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  1. T helper cell subsets specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis.

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    Hannah K Bayes

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the magnitude of antigen-specific memory T helper cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy humans and patients with cystic fibrosis.Peripheral blood human memory CD4(+ T cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells that had been infected with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The T helper response was determined by measuring proliferation, immunoassay of cytokine output, and immunostaining of intracellular cytokines.Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had robust antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa that not only contained a Th1 and Th17 component but also Th22 cells. In contrast to previous descriptions of human Th22 cells, these Pseudomonal-specific Th22 cells lacked the skin homing markers CCR4 or CCR10, although were CCR6(+. Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had similar levels of Th22 cells, but the patient group had significantly fewer Th17 cells in peripheral blood.Th22 cells specific to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are induced in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Along with Th17 cells, they may play an important role in the pulmonary response to this microbe in patients with cystic fibrosis and other conditions.

  2. Comparison of Ecological Micro-Expression Recognition in Patients with Depression and Healthy Individuals

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    Chuanlin Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of ordinary facial expressions in patients with depression, and have not investigated the processing characteristics of ecological micro-expressions (MEs, i.e., MEs that presented in different background expressions in these patients. Based on this, adopting the ecological MEs recognition paradigm, this study aimed to comparatively evaluate facial ME recognition in depressed and healthy individuals. The findings of the study are as follows: (1 background expression: the accuracy (ACC in the neutral background condition tended to be higher than that in the fear background condition, and the reaction time (RT in the neutral background condition was significantly longer than that in other backgrounds. The type of ME and its interaction with the type of background expression could affect participants’ ecological MEs recognition ACC and speed. Depression type: there was no significant difference between the ecological MEs recognition ACC of patients with depression and healthy individuals, but the patients’ RT was significantly longer than that of healthy individuals; and (2 patients with depression judged happy MEs that were presented against different backgrounds as neutral and judged neutral MEs that were presented against sad backgrounds as sad. The present study suggested the following: (1 ecological MEs recognition was influenced by background expressions. The ACC of happy MEs was the highest, of neutral ME moderate and of sadness and fear the lowest. The response to the happy MEs was significantly shorter than that of identifying other MEs. It is necessary to conduct research on ecological MEs recognition; (2 the speed of patients with depression in identifying ecological MEs was slower than of healthy individuals; indicating that the patients’ cognitive function was impaired; and (3 the patients with depression showed negative bias in the ecological MEs recognition task, reflecting

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Periodontal Status of Chronic Renal Failure Patients and Systemically Healthy Individuals.

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    Gupta, Radhika; Kumar, Uttam; Mallapragada, Siddharth; Agarwal, Pallavi

    2018-03-01

    Periodontitis, a chronic infectious disease, affects most of the population at one time or the other and its expression is a combination of hosts, microbial agents, and environmental factors. Extensive literature exists for the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Only a few studies performed in a limited number of patients have reported peri-odontal health status in chronic renal failure patients. Hence, the aim of the present study is to assess and compare the periodontal status of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis, predialysis with systemically healthy individuals. A total of 90 patients were divided into three groups. Group I: 30 renal dialysis patients. Group II: 30 predialysis patients. Control group comprised 30 systemically healthy patients who formed group III. Periodontal examination was carried out using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. The results of the study showed that the periodontal status of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis (dialysis group) and patients with chronic renal failure not undergoing renal dialysis (predialysis) when compared with systemically healthy subjects showed significantly higher mean scores of OHI-S, PI, and clinical attachment loss. Thus, patients with chronic renal failure showed poor oral hygiene and higher prevalence of periodontal disease. The dental community's awareness of implications of poor health within chronic renal failure patients should be elevated.

  4. Elastins from patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome and healthy individuals differ on the molecular level

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    Heinz, Andrea; Huertas, Angela C Mora; Schräder, Christoph U

    2016-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a congenital disorder, which involves the heterozygous deletion of the elastin gene and other genes on chromosome 7. Clinical symptoms that are associated with hemizygosity of the essential extracellular matrix protein elastin include premature aging of the skin...... and supravalvular aortic stenosis. However, only little is known about the molecular basis of structural abnormalities in the connective tissue of WBS patients. Therefore, for the first time this study aimed to systematically characterize and compare the structure and amount of elastin present in skin and aortic...... tissue from WBS patients and healthy individuals. Elastin fibers were isolated from tissue biopsies, and it was found that skin of WBS patients contains significantly less elastin compared to skin of healthy individuals. Scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometric measurements combined...

  5. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

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    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  6. The effects of peroral glycerol on plasma osmolarity in diabetic patients and healthy individuals

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    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Sander, Birgit; la Cour, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol is used as a peroral treatment of increased intraocular and intracranial pressure due to its osmotic effect despite the potential increase in blood pressure and blood glucose. We examined the effects of peroral glycerol in diabetic patients and healthy individuals on blood pressure......, capillary glucose, and plasma osmolarity. On two separate days, 15 diabetic patients ingested glycerol in doses of 855 and 1710 mg/kg body weight in a randomised, unmasked sequence. Five healthy individuals ingested a dose of 1710 mg/kg body weight. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), capillary glucose (CG......, non-significant increase occurred in blood pressure. Maximal DeltaCG was approximately 1 mM irrespective of the dose and presence of diabetes (p > 0.1). The pOSM response was analysed with a kinetic model and found independent of the presence of diabetes (p = 0.6). The maximal fitted DeltapOSM was 12...

  7. Anxiety Sensitivity and Metacognition in Iranian Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Healthy Individuals

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    Fatemeh Zargar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosomatic disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders in which psychological factors play an important role in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of medical conditions. The most important category of psychosomatic disorders is functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. The present study aimed to compare anxiety sensitivity (AS and metacognitions between patients with FGID and healthy individuals in Isfahan, Iran.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 50 patients (13 men and 37 women with FGID who were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist and had the study inclusion criteria and 50 matched healthy individuals (15 men and 35 women. The subjects were randomly selected. The data collection tools consisted of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index‎-Revised (ASI-R and Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire (MCQ-30. The data were analyzed in SPSS software.Results: The results showed that there were significant differences in all subscales of ASI-R and MCQ-30, except the fear of publicly observable symptoms subscale in the ASI-R and negative beliefs about the uncontrollability of thoughts and corresponding danger (UD subscale in MCQ-30 between patients with FGID and healthy individuals.Conclusion: The results showed that AS and metacognitive beliefs about worry play a crucial role in psychosomatic disorders such as FGID. Anxiety has appeared as the common component between FGID. Hence, the management of anxiety in FGID by clinicians in the treatment of these disorders is recommended.

  8. Serum total antioxidant status in cardiovascular patients and in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.

    2010-01-01

    The previous studies suggest that low serum total antioxidant status (TAS) might be related to oxidative stress. To further examine the TAS, we investigated its relation in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Total 39 samples of males and females were collected; age ranged from 18 to 86 years and divided them into two groups. Group I included 30 samples of cardiovascular patients; group 2 included 9 healthy individuals as control group. In group I, patients suffering from Myocardial infarction (Ml) showed low TAS values compared to the patients suffering from angina. The rest of the patients in group I showed TAS value within the reference range (1.3- 1.77 mmoVL). The present study concluded that the TAS value in MI patients is lower than patients suffering from angina pectoris, further it was also concluded that aging and smoking both leads to the decrease in the level of T AS. (author)

  9. Human T-cell responses to Aspergillus fumigatus : In healthy individuals and patients with Aspergillus-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolink, H.

    2017-01-01

    The T-cell mediated immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus was studied in healthy individuals and in several patient groups. In peripheral blood of healthy individuals low frequencies of Aspergillus-specific CD4+ T-cells with a Thelper 1 profile were present. In patients with invasive

  10. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation.

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    Chandrasekhar Pammi, V S; Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh, Purushothaman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Rappai Mary, Paramban; Seema, Satish; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-04-01

    Neuroeconomics employs neuroscience techniques to explain decision-making behaviours. Prospect theory, a prominent model of decision-making, features a value function with parameters for risk and loss aversion. Recent work with normal participants identified activation related to loss aversion in brain regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the brain network for loss aversion in pathologies such as depression has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study is to employ the value function from prospect theory to examine behavioural and neural manifestations of loss aversion in depressed and healthy individuals to identify the neurobiological markers of loss aversion in economic behaviour. We acquired behavioural data and fMRI scans while healthy controls and patients with depression performed an economic decision-making task. Behavioural loss aversion was higher in patients with depression than in healthy controls. fMRI results revealed that the two groups shared a brain network for value function including right ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right amygdala. However, the neural loss aversion results revealed greater activations in the right dorsal striatum and the right anterior insula for controls compared with patients with depression, and higher activations in the midbrain region ventral tegmental area for patients with depression compared with controls. These results suggest that while the brain network for loss aversion is shared between depressed and healthy individuals, some differences exist with respect to differential activation of additional areas. Our findings are relevant to identifying neurobiological markers for altered decision-making in the depressed. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Evaluation of insulin resistance in idiopathic hirsutism compared with polycystic ovary syndrome patients and healthy individuals.

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    Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh; Kiafar, Bita; Barazandeh Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Hirsutism is defined as the excessive male-pattern growth of hair in women. Hirsutism is often idiopathic or the consequence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is common in PCOS (especially in obese patients) but the association between insulin resistance and idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of insulin resistance in IH, compared with healthy individuals and patients with PCOS. The study included three groups, patients with idiopathic hirsutism, PCOS and healthy women. Each group included 30 non-obese women. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin level and insulin resistance (estimated by the homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IRIR]) were compared in the three groups. There was a significant difference between the age of the women with IH compared with two other groups. There were no significant difference in levels of serum insulin (P = 0.49, HOMA-IR (P = 0.47) and prevalence of insulin resistance (P = 0.07) in the three groups. The age-adjusted prevalence of insulin resistance was similar in the three groups. Insulin resistance was no more frequent in IH patients than in healthy control groups. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. Comparison of Serum Leptin Levels in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with Acute Pneumonia Patients and Healthy Individuals

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    M. Naderi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Leptin is one of the most important fat-derived hormones. Several studies have shown that serum leptin levels in systemic inflammatory diseases are reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum leptin levels in three groups: patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, patients with non-pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia and normal people. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in 2010, 40 patients with active pulmonary TB (case group and 40 patients with non-pulmonary infections (positive control group admitted to Boo-Ali hospital in Zahedan and 40 healthy subjects (negative control group were selected using easy access and serum leptin levels were evaluated by ELISA. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software and one-way ANOVA. Findings: The mean of serum leptin levels in patients with non-pulmonary infections (p=0.030 and in patients with active pulmonary TB (p=0.004 were significantly lower than normal group, but the mean of serum leptin levels in patients with active pulmonary TB and patients with non-pulmonary infections were not significantly different (p=0.555. Conclusion: Serum leptin levels are lower in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and in patients with non-pulmonary infections than in normal people, but there is no difference between patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and patients with non-pulmonary infections. Therefore, serum leptin levels are not an appropriate marker for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculosis from pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia.

  13. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

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    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  14. Comparison of L-selectin blood level and gene polymorphism in tuberculosis patients with healthy individuals.

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    Eini, Peyman; Shirvani, Maria; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh

    2018-02-12

    The inflammatory response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli influences tuberculosis (TB) progression. In this study, we aimed to identify the Phe206Leu polymorphism and serum L-selectin level in TB patients, compared to healthy individuals. Ninety patients with a diagnosis of TB and 90 healthy controls were selected in this study. The serum L-selectin level was determined, using ELISA. L-selectin polymorphism was also evaluated using PCR. For data analysis, SPSS was used at a significance level of 0.05. According to the findings, the mean±SD age of the participants was 57.5 ± 18.4 and 56.5 ± 17.5 years in the TB and healthy groups, respectively. The TB group showed a significantly higher serum L-selectin level (1721.1 ± 330.9) versus the healthy controls (1624 ± 279). The L-selectin Phe allele frequencies were higher than the Leu allele frequencies in the main population, whereas the patients and controls were not significantly different. Eight (0.04%) subjects had Leu/Leu genotypes, 84 (46.6%) carried Phe/Leu genotypes, and 88 (48.8%) had Phe/Phe genotypes. Our results showed that the groups were not significantly different regarding L-selectin genotypes. TB patients had a significantly higher serum L-selectin level, compared to the controls. Based on the findings, the incidence of TB and L-selectin polymorphism in the Phe206Leu gene had no significant association. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gut flora profiling and fecal metabolite composition of colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals.

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    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Jianping; Rao, Benqiang; Deng, Li

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and its morbidity and mortality rates are increasing due to alterations to human lifestyle and dietary habits. The relationship between human gut flora and colorectal cancer has attracted increasing attention. In the present study, a metabolic fingerprinting technique that combined pyrosequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to compare the differences in gut flora profiling and fecal metabolites between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the abundance and diversity of gut flora between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer (P>0.05) and the dominant bacterial phyla present in the gut of both groups included Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia . At the bacterial strain/genus level, significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of 18 species of bacteria (Pflora profiling and metabolite composition. These findings suggest that gut flora disorder results in the alteration of bacterial metabolism, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The results of the present study are useful as a foundation for further studies to elucidate a potential colorectal cancer diagnostic index and therapeutic targets.

  16. Transport of mucoid mucus in healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis

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    J. Lima Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize and compare the in vitro transport properties of respiratory mucoid secretion in individuals with no lung disease and in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchiectasis. Methodology: Samples of mucus were collected from 21 volunteers presenting no lung disease who had undergone surgery, from 10 patients presenting chronic COPD, and from 16 patients with bronchiectasis. Mucociliary transport (MCT, transport by cough (SCM, and contact angle (CAM were evaluated. Results: MCT was found to be greater in healthy individuals (1.0 ± 0.19 than in COPD (0.91 ± 0.17 and bronchiectasis (0.76 ± 0.23 patients (p < 0.05, whereas SCM was greater in COPD patients (16.31 ± 7.35 cm than in patients with bronchiectasis (12.16 ± 6.64 cm and healthy individuals (10.50 ± 25.8 cm (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding CAM. Conclusion: Mucus from healthy individuals allows better mucociliary transport compared to that from patients with lung diseases. However, the mucus from COPD patients allows a better transport by coughing, demonstrating that these individuals have adapted to a defence mechanism compared to patients with bronchiectasis, who have impairment in their ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar e comparar as propriedades de transporte in vitro da secreção respiratória de aspeto mucoide (M de indivíduos sem doença respiratória e de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC e bronquiectasias estáveis. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 21 amostras de indivíduos sem doença pulmonar submetidos a processos cirúrgicos, 10 amostras de pacientes com DPOC e 16 amostras de pacientes com bronquiectasias quanto ao transporte mucociliar (TMC, deslocamento na máquina simuladora de tosse (MST e ângulo de contacto (AC. Resultados: Maior TMC das amostras de indivíduos sem doença respiratória (1,0

  17. Epitope recognition patterns of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis*

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    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Gardas, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) are markers of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but naturally occurring TPOAb are also detectable in healthy, euthyroid individuals. In AITD, circulating TPOAb react mainly with two immunodominant regions (IDR), IDR...

  18. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: a similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

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    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2015-02-28

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological and molecular features of oral fluid-derived exosomes: oral cancer patients versus healthy individuals.

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    Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Salo, Tuula; Vered, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer (OC) patients are at high risk to develop recurrent disease or secondary primary cancers with no available biomarkers to detect these events until a visible lesion is readily present and diagnosed by biopsy. Exosomes secreted by cancer cells are involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. We aimed to determine morphological and molecular differences between oral fluid (OF)-derived exosomes of OC patients and those isolated from healthy individuals (HI). OF from OC patients (n = 36) and HI (n = 25) was initially assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Following ultracentrifugation, exosomal pellets of OC patients and HI were morphologically examined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting (WB) were used to analyze the expression of exosomal markers--CD9, CD81 and CD63. NTA showed that OC samples of OF had a significantly higher concentration of nanoparticles/ml (p = 0.01) and modal nanoparticle size (p = 0.002) compared to HI. The difference in size was structurally highlighted by AFM three-dimensional images applied on exosomal pellets. ELISA and WB showed differential expression of exosomal markers in OC exosomes compared to HI: lower expression of CD81 and CD9 in contrast to a higher expression of CD63 (~53 kDa). OF-derived exosomes from OC patients differ both morphologically and molecularly from exosomes present in HI. This study is a baseline that provides a starting point for finding exosomal biomarkers for early detection of malignant changes in high-risk patients without overt clinical signs/lesions.

  20. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

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    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  1. Sequence comparison of six human microRNAs genes between tuberculosis patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amila, A; Acosta, A; Sarmiento, M E; Suraiya, Siti; Zafarina, Z; Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in diseases development. Therefore, human miRNAs may be able to inhibit the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the human host by targeting critical genes of the pathogen. Mutations within miRNAs can alter their target selection, thereby preventing them from inhibiting Mtb genes, thus increasing host susceptibility to the disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic association of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with six human miRNAs genes, namely, hsa-miR-370, hsa-miR-520d, hsa-miR-154, hsa-miR-497, hsa-miR-758, and hsa-miR-593, which have been predicted to interact with Mtb genes. The objective of the study was to determine the possible sequence variation of selected miRNA genes that are potentially associated with the inhibition of critical Mtb genes in TB patients. The study did not show differences in the sequences compared with healthy individuals without antecedents of TB. This result could have been influenced by the sample size and the selection of miRNA genes, which need to be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of hypoxia and hyperoxia on exercise performance in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Schneider, Simon R; Bloch, Konrad E

    2017-12-01

    Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange, and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude. In studies performed near sea level in healthy subjects, as well as in patients with PH, maximal performance during progressive ramp exercise and endurance of submaximal constant-load exercise were substantially enhanced by breathing oxygen-enriched air. Both in healthy individuals and in PH patients, these improvements were mediated by a better arterial, muscular, and cerebral oxygenation, along with a reduced sympathetic excitation, as suggested by the reduced heart rate and alveolar ventilation at submaximal isoloads, and an improved pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, especially in patients with PH. In summary, in healthy individuals and in patients with PH, alterations in the inspiratory Po 2 by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or normobaric hyperoxia reduce or enhance exercise performance, respectively, by modifying oxygen delivery to the muscles and the brain, by effects on cardiovascular and respiratory control, and by alterations in pulmonary gas exchange. The understanding of these physiological mechanisms helps in counselling individuals planning altitude or air travel and prescribing oxygen therapy to patients with PH.

  3. Comparative polymorphism of BAT-26 between healthy individuals and cancer patients and its cancer risk implication for local Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanying; Liu, Li; Sun, Yi; Chen, Jie; Wang, Jianrong; Zhu, Changle; Lai, Rensheng; Xie, Ling

    2016-07-30

    BAT-26 is one of the representative markers for microsatellite instability evaluation and presents different polymorphisms in different ethnic populations. The current knowledge of its comparative polymorphism between healthy individuals and cancer patients in the Chinese population is insufficient. This study aims to analyze germline polymorphic variations of BAT-26 between healthy individuals and cancer patients in Chinese from Jiangsu province and the associated cancer risk implications. The various BAT-26 alleles and their percentages in cervical cells from 500 healthy women were assessed by direct sequencing. Twenty of these samples were also analyzed by fragment analysis. BAT-26 of blood DNA from 24 healthy individuals and 247 cancer patients was analyzed by fragment analysis. Compared with the sequencing results, 122.6-122.9 bp, 123.4-123.8 bp and 124.1-124.8 bp corresponded to the A25, A26 and A27 alleles, respectively. The 524 healthy individuals showed 4.58%, 92.18% and 3.24% of A25, A26 and A27, respectively. The variant alleles A18, A24, A28, A29 and A32 were only found in cancer patients, accounting for 0.81%, 0.40%, 0.40%, 0.40% and 0.40%, respectively; the A25, A26 and A27 alleles in cancer patients accounted for 6.48%, 77.33% and 13.77%. Healthy individuals had a stable BAT-26 profile within the quasimonomorphic variation range (QMVR), but cancer patients harbored variant alleles outside QMVR and showed a trend from quasimonomorph to polymonomorph, suggesting that variant alleles of BAT-26 in germline cells may be regarded as a potential marker of higher cancer risk in the Chinese population from Jiangsu province.

