language change from the bottom-up given the new domains in which minority languages are present as a result of the process of language mobility. Drawing on a theoretical notion of sociolinguistic scales, this article aims to discuss how the position of the Irish language has been reconfigured. From this…