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 and surface glycoproteins in patients with immune thrombocytopenia and healthy individuals.

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    Rubak, Peter; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-06-01

    Immature platelets may contain more platelet enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 than mature platelets. Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have a higher fraction of immature platelets and can therefore be utilized as a biological model for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression. The aims were to develop flow cytometric assays for platelet COX-1 and COX-2 and to investigate the COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression, platelet turnover, and platelet glycoproteins in ITP patients (n = 10) compared with healthy individuals (n = 30). Platelet count and platelet turnover parameters (mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and immature platelet count (IPC)) were measured by flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-5000). Platelet COX-1, COX-2, and the glycoproteins (GP)IIb, IX, Ib, Ia, and IIIa were all analyzed by flow cytometry (Navios) and expressed as median fluorescence intensity. COX analyses were performed in both whole blood and platelet rich plasma (PRP), whereas platelet glycoproteins were analyzed in whole blood only. ITP patients had significantly lower platelet count (55 × 10 9 /L) than healthy individuals (240 × 10 9 /L, p platelet count and IPC (both p-values Platelet COX-1 expression was higher in ITP patients than healthy individuals using whole blood (p COX-1 platelet turnover and COX-1 expression (all p-values platelet turnover and COX-1 and COX-2 expressions (all p-values platelet turnover in ITP patients (all p-values 0.14, rho = 0.11-0.28). In conclusion, ITP patients expressed higher COX-1 and platelet glycoprotein levels than healthy individuals. COX-1 and platelet glycoproteins demonstrated positive correlations with platelet turnover in ITP patients. In healthy individuals, COX-1 and COX-2 expression correlated positively with platelet turnover. PRP was more sensitive compared with whole blood as regards determination of COX. Therefore, PRP is the recommended matrix for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 in

  5. Effects of FR-91 on Immune Cells from Healthy Individuals and from Patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. M. Lombardi

    2009-01-01

    and TNF- was also observed in the NHL group. In conclusion FR-91 seems to affect lymphocyte subpopulations, in vitro cytokine production, as well as mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner in both healthy individuals and NHL patients.

  6. HE4 Tissue Expression and Serum HE4 Levels in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Benign or Malignant Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Nikoline S; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus K

    2014-01-01

    , this review aims to systematically outline published results of HE4 tissue expression and serum HE4 levels in healthy individuals and patients with benign or malignant tumors. Our findings suggest scientific basis for a potential diagnostic ability of HE4 in gynecologic cancer and lung cancer, and further...

  7. Regional glucose metabolism within cortical Brodmann areas in healthy individuals and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hsieh, Pauline; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Platholi, Jimcy; LiCalzi, Elizabeth M; Cartwright, Charles; Hollander, Eric

    2004-01-01

    A new Brodmann area (BA) delineation approach was applied to FDG-PET scans of autistic patients and healthy volunteers (n = 17 in each group) to examine relative glucose metabolism (rGMR) during performance of a verbal memory task. In the frontal lobe, patients had lower rGMR in medial/cingulate regions (BA 32, 24, 25) but not in lateral regions (BA 8-10) compared with healthy controls. Patients had higher rGMR in occipital (BA 19) and parietal regions (BA 39) compared with controls, but there were no group differences in temporal lobe regions. Among controls, better recall and use of the semantic-clustering strategy was associated with greater lateral and medial frontal rGMR, while decreased rGMR in medial-frontal regions was associated with greater perseverative/intrusion errors. Patients failed to show these patterns. Autism patients have dysfunction in some but not all of the key brain regions subserving verbal memory performance, and other regions may be recruited for task performance. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Comparison of Epstein Barr Virus Antibodies And Tcell Cytokines Production in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Individuals

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    Amir Hassan Zarnani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Multiple sclerosis(MS is the most common autoimmune disease of central nervous system with destruction of myelin sheath mediated by auto reactive CD4+ T Lymphocytes. Because of the possible role of Epstein-Barr virus in etiology of MS and T cells immune response, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti-Epstein Barr virus antibodies as a marker of reactivity and production of TH1 and TH2 cytokines in MS patients and healthy individuals.   Methods: Blood samples were taken from 68 MS patients at different stages of diseases and 20 apparently healthy individuals and plasma levels of anti- EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 and viral capsid antigen (VCA antibodies determined and concentrations of IFN- [1] , IL-12 and IL-4 in culture supernatants of PHA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were measured by ELISA.   Results: The mean levels of anti EBNA-1 and VCAantibodies were significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p=0.04, p=0.001 respectively. Concentrations of IFN- [1] , IL-4 & IL-12 were also significantly higher in MS patients than healthy individuals (p=0.001, p=0.005, p=0.002, respectively. Significant correlation was found between anti EBNA-1 and VCAantibodies and IL-12 production (p =0.02, r=0.27& p=0.04, r=0.25, respectively; whereas no significant correlation was found between these antibodies and production of IFN- [1] or IL-4.   Conclusions: Due to elevated level of anti-EBV antibodies and T cell Cytokines in MS patients Rather than healthy individuals, Epstein Barr virus may play role in etiology of MS disease through activation of T cells immune response.

  9. Effects of task structure on category priming in patients with Parkinson's disease and in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory G; Brown, Sandra J; Christenson, Gina; Williams, Rebecca E; Kindermann, Sandra S; Loftis, Christopher; Olsen, Ryan; Siple, Patricia; Shults, Clifford; Gorell, Jay M

    2002-05-01

    Lexical decision tasks have been used to study both shifts of attention and semantic processing in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Whereas other laboratories have reported normal levels of semantic priming among PD patients, our laboratory has reported abnormally large levels. In this study, two experiments were performed to determine the influence of task structure on the extent of semantic priming during lexical decision-making and pronunciation tasks among PD patients and neurologically healthy controls. In Experiment 1, the effect of Prime Dominance (the ratio of category to neutral trials) on lexical decision-making was studied. Although equal numbers of word and nonword trials were presented, half of the PD patients and controls were studied under Category Prime Dominance (category : neutral prime ratio of 2:1) and half were studied under Neutral Prime Dominance (category : neutral prime ratio of 1:2). In Experiment 2, PD and control participants were studied on lexical decision-making and pronunciation tasks where twice as many words as nonword trials were presented, consistent with other studies from our laboratory. In Experiment 1, we found no group differences in the magnitude of priming and no effect of Prime Dominance. Moreover, the findings were similar in pattern and magnitude to results published by Neely (1977). In Experiment 2, we observed larger priming effects among PD patients than among controls, but only on the lexical decision (LD) task. These results support the hypothesis that abnormally large category-priming effects appear in LD studies of PD patients when the number of word trials exceeds the number of nonword trials. Furthermore, increased lexical priming in PD appears to be due to processes operating during the decision-making period that follows presentation of the lexical target.

  10. The oral microbiome of patients with axial spondyloarthritis compared to healthy individuals

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    Jordan E. Bisanz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A loss of mucosal tolerance to the resident microbiome has been postulated in the aetiopathogenesis of spondyloarthritis, thus the purpose of these studies was to investigate microbial communities that colonise the oral cavity of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA and to compare these with microbial profiles of a matched healthy population. Methods. Thirty-nine participants, 17 patients with AxSpA and 22 age and gender-matched disease-free controls were recruited to the study. For patients with AxSpA, disease activity was assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI. All participants underwent a detailed dental examination to assess oral health, including the presence of periodontal disease assessed using probing pocket depth (PPD. Plaque samples were obtained and their bacterial populations were profiled using Ion Torrent sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Results.Patients with AxSpA had active disease (BASDAI 4.1 ± 2.1 [mean ± SD], and a significantly greater prevalence of periodontitis (PPD ≥ 4 mm at ≥4 sites than controls. Bacterial communities did not differ between the two groups with multiple metrics of α and β diversity considered. Analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs and higher levels of taxonomic assignment did not provide strong evidence of any single taxa associated with AxSpA in the subgingival plaque. Discussion. Although 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not identify specific bacterial profiles associated with AxSpA, there remains the potential for the microbiota to exert functional and metabolic influences in the oral cavity which could be involved in the pathogenesis of AxSpA.

  11. Comparison of anxiety and depression in patients with acne vulgaris and healthy individuals

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    Golchai Javad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units, which chiefly involves face and upper part of the trunk. Its prevalence is highest in adolescence, where the individual counters several psychosocial changes. Depression, suicidal thoughts, and low self esteem are reported in the patients with this disease. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare prevalence of anxiety and depression in the patients with acne vulgaris and normal population. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 82 patients with acne vulgaris and 82 persons without acne who referred to a dermatology clinic and a specialized office for skin diseases in Rasht were studied. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire and severity of acne was evaluated by Global Acne Grading System (GAGS. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 14.0 software, independent T-test, multi variate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and chi-square test for comparison the quantitative and ordinal data, respectively; with α=0.05. Results: Prevalence of anxiety and mean of anxiety scores were 68.3% and 9.17 ± 3.52, respectively, in patients group and 39.1% and 7.10 ± 3.07, respectively, in control group in which there was a significant difference (P = 0.001. Prevalence of depression and mean of depression scores were 25.6% and 5.34 ± 3.29, respectively, in patients group and 28.1% and 5.01 ± 3.32, respectively, in control group in which there was no significant difference. Conclusion: According to high prevalence of anxiety in patients with acne vulgaris, assessment of the screening mental status of the patients by simple questionnaire such as HADS is suggested.

  12. Distribution and phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. subtypes isolated from IBD patients and healthy individuals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Abbasi, M R; Naderi, N; Hasani, Z; Mirsamadi, E S; Stensvold, C R; Balaii, H; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H; Zali, M R

    2017-12-01

    Blastocystis is a single-celled intestinal parasite commonly found in humans and a broad range of animals all over the world. In humans, its role in health and disease remains unsettled. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of Blastocystis and Blastocystis subtypes (ST) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and control subjects. A total of 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients, 69 and 2 of whom had ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD), respectively. Moreover, 166 stool samples from healthy subjects were included as control samples. All stool samples were cultivated, and 550-bp fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified from Blastocystis-positive cultures. All PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Blastocystis was observed in 9 (12.67%) and 35 (21.1%) IBD patients and healthy controls, respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between IBD and presence of Blastocystis (P = 0.147). There was a statistically significant correlation between age and Blastocystis colonization in the IBD group (P patients, respectively, while in the healthy control group, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 were found in 14 (40%), 12 (34.28%), and 9 (25.72%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed no variation in the distribution of subtypes nor intra-subtype genetic diversity between samples acquired from IBD patients and healthy controls. This study showed a trend towards a lower prevalence of Blastocystis in IBD patients than in control subjects. ST3 sequences isolated from IBD patients and control individuals did not appear to differ genetically.

  13. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  14. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  15. Comparative assessment of the diets of healthy individuals, subjects with preclinical coronary heart disease and patients with severe heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, D.M.; Eganyan, R.A.; Kovaleva, O.F.; Zhidko, N.I.; Danielov, G.Eh.; Rozhnov, A.V.; Shcherbakova, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    92 males aged 26 to 55 (28 healthy individuals, 45 persons with preclinical coronary heart disease and 19 patients with functional class 1-2 coronary heart disease) were examined to study the peculiarities and dietary patterns of persons with a high physical working capacity and having no typical clinical signs of the disease. All persons were subjected to a complex examination which included questionnarire, myocardial scintigraphy with 201 Tl at a maximum physical loading, echocardiography, coronaroangiography. Certain dietary peculiarities are established in persons with preclinical coronary heart disease

  16. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tertiary Care Hospital, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia species. Our aim was to identify Malassezia species from PV patients and healthy individuals in Punjab. Materials and Methods: Modified Dixon agar was used as isolation culture medium. Identification was based on morphological observation and biochemical evaluation. The biochemical evaluation consisted of culture onto Sabouraud dextrose agar, catalase reaction, Tween assimilation, Cremophor EL assimilation, splitting of esculin and growth at 38 0 C. Results: Out of 58 microscopically diagnosed cases of PV, growth was obtained from 54 (93.10% cases. The most frequently isolated species were M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. furfur which made up 51.79%, 31.42% and 18.51% of the isolated etiological agents respectively. However, the major isolate from the back of healthy individuals was M. sympodialis (47.61%, followed by M.obtusa (19.04%, M. globosa (14.20%, M. furfur (9.52%, M. pachydermatis (4.76% and M. slooffiae (4.76%. Conclusions: M. globosa in its mycelial phase was the main etiological agent, but as normal flora from the back of healthy subjects, it was found in significantly less number (P = 0.01, suggesting that the higher pathogenicity of M. globosa in terms of enzymatic endowment, might be the cause of its predominance in PV lesions.

  17. Dietary sorbitol and mannitol: food content and distinct absorption patterns between healthy individuals and patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C K; Tan, H-L; van Langenberg, D R; Barrett, J S; Rose, R; Liels, K; Gibson, P R; Muir, J G

    2014-04-01

    Sorbitol and mannitol are naturally-occurring polyol isomers. Although poor absorption and induction of gastrointestinal symptoms by sorbitol are known, the properties of mannitol are poorly described. We aimed to expand data on food composition of these polyols, and to compare their absorptive capacities and symptom induction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy individuals. Food samples were analysed for sorbitol and mannitol content. The degree of absorption measured by breath hydrogen production and gastrointestinal symptoms (visual analogue scales) was evaluated in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 21 healthy and 20 IBS subjects after challenges with 10 g of sorbitol, mannitol or glucose. Certain fruits and sugar-free gum contained sorbitol, whereas mannitol content was higher in certain vegetables. Similar proportions of patients with IBS (40%) and healthy subjects (33%) completely absorbed sorbitol, although more so with IBS absorbed mannitol (80% versus 43%; P = 0.02). Breath hydrogen production was similar in both groups after lactulose but was reduced in patients with IBS after both polyols. No difference in mean (SEM) hydrogen production was found in healthy controls after sorbitol [area-under-the-curve: 2766 (591) ppm 4 h(-1) ] or mannitol [2062 (468) ppm 4 h(-1) ] but, in patients with IBS, this was greater after sorbitol [1136 (204) ppm 4 h(-1) ] than mannitol [404 (154) ppm 4 h(-1) ; P = 0.002]. Overall gastrointestinal symptoms increased significantly after both polyols in patients with IBS only, although they were independent of malabsorption of either of the polyols. Increased and discordant absorption of mannitol and sorbitol occurs in patients with IBS compared to that in healthy controls. Polyols induced gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS independently of their absorptive patterns, suggesting that the dietary restriction of polyols may be efficacious. © 2013 The

  18. Comparison of Postural Stubility and Auditory Short- Term Memory Taks Interference between Patients with Functional Ankle Instability and Healthy Individuals

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    Maryam Hayati

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With increased recognition of the importance of conscious process and cognition activities in the stability and regulation of posture and also in line of probable adaptation in central nervous system in patients with functional ankle instability, this study was aimed to assess interference patterns between short–term memory task and postural stability tasks in functional ankle instability patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Materials & Methods: In this cross–sectional and case–control study, with dual–task paradigm fifteen functional ankle instability patients whom were selected simply and conveniently and fifteen healthy persons whom were matched with patients as control group were assessed and compared. Six steps of tests were performed for every case with two situation of balance Biodex system instability and three situation of auditory short–term memory task. Data were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA. Results: Finding showed that there was significant interference between postural task and cognitive task in both groups (P<0.05 , but there was no significant difference between interferences of two groups. Conclusion: Present study, certificated disruption in information processing in a peripheral musculoskeletal injury such as functional ankle instability. Application of training programs in order to facilitate central information processing in balance rehabilitation process of this patients and improved dual–task paradigms with different degrees of cognitive and postural tasks seems to be effective.

  19. The comparison of Selective Attention Deficit in Dual Task Performance in Elderly Alzheimer Patients and Healthy Elderly Individuals

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    A. m. Azadian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare selective attention deficit in elderly Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly individuals using the dual task. Therefore, 23 subjects (11 females and 12 males age 62 to 81 years; 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 10 healthy elderly subjects (EHI with normal cognitive function participated in this study. people with Alzheimer's disease. healthy people was selected through some neurologist identified Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ. After obtaining the average number of correct counting of months of the year in both simple and difficult cognitive task the overall error (E or Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE, and variable error (VE were calculated for the tracking task. Then each person performed 10 tasks simultaneously (under Dual-task in both simple and difficult mode. Analysis of variance in cognitive tasks showed that there was a significant interaction between task difficulty and risk of AD (p0.05. In other words, at dual conditions of tracking task, accuracy and consistency of both groups was equally reduced, which was most prominent in difficult conditions. This decrease indicates increased interference at response level due to defects in the mechanisms of selective attention in dual cognitive and tracking tasks and both groups.

  20. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

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    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  1. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Fabiane L F Z; Nitsch, Taís M; Vilela, Maria Marluce S; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C

    2015-01-01

    To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with healthy children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values<0.05. Serum albumin levels were higher (p<0.0001) in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p<0.0001). For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p=0.002) only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p<0.0001) in AML patients. It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

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    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were higher (p < 0.0001 in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p < 0.0001. For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p = 0.002 only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p < 0.0001 in AML patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  3. Distribution of Curcumin and THC in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated from Healthy Individuals and Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Gordon T; Licollari, Albert; Tan, Aimin; Greil, Richard; Pleyer, Lisa; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammad; Sordillo, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim: Curcumin is being widely investigated for its anticancer properties and studies in the literature suggest that curcumin distributes to a higher degree in tumor versus non-tumor cells. In the current study, we report on investigation of the distribution of curcumin and metabolism to THC in PBMC from healthy individuals and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients following exposure to Lipocurc™ (liposomal curcumin). Materials and Methods: The time and temperature-dependent distribution of liposomal curcumin and metabolism to tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) were measured in vitro in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy individuals, PBMC HI (cryopreserved and freshly isolated PBMC) and CLL patients (cryopreserved PBMC) with lymphocyte counts ranging from 17-58×10 6 cells/ml (PBMC CLL,Grp 1 ) and >150×10 6 cells/ml (PBMC CLL,Grp 2 ). PBMC were incubated in plasma protein supplemented media with Lipocurc™ for 2-16 min at 37°C and 4°C and the cell and medium levels of curcumin determined by LC-MS/MS. Results: PBMC from CLL patients displayed a 2.2-2.6-fold higher distribution of curcumin compared to PBMC HI Curcumin distribution into PBMCCLL, Grp 1/Grp 2 ranged from 384.75 - 574.50 ng/g w.w. of cell pellet and was greater compared to PBMC HI that ranged from 122.27-220.59 ng/g w.w. of cell pellet following incubation for up to 15-16 min at 37°C. The distribution of curcumin into PBMC CLL,Grp 2 was time-dependent in comparison to PBMC HI which did not display a time-dependence and there was no temperature-dependence for curcumin distribution in either cell type. Curcumin was metabolized to THC in PBMC. The metabolism of curcumin to THC was not markedly different between PBMC HI (range=23.94-42.04 ng/g w.w. cell pellet) and PBMC CLL,Grp 1/Grp 2 (range=23.08-48.22 ng/g. w.w. cell pellet). However, a significantly greater time and temperature-dependence was noted for THC in PBMC CLL,Grp 2 compared to PBMC HI Conclusion

  4. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieten, R W; Goorhuis, A; Jonker, E F F; de Bree, G J; de Visser, A W; van Genderen, P J J; Remmerswaal, E B M; Ten Berge, I J M; Visser, L G; Grobusch, M P; van Leeuwen, E M M

    2016-06-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen patients using different immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy individuals vaccinated 0-22 years ago were included. The serological response was measured using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses were measured following proliferation and re-stimulation with YFV peptide pools. Phenotypic characteristics and cytokine responses of CD8(+) T-cells were determined using class I tetramers. The geometric mean titre of neutralizing antibodies was not different between the groups (p = 0.77). The presence of YFV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell did not differ between patients and healthy individuals (15/15, 100.0% vs. 29/30, 96.7%, p = 0.475). Time since vaccination correlated negatively with the number of YFV-specific CD8(+) T-cells (r = -0.66, p = 0.0045). Percentages of early-differentiated memory cells increased (r = 0.67, p = 0.017) over time. These results imply that YF vaccination is effective despite certain immunosuppressive drug regimens. An early-differentiated memory-like phenotype persisted, which is associated with effective expansion upon re-encounter with antigen, suggesting a potent memory T-cell pool remains. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The comparison of mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiography between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeintaghavi, Amir; Hosseinizarch, Hossein; Tabassi, Sara Mohammadzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are two separate diseases with different origins and manifestations. It is believed that these diseases linked together, because they both lead to bone damage, some risk factors are similar, they both have the highest prevalence in middle-aged and older women. Some studies showed that the use of panoramic radiography and special indices could be reliable tools for osteoporosis screening. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and jaw osteoporotic indices. Eighty-two patients with chronic periodontitis and 80 healthy individuals were selected, they had been referred to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic to take a panoramic radiograph. Then panoramic indicators; including the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), and panoramic mandible index (PMI) in both groups were measured, recorded and analyzed. The mean age of investigated individuals was 39/8 ± 9/33. 58.6% of participants were females and 41.4% were males. MI and PMI levels in the periodontal group were more than the periodontally healthy group, but the differences between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.808 and p = 0.102 respectively). The MCI level was significantly different between two groups (p = 0.028). The results of this study showed that there is significant relationship between MCI in panoramic radiography and chronic periodontitis. It is suggested to perform more studies to confrm if this index could be used for screening and indicating of bone status in high risk individuals. This study did not show a strong evidence of a relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis. Since panoramic radiographs are routinely used for screening in dental practice, any association between radiomorphometric indices of mandible in periodontitis patients might be useful in prediction of osteoporosis in patients referring to dental clinics.

  6. Tear Film Break-Up Time: Comparison between Patients using Psychiatric Drugs and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Dibajnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular dryness is a well-recognized adverse side effect of many medications. The purpose of this study was to compare tear film stability between psychiatric patients that use lithium carbonate or carbamazepine and normal cases. Materials and Methods: Tear film break up time test was performed in three groups, 30 patients using lithium carbonate, 30 patients using carbamazepine and 30 normal cases. Values of the TBUTs were compared among groups by the independent t-test. Results: Differences between both of patients and control groups were significant (p<0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that these drugs contribute to decrease of tear film break up time.

  7. Age Differences in Decoding Pain from the Facial Expression of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Hofer, Wiebke; Kunz, Miriam

    Objective. Patients with dementia, whose ability to provide self-report of pain is often impaired, are in crucial need of observers who can detect the patients' pain-indicative behaviors appropriately, to initiate treatment. The facial display of pain promises to be especially informative for that

  8. Highly Specific Detection of Myostatin Prodomain by an Immunoradiometric Sandwich Assay in Serum of Healthy Individuals and Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Christian; Gottlieb, Jens; Vogel, Arndt; Schmidt, Sebastian; Brandes, Gudrun; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker. Methods We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Results The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25th-75th percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25th-75th percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Conclusions We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly

  9. Salivary Gluten Degradation and Oral Microbial Profiles in Healthy Individuals and Celiac Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, N.; Faller, L.; Leffler, D.A.; Kelly, C.P.; Hansen, J.; Bosch, J.A.; Wei, G.; Paster, B.J.; Schuppan, D.; Helmerhorst, E.J.

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after the colon. We hypothesized that enzymes produced by oral bacteria may be involved

  10. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  11. Comparison of Dietary Habits and Serum Nitrate Levels in Patients with Esophageal Cancer and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alipanah_Moghadam

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Consumption of fast foods, hot tea and saturated fats may be associated with esophageal cancer. Serum nitrate levels were lower in patients than control group, probably indicating the need for further research in this field.

  12. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). Objective: To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. Methods: The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. Results: In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients.

  14. Smoking reduces circulating CD26hi CD161hi MAIT cells in healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Börnsen, Lars; Romme Christensen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Upon chronic cigarette smoke exposure, inhaled antigens and irritants cause altered lung immune homeostasis. Circulating immune cells are affected, and smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing various disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was conducted......-induced proliferation and cytokine secretion in smokers and nonsmokers in a cohort of 100 healthy individuals (HI). In addition, we analyzed immune cell subsets associated with smoking in 2 independent cohorts of patients with MS. In HI smokers compared with nonsmokers, we found increased blood cell counts...... to determine the impact of smoking on circulating immune cell subsets. Furthermore, we determined whether any smoking-associated changes were related to MS. With the use of flow cytometry, CFSE assays, and ELISpot assays, we analyzed circulating immune cell phenotypes and quantified antigen...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of human calcitonin in serum and tissue from healthy individuals and patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautvik, K.M.; Normann, T.; Teig, V.; Wille, S.Oe.; Brennhovd, I.O.; Christensen, I.

    1976-01-01

    A specific radioimmunological method for measurement of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human serum and tissue is described. Of healthy individuals of both sexes, 85 % had measurable iCT in serum (mean, 0.23 ng/ml). Of 29 patients who had received treatment for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), 19 had increased serum iCT (0-60 ng/ml to205 ng/ml). Elevated serum iCT was also found preoperatively in 2 MCT patients. Eleven of the patients with abnormal elevations of serum iCT were alive 4 to 13 years after the operation. Concentration of iCT in extracts from MCT varied from 0.5 to 540 ng/ml wet weight. The diagnostic value of this method and its importance for pre- and post-operative evaluation of these patients are improved by the use of selective venous catheterization in basal state and during stimulation of CT secretion. (Auth.)

  16. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  17. CD45RC isoform expression identifies functionally distinct T cell subsets differentially distributed between healthy individuals and AAV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available In animal models of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, the proportion of CD45RC T cell subsets is important for disease susceptibility. Their human counterparts are, however, functionally ill defined. In this report, we studied their distribution in healthy controls (HC, AAV patients and in Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE patients as disease controls. We showed that CD45RC expression level on human CD4 and CD8 T cells identifies subsets that are highly variable among individuals. Interestingly, AAV patients exhibit an increased proportion of CD45RC(low CD4 T cells as compared to HC and SLE patients. This increase is stable over time and independent of AAV subtype, ANCA specificity, disease duration, or number of relapses. We also analyzed the cytokine profile of purified CD4 and CD8 CD45RC T cell subsets from HC, after stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs. The CD45RC subsets exhibit different cytokine profiles. Type-1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were produced by all CD45RC T cell subsets, while the production of IL-17, type-2 (IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory (IL-10 cytokines was restricted to the CD45RC(low subset. In conclusion, we have shown that CD45RC expression divides human T cells in functionally distinct subsets that are imbalanced in AAV. Since this imbalance is stable over time and independent of several disease parameters, we hypothesize that this is a pre-existing immune abnormality involved in the etiology of AAV.

  18. Foxp3+ Treg expanded from patients with established diabetes reduce Helios expression while retaining normal function compared to healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiting Du

    Full Text Available Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg play a crucial role in regulating immune tolerance. The use of Treg to restore immune tolerance is considered an attractive novel approach to inhibit autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes (T1D, and to prevent rejection of organ transplants. In view of the goal of developing autologous Treg-based cell therapy for patients with long-term (>15 years T1D, it will be necessary to expand a sufficient amount of functional Treg in vitro in order to study and compare Treg from T1D patients and healthy subjects. Our results have demonstrated that there is a comparable frequency of Treg in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of patients with long-term T1D relative to those in healthy subjects; however, Th1 cells, but not Th17 cells, were increased in the T1D patients. Further, more Treg in PBLs from T1D patients than from healthy subjects expressed the CD45RO(+ memory cell phenotype, suggesting they were antigen-experienced cells. After isolation, Treg from both T1D patients and healthy subjects were successfully expanded with high purity. Although there was no difference in Helios expression on Treg in PBLs, in vitro expansion led to fewer Helios-expressing Treg from T1D patients than healthy subjects. While more Th1-like Treg expressing IFN-γ or TNF-α were found in the PBLs of T1D patients than healthy controls, there was no such difference in the expanded Treg. Importantly, expanded Treg from both subject groups were able to suppress autologous or allogeneic CD8(+ effector T cells equally well. Our findings demonstrate that a large number of ex vivo expanded functional Treg can be obtained from long-term T1D patients, although fewer expanded Treg expressed a high level of Helios. Thus, based on the positive outcomes, these potent expanded Treg from diabetic human patients may be useful in treating T1D or preventing islet graft rejection.

  19. Genetic burden of MS risk variants distinguish patients from healthy individuals but are not associated with disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Petersen, Eva Rosa; Magyari, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    Weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was analysed for association with disease activity in more than 500 MS patients before and during interferon-beta treatment. The wGRS was higher in MS patients than in healthy controls when analysing eight HLA - and 109 non-HLA MS risk gene variants....... No significant associations were observed between number of relapses prior to or during treatment with interferon-beta, both with and without HLA risk alleles included in the wGRS. In conclusion, among Danes the wGRS was higher in MS patients than controls but was not associated with the overall disease activity...

  20. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati Hojjat

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which caused by a group of yeasts formerly named pityrosporium. The taxonomy of these lipophilic yeasts has recently been modified and includes seven species referred as Malassezia. The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from pityriasis versicolor lesions and those isolated from healthy skins. Methods Differentiation of all malassezia species performed using morphological features and physiological test including catalase reaction, Tween assimilation test and splitting of esculin. Results In pityriasis versicolor lesions, the most frequently isolated species was M. globosa (53.3%, followed by M. furfur (25.3%, M. sympodialis(9.3%, M. obtusa (8.1% and M. slooffiae (4.0%. The most frequently isolated species in the skin of healthy individuals were M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. sloofiae and M. restricta which respectively made up 41.7%, 25.0%, 23.3%, 6.7% and 3.3% of the isolated species. Conclusions According to our data, M. globosa was the most prevalent species in the skin of healthy individuals which recovered only in the yeast form. However, the Mycelial form of M. globosa was isolated as the dominant species from pityriasis versicolor lesions. Therefore, the role of predisposing factors in the conversion of this yeast to mycelium and its subsequent involvement in pityriasis versicolor pathogenicity should be considered.

  1. DNA damage and repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy individuals and cancer patients: a pilot study on the implications in the clinical response to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Silvina Beatriz; Vargas-Roig, Laura M; Drago, Gisela; Ibarra, Jorge; Ciocca, Daniel R

    2006-07-28

    Drug resistance is considered the main impediment to successful cancer chemotherapy. The quest for a method useful to predict individual responses to chemotherapy prior to treatment is highly desired. This study was designed to determine the individual influences of doxorubicin and cisplatin on the degree of DNA damage, DNA repair and hMSH2 and the hMLH1 protein expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and their correlations with the clinical response. PBL were obtained from 25 cancer patients (pre- and post-chemotherapy) and from 10 healthy persons, cultured and exposed to doxorubicin or cisplatin. Cells were collected at T0 (immediately after drug treatment) and 24h after damage (T24). The alkaline comet assay was employed to assess the DNA damage and repair function, and immunocytochemistry to study hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression. Clinical response was evaluated after three cycles of chemotherapy. Pre-chemotherapy PBL from cancer patients showed significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage than healthy persons, with appreciable interindividual variations between them. The in vivo administration of antineoplasic drugs was accompanied by significant DNA damage, and an increased in the number of apoptotic cells. Cancer patients with complete response showed a high number of apoptotic cells. The DNA migration increased at T0 and at T24 in cisplatin-treated patients, reflecting a decreased rate of cisplatin adducts repair than that observed in healthy individuals. The ability to repair DNA lesions in doxorubicin-damaged cells was very similar between healthy individuals and cancer patients. Cisplatin-treated patients that died by the disease showed lower DNA migration than the mean value. The expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was practically identical between healthy individuals and cancer patients. Nevertheless, chemotherapy induced a depletion mostly of hMLH1. In 83% of cisplatin-treated patients with CR the hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression at T24 was higher than the

  2. Visual discrimination among patients with depression and schizophrenia and healthy individuals using semiquantitative color-coded fast spin-echo T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke; Narumi, Shinsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Shibata, Eri; Ohtsuka, Kotaro; Endoh, Jin; Sakai, Akio [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T, which is sensitive to neuromelanin-related contrast, can quantitatively detect signal alterations in the locus ceruleus (LC) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of depressive and schizophrenic patients; however, its qualitative diagnostic performance remains unknown. We investigated whether visual interpretation of semiquantitative color maps can be used for discriminating between depressive and schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals. We retrospectively examined 23 patients with major depression, 23 patients with schizophrenia, and 23 age-matched healthy controls by using a FSE-T1W MRI technique. Semiquantitative color maps of sections through the LC and SNc were visually interpreted by nine raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az), which reflects the performance in differentiating between depressive patients and controls, was 0.88, and the sensitivity and specificity at the maximum likelihood were 76% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, the Az value, sensitivity, and specificity values between schizophrenics and controls and between depressives and schizophrenics were 0.66 and 0.69, 42% and 48%, and 82% and 84%, respectively. Semiquantitative, color-coded FSE-T1W MRI at 3T can be used for visually differentiating depressive patients from healthy individuals with a substantially high likelihood, but this technique cannot be applied to distinguish schizophrenic patients from the other two groups. (orig.)

  3. Visual discrimination among patients with depression and schizophrenia and healthy individuals using semiquantitative color-coded fast spin-echo T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke; Narumi, Shinsuke; Shibata, Eri; Ohtsuka, Kotaro; Endoh, Jin; Sakai, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T, which is sensitive to neuromelanin-related contrast, can quantitatively detect signal alterations in the locus ceruleus (LC) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of depressive and schizophrenic patients; however, its qualitative diagnostic performance remains unknown. We investigated whether visual interpretation of semiquantitative color maps can be used for discriminating between depressive and schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals. We retrospectively examined 23 patients with major depression, 23 patients with schizophrenia, and 23 age-matched healthy controls by using a FSE-T1W MRI technique. Semiquantitative color maps of sections through the LC and SNc were visually interpreted by nine raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az), which reflects the performance in differentiating between depressive patients and controls, was 0.88, and the sensitivity and specificity at the maximum likelihood were 76% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, the Az value, sensitivity, and specificity values between schizophrenics and controls and between depressives and schizophrenics were 0.66 and 0.69, 42% and 48%, and 82% and 84%, respectively. Semiquantitative, color-coded FSE-T1W MRI at 3T can be used for visually differentiating depressive patients from healthy individuals with a substantially high likelihood, but this technique cannot be applied to distinguish schizophrenic patients from the other two groups. (orig.)

  4. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Goorhuis, A.; Jonker, E. F. F.; de Bree, G. J.; de Visser, A. W.; van Genderen, P. J. J.; Remmerswaal, E. B. M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Visser, L. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; van Leeuwen, E. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) levels in post-mortem brain tissue from patients with depression compared to healthy individuals 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M

    2017-01-01

    The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence...... and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86.8±5 years who received antidepressant pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRI]; tricyclic antidepressants [TCA]), 3 patients with MDD without antidepressant...... medication compared to MDD untreated patients and controls. Moreover, we detected a significant decrease of NT3 levels in the parietal cortex of patients suffering from MDD non-treated patients without treatment compared to healthy individuals. Although the limited statistical power due to the small sample...

  6. Lean body mass and muscle function in head and neck cancer patients and healthy individuals - results from the DAHANCA 25 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Loss of lean body mass is common following radiotherapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and may reduce maximal muscle strength and functional performance. However, the associations between lean body mass, muscle strength and functional...... m max gait speed, 30 s chair rise, 30 s arm curl, stair climb) from HNSCC patients from the DAHANCA 25 trials and data from 24 healthy individuals were included. Results. Lean body mass and maximal muscle strength were significantly associated according to the gender and age-adjusted linear...... regression model (p regression analyses showed that HNSCC patients expressed significant lower levels of the investigated variables after radiotherapy...

  7. [Functional neuroimaging of the brain structures associated with language in healthy individuals and patients with post-stroke aphasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferova, V V; Mayorova, L A; Ivanova, E G; Guekht, A B; Shklovskij, V M

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of non-invasive functional neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in the practice of scientific and clinical research can increase our knowledge about the organization of cognitive processes, including language, in normal and reorganization of these cognitive functions in post-stroke aphasia. The article discusses the results of fMRI studies of functional organization of the cortex of a healthy adult's brain in the processing of various voice information as well as the main types of speech reorganization after post-stroke aphasia in different stroke periods. The concepts of 'effective' and 'ineffective' brain plasticity in post-stroke aphasia were considered. It was concluded that there was an urgent need for further comprehensive studies, including neuropsychological testing and several complementary methods of functional neuroimaging, to develop a phased treatment plan and neurorehabilitation of patients with post-stroke aphasia.

  8. Diagnostic Value of a Tablet-Based Drawing Task for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer's Disease from Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    There is a considerable delay in the diagnosis of dementia, which may reduce the effectiveness of available treatments. Thus, it is of great interest to develop fast and easy to perform, non-invasive and non-expensive diagnostic measures for the early detection of cognitive impairment and dementia. Here we investigate movement kinematics between 20 patients with early dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 20 cognitively healthy control (HC) individuals while copying a three-dimensional house using a digitizing tablet. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analyzes have been conducted to explore whether alterations in movement kinematics could be used to discriminate patients with aMCI and eDAT from healthy individuals. Time-in-air (i.e., transitioning from one stroke to the next without touching the surface) differed significantly between patients with aMCI, eDAT, and HCs demonstrating an excellent sensitivity and a moderate specificity to discriminate aMCI subjects from normal elderly and an excellent sensitivity and specificity to discriminate patients affected by mild Alzheimer's disease from healthy individuals. Time-on-surface (i.e., time while stylus is touching the surface) differed only between HCs and patients with eDAT but not between HCs and patients with aMCI. Furthermore, total-time (i.e., time-in-air plus time-on-surface) did not differ between patients with aMCI and early dementia due to AD. Modern digitizing devices offer the opportunity to measure a broad range of visuoconstructive abilities that may be used as a fast and easy to perform screening instrument for the early detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in primary care.

  9. A cross-sectional study of tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations post vaccination among lung transplant patients compared with healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, K A; Cunningham, K C; Henriquez, K M; Nielsen, A R; Worzella, S L; Hayney, M S

    2014-12-01

    Lung transplant (LuTx) patients are routinely immunized against tetanus and diphtheria. However, few studies have been done to measure serologic immunity in the transplant population. The primary objective of this study was to compare tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations in LuTx vs. healthy subjects. Serum was used from an available sample of 111 total individuals (n = 36 healthy; n = 75 LuTx). Tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay method. A statistically significant difference in both tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations was found between the groups. The median concentration of tetanus antibody was higher for healthy individuals compared with the LuTx group (3.2 IU/mL [1.2-5.2 interquartile range {IQR}] vs. 1.3 IU/mL [0.4-2.6 IQR], respectively; P = 0.0001). No difference in time was found since the last tetanus-diphtheria vaccine or tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine dose between the groups (healthy 76.5 months [16-114 IQR] vs. LuTx 74.5 months [45-118 IQR]; P = 0.44). Tetanus and diphtheria immunizations are recommended for LuTx patients to reduce the risk of infection. Because the LuTx group has lower antibody concentrations, further studies should investigate the possible need for more frequent tetanus and diphtheria boosters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Characteristics of Labial Gland Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qin; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Hua, Hong

    2017-08-15

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration into exocrine organs such as salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in dry mouth and eyes, and other systemic injuries. There is no curative clinical therapy for SS, and stem cell therapy has shown great potential in this area. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the salivary glands of healthy individuals and in patients with SS have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of MSCs from the labial glands of healthy controls and of those from patients with SS to elucidate the related pathogenesis and to uncover potential avenues for novel clinical interventions. Labial glands from patients with SS and healthy subjects were obtained, and MSCs were isolated and cultured by using the tissue adherent method. The MSC characteristics of the cultured cells were confirmed by using morphology, proliferation, colony forming-unit (CFU) efficiency, and multipotentiality, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and salivary gland differentiation. The MSCs from the healthy controls and SS patients expressed characteristic MSC markers, including CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105; they were negative for CD34, CD45, and CD106, and also negative for the salivary gland epithelium markers (CD49f and CD117). Labial gland MSCs from both groups were capable of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. The CFU efficiency and adipogenic differentiation potential of MSCs were significantly lower in the SS group compared with the healthy controls. Cells from both groups could also be induced into salivary gland-like cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining showed that the gene and protein expression of AMY1, AQP5, and ZO-1 in cells from the SS group was lower than that in cells from the healthy group. Thus, MSCs from the labial glands in patients with SS could lack certain characteristics and functions

  12. Defects in α-Cell Function in Patients With Diabetes Due to Chronic Pancreatitis Compared With Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Lena; Breuer, Thomas G K; Rohrer, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    .0002) but not in patients with chronic pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: α-Cell responses to oral glucose ingestion and to hypoglycemia are disturbed in patients with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The similarities between these defects suggest a common etiology.......OBJECTIVE: Diabetes frequently develops in patients with chronic pancreatitis. We examined the alterations in the glucagon response to hypoglycemia and to oral glucose administration in patients with diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten patients with diabetes...... secondary to chronic pancreatitis were compared with 13 patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 healthy control subjects. A stepwise hypoglycemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed. RESULTS: Glucose levels during the OGTT were higher in patients with diabetes and chronic...

  13. Identification of distinct glycoforms of IgA1 in plasma from patients with IgA nephropathy and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehoux, Sylvain; Mi, Rongjuan; Aryal, Rajindra P

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide and is histologically characterized by the deposition of IgA1 and consequent inflammation in the glomerular mesangium. Prior studies suggested that serum IgA1 from IgAN patients contains aberrant, undergal......Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide and is histologically characterized by the deposition of IgA1 and consequent inflammation in the glomerular mesangium. Prior studies suggested that serum IgA1 from IgAN patients contains aberrant...... there are different glycoforms of IgA1 in plasma from patients with IgAN and healthy individuals. While total plasma IgA in IgAN patients was elevated ~1.6-fold compared to that in healthy donors, IgA1 in all samples was unexpectedly separable into two distinct glycoforms: one with core 1 based O......-glycans, and the other exclusively containing Tn/STn structures. Importantly, Tn antigen present on IgA1 from IgAN patients and controls was convertible into the core 1 structure in vitro by recombinant T-synthase. Our results demonstrate that undergalactosylation of O-glycans in IgA1 is not restricted to Ig...

  14. Sunlight exposure behaviour and vitamin D status in photosensitive patients: longitudinal comparative study with healthy individuals at U.K. latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, L E; Webb, A R; Berry, J L; Felton, S J; Marjanovic, E J; Wilkinson, J D; Vail, A; Kift, R

    2014-12-01

    Low vitamin D status is prevalent in wintertime in populations at northerly latitudes. Photosensitive patients are advised to practise sun avoidance, but their sunlight exposure levels, photoprotective measures and resulting vitamin D status are unknown. To examine seasonal vitamin D status in photosensitive patients relative to healthy individuals and to assess quantitatively behavioural and demographic contributors. This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study (53·5°N) examining year-round 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, sun-exposure behaviour and oral vitamin D intake in photosensitive patients diagnosed at a photoinvestigation unit (n = 53), compared with concurrently assessed healthy adults (n = 109). Photosensitive patients achieved seasonal 25(OH)D variation, but insufficient (vitamin D intake was low in both groups (photosensitive: 2·94 μg per day). Supplementation and summer surface area exposure predicted summer peak and winter trough 25(OH)D levels. A 1 μg per day increment in supplementary vitamin D raised summer and winter 25(OH)D by 5% (95% CI 3-7) and 9% (95% CI 5-12), respectively (both P vitamin D status. Guidance on oral measures should target this patient group and their physicians. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Defects in α-Cell Function in Patients With Diabetes Due to Chronic Pancreatitis Compared With Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Lena; Breuer, Thomas G K; Rohrer, Stephan; Schenker, Nina; Menge, Björn A; Holst, Jens J; Nauck, Michael A; Meier, Juris J

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes frequently develops in patients with chronic pancreatitis. We examined the alterations in the glucagon response to hypoglycemia and to oral glucose administration in patients with diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis. Ten patients with diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis were compared with 13 patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 healthy control subjects. A stepwise hypoglycemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed. Glucose levels during the OGTT were higher in patients with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis and lower in control subjects ( P chronic pancreatitis and with type 2 diabetes ( P chronic pancreatitis. α-Cell responses to oral glucose ingestion and to hypoglycemia are disturbed in patients with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The similarities between these defects suggest a common etiology. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. A comparative study of biological and metabolic biomarkers between healthy individuals and patients with acne vulgaris: A cross-sectional study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuseok; Ha, Injin; Kim, Eunok; Kim, Kyunglee

    2017-11-01

    Acne is a multifactorial dermatosis, which is influenced not only by hormones but also by the biochemical relationship between them and the pilosebaceous unit. Inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, active oxygen, and zinc are known to be associated with the development of acne. Further, steroid metabolism is known as one of the important factors related to sebum secretion and comedone formation in acne. However, there is a lack of studies comparing these human biomarkers between healthy individuals and patients with acne. In particular, no study has investigated the relationship between human biomarkers and patterns of acne yet.The purpose of this study is to investigate diagnostic human biomarkers in acne by comparing the biological and metabolic biomarkers between healthy individuals and patients with acne and identify the relationship between human biomarkers and patterns of acne.This study is a protocol for a cross-sectional study. Forty healthy participants and 60 patients with acne will be recruited at 1 center. We will collect their blood samples and analyze the molecular biological and metabolic biomarkers (cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, corticotropin-releasing hormone, zinc, amino acid, 1-carbon metabolite, lipid metabolite, etc.). Further, we will administer questionnaires regarding their diet, sleep, stress, and other factors relating to acne and measure their skin elasticity.The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Oriental Medical Hospital at Kyung Hee Medical Center (KOMCIRB-161118-HR-062). Written informed consent will be obtained from all the participants. The trial was registered in the Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea: KCT0002212.This trial will provide evidence regarding diagnostic human biomarkers in acne and the relationship between the human biomarkers and patterns of acne.

  17. DNA damage in healthy individuals and respiratory patients after treating whole blood in vitro with the bulk and nano forms of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumour effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n=17 and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n=36. White blood cells (WBC were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e. bulk (B or nano-suspension (N of aspirin (ASP or ibuprofen (IBU up to 500 µg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 µg/ml in the micronucleus assay. In this study results were compared against untreated lymphocytes and their corresponding treated groups. The results showed, thgat NSAIDs in their nano form significantly reduced the DNA damage in WBCs from lung cancer patients in bulk and nano compared to untreated lymphocytes. Also, there was a decrease in the level of DNA damage in the comet assay after treating WBCs from healthy individuals, asthma and COPD groups with aspirin N (ASP N but not with IBU N. In addition, the number of micronuclei decreased after treatment with NSAIDs in their nano form (ASP N and IBU N in the healthy as well as in the lung cancer group. However, this was not the case for micronucleus frequency in asthma and COPD patients. These data show that lymphocytes from different groups respond differently to treatment with ASP and IBU as measured by comet assay and micronucleus assay, and that the size of the suspended particles of the drugs affects responses.

  18. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Cognitive Dysfunction and Psychotic-Like Experiences in Neuropsychiatric Patients and Healthy Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are severe neuropsychiatric disorders that are highly heritable. Although both disorders partly share clinical characteristics, it is unclear whether bipolar disorder patients have similar lower IQ as that observed in schizophrenia patients. In the

  19. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination elicits IgG anti-AB blood group antibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Wolfram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis: Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We adressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP vaccine (PPV Pneumovax®23 could have such an effect in patients with with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I, an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role.Methods: Anti-PnP IgM and IgG responses were determined by ELISA and the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System was used to screen anti-A/B antibody titer before and after Pneumovax®23 immunization in 28 healthy individuals and 16 patients with DM I. In addition, surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology using the Biacore® device and a synthetic blood group A/B trisaccharide as the antigen was applied to investigate IgM and IgG anti-A/B antibodies and to measure antibody binding dynamics. Results: All healthy individuals and DM I patients responded with anti-PnP IgM and IgG antibody production four to six weeks after Pneumovax®23 (Pn23 immunization, while no increase in blood group anti-A/B antibody titer was observed when measured by the Diamed-ID Micro Typing System. Interestingly, isotype-specific testing by SPR-technology revealed an increase in blood group anti-A/B IgG, but not IgM, following Pn23 immunization in both patients and controls. No change in binding characteristics of blood group anti-A/B antibodies could be detected following Pn23 vaccination, supporting the assumption of an increase in IgG antibody titer with no or very little affinity maturation.Conclusion: The study provides evidence for epitope sharing

  20. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rosa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2018-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  1. [Changes in the EEG spectral power during perception of neutral and emotionally salient words in schizophrenic patients, their relatives and healthy individuals from the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Uvarova, L G

    2007-01-01

    To search for EEG-correlates of emotional processing that might be indicators of genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, changes in EEG spectral power during perception of neutral and emotionally salient words were examined in 36 schizophrenic patients, 50 of their unaffected first-degree relatives, and 47 healthy individuals without any family history of psychoses. In healthy persons, passive listening to neutral words induced minimum changes in cortical rhythmical activity, predominantly in the form of synchronization of slow and fast waves, whereas perception of emotional words was followed by a generalized depression of the alpha and beta1 activity and a locally specific decrease in the power of theta and beta2 frequency bands. The patients and their relatives showed a decrease in the alpha and beta1 activity simultaneously with an increase in the power of delta activity in response to both groups of words. Thus, in the patients and their relatives, reactions to neutral and emotional words were ulterior as a result of augmented reactions to the neutral words. These findings suggest that the EEG changes reflect familial and possibly hereditable abnormal involuntary attention. No prominent decrease in reactivity to emotional stimuli was revealed in schizophrenic families.

  2. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating.

  3. Differential Activation in Amygdala and Plasma Noradrenaline during Colorectal Distention by Administration of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone between Healthy Individuals and Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Tanaka

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation. Either CRH (2 μg/kg or saline (1:1 was then injected intravenously and the same distention protocol was repeated. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured at each stimulation. At baseline, CRH without colorectal distention induced more activation in the right amygdala in IBS patients than in controls. During intense distention after CRH injection, controls showed significantly greater activation than IBS patients in the right amygdala. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion showed a significant interaction between drug (CRH, saline and distention. Plasma noradrenaline at baseline significantly increased after CRH injection compared to before injection in IBS. Further, plasma noradrenaline showed a significant group (IBS, controls by drug by distention interaction. Exogenous CRH differentially sensitizes brain regions of the emotional-arousal circuitry within the visceral pain matrix to colorectal distention and synergetic activation of noradrenergic function in IBS patients and healthy individuals.

  4. Estimation and comparison of salivary secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in human immunodeficiency virus patients and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pushpanshu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The salivary anti-HIV factor, SLPI, is not only preserved in HIV infection but its concentration may even get enhanced in the infection. However, the clinical significance of SLPI levels and disease severity should be investigated further with a larger sample of patients.

  5. Comparison of External Load Effect on Lumbar Lordosis Among between Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Ershad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lumbar curvature is an important factor in posture and body movement that help us to understand low back pain problems. The aim of this study was evaluation of external load and trunk posture effect on lumbar curvature under static condition.  Materials & Methods: This study is an interventional, quasi-experimental and case-control study. Ten women with non specific chronic low back pain and ten matched without low back pain women were participated in this study. We used simple and non random method for sampling. Two clinometers sensors were used to evaluate lumbar curvature. Six static tasks while holding three levels of load (0, 6, 12 Kg and two levels of trunk position (neutral and 30 degree of flexion were simulated for subjects. Data were analyzed by using Kolmogroff-Smirnoff, ANOVA (Repeated Measurement and independent T-test. Results: Findings revealed lumbar lordosis in patients with low back pain does not change to kyphosis while increasing external load from 0kg to 6kg and 12kg in neutral trunk position (P<0.05. Conclusion: Dysfunction in passive system due to soft tissue disorder, afraid of pain, changes trunk muscles recruitment and reduction of moment arm are likely reasons for increased lumbar lordosis in patients with low back pain during loading.

  6. The obestatin/ghrelin ratio and ghrelin genetics in adult celiac patients before and after a gluten-free diet, in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Linsalata, Michele; Clemente, Caterina; Orlando, Antonella; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics. The study included 31 CD patients, 28 IBS-d patients, and 19 HC. Intestinal permeability, assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography determination of urinary lactulose (La)/mannitol (Ma), and circulating concentrations of obestatin, ghrelin, and their ratio were evaluated at enrollment and after GFD. The ghrelin single nucleotide polymorphisms Arg51Gln (rs34911341), Leu72Met (rs696217), and Gln90Leu (rs4684677) were analyzed. Intestinal permeability was impaired in CD patients and ameliorated after GFD. Ghrelin was significantly (P=0.048) higher and the obestatin/ghrelin ratio was significantly (P=0.034) lower in CD patients compared with both IBS-d and HC, and GFD reduced the peptide levels, but without reaching the concentrations in HC. Significant differences (Ppolymorphism among groups, with the reduction of the GT genotype and the T allele in both CD and IBS-d patients compared with HC. Intestinal permeability is altered in CD, but not in IBS-d patients, and ghrelin levels increase in CD patients as observed in other inflammatory conditions. Moreover, a role for ghrelin genetics is hypothesized in sustaining the many pathogenetic components of these different pathologies, but with a similar symptom profile.

  7. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo; Carvalho, Luciana de; Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Santos, Virgínia Nascimento dos; Vieira, Jose Gilberto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (microU/L) x fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5. NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%), sensitivity (Se): 85%, specificity (Sp): 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888) Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.

  9. HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections in hematologic disorder patients, cancer patients, and healthy individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias de Carvalho, S M; Pombo de Oliveira, M S; Thuler, L C; Rios, M; Coelho, R C; Rubim, L C; Silva, E M; Reis, A M; Catovsky, D

    1997-07-01

    To clarify the seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) among hematologic and cancer patients in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we investigated sera from 2430 individuals from the following groups: 152 patients with T-cell diseases, 250 with B-cell disorders, 67 with myeloid leukemia, 41 with Hodgkin's disease, 351 with a history of multiple blood transfusions, 235 patients with solid tumors of different types, and 109 family members of HTLV-I-infected patients. Antibodies to HTLV-I were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or particle agglutination assays (or both). Repeatedly reactive samples were tested by Western blot and polymerase chain reaction assay to differentiate HTLV-I from HTLV-II. We found an increased seroprevalence rate of HTLV-I among those with lymphoid malignancies, mainly in T-cell diseases (28.9%), and these results were important in characterizing 44 cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. We confirmed the presence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections in blood donors (0.4% and 0.1%, respectively), in patients exposed to multiple blood transfusions (10.2% and 0.8%, respectively), and in 30 (27.5%) of 109 family members of HTLV-I- or HTLV-II-infected patients. We also confirmed the high rate occurrence of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma among lymphoproliferative disorders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  10. No Evidence for the Association between a Polymorphism in the PCLO Depression Candidate Gene with Memory Bias in Remitted Depressed Patients and Healthy Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijsen, J.N.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Becker, E.S.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van

    2014-01-01

    The PCLO rs2522833 candidate polymorphism for depression has been associated to monoaminergic neurotransmission. In healthy and currently depressed individuals, the polymorphism has been found to affect activation of brain areas during memory processing, but no direct association of PCLO with memory

  11. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... to lower ASM and BCM in elderly men both in a univariate regression analysis and a multivariate regression analysis. In conclusion, high plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in elderly healthy people and in patients with type 2 diabetes are associated with increased truncal fat mass, suggesting...

  12. Presence of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes with thyrotropin receptor antibodies on their surface in Graves' disease patients and in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiko; Higaki, Katsumi; Nakayama, Yuji; Miyauchi, Hiromi; Kiritani, Yui; Kanai, Kyosuke; Matsushita, Michiko; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Sugihara, Hirotsugu; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Nanba, Eiji; Kimura, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs). Because Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in B cells and is occasionally reactivated, we hypothesized that EBV contributes to TRAbs production in Graves' disease patients by stimulating the TRAbs-producing B cells. In order for EBV to stimulate antibody-producing cells, EBV must be present in those cells but that have not yet been observed. We examined whether EBV-infected (EBV(+)) B cells with TRAbs on their surface (TRAbs(+)) as membrane immunoglobulin were present in peripheral blood of Graves' disease patients. We analyzed cultured or non-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 13 patients and 11 healthy controls by flow-cytometry and confocal laser microscopy, and confirmed all cultured PBMCs from 8 patients really had TRAbs(+) EBV(+) double positive cells. We unexpectedly detected TRAbs(+) cells in all healthy controls, and TRAbs(+) EBV(+) double positive cells in all cultured PBMC from eight healthy controls. The frequency of TRAbs(+) cells in cultured PBMCs was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p = 0.021). In this study, we indicated the presence of EBV-infected B lymphocytes with TRAbs on their surface, a possible player of the production of excessive TRAbs, the causative autoantibody for Graves' disease. This is a basic evidence for our hypothesis that EBV contributes to TRAbs production in Graves' disease patients. Our results further suggest that healthy controls have the potential for TRAbs production. This gives us an important insight into the pathogenesis of Graves' disease.

  13. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer’s Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls...

  14. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  15. Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daalman, Kirstin; van Zandvoort, Martine; Bootsman, Florian; Boks, Marco; Kahn, René; Sommer, Iris

    2011-11-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute a predisposition for AVH. However, it is difficult to disentangle a specific relation with AVH in patients with schizophrenia, as so many other factors can affect the performance on cognitive tests. Examining the cognitive profile of healthy individuals experiencing AVH may reveal a more direct association between AVH and aberrant cognitive functioning in a specific domain. For the current study, performance in executive functioning, memory (both short- and long-term), processing speed, spatial ability, lexical access, abstract reasoning, language and intelligence performance was compared between 101 healthy individuals with AVH and 101 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Although performance of both groups was within the normal range, not clinically impaired, significant differences between the groups were found in the verbal domain as well as in executive functioning. Performance on all other cognitive domains was similar in both groups. The predisposition to experience AVH is associated with lower performance in executive functioning and aberrant language performance. This association might be related to difficulties in the inhibition of irrelevant verbal information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Individualized quantification of brain β-amyloid burden: results of a proof of mechanism phase 0 florbetaben PET trial in patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, Henryk; Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg; Patt, Marianne; Sattler, Bernhard; Schildan, Andreas; Hesse, Swen; Meyer, Philipp M.; Sabri, Osama; Hammerstein, Eva; Hartwig, Kristin; Gertz, Hermann-Josef; Eggers, Birk; Wolf, Henrike; Zimmermann, Torsten; Reischl, Joachim; Rohde, Beate; Reininger, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Complementing clinical findings with those generated by biomarkers - such as β-amyloid-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging - has been proposed as a means of increasing overall accuracy in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Florbetaben ([ 18 F]BAY 94-9172) is a novel β-amyloid PET tracer currently in global clinical development. We present the results of a proof of mechanism study in which the diagnostic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of florbetaben were assessed. The value of various quantitative parameters derived from the PET scans as potential surrogate markers of cognitive decline was also investigated. Ten patients with mild-moderate probable AD (DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) and ten age-matched (≥ 55 years) healthy controls (HCs) were administered a single dose of 300 MBq florbetaben, which contained a tracer mass dose of < 5 μg. The 70-90 min post-injection brain PET data were visually analysed by three blinded experts. Quantitative assessment was also performed via MRI-based, anatomical sampling of predefined volumes of interest (VOI) and subsequent calculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios (SUVRs, cerebellar cortex as reference region). Furthermore, single-case, voxelwise analysis was used to calculate individual ''whole brain β-amyloid load''. Visual analysis of the PET data revealed nine of the ten AD, but only one of the ten HC brains to be β-amyloid positive (p = 0.001), with high inter-reader agreement (weighted kappa ≥ 0.88). When compared to HCs, the neocortical SUVRs were significantly higher in the ADs (with descending order of effect size) in frontal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, occipital cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, and parietal cortex (p = 0.003-0.010). Voxel-based group comparison confirmed these differences. Amongst the PET-derived parameters, the Statistical Parametric Mapping-based whole brain β-amyloid load yielded the closest correlation with

  17. Distinct changing profiles of hepatitis A and E virus infection among patients with acute hepatitis, patients on maintenance hemodialysis and healthy individuals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takehiro; Tsukamoto, Yukie; Hirose, Akinori; Suzuki, Shigeru; Yamazaki, Chikao; Masuko, Kazuo; Tsuda, Fumio; Endo, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-08-01

    To compare the epidemiologic profiles of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Japan, the prevalence of clinical or subclinical HAV and HEV infections was investigated serologically and molecularly among 128 consecutive patients (age, mean +/- standard deviation, 37.5 +/- 14.7 years) who contracted acute hepatitis between 1989 and 2005 in a city hospital, and among 416 hemodialysis patients (60.1 +/- 12.6 years) and 266 medical staff members (34.6 +/- 11.4 years) at the same hospital, using stored periodic serum samples collected since the start of hemodialysis or employment, respectively. Between 1989 and 1995, among 93 patients with acute hepatitis, 51 (54.8%) were diagnosed with hepatitis A and only one patient with hepatitis E. Between 1996 and 2005, however, among 35 patients, only 3 (8.6%) were diagnosed with hepatitis A and 2 (5.7%) with hepatitis E. Although subclinical HEV infection was recognized in four hemodialysis patients (one each in 1979, 1980, 1988, and 2003) and two medical staff members (1978 and 2003) in previous studies, none of the 191 hemodialysis patients who had been negative for anti-HAV at the start of hemodialysis contracted HAV infection during the observation period of 7.6 +/- 6.4 years. Only one (0.4%) of the 246 medical staff members who had been negative for anti-HAV at the start of employment acquired hepatitis A during the observation period of 7.9 +/- 8.0 years: none had subclinical HAV infection. Clinical or subclinical HEV infection has occurred rarely during the last three decades, while HAV infection has markedly decreased at least since 1996. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. STRATEGY OF VISUAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH INJURY TO THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS (SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piontek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Knee joint dysfunction resulting from injury to the anterior crucial ligament (ACL is associated not only with mechanical joint instability but also with damage of ligamentous receptors responsible for the joint proprioception. It was found that disturbances of signals from the damaged joint produce disorders in movement perception and position of the analogous joint in the normal limb. This study is aimed at evaluating the control strategy in patients with an injury to the anterior crucial ligament.Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Subjects/Patients- 84 men, aged 15 to 55 years (mean age 27 years were included in this study. Methods- Patients were divided into two groups: those with unilateral injury to the ACL (33 patients and a control group of healthy volunteers (soccer players; 51 men. Anterior crucial ligament damage was confirmed with arthroscopic knee joint examination in every patient. The way of visual proprioceptive control was assessed with both dynamic (DRT and static (SRT Riva tests standing on one leg. Tests were performed with the Delos Postural Proprioceptive System (Delos s.r.l., Corso Lecce, Torino, Italy in the biomechanical evaluation laboratory at Rehasport Clinic in Poznań. Results: A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT (static Riva test with closed eyes was found between the limb with a damaged ACL and the normal limb in the group of patients with injury to the ACL (p=0.006 and between the limb with a damaged ACL and normal limbs in healthy volunteers (p=0.022. A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT with closed eyes was also found between the dominant and non-dominant limb in healthy volunteers (p=0.013. No significant differences in the results of tests with open eyes were noted. Conclusions: The results of systems and their contribution to the visual proprioceptive control suggest an important role of the

  19. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  20. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer's Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i.e., time-in-air), time the stylus produced a visible stroke (i.e., time-on-surface) and total-time during clock drawing. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated and logistic regression analyses have been conducted for statistical analysis. Using dCDT, time-in-air was significantly increased in eDAT (70965.8 ms) compared to aMCI (54073.7 ms; p = 0.027) and HC (32315.6 ms; p < 0.001). In addition, time-in-air was significantly longer in patients with aMCI compared to HC ( p = 0.003), even in the aMCI group with normal cCDT score (54141.8 ms; p < 0.001). Time-in-air using dCDT allowed discrimination of patients with aMCI from HCs with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 72.2% while cCDT scoring revealed a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 83.3%. Most interestingly, time-in-air allowed even discrimination of aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores (80% from all aMCI patients) from HCs with a clinically relevant sensitivity of 80.8% and a specificity of 77.8%. A combination of dCDT variables and cCDT scores did not improve the discrimination of patients with aMCI from HC. In conclusion, assessment of time-in-air using dCDT yielded a higher diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of aMCI patients from HCs than the use of cCDT even in those aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores. Modern digitizing devices offer the opportunity

  1. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer’s Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i.e., time-in-air), time the stylus produced a visible stroke (i.e., time-on-surface) and total-time during clock drawing. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated and logistic regression analyses have been conducted for statistical analysis. Using dCDT, time-in-air was significantly increased in eDAT (70965.8 ms) compared to aMCI (54073.7 ms; p = 0.027) and HC (32315.6 ms; p < 0.001). In addition, time-in-air was significantly longer in patients with aMCI compared to HC (p = 0.003), even in the aMCI group with normal cCDT score (54141.8 ms; p < 0.001). Time-in-air using dCDT allowed discrimination of patients with aMCI from HCs with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 72.2% while cCDT scoring revealed a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 83.3%. Most interestingly, time-in-air allowed even discrimination of aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores (80% from all aMCI patients) from HCs with a clinically relevant sensitivity of 80.8% and a specificity of 77.8%. A combination of dCDT variables and cCDT scores did not improve the discrimination of patients with aMCI from HC. In conclusion, assessment of time-in-air using dCDT yielded a higher diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of aMCI patients from HCs than the use of cCDT even in those aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores. Modern digitizing devices offer the opportunity

  2. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.…

  3. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV. All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  4. Emotional intelligence components in alcohol dependent and mentally healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28±7.82 and 34.93±9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  5. Comparison of DNA damage in human lymphocytes from healthy individuals and asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients treated in vitro / ex vivo with the bulk nano forms of aspirin and ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Najafzadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit COX enzyme activity, a significant mechanism of action of NSAIDs. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumour effect in cancers. Such studies are lengthy and expensive. The present study, however, examined DNA damage in the Comet and micronucleus assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with respiratory diseases and healthy individuals using the nanoparticle (NP and bulk versions of the NSAIDs, aspirin and ibuprofen. Lymphocytes are suitable surrogate cells for cancers and other disease states. DNA damage decreased in lymphocytes from healthy individuals, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patient groups after treatment with aspirin nano-suspension (ASP N and ibuprofen nano-suspension (IBU N compared to their bulk version (micro-suspension in both assays. However, when ASP N was compared to untreated lymphocytes in all groups in the Comet assay, DNA damage significantly decreased in all groups, except the asthma group. When IBU N was compared to untreated lymphocytes, in healthy individuals and the lung cancer group, DNA damage decreased, but increased in asthma and COPD groups. Similarly, micronuclei (MNi increased after ASP N and IBU N in the healthy individual and lung cancer groups, and decreased in asthma and COPD groups. Also shows that whilst there are basic similarities with different genetic endpoints in terms of nano and bulk forms, but highlights some differences between the disease states examined. Furthermore, lymphocyte responses after IBU N and ibuprofen bulk were investigated by patch-clamp experiments demonstrating that IBU N inhibited ion channel activity by 20%. This molecular epidemiology approach mirrors pre-clinical and clinical findings, and provides new information using nanoparticles.

  6. Suicidal Ideation Versus Hopelessness/Helplessness in Healthy Individuals and in Patients with Benign Breast Disease and Breast Cancer: A Prospective Case-control Study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-06-01

    The relation between suicidal ideation versus hopelessness/helplessness in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared to date in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated suicidal ideation versus hopelessness/helplessness in 115 patients. In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness versus suicidal/pessimistic thoughts before any diagnostic procedures were carried-out. In the self-rating score (SRS), hopelessness and the helplessness versus pessimistic thoughts were significantly correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa-values for hopelessness versus pessimistic thoughts in the BBD group were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) in the hopelessness versus pessimistic thoughts in the HSS, BBD and BC groups, as well as in the ERS, in the helplessness versus pessimistic thoughts in the HSS and BBD groups. In SRS, the hopelessness and the helplessness versus suicidal thoughts were significantly correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. There was also a significant positive correlation in the ERS in the hopelessness versus suicidal thoughts in the HSS, BBD and BC groups, as well as in the ERS, in the helplessness versus suicidal thoughts in the BBD group. A new finding with clinical relevance in the present work is the agreement between hopelessness/helplessness versus suicidal/pessimistic thoughts in the self-rating and examiner-rating. In the breast cancer diagnostic Unit, the identification of suicidal ideation is essential in suicide prevention and it is important to assess and treat depression even though a subject reports little suicidal ideation. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sun-Young; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-12-01

    Vojta reflex locomotion is important to main upright posture through stimulation of breast zone to patient with cerebral palsy. However, application in other diseases is no investigated. So, we determined the effects of stimulation of the breast zone on trunk stability in healthy individuals. Fourteen young healthy adults (7 males and 7 females) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (breast zone) and control group (arbitrary point). All groups were stimulated for 5 min on the left and right sides, respectively, for a total 10 times. We used the thickness of the external oblique abdominal muscle (EO), the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA), and the rectus abdominis muscles, as well as the area of the diaphragm by using ultrasonography. In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation ( P <0.05) while the thickness of the EO significantly decreased ( P <0.05). Also, the area of diaphragm in inspiration was significantly different ( P <0.05). Therefore, stimulation of the breast zone may be effective to improve trunk stability through activation of the TrA muscle and the diaphragm.

  8. Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eric M; King, Dana E; Everett, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obese versus normal weight or overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between healthy lifestyle habits (eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily, exercising regularly, consuming alcohol in moderation, and not smoking) and mortality in a large, population-based sample stratified by body mass index (BMI). We examined the association between healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in a sample of 11,761 men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; subjects were ages 21 and older and fell at various points along the BMI scale, from normal weight to obese. Subjects were enrolled between October 1988 and October 1994 and were followed for an average of 170 months. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and marital status, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality for individuals who adhered to 0, 1, 2, or 3 healthy habits were 3.27 (2.36-4.54), 2.59 (2.06-3.25), 1.74 (1.51-2.02), and 1.29 (1.09-1.53), respectively, relative to individuals who adhered to all 4 healthy habits. When stratified into normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, all groups benefited from the adoption of healthy habits, with the greatest benefit seen within the obese group. Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with a significant decrease in mortality regardless of baseline body mass index.

  9. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...

  10. Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-12-11

    Increases in life expectancy make it important to remain healthy for as long as possible. Our objective was to examine the extent to which healthy behaviours in midlife, separately and in combination, predict successful aging. We used a prospective cohort design involving 5100 men and women aged 42-63 years. Participants were free of cancer, coronary artery disease and stroke when their health behaviours were assessed in 1991-1994 as part of the Whitehall II study. We defined healthy behaviours as never smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, physical activity (≥ 2.5 h/wk moderate physical activity or ≥ 1 h/wk vigorous physical activity), and eating fruits and vegetables daily. We defined successful aging, measured over a median 16.3-year follow-up, as good cognitive, physical, respiratory and cardiovascular functioning, in addition to the absence of disability, mental health problems and chronic disease (coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes). At the end of follow-up, 549 participants had died and 953 qualified as aging successfully. Compared with participants who engaged in no healthy behaviours, participants engaging in all 4 healthy behaviours had 3.3 times greater odds of successful aging (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-5.1). The association with successful aging was linear, with the odds ratio (OR) per increment of healthy behaviour being 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4; population-attributable risk for 1-4 v. 0 healthy behaviours 47%). When missing data were considered in the analysis, the results were similar to those of our main analysis. Although individual healthy behaviours are moderately associated with successful aging, their combined impact is substantial. We did not investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, but we saw clear evidence of the importance of healthy behaviours for successful aging.

  11. Diurnal variation of connective tissue metabolites in early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis and in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottenburger, T; Junker, P; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    To study the circadian variability of circulating connective tissue metabolites in patients with very early (VERA) and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (LRA) and in healthy control individuals.......To study the circadian variability of circulating connective tissue metabolites in patients with very early (VERA) and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (LRA) and in healthy control individuals....

  12. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  13. Emg Signal Analysis of Healthy and Neuropathic Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Sayed, Tabassum; Garg, Ridhi; Shreyam, Richa

    2017-08-01

    Electromyography is a method to evaluate levels of muscle activity. When a muscle contracts, an action potential is generated and this circulates along the muscular fibers. In electromyography, electrodes are connected to the skin and the electrical activity of muscles is measured and graph is plotted. The surface EMG signals picked up during the muscular activity are interfaced with a system. The EMG signals from individual suffering from Neuropathy and healthy individual, so obtained, are processed and analyzed using signal processing techniques. This project includes the investigation and interpretation of EMG signals of healthy and Neuropathic individuals using MATLAB. The prospective use of this study is in developing the prosthetic device for the people with Neuropathic disability.

  14. Memory function in opioid-dependent patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine along with benzodiazepine: longitudinal change in comparison to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapeli Pekka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid-substitution treatment (OST for opioid dependence (OD has proven effective in retaining patients in treatment and reducing illegal opiate abuse and crime. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO has listed the opioid agonists methadone and buprenorphine as essential drugs for OD that should be available worldwide. In many areas of the world, OD is often associated with concomitant benzodiazepine (BZD dependence and abuse, which complicates treatment. However, possible changes in the cognitive functioning of these patients are not well-known. The present study is the first to examine longitudinal stability of memory function in OST patients with BZD use, thus providing a new tool for health policy authorities in evaluating the usefulness of OST. Methods Within the first two months (T1 and between 6–9 months (T2 after OST admission, we followed the working memory, immediate verbal memory, and memory consolidation of 13 methadone- and 15 buprenorphine- or buprenorphine/naloxone-treated patients with BZD dependence or abuse disorder. The results were compared to those of fifteen normal comparison participants. All participants also completed a self-reported memory complaint questionnaire on both occasions. Results Both patient groups performed statistically significantly worse than normal comparison participants in working memory at time points T1 and T2. In immediate verbal memory, as measured by list learning at T1, patients scored lower than normal comparison participants. Both patient groups reported significantly more subjective memory problems than normal comparison participants. Patients with more memory complaints recalled fewer items at T2 from the verbal list they had learned at T1 than those patients with fewer memory complaints. The significance of the main analyses remained nearly the same when the statistical tests were performed without buprenorphine-only patients leaving 12 patients to

  15. Early childhood anomalies of the hip occur at a similar frequency in patients with idiopathic scoliosis and in healthy individuals – questionnaire for parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Improper hip joint development may lead to numerous unfavourable changes in the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this research was to determine how often adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and their healthy counterparts experienced anomalies of the hip in their infancy period and to examine the correlation between the occurrence of hip anomalies and idiopathic scoliosis. Material and methods: The research was conducted in medical centres as well as in schools. The parents of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and parents of healthy adolescents completed a questionnaire on the basis of their child’s development history included in the medical records book and other medical documentation. Results: 533 questionnaires were taken into consideration, included 145 questionnaires completed by parents of adolescents with scoliosis (121 girls - 13.8 years, SD 1.9; 24 boys - 12.9 years, SD 2.5 and 388 questionnaires from the group of adolescents without scoliosis (194 girls - 13.5 years, SD 2.0; 194 boys - 13.4 years, SD 2.1. No significant differences were noted in the incidence of hip anomalies between the groups of girls and boys with and without scoliosis, no correlations between anomalies of the hip and scoliosis were found (girls χ2=0.840; Cramer V=0.052; p=0.36; boys χ2=1.205; Cramer V=0.074; p=0.27. Conclusions: Hip anomalies such as hip dysplasia, movement asymmetry or range of motion limitations diagnosed in the infancy period did not correlate with idiopathic scoliosis. Further research aimed at a separate analysis of the influence of hip dysplasia on the occurrence of idiopathic scoliosis should be carried out.

  16. Analysis of the Airway Microbiota of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by T-RFLP and Clone Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakharkina, Tetyana; Heinzel, Elke; Koczulla, Rembert A

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, inflammatory lung disease that affects a large number of patients and has significant impact. One hallmark of the disease is the presence of bacteria in the lower airways....

  17. Regional differences of the urinary proteomes in healthy Chinese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Weiwei; Wu, Jianqiang; Pan, Li; Zhang, Fanshuang; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Biao; Shan, Guangliang; Gao, Youhe

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a promising biomarker source for clinical proteomics studies. Although regional physiological differences are common in multi-center clinical studies, the presence of significant differences in the urinary proteomes of individuals from different regions remains unknown. In this study, morning urine samples were collected from healthy urban residents in three regions of China and urinary proteins were preserved using a membrane-based method (Urimem). The urine proteomes of 27 normal s...

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) levels in post-mortem brain tissue from patients with depression compared to healthy individuals - a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M; Riederer, P; Michel, T M

    2017-10-01

    The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that antidepressant treatment may improve or normalise cerebral concentrations of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, we examined the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) in different brain regions (cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86.8±5 years who received antidepressant pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRI]; tricyclic antidepressants [TCA]), 3 patients with MDD without antidepressant treatment and overall age 84.3±5 years versus 14 unaffected subjects at age 70.3±13.8. We detected significant elevation of BDNF (parietal cortex) and NT3 (parietal, temporal and occipital cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, putamen and nucleus caudatus regions) in MDD patients who received antidepressant medication compared to MDD untreated patients and controls. Moreover, we detected a significant decrease of NT3 levels in the parietal cortex of patients suffering from MDD non-treated patients without treatment compared to healthy individuals. Although the limited statistical power due to the small sample size in this proof of concept study corroborates data from previous studies, which show that treatment with antidepressants mediates alterations in neuroplasticity via the action of NTF. However, more research using post-mortem brain tissue with larger samples needs to be carried out as well as longitudinal studies to further verify these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Fear conditioning induced by interpersonal conflicts in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors' face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder.

  20. Fear Conditioning Induced by Interpersonal Conflicts in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors’ face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder. PMID:25978817

  1. Does the Social Functioning Scale reflect real-life social functioning? An experience sampling study in patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder and healthy control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Reininghaus, U; van Nierop, M; Janssens, M; Myin-Germeys, I

    2017-12-01

    The ecological validity of retrospective measures of social functioning is currently unknown in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychosis were compared with controls on two measures of social functioning: the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and daily-life measures collected with the Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). The associations between both measures were examined in each group of participants to test for the ecological validity of the SFS. A total of 126 participants with a non-affective psychotic disorder and 109 controls completed the SFS and a 6-day momentary ESM protocol assessing various aspects of social functioning. Multiple linear and multilevel regression analyses were performed to test for group differences in social functioning level and examine associations between the two assessment techniques. Lower social functioning was observed in patients compared with controls on retrospective and momentary measures. The SFS interpersonal domain (social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions) was associated with the percentage of time spent alone and negative appraisal of social interactions. The SFS activity domain (pro-social and recreational activities dimensions) was negatively associated with time spent in leisure activities. The SFS showed some degree of ecological validity at assessing broad aspects of social functioning. Low scores on the SFS social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions captured social isolation and social avoidance in daily life, but not lack of interest in socializing. Ecological validity of the SFS activity domain was low. ESM offers a rich alternative to classical assessment techniques of social functioning.

  2. A novel computer system for the evaluation of nasolabial morphology, symmetry and aesthetics after cleft lip and palate treatment. Part 2: Comparative anthropometric analysis of patients with repaired unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruski, Piotr; Majak, Marcin; Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Skiba, Adam; Antoszewski, Boguslaw

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use a novel system, 'Analyse It Doc' (A.I.D.) for a complex anthropometric analysis of the nasolabial region in patients with repaired unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and in healthy individuals. A set of standardized facial photographs in frontal, lateral and submental view have been taken in 50 non-cleft controls (mean age 20.6 years) and 42 patients with repaired unilateral complete cleft and palate (mean age 19.57 years). Then, based on linear, angular and area measurements taken from the digital photographs with the aid of the A.I.D. system, a photogrammetric analysis of intergroup differences in nasolabial morphology and symmetry was conducted. Patients with cleft lip and palate differed from the controls in terms of more than half of analysed angular measurements and proportion indices derived from linear and area measurements of the nasolabial region. The findings presented herein imply that despite primary surgical repair, patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate still show some degree of nasolabial dysmorphology. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that the novel computer system is suitable for a reliable, simple and time-efficient anthropometric analysis in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticardiolipin and antinuclear antibodies in the adult healthy Omani individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Buloshi, Mohamed S.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and normal versus abnormal levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in a healthy adult popultion of Omani's and whether a correlation exists in between aCL and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in this Omani population. A total of 521 healthy Omani individuals (333 males and 188) females aged between 17-54 years were investigated for the presence and quntities of aClL (immunoglubolin G (IgG)) and IgM isotypesusing a conventional enzyme linked immunosobrent assay. ANA were were detacted in this group, using standard indirect immunofloresence techniques. This study was conducted during the period 2002 through 2003 at the Immunology Laboratories, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The prevalence of of aCL in healthy Omani population was estimated to be 2.5% for IgG 3.1% for IgM. The cut off points for IgG and IgM were determined for the whole population as 22.5 IgG phospholipid (GPL) units and 15.7 IgM phospholipid (MPL) units, using the mean plus 5 standard deviations. Using these cut off values, aCL were not detected in the the majority of individuals (97%) and in the remainig 3% the levels were not very high. There was no significant difference between the levels of aCL in either the male or female groups and no significant correlation for the presence of aCL with the age in this studied population. ANA were detected in 76/521 (14.6%)of the population studied, with some individuals studied, with some individuals (0.8%) showing titers of 1:640, but there was no association with aCL. Although ANA is present in this healthy Omani population at high frequency and some individuals at high levels of aCL do not occur and their presence may be an indicator of autoimmune mediated pathalogy. (author)

  4. Characterization of the oral fungal microbiome (mycobiome in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A Ghannoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral microbiome-organisms residing in the oral cavity and their collective genome-are critical components of health and disease. The fungal component of the oral microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used a novel multitag pyrosequencing approach to characterize fungi present in the oral cavity of 20 healthy individuals, using the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS primers. Our results revealed the "basal" oral mycobiome profile of the enrolled individuals, and showed that across all the samples studied, the oral cavity contained 74 culturable and 11 non-culturable fungal genera. Among these genera, 39 were present in only one person, 16 genera were present in two participants, and 5 genera were present in three people, while 15 genera (including non-culturable organisms were present in >/=4 (20% participants. Candida species were the most frequent (isolated from 75% of participants, followed by Cladosporium (65%, Aureobasidium, Saccharomycetales (50% for both, Aspergillus (35%, Fusarium (30%, and Cryptococcus (20%. Four of these predominant genera are known to be pathogenic in humans. The low-abundance genera may represent environmental fungi present in the oral cavity and could simply be spores inhaled from the air or material ingested with food. Among the culturable genera, 61 were represented by one species each, while 13 genera comprised between 2 and 6 different species; the total number of species identified were 101. The number of species in the oral cavity of each individual ranged between 9 and 23. Principal component (PCO analysis of the obtained data set followed by sample clustering and UniFrac analysis revealed that White males and Asian males clustered differently from each other, whereas both Asian and White females clustered together. This is the first study that identified the "basal mycobiome" of healthy individuals, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of the oral mycobiome in

  5. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease...

  6. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  7. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, pcortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Interferential electrical stimulation improves peripheral vasodilatation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferential electrical stimulation (IES, which may be linked to greater penetration of deep tissue, may restore blood flow by sympathetic nervous modulation; however, studies have found no association between the frequency and duration of the application and blood flow. We hypothesized that 30 min of IES applied to the ganglion stellate region might improve blood flow redistribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IES on metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. METHOD: Interferential electrical stimulation or a placebo stimulus (same protocol without electrical output was applied to the stellate ganglion region in eleven healthy subjects (age 25±1.3 years prior to exercise. Mean blood pressure (MBP, heart rate (HR, calf blood flow (CBF and calf vascular resistance (CVR were measured throughout exercise protocols (submaximal static handgrip exercise and with recovery periods with or without postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO+ and PECO -, respectively. Muscle metaboreflex control of calf vascular resistance was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve when circulation was occluded from the area under the curve from the AUC without circulatory occlusion. RESULTS: At peak exercise, increases in mean blood pressure were attenuated by IES (p<0.05, and the effect persisted under both the PECO+ and PECO- treatments. IES promoted higher CBF and lower CVR during exercise and recovery. Likewise, IES induced a reduction in the estimated muscle metaboreflex control (placebo, 21±5 units vs. IES, 6±3, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Acute application of IES prior to exercise attenuates the increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction during exercise and metaboreflex activation in healthy subjects.

  9. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals

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    Arturo Pujia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04. The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006. In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index.

  10. A longitudinal study of gene expression in healthy individuals

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    Tessier Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression in venous blood either as a pharmacodynamic marker in clinical trials of drugs or as a diagnostic test requires knowledge of the variability in expression over time in healthy volunteers. Here we defined a normal range of gene expression over 6 months in the blood of four cohorts of healthy men and women who were stratified by age (22–55 years and > 55 years and gender. Methods Eleven immunomodulatory genes likely to play important roles in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and infection in addition to four genes typically used as reference genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, as well as the full genome as represented by Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Results Gene expression levels as assessed by qRT-PCR and microarray were relatively stable over time with ~2% of genes as measured by microarray showing intra-subject differences over time periods longer than one month. Fifteen genes varied by gender. The eleven genes examined by qRT-PCR remained within a limited dynamic range for all individuals. Specifically, for the seven most stably expressed genes (CXCL1, HMOX1, IL1RN, IL1B, IL6R, PTGS2, and TNF, 95% of all samples profiled fell within 1.5–2.5 Ct, the equivalent of a 4- to 6-fold dynamic range. Two subjects who experienced severe adverse events of cancer and anemia, had microarray gene expression profiles that were distinct from normal while subjects who experienced an infection had only slightly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. Conclusion This study defines the range and variability of gene expression in healthy men and women over a six-month period. These parameters can be used to estimate the number of subjects needed to observe significant differences from normal gene expression in clinical studies. A set of genes that varied by gender was also identified as were a set of genes with elevated

  11. Agreement between hopelessness/helplessness and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale in healthy individuals and in patients with benign breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The relation between scoring for hopelessness/helplessness and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated hopelessness and helplessness scores versus the MADRS in 115 patients. In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness, and for the MADRS before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. In the self-rating score (SRS), hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS were highly significantly positively correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa values for hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) for hopelessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups and for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. The unweighted kappa values in the ERS for hopelessness versus the MADRS were statistically highly significant for the HSS, BBD and BC groups and those for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS and BBD groups were statistically significant. A new finding with clinical relevance in the present work is the agreement between hopelessness/helplessness scores and MADRS in the SRS and ERS. In the breast cancer diagnostic unit, the identification of hopeless/helpless persons is essential in suicide prevention and it is important to assess and treat hopelessness/helplessness even though an individual may report few depressive symptoms. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. In-vivo patellar tracking in individuals with patellofemoral pain and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiarpour, Fateme; Lebrun, Constance M; Dhillon, Sukhvinder; Boulanger, Pierre

    2018-02-28

    Understanding of the exact cause of patellofemoral pain has been limited by methodological challenges to evaluate in-vivo joint motion. This study compared six degree-of-freedom patellar motion during a dynamic lunge task between individuals with patellofemoral pain and healthy individuals. Knee joints of eight females with patellofemoral pain and ten healthy females were imaged using a CT scanner in supine lying position, then by a dual-orthogonal fluoroscope while they performed a lunge. To quantify patellar motion, the three-dimensional models of the knee bones, reconstructed from CT scans, were registered on the fluoroscopy images using the Fluomotion registration software. At full knee extension, the patella was in a significantly laterally tilted (PFP: 11.77° ± 7.58° vs. healthy: 0.86° ± 4.90°; p = 0.002) and superiorly shifted (PFP: 17.49 ± 8.44 mm vs. healthy: 9.47 ± 6.16 mm, p = 0. 033) position in the patellofemoral pain group compared with the healthy group. There were also significant differences between the groups for patellar tilt at 45°, 60°, and 75° of knee flexion, and for superior-inferior shift of the patella at 30° flexion (p ≤ 0.031). In the non-weight-bearing knee extended position, the patella was in a significantly laterally tilted position in the patellofemoral pain group (7.44° ± 6.53°) compared with the healthy group (0.71° ± 4.99°). These findings suggest the critical role of passive and active patellar stabilizers as potential causative factors for patellar malalignment/maltracking. Future studies should investigate the associations between patellar kinematics with joint morphology, muscle activity, and tendon function in a same sample for a thorough understanding of the causes of patellofemoral pain. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Seroprevalance of rickettsioses among healthy individuals in Mersin province, Turkey

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    İlker Alakus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies relevant to rikettsial biology, its pathogenesis and diagnosis  have increase due to the increase of rickettsioses incidents in the world, particularly over the the past two decades. We investigated the seroprevalence of the ricketsia disease in the Mersin province of Turkey. Methods: This study included 450 healthy individuals aged 5 years and over, who had attended family health centers in Mersin city center. Serum samples collected during November 2011 were evaluated. Rickettsia antibody assays were used indirect immunofluorescenc techniques. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis, the Chi-Square Test and the Student T Test for comparison of variables. Results: The prevelance of ricketsia positivity was determined as 9.8%. The seropositivities were higher in males, in the unemployed, in the occupational risk groups, in people who live in rural regions, in people who work in gardens/farms, in picnickers, in countryside walkers, in hunters, in owners of livestock, in people with no history of rash diseases. When the relationship of spotted fever group (SFG seropositivity the risk factors was investigated, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: According to our study rickettsial disease is detected in Mersin and it was seen that the rickettsiosis disease need for more comprehensive studies to show the prevalence in all of Turkey.Keywords: Rickettsioses, seroprevelance, antibodies

  14. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

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    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  15. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  16. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  17. Muscle torque of healthy individuals and individuals with spastic hemiparesis after passive static streching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa DE Freitas, Sérgio Takeshi; DE Carvalho Abreu, Elizângela Márcia; Dos Reis, Mariane Cecilia; DE Souza Cunha, Bruna; Souza Moreira Prianti, Tamires; Pupio Silva Lima, Fernanda; Oliveira Lima, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Spasticity is one of the main causes of contracture, muscle weakness and subsequent functional incapacity. The passive static stretching can be included as having the purpose of increasing musculoskeletal flexibility, however, it also can influence the muscle torque. The objective is to verify the immediate effect of passive static stretching in the muscle strength of healthy and those who present spastic hemiparesis. There were assessed 20 subjects, 10 spastic hemiparetic (EG) and 10 healthy individuals (CG), including both sexes, aged between 22 and 78 years. The torque of extensor muscles of the knee was analyzed using isokinetic dynamometer. Results have shown that EG has less muscle torque compared to CG ( p torque after stretching ( p torque of CG after performing the program that was prescribed. Immediately after the passive stretch, a significant torque decrease can be seen in hypertonic muscle; it is believed that this reduction may be associated with the physiological overlap between actin and myosin filaments and so preventing the muscle to develop a maximum contraction.

  18. Relationship between healthy diet and risk of cardiovascular disease among patients on drug therapies for secondary prevention: a prospective cohort study of 31 546 high-risk individuals from 40 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Teo, Koon K; Gao, Peggy; Sleight, Peter; Dagenais, Gilles; Avezum, Alvaro; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Dans, Tony; Yusuf, Salim

    2012-12-04

    Diet quality is strongly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, but little is known about its impact on CVD events in older people at high risk of CVD and receiving effective drugs for secondary prevention. This study assessed the association between diet quality and CVD events in a large population of subjects from 40 countries with CVD or diabetes mellitus with end-organ damage receiving proven medications. Overall, 31 546 women and men 66.5±6.2 years of age enrolled in 2 randomized trials, the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global End Point Trial (ONTARGET) and the Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACEI Intolerant Subjects With Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND), were studied. We used 2 dietary indexes: the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index and the Diet Risk Score. The association between diet quality and the primary composite outcome of CV death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or congestive heart failure was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for age, sex, trial enrollment allocation, region, and other known confounders. During the 56-month follow-up, there were 5190 events. Patients in the healthier quintiles of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index scores had a significantly lower risk of CVD (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.87, top versus lowest quintile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index). The reductions in risk for CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke were 35%, 14%, and 19%, respectively. The protective association was consistent regardless of whether patients were receiving proven drugs. A higher-quality diet was associated with a lower risk of recurrent CVD events among people ≥55 years of age with CVD or diabetes mellitus. Highlighting the importance of healthy eating by health professionals would substantially reduce CVD recurrence and save lives globally.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Esophageal Candidiasis in Healthy Individuals: A Single Center Experience in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeuk; Lee, Chang Geun; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Lim, Chi Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is the most frequent opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised host. However, we have found EC in healthy individuals through esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 281 patients who had been incidentally diagnosed with EC. We also conducted age and sex matched case control study to identify the risk factor for EC. Results The prevalence of EC was 0.32% (281/88125). The most common coexisting EGD finding was reflux esophagitis (49/281, 17.4%). An antifungal agent was prescribed in about half of EC, 139 cases (49.5%). Follow-up EGD was undertaken in 83 cases (29.5%) and 20 cases of candidiasis was persistently found. Case control study revealed EC were more often found in user of antibiotics (p=0.015), corticosteroids (p=0.002) and herb medication (p=0.006) as well as heavy drinking (pantibiotics, corticosteroids and herb as well as heavy drinking were significant risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. PMID:23225813

  20. Individualized quantification of brain {beta}-amyloid burden: results of a proof of mechanism phase 0 florbetaben PET trial in patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Henryk; Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg; Patt, Marianne; Sattler, Bernhard; Schildan, Andreas; Hesse, Swen; Meyer, Philipp M.; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hammerstein, Eva; Hartwig, Kristin; Gertz, Hermann-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); Eggers, Birk [Arzneimittelforschung Leipzig GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); University of Zurich, Department of Psychiatry, Zurich (Switzerland); Zimmermann, Torsten; Reischl, Joachim; Rohde, Beate; Reininger, Cornelia [Bayer Healthcare, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Complementing clinical findings with those generated by biomarkers - such as {beta}-amyloid-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging - has been proposed as a means of increasing overall accuracy in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Florbetaben ([{sup 18}F]BAY 94-9172) is a novel {beta}-amyloid PET tracer currently in global clinical development. We present the results of a proof of mechanism study in which the diagnostic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of florbetaben were assessed. The value of various quantitative parameters derived from the PET scans as potential surrogate markers of cognitive decline was also investigated. Ten patients with mild-moderate probable AD (DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) and ten age-matched ({>=} 55 years) healthy controls (HCs) were administered a single dose of 300 MBq florbetaben, which contained a tracer mass dose of < 5 {mu}g. The 70-90 min post-injection brain PET data were visually analysed by three blinded experts. Quantitative assessment was also performed via MRI-based, anatomical sampling of predefined volumes of interest (VOI) and subsequent calculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios (SUVRs, cerebellar cortex as reference region). Furthermore, single-case, voxelwise analysis was used to calculate individual ''whole brain {beta}-amyloid load''. Visual analysis of the PET data revealed nine of the ten AD, but only one of the ten HC brains to be {beta}-amyloid positive (p = 0.001), with high inter-reader agreement (weighted kappa {>=} 0.88). When compared to HCs, the neocortical SUVRs were significantly higher in the ADs (with descending order of effect size) in frontal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, occipital cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, and parietal cortex (p = 0.003-0.010). Voxel-based group comparison confirmed these differences. Amongst the PET-derived parameters, the Statistical Parametric Mapping-based whole brain

  1. Beryllium-specific immune response in primary cells from healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Anu; Sauer, Nancy N.; Gupta, Goutam

    2004-01-01

    The effect of beryllium (Be) exposure has been extensively studied in patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). CBD patients carry mutated MHC class II alleles and show a hyperproliferation of T cells upon Be exposure. The exact mechanism of Be-induced T-cell proliferation in these patients is not clearly understood. It is also not known how the inflammatory and suppressive cytokines maintain a balance in healthy individuals and how this balance is lost in CBD patients. To address these issues, we have initiated cellular and biochemical studies to identify Be-responsive cytokines and other cellular markers that help maintain a balance in healthy individuals. We have established an immune cell model derived from a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and dendritic cells (DCs). In this article, we demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 shows decreased release whereas suppressive cytokine IL10 shows enhanced release after 5-10 h of Be treatment. Furthermore, the Be-specific pattern of IL6 and IL10 release is dependent upon induction of threonine phosphorylation of a 45 kDa cytosolic protein (p45), as early as 90 min after Be treatment. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3'K) by wortmannin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by SB203580 reveal that PI3'K mediates Be-specific p45 phosphorylation and IL6 release, whereas p38 MAPK regulates the release of IL6 and IL10 and the phosphorylation of p45 independent of metal-salt treatment. While the IL10 and IL6 release pathways are uncoupled in these cells, they are linked to phosphorylation of p45. These findings suggest that the balance between IL10 and IL6 release and the correlated p45 phosphorylation are important components of the Be-mediated immune response in healthy individuals

  2. Increased blood BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Søndergaard, Mia H Greisen; Koefoed, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. BDNF levels were significantly increased...... in healthy individuals with (n = 76), compared with healthy individuals without (n = 39) a family history of depression and persisted after adjustment for age and gender differences. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute...... to an elevation of peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....

  3. No effect of escitalopram versus placebo on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Soendergaard, Mia H Greisen

    2016-01-01

    with a family history of depression. METHODS: We measured changes in BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and whole-blood BDNF levels in 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. RESULTS: We found...... no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels...... in the escitalopram-treated group. CONCLUSION: The results of this randomised trial suggest that escitalopram 10 mg has no effect on peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....

  4. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Hen Eggs Consumption Enhances Microvascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Ana; Rasic, Lidija; Matic, Anita; Stupin, Marko; Kralik, Zlata; Kralik, Gordana; Grcevic, Manuela; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2018-04-10

    Whilst the beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients, the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched hen eggs on microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. Control group (N=16) ate three ordinary hen eggs (277 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day), and OMEGA-3 group (N=20) ate three omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (ALA 167 mg/egg, EPA 7 mg/egg, DHA 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP and BP were significantly decreased in OMEGA-3 group compared to baseline measurement, while there was no significant difference in Control group after the protocol compared to baseline. This is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFAs (ALA+EPA+DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in microvascular reactivity, BP and triglycerides level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factors attenuation and disease prevention.

  6. Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs. We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals.......Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs. We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals....

  7. Cause-specific cardiovascular risk associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs among healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Folke, Fredrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals.......Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals....

  8. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Andreadou, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively. Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study (maximum increase by 0.15 mm and 0.18 mm, respectively, P chocolate throughout the study (maximum absolute decrease 7.8%, P chocolate, indicating no alterations in plasma oxidant status. Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

  9. Ergospirometry and Echocardiography in Early Stage of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lima Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a syndrome characterized by changes in diastolic function; it is more prevalent among the elderly, women, and individuals with systemic hypertension (SH and diabetes mellitus. However, in its early stages, there are no signs of congestion and it is identified in tests by adverse remodeling, decreased exercise capacity and diastolic dysfunction. Objective: To compare doppler, echocardiographic (Echo, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET variables - ergospirometry variables - between two population samples: one of individuals in the early stage of this syndrome, and the other of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty eight outpatients diagnosed with heart failure according to Framingham’s criteria, ejection fraction > 50% and diastolic dysfunction according to the european society of cardiology (ESC, and 24 healthy individuals underwent Echo and CPET. Results: The group of patients showed indexed atrial volume and left ventricular mass as well as E/E’ and ILAV/A´ ratios significantly higher, in addition to a significant reduction in peak oxygen consumption and increased VE/VCO2 slope, even having similar left ventricular sizes in comparison to those of the sample of healthy individuals. Conclusion: There are significant differences between the structural and functional variables analyzed by Echo and CPET when comparing two population samples: one of patients in the early stage of heart failure with ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50% and another of healthy individuals.

  10. How does cryotherapy effect ankle proprioception in healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, Daniel; Cooper, Darren

    2017-09-01

    Objectives To investigate how a 15-min cryotherapy intervention effects proprioception by measuring joint positional sense (JPS) and static single legged balance. Design Repeated measures design. Setting Laboratory. Participants Eighteen healthy university sports team students (11 males, 7 females) aged between 20 and 21 years old. Main outcome measures Participants were treated with 15 min of Aircast Cryo-cuff. The subject's skin temperature was measured before and immediately after 15 min of cryotherapy treatment. Ankle active joint positional sense (A-JPS) and passive joint positional sense (P-JPS) were measured at pre-test, immediately post-test, and 5 min post-test. Static balance was measured by centre of pressure (CoP) mean path length, medial-lateral (ML) CoP mean deviation, and anterior-posterior (AP) CoP mean deviation and mean time-to-boundary (TtB) minima for AP and ML directions. Results No significant differences were found for the variables of JPS and static single balance testing after 15 min of cryotherapy treatment. However, mean differences for CoP mean path length and ML mean deviation were shown to improve following cryotherapy treatment, results not previously found in the literature. Conclusion Results suggest that 15 min of Cryo-cuff treatment does not significantly affect proprioception. Although the effect of cryotherapy on proprioception depends on cooling modality used, time frame applied, and joint applied to.

  11. Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions.

  12. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications.This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air.Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information.Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2. Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change.Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  13. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L; Levänen, Bettina; Nording, Malin; Klepczynska-Nyström, Anna; Sköld, Magnus; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Grunewald, Johan; Svartengren, Magnus; Hammock, Bruce D; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M; Wheelock, Craig E

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  14. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of physical health status and healthy lifestyle behaviors of individuals with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginer, Derya Kayar; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study is to determine the physical health status and healthy lifestyle behaviors of individuals with mental illness. A descriptive research design was used. The sample of the study consisted of 115 individuals with mental illness. The Health Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was used to assess the healthy lifestyle behaviors of the participants. Of the individuals, 49.6% were found to have metabolic syndrome. Individuals with mental illness obtained the lowest score from the physical activity dimension of the scale. Individuals with mental illness need to receive education and support, especially in terms of nutrition and exercise. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Analysis of the individual radio sensitivity of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Individual radiosensitivity has a crucial impact on radiotherapy related side effects. A prediction of individual radiosensitivity could avoid these side effects. Our aim was to study a breast cancer collective for its variation of individual radiosensitivity. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 129 individuals. 67 breast cancer patients and 62 healthy and age matched individuals were looked at and their individual radiosensitivity was estimated by a 3-color Fluorescence in situ hybridization approach. Blood samples were obtained (i) before starting adjuvant radiotherapy and were in vitro irradiated by 2 Gy; (ii) after 5 single doses of 1.8 Gy and after 72 h had elapsed. DNA of lymphocytes was probed with whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. The rate of breaks per metaphase was analyzed and used as a predictor of individual radiosensitivity. Breast cancer patients were distinctly more radio-sensitive compared to healthy controls. Additionally the distribution of the cancer patients' radiosensitivity was broader. A subgroup of 9 rather radio-sensitive and 9 rather radio-resistant patients was identified. A subgroup of patients aged between 40 and 50 was distinctly more radio-sensitive than younger or older patients. The in vivo irradiation approach was not applicable to detect individual radiosensitivity. In the breast cancer collective a distinctly resistant and sensitive subgroup is identified, which could be subject for treatment adjustment. Especially in the range of age 40 to 50 patients have an increased radiosensitivity. An in vivo irradiation in a breast cancer collective is not suitable to estimate individual radiosensitivity due to a low deposed dose.

  17. The relation of hopelessness/helplessness versus beck depression inventory (BDI) in healthy individuals and in patients with benign breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-02-01

    The relation between hopelessness/helplessness versus the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared in a prospective study before. We, therefore, investigated hopelessness and helplessness versus the BDI in 115 patients. In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness versus the BDI before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. In the self-rating score (SRS), the hopelessness and the helplessness versus the BDI were highly significantly positively correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa values for hopelessness and helplessness versus the BDI in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) in the hopelessness versus the BDI in the BBD and BC groups and in the ERS in helplessness versus the BDI in the HSS and BBD groups. The unweighted kappa values in the ERS for hopelessness versus the BDI in the HSS and BBD groups were statistically highly significant and the unweighted kappa values in the ERS for helplessness versus the BDI in the BBD and BC groups were statistically significant. The results of this study support a powerful link between hopelessness and helplessness versus BDI in the self-rating and examiner-rating. This finding is of clinical importance since, in the breast cancer diagnostic unit, the patients with hopelessness/helplessness characteristics and high BDI score might be associated with a difficulty and delay in reaching BC diagnosis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Intestinal Microbiota Distinguish Gout Patients from Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Zhanli; Ang, Kay Ying; Huang, Shi; Hou, Qiangchuan; Su, Xiaoquan; Qiao, Jianmin; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Lifeng; Koh, Eileen; Danliang, Ho; Xu, Jian; Lee, Yuan Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Current blood-based approach for gout diagnosis can be of low sensitivity and hysteretic. Here via a 68-member cohort of 33 healthy and 35 diseased individuals, we reported that the intestinal microbiota of gout patients are highly distinct from healthy individuals in both organismal and functional structures. In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted. The established reference microbial gene catalogue for gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and butyric acid biosynthesis in gout patients. In an additional 15-member validation-group, a diagnosis model via 17 gout-associated bacteria reached 88.9% accuracy, higher than the blood-uric-acid based approach. Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes. Thus the Microbial Index of Gout was proposed as a novel, sensitive and non-invasive strategy for diagnosing gout via fecal microbiota. PMID:26852926

  19. Preference conditioning in healthy individuals: correlates with hazardous drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Lockwood, Kathleen P; Magrys, Sylvia A; Olmstead, Mary C

    2010-06-01

    Conditioned reward is a classic measure of drug-induced brain changes in animal models of addiction. The process can be examined in humans using the Conditioned Pattern Preference (CPP) task, in which participants associate nonverbal cues with reward but demonstrate low awareness of this conditioning. Previously, we reported that alcohol intoxication does not affect CPP acquisition in humans, but our data indicated that prior drug use may impact conditioning scores. To test this possibility, the current study examined the relationship between self-reported alcohol use and preference conditioning in the CPP task. Working memory was assessed during conditioning by asking participants to count the cues that appeared at each location on a computer screen. Participants (69 female and 23 male undergraduate students) completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) as measures of hazardous drinking. Self-reported hazardous drinking was significantly correlated with preference conditioning in that individuals who scored higher on these scales exhibited an increased preference for the reward-paired cues. In contrast, hazardous drinking did not affect working memory errors on the CPP task. These findings support evidence that repeated drug use sensitizes neural pathways mediating conditioned reward and point to a neurocognitive disposition linking substance misuse and responses to reward-paired stimuli. The relationship between hazardous drinking and conditioned reward is independent of changes in cognitive function, such as working memory.

  20. HIP2: An online database of human plasma proteins from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Changyu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the introduction of increasingly powerful mass spectrometry (MS techniques for clinical research, several recent large-scale MS proteomics studies have sought to characterize the entire human plasma proteome with a general objective for identifying thousands of proteins leaked from tissues in the circulating blood. Understanding the basic constituents, diversity, and variability of the human plasma proteome is essential to the development of sensitive molecular diagnosis and treatment monitoring solutions for future biomedical applications. Biomedical researchers today, however, do not have an integrated online resource in which they can search for plasma proteins collected from different mass spectrometry platforms, experimental protocols, and search software for healthy individuals. The lack of such a resource for comparisons has made it difficult to interpret proteomics profile changes in patients' plasma and to design protein biomarker discovery experiments. Description To aid future protein biomarker studies of disease and health from human plasma, we developed an online database, HIP2 (Healthy Human Individual's Integrated Plasma Proteome. The current version contains 12,787 protein entries linked to 86,831 peptide entries identified using different MS platforms. Conclusion This web-based database will be useful to biomedical researchers involved in biomarker discovery research. This database has been developed to be the comprehensive collection of healthy human plasma proteins, and has protein data captured in a relational database schema built to contain mappings of supporting peptide evidence from several high-quality and high-throughput mass-spectrometry (MS experimental data sets. Users can search for plasma protein/peptide annotations, peptide/protein alignments, and experimental/sample conditions with options for filter-based retrieval to achieve greater analytical power for discovery and validation.

  1. Alpha band cortico-muscular coherence occurs in healthy individuals during mechanically-induced tremor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Budini

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC. Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05. During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05. Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops.

  2. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  3. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-16

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  4. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, J. H.; Schouten, A. C.; Aarts, R. G. K. M.; Meskers, C. G. M.; Maier, A. B.; van der Kooij, H.

    2015-01-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084

  5. Comparison of personality beliefs between depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucens, Bengu; Kuru, Erkan; Safak, Yasir; Karadere, Mehmet Emrah; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-11-01

    According to the cognitive model, the common mechanism underlying all psychological disorders is distorted or dysfunctional thoughts that affect mood and behaviors. Dysfunctional thoughts predispose an individual to depression and are among the processes that form the basis of personality traits. Elucidating the personality beliefs associated with depression and dysfunctional thoughts is important to understanding and treating depression. The aim of the present study is to determine whether depressed patients exhibited pathological personality beliefs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated which personality beliefs were more common among such depressed patients. A total of 70 patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) and diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, 70 healthy controls matched for age, marital status, and education were included in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Form and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short form (PBQ-SF) were administered to the participants. A comparison of the depression group with the healthy controls revealed higher scores in dependent, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, histrionic, paranoid, borderline, and avoidant personality subscales in the depressive group. These results suggest that personality beliefs at the pathological level are more common in depressive patients and that the detection of these beliefs would be useful for predicting the prognosis of the disease and determining appropriate treatment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensorimotor Control in Individuals With Idiopathic Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Rutger M J; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Farrell, Scott F; Snodgrass, Suzanne J

    2017-06-01

    (1) To identify reported tests used to assess sensorimotor control in individuals with idiopathic neck pain and (2) to investigate whether these tests can quantify differences between individuals with idiopathic neck pain and healthy individuals. Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus. Studies reporting sensorimotor outcomes in individuals with idiopathic neck pain or healthy individuals were identified. There were 1,677 records screened independently by 2 researchers for eligibility: 43 studies were included in the review, with 30 of these studies included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic quality was determined using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction table. Sensorimotor control was most commonly assessed by joint position error and postural sway. Pooled means for joint position error after cervical rotation in individuals with neck pain (range, 2.2°-9.8°) differed significantly (P=.04) compared with healthy individuals (range, 1.66°-5.1°). Postural sway with eyes open ranged from 4.85 to 10.5cm 2 (neck pain) and 3.5 to 6.6cm 2 (healthy) (P=.16), and postural sway with eyes closed ranged from 2.51 to 16.6cm 2 (neck pain) and 2.74 to 10.9cm 2 (healthy) (P=.30). Individual studies, but not meta-analysis, demonstrated differences between neck pain and healthy groups for postural sway. Other test conditions and other tests were not sufficiently investigated to enable pooling of data. The findings from this review suggest sensorimotor control testing may be clinically useful in individuals with idiopathic neck pain. However, results should be interpreted with caution because clinical differences were small; therefore, further cross-sectional research with larger samples is needed to determine the magnitude of the relation between

  7. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  8. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-03

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. ULTRAFINE PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS VS. PATIENTS WTH COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to particulate air pollution. The dosimetry of ultrafine aerosols (diameter # 0.1 :m) is not well characterized in the healthy or diseas...

  11. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  12. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolezani, Elaine Cristina; Costa-Hong, Valéria, E-mail: hong.valeria@gmail.com; Correia, Gustavo; Mansur, Alfredo José; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido [Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior{sup ®} device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure related to the carotid functional measure

  13. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolezani, Elaine Cristina; Costa-Hong, Valéria; Correia, Gustavo; Mansur, Alfredo José; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior ® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure related to the carotid functional measure. The

  14. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Tolezani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. Objective: To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. Methods: This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. Results: The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01 and triglycerides (p = 0.02; intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01; diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03 and age (p = 0.02; relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively. Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01 and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01, while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03. Conclusion: In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic

  15. Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Konstantinos I; Spyrou, Nikolaos; Bougioukas, Konstantinos I; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2018-07-15

    Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals. Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration. Regarding other cognitive domains, such as long-term memory, spatial memory, memory scanning, attention, executive function, response inhibition, word fluency, reaction time and mental fatigue, the results were conflicting. Performance on cognitive tasks stayed unchanged in young individuals. Vegetarians responded better than meat-eaters in memory tasks but for other cognitive domains no differences were observed. Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals. Since creatine is safe, future studies should include larger sample sizes. It is imperative that creatine should be tested on patients with dementias or cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell-free DNA in healthy individuals, noncancerous disease and strong prognostic value in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Appelt, Ane L; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate total cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients during treatment with second-line chemotherapy and in healthy controls and patients with different comorbidities. Patient treated with second-line irinotecan for metastatic CRC (n = 100), a cohort...

  17. ­A curated transcriptomic dataset collection relevant to embryonic development associated with in vitro fertilization in healthy individuals and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafah Mackeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of large-scale datasets available in public repositories is rapidly growing and providing opportunities to identify and fill gaps in different fields of biomedical research. However, users of these datasets should be able to selectively browse datasets related to their field of interest. Here we made available a collection of transcriptome datasets related to human follicular cells from normal individuals or patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, in the process of their development, during in vitro fertilization. After RNA-seq dataset exclusion and careful selection based on study description and sample information, 12 datasets, encompassing a total of 85 unique transcriptome profiles, were identified in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus and uploaded to the Gene Expression Browser (GXB, a web application specifically designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Once annotated in GXB, multiple sample grouping has been made in order to create rank lists to allow easy data interpretation and comparison. The GXB tool also allows the users to browse a single gene across multiple projects to evaluate its expression profiles in multiple biological systems/conditions in a web-based customized graphical views. The curated dataset is accessible at the following link: http://ivf.gxbsidra.org/dm3/landing.gsp.

  18. Prevalence of Oral Human Papilloma Virus in Healthy Individuals in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    SEIFI, Sharareh; ASVADI KERMANI, Iraj; DOLATKHAH, Roya; ASVADI KERMANI, Atabak; SAKHINIA, Ebrahim; ASGARZADEH, Mohammad; DASTGIRI, Saeed; EBRAHIMI, Ayoub; ASGHARI HAGGI, Arezou; NADRI, Mahsa; ASVADI KERMANI, Touraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Methods: Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers compl...

  19. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  20. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhol...... of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals....

  1. Associations between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and brain function during probabilistic learning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Thomas M; Ihssen, Niklas; Brindley, Lisa M; Tansey, Katherine E; Mantripragada, Kiran; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Linden, David E J

    2016-02-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia liability can be explained by additive genetic factors. Risk profile scores (RPS) directly index risk using a summated total of common risk variants weighted by their effect. Previous studies suggest that schizophrenia RPS predict alterations to neural networks that support working memory and verbal fluency. In this study, we apply schizophrenia RPS to fMRI data to elucidate the effects of polygenic risk on functional brain networks during a probabilistic-learning neuroimaging paradigm. The neural networks recruited during this paradigm have previously been shown to be altered to unmedicated schizophrenia patients and relatives of schizophrenia patients, which may reflect genetic susceptibility. We created schizophrenia RPS using summary data from the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium (Schizophrenia Working Group) for 83 healthy individuals and explore associations between schizophrenia RPS and blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) during periods of choice behavior (switch-stay) and reflection upon choice outcome (reward-punishment). We show that schizophrenia RPS is associated with alterations in the frontal pole (PWHOLE-BRAIN-CORRECTED  = 0.048) and the ventral striatum (PROI-CORRECTED  = 0.036), during choice behavior, but not choice outcome. We suggest that the common risk variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia can be associated with alterations in the neural circuitry that support the processing of changing reward contingencies. Hum Brain Mapp 37:491-500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Corollary Discharge Failure in an Oculomotor Task Is Related to Delusional Ideation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassis, Raphaëlle; Del Cul, Antoine; Collins, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the sensory consequences of saccadic eye movements likely plays a crucial role in planning sequences of saccades and in maintaining visual stability despite saccade-caused retinal displacements. Deficits in predictive activity, such as that afforded by a corollary discharge signal, have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, and may lead to the emergence of positive symptoms, in particular delusions of control and auditory hallucinations. We examined whether a measure of delusional thinking in the general, non-clinical population correlated with measures of predictive activity in two oculomotor tasks. The double-step task measured predictive activity in motor control, and the in-flight displacement task measured predictive activity in trans-saccadic visual perception. Forty-one healthy adults performed both tasks and completed a questionnaire to assess delusional thinking. The quantitative measure of predictive activity we obtained correlated with the tendency towards delusional ideation, but only for the motor task, and not the perceptual task: Individuals with higher levels of delusional thinking showed less self-movement information use in the motor task. Variation of the degree of self-generated movement knowledge as a function of the prevalence of delusional ideation in the normal population strongly supports the idea that corollary discharge deficits measured in schizophrenic patients in previous researches are not due to neuroleptic medication. We also propose that this difference in results between the perceptual and the motor tasks may point to a dissociation between corollary discharge for perception and corollary discharge for action. PMID:26305115

  3. 99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide: biokinetics and radiation dosimetry in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-García, Blanca E; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Luna-Gutiérrez, Myrna A; Ignacio-Alvarez, Eleazar; Pedraza-López, Martha; Manzano-Mayoral, Cesar

    2017-11-01

    About 90% of insulinomas are benign and 5-15% are malignant. Benign insulinomas express the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, which recognizes exendin-4 and low levels of the somatostatin receptor (SSTR, which recognizes octreotide), whereas malignant insulinomas overexpress SSTR and low levels of GLP-1R. Recently, Lys(Tc-EDDA/HYNIC)-exendin(9-39)/Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr-octreotide was formulated to detect 100% of insulinomas. The aim of this study was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide in four healthy individuals. Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide was obtained from a lyophilized formulation with radiochemical purities of more than 97%, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole-body images from four healthy individuals were acquired at 20 min, 2, 6, and 24 h after Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide administration. Regions of interest were drawn around the source organs on each time frame. Each region of interest was corrected by background, attenuation, scattered radiation, and physical decay. The image sequence was used to extrapolate the Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide time-activity curves of each organ to adjust the biokinetic model and calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation doses. Furthermore, in a patient suspicious of harboring an insulinoma, whole-body single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images were obtained at 3 h. For four healthy individuals, the blood activity showed a half-life value of 1.20 min for the fast component (T1/2 α=ln 2/34.71), 8.7 min for the first slow component (T1/2 β=ln 2/4.76), and 1.7 h for the second slow component (T1/2 γ=ln 2/0.401). The average equivalent doses calculated for a study using 555 MBq were 15.10, 4.13, 3.08, 2.61, and 1.90 mSv for the kidneys, upper large intestinal wall, lower large

  4. Automated detection of unfilled pauses in speech of healthy and brain-damaged individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    Automated detection of un lled pauses in speech of healthy and brain-damaged individuals Roelant Ossewaardea,b, Roel Jonkersa, Fedor Jalvingha,c, Roelien Bastiaansea aCenter for Language and Cognition, University of Groningen; bInstitute for ICT, HU University of Applied Science, Utrecht; cSt.

  5. T-cell dynamics in healthy and HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrisekoop, N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on T-cell dynamics in healthy and both treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals. Although the progressive decline in CD4+ T-cell numbers is the hallmark of HIV infection, the mechanisms behind this depletion remain controversial. Currently the most prevailing ideas include

  6. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...

  7. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Badoud

    Full Text Available To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO individuals.Thirty adults (35-70 yrs were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs.The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05. Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC.MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals.

  8. Jumping to conclusions style along the continuum of delusions: delusion-prone individuals are not hastier in decision making than healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Ho-wai So

    Full Text Available Literature comparing 'jumping to conclusions' (JTC between patients and healthy controls has demonstrated the importance of the reasoning bias in the development of delusions. When groups that vary along the entire delusional continuum are included, the relationship between JTC and delusionality is less clear. This study compared JTC and delusional dimensions between 28 patients with delusions, 35 delusion-prone individuals and 32 non-delusion-prone individuals. Delusion proneness was defined by an established threshold based on the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Two versions of the beads task (85:15 and 60:40 were used to measure JTC. As hypothesized, patients manifested hastier data gathering than the two non-clinical groups on both beads tasks. However, delusion-prone individuals did not manifest a hastier decision making style than non-delusion prone individuals. Instead, non-delusion-prone participants showed more JTC bias than delusion-prone individuals on the easier beads task. There was no evidence for a dose-response relationship between JTC and delusional dimensions, with correlations between JTC and PDI scores found in the non-delusion-prone group only. The present finding confirms the link between an extreme JTC bias and the presence of clinical delusions, and argues against a linear relationship between JTC and delusionality along the symptomatic continuum.

  9. Enteroendocrine K and L cells in healthy and type 2 diabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Tina; Rhee, Nicolai A.; Pedersen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Enteroendocrine K and L cells are pivotal in regulating appetite and glucose homeostasis. Knowledge of their distribution in humans is sparse and it is unknown whether alterations occur in type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of enteroendocrine K and L cells...... and relevant prohormone-processing enzymes (using immunohistochemical staining), and to evaluate the mRNA expression of the corresponding genes along the entire intestinal tract in individuals with type 2 diabetes and healthy participants. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 12 individuals with type 2...... diabetes and 12 age- and BMI-matched healthy individuals underwent upper and lower double-balloon enteroscopy with mucosal biopsy retrieval from approximately every 30 cm of the small intestine and from seven specific anatomical locations in the large intestine. Results: Significantly different densities...

  10. No effect of escitalopram versus placebo on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy individuals: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Soendergaard, Mia H Greisen; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Winkel, Per; Kessing, Lars V

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to play an important role in the course of depression including the response to antidepressants in patients with depression. We aimed to study the effect of an antidepressant intervention on peripheral BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression. We measured changes in BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and whole-blood BDNF levels in 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. We found no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels in the escitalopram-treated group. The results of this randomised trial suggest that escitalopram 10 mg has no effect on peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals.

  11. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Symptom Profiles in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Nurko, Samuel; Saps, Miguel; Saeed, Shehzad A; Bendo, Cristiane B; Patel, Ashish S; Dark, Chelsea Vaughan; Zacur, George M; Pohl, John F

    2015-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of gastrointestinal symptoms are recommended to determine treatment effects for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP). Study objectives were to compare the symptom profiles of pediatric patients with IBS or FAP with healthy controls and with each other using the PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry Scales, and to establish clinical interpretability of PRO scale scores through identification of minimal important difference (MID) scores. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 154 pediatric patients and 161 parents (162 families; IBS n = 46, FAP n = 119). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, stomach discomfort when eating, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, nausea and vomiting, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in poop, and diarrhea were administered along with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales. A matched sample of 447 families with healthy children completed the scales. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales distinguished between patients with IBS or FAP compared with healthy controls (P 1.50) for symptoms indicative of IBS or FAP, demonstrating a broad multidimensional gastrointestinal symptom profile and clinical interpretability with MID scores for individual PRO scales. Patients with IBS manifested more symptoms of constipation, gas and bloating, and diarrhea than patients with FAP. Patients with IBS or FAP manifested a broad gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls with large differences, indicating the critical need for more effective interventions to bring patient functioning within the range of healthy functioning.

  13. Why Oats Are Safe and Healthy for Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luud J. W. J. Gilissen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes. Avenins are present at a lower concentration (10%–15% of total protein content in oat as compared to gluten in wheat (80%–85%. The avenins in the genus Avena (cultivated oat as well as various wild species of which gene bank accessions were analyzed are free of the known CD immunogenic epitopes from wheat, barley, and rye. T cells that recognize avenin-specific epitopes have been found very rarely in CD patients. CD patients that consume oats daily do not show significantly increased levels of intraepithelial lymphocyte (EIL cells. The safety and the positive health effects of the long-term inclusion of oats in the gluten-free diet have been confirmed in long-term studies. Since 2009 (EC 41/2009 and 2013 (FDA oat products may be sold as gluten-free in several countries provided a gluten contamination level below 20 ppm. Introduction of oats in the gluten-free diet of celiac patients is advised after the recovery of the intestine. Health effects of oat consumption are reflected in European Food Safety Authority (EFSA- and Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved health claims. Oats can form a healthy, nutritious, fiber-rich, and safe complement to the gluten-free diet.

  14. Analysis of prototypical narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silveira

    Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective:[1] To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. [2] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals. [3] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.

  15. Differences in gluten metabolism among healthy volunteers, coeliac disease patients and first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Ferrero, Miguel A; Vaquero Ayala, Luis; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José M G; Albillos, Silvia M; Casqueiro, Francisco Javier

    2015-10-28

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten proteins are partially digested by human proteases generating immunogenic peptides that cause inflammation in patients carrying HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genes. Although intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with patients with CD, bacterial metabolism of gluten has not been studied in depth thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse the metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria associated with gluten intake in healthy individuals, CD patients and first-degree relatives of CD patients. Faecal samples belonging to twenty-two untreated CD patients, twenty treated CD patients, sixteen healthy volunteers on normal diet, eleven healthy volunteers on gluten-free diet (GFD), seventy-one relatives of CD patients on normal diet and sixty-nine relatives on GFD were tested for several proteolytic activities, cultivable bacteria involved in gluten metabolism, SCFA and the amount of gluten in faeces. We detected faecal peptidasic activity against the gluten-derived peptide 33-mer. CD patients showed differences in faecal glutenasic activity (FGA), faecal tryptic activity (FTA), SCFA and faecal gluten content with respect to healthy volunteers. Alterations in specific bacterial groups metabolising gluten such as Clostridium or Lactobacillus were reported in CD patients. Relatives showed similar parameters to CD patients (SCFA) and healthy volunteers (FTA and FGA). Our data support the fact that commensal microbial activity is an important factor in the metabolism of gluten proteins and that this activity is altered in CD patients.

  16. Effect of upper body plyometric training on physical performance in healthy individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Deepika; Hussain, M Ejaz; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2018-01-01

    To determine the impact of upper body plyometric training (UBPT) on physical performance parameters such as strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance and power in healthy individuals. PubMed, Scopus, ResearchGate and ERIC databases were searched up to August 2017. Selection of articles was done if they described the outcomes of an upper body plyometric exercise intervention; included measures of strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance, or power; included healthy individuals; used a randomized control trial; and had full text available in English language. The exclusion criteria were unpublished research work and clubbing of UBPT with some other type(s) of training apart from routine sports training. PEDro scale was used to rate the quality of studies eligible for this review. Initially 264 records were identified and out of them only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria and were selected (PEDro score = 4 to 6). Though large to very small effects observed in improving ball throwing velocity, ball throwing distance, power and strength of upper limb muscles after UBPT, the results should be implemented with caution. Inconclusive results obtained preclude any strong conclusion regarding the efficacy of UBPT on physical performance in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  18. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Dysfunctional Attitudes and Coping Strategies in Substance Dependent and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A'zami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: From the psychological point of view, coping strategies and attitudes have considerable effects on people’s tendency towards risky behavior, including opioid substance abuse. Dysfunctional attitudes are attitudes and beliefs that predispose the individual toward depression and psychological disorder, generally speaking. Usually, people use three types of coping strategies when confronting stressful situations problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance strategies. This study therefore aimed to compare dysfunctional attitudes and coping strategies in substance-dependent & healthy individuals. Methods: A causal-comparative study was conducted. The population under study consisted of 100 addicts attending Robat-Karim’s addiction rehabilitation centers who were selected through simple random sampling. Another 100 ordinary individuals were matched with the addicts. The dysfunctional attitudes scale and the coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Results: The two groups differed significantly in their dysfunctional attitudes and problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Substance-dependent individuals applied emotion-focused coping more and had greater dysfunctional attitudes than the healthy ones, and the latter applied problem-focused strategies more. Discussion: Based on our results, addicts have greater dysfunctional attitudes than non-addicts. Therefore, better treatment and rehabilitation results may be obtained by preparing grounds for appropriate psychological interventions and coping strategies in substance-dependent individuals.

  20. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72) or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45). The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK) cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant) and 41% lower interleukin (IL)-12 levels (significant). The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05) than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:29238351

  1. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjoo Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72 or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45. The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant and 41% lower interleukin (IL-12 levels (significant. The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05 than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities.

  2. Oxidative stress and inflammation in renal patients and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Lee

    Full Text Available The first goal of this study was to measure the oxidative stress (OS and relate it to lipoprotein variables in 35 renal patients before dialysis (CKD, 37 on hemodialysis (HD and 63 healthy subjects. The method for OS was based on the ratio of cholesteryl esters (CE containing C18/C16 fatty acids (R2 measured by gas chromatography (GC which is a simple, direct, rapid and reliable procedure. The second goal was to investigate and identify a triacylglycerol peak on GC, referred to as TG48 (48 represents the sum of the three fatty acids carbon chain lengths which was markedly increased in renal patients compared to healthy controls. We measured TG48 in patients and controls. Mass spectrometry (MS and MS twice in tandem were used to analyze the fatty acid composition of TG48. MS showed that TG48 was abundant in saturated fatty acids (SFAs that were known for their pro-inflammatory property. TG48 was significantly and inversely correlated with OS. Renal patients were characterized by higher OS and inflammation than healthy subjects. Inflammation correlated strongly with TG, VLDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo C-III and apoC-III bound to apoB-containing lipoproteins, but not with either total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol.In conclusion, we have discovered a new inflammatory factor, TG48. It is characterized with TG rich in saturated fatty acids. Renal patients have increased TG48 than healthy controls.

  3. All-Cause Mortality Risk of Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals in NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Durward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1 homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR <2.5; (2 ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3 combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications, triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males or <1.30 mmol/L (females, LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n=4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1±10.9 years, BMI 27.3±5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female. Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4, P<0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9, P<0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8, P<0.01. MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.

  4. Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2018-07-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

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    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  6. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

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    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular

  7. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  8. Activation of the attachment system and mentalization in depressive and healthy individuals: An experimental control study

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    Fizke Ella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.

  9. Static postural balance in healthy individuals: Comparisons between three age groups

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    Yanne Salviano Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare static postural balance of healthy individuals of three age groups in different conditions of support and vision. Seventy one individuals, divided into 3 groups, were analyzed: young group (YG: 22.2 ± 2.1 years, middle aged group (MAG: 50.7 ± 5.7 years and older individuals group (EG: 66.8 ± 5.4 years. Their balance was tested on a force platform, under 3 support and 3 visual conditions. Measures included: total (TD, anterior-posterior (APD and mediolateral displacement (MLD of the center of pressure (CoP. ANOVA revealed significant differences for interactions between group X support conditions and group X visual conditions for the 3 variables (p<0.01, with greater displacements for the MAG and EG groups during single-leg stance with partial and occluded vision (p<0.05. Static postural balance decreased over time in healthy individuals, and conditions of support and visual negatively affected balance with the increment of age.

  10. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  11. Prevalence of Oral Human Papilloma Virus in Healthy Individuals in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEIFI, Sharareh; ASVADI KERMANI, Iraj; DOLATKHAH, Roya; ASVADI KERMANI, Atabak; SAKHINIA, Ebrahim; ASGARZADEH, Mohammad; DASTGIRI, Saeed; EBRAHIMI, Ayoub; ASGHARI HAGGI, Arezou; NADRI, Mahsa; ASVADI KERMANI, Touraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Methods: Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers completed questionnaires and signed a written consent. For data analysis descriptive statistic, chi square test and odds ratio was used. Results: The frequency of oral HPV in healthy individuals was 6.1 %(seven participant).The most frequent type was HPV-18 in five of them. HPV-6 and HPV-66 each was detected in one case. Relation of oral HPV positivity to demographic features and risk factors was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of oral HPV infection in our community is the same as many other communities of developing countries, stressing that HPV-18 were the dominant type. PMID:23514804

  12. Prevalence of oral human papilloma virus in healthy individuals in East azerbaijan province of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Sharareh; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Dolatkhah, Roya; Asvadi Kermani, Atabak; Sakhinia, Ebrahim; Asgarzadeh, Mohammad; Dastgiri, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Ayoub; Asghari Haggi, Arezou; Nadri, Mahsa; Asvadi Kermani, Touraj

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers completed questionnaires and signed a written consent. For data analysis descriptive statistic, chi square test and odds ratio was used. The frequency of oral HPV in healthy individuals was 6.1 %(seven participant).The most frequent type was HPV-18 in five of them. HPV-6 and HPV-66 each was detected in one case. Relation of oral HPV positivity to demographic features and risk factors was not statistically significant. The prevalence of oral HPV infection in our community is the same as many other communities of developing countries, stressing that HPV-18 were the dominant type.

  13. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

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    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  14. A Smart Insole to Promote Healthy Aging for Frail Elderly Individuals: Specifications, Design, and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piau, Antoine; Charlon, Yoann; Campo, Eric; Vellas, Bruno; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2015-05-25

    Older individuals frequently experience reversible "frailty syndrome,", increasing incidence of disability. Although physical exercise interventions may delay functional decline, there are difficulties in implementing them and performing seamless follow-up at home. Very few technological solutions attempt to address this challenge and improve individual participation. Our objectives are to (1) develop a technological solution designed to support active aging of frail older persons, (2) conduct a first laboratory evaluation of the device, and (3) design a multidimensional clinical trial to validate our solution. We conducted a first phase of multidisciplinary meetings to identify real end users and health professional's unmet needs, and to produce specifications for the architecture of the solution. In a second phase, we performed laboratory tests of the first proposed prototype (a smart insole) with 3 healthy volunteers. We then designed an ongoing clinical trial to finalize the multidimensional evaluation and improvement of the solution. To respond to the needs expressed by the stakeholders (frailty monitoring and adherence improvement), we developed a prototype of smart shoe insole to monitor key parameters of frailty during daily life and promote walking. It is a noninvasive wireless insole, which automatically measures gait parameters and transmits information to a remote terminal via a secure Internet connection. To ensure the solution's autonomy and transparency, we developed an original energy harvesting system, which transforms mechanical energy produced by the user's walking movement into electrical energy. The first laboratory tests of this technological solution showed good reliability measures and also a good acceptability for the users. We have planned an original iterative medical research protocol to validate our solution in real life. Our smart insole could support preventive strategies against disability in primary care by empowering the older

  15. Diet quality of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Lauren Thomas; Kiely, Mary; Yazici, Yusuf; Woolf, Kathleen

    2017-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) afflicts approximately 1.5 million American adults and is a major cause of disability. As disease severity worsens, individuals with RA may experience functional decline that can impact dietary intake. The objective of this study is to assess the diet quality of individuals with RA using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 and examine associations between diet quality and disease activity and functional status. This cross-sectional study assessed diet quality and disease activity and functional status in adults with RA. Participants completed seven-day weighed food records, which were scored using the HEI-2010. Participants had a fasting blood draw and completed the Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire to determine disease activity and functional status. The mean age of individuals with RA ( N = 84) was 53 ± 14 years, and 86.9% were female. The mean HEI-2010 total score was 58.7 ± 15.9, with 7.1% of participants scoring "good", 58.3% "fair", and 34.5% "poor". Most participants did not adhere to recommended intakes of total fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories. An unadjusted multiple linear regression model found duration of morning stiffness and C-reactive protein concentration to be significant variables to inversely predict HEI-2010 total score. The diet quality of many individuals with RA needs improvement and may be related to functional disability associated with RA. Healthcare providers should encourage individuals with RA to meet dietary guidelines and maintain a healthy diet. Moreover, healthcare providers should be aware of the potential impacts of functional disability on diet quality in individuals with RA.

  16. EFFECT OF HIGH ALTITUDE ON ERECTILE FUNCTION IN OTHERWISE HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

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    Usama Bin Zubair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of high altitude on Erectile function in otherwise healthy individuals and associated socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: January 2014 to March 2014 at Goma, Siachin. Material and Methods: One hundred & twenty two married male subjects living at an altitude of more than 15000 feet for more than 3 month and less than one year were included in the study. Erectile dysfunction (ED was assessed using International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5. Age, education, smoking, monthly income, any drug intake, altitude, duration of stay and weather conditions were correlated independently with ED. Results: Out of 122, 26 (21.3% had no ED, 18 had mild, 28 (14.8% had mild to moderate, 36(29.5% had moderate and 14 (11.5% had severe ED. Advancing age, low monthly income, smoking, high altitude, cold weather and longer duration of stay had significant association with ED (p-value<0.05 while education and use of any drug were not found significantly associated in our study. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction among otherwise healthy individuals when exposed to high altitude. Special attention should be paid on individuals with more age, less income and those working or residing at higher altitudes in peak winter season. Smoking and stay for longer durations should also be discouraged.

  17. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in young, healthy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Morag-Koren, Nira; Grossman, Ehud

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence and magnitude of inter-arm BP difference (IAD) in young healthy patients is not well characterized. Flight academy applicants and designated aviators undergo annual evaluation that includes blood pressure (BP) measurement on both arms. All BP measurements performed from January 1, 2012, to April 30, 2012, were recorded and IAD was calculated. Results were compared between patients in whom BP was initially measured in the right arm (group 1), those in whom BP was initially measured in the left arm (group 2), and those in whom the arm in which BP was initially measured was not recorded (group 3). A total of 877 healthy patients had BP measured during the study period. In the entire group, mean systolic BP was the same in both arms. Absolute IAD was 5.6±5.5 mm Hg for systolic and 4.7±4.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP. IAD >10 mm Hg was recorded in 111 (12.6%) and 77 (8.8%) patients for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. IAD was the same in the 3 groups and was unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate, but was related to systolic BP. IAD is common in young healthy patients, is not dependent on which arm was measured first, and unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, Y.; Adem, E.; Getahun, M.; Tajebe, F.; Kiflie, A.; Hailu, A.; Raynes, J.; Mengesha, B.; Ayele, T. A.; Shkedy, Z.; Lemma, M.; Diro, E.; Toulza, F.; Modolell, M.; Munder, M.; Müller, I.; Kropf, P.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4–16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI <16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (≥18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to

  19. Psychophysiological types of clinically healthy individuals with different levels of teeth resistance to caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Khalturina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is a result of the psychophysiological tests with the help of cutting examination and psychogeometrical tests for 76 healthy individuals ages 20,18±1,25 years, having different caries resistance. It is known that group of people with poor caries resistance has a conflict type of personality. There is a positive tendency to growth of anxiety level and reducing caries resistance. The article concludes that the prophylaxis of caries and its complications must contain methods of psychophysiological correction

  20. Reduced glomerular size- and charge-selectivity in clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Deckert, T

    1995-01-01

    The pathophysiologic mechanism behind microalbuminuria, a potential atherosclerotic risk factor, was explored by measuring fractional clearances of four endogenous plasma proteins of different size and electric charge (albumin, beta 2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin G4). Twenty......-eight clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin excretion of 6.6-150 micrograms min-1, and 60 matched control subjects were studied. Fractional immunoglobulin G clearance was higher (geometric means (95% confidence intervals)) 3.0 (2.3-3.9) x 10(-6), n = 28, vs. 2.1 (1...

  1. Expression of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 in individuals with healthy gingiva and chronic periodontitis

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    Sivasankari Thilagar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protease-activated receptors (PAR-1 and PAR-2 are found to be immensely exhibited in the periodontal tissues. These receptors are involved in the inflammatory and repair processes. Activation of PARs is mainly by the bacterial and endogenous enzymes. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in initiating periodontal inflammation and to immunolocalize these receptors in the gingival tissues of healthy and chronic periodontitis individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients were selected for this study, of which 25 were healthy controls and 25 were chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival tissues were excised from the marginal gingiva and interdental papilla under local anesthesia (xylocaine with 2% adrenaline during crown lengthening procedure or during periodontal therapy depending on the respective groups. Immunohistochemical analyses of PARs were done by staining the samples with hematoxylin and eosin and with primary and secondary antibody for PAR-1 and PAR-2. Results: The Hematoxylin and Eosin staining showed more inflammatory changes in the periodontitis group compared to healthy gingiva. In chronic periodontitis, PAR-1-positive cells were seen in the basal layer with a weak expression and were showing negative expression in the superficial layer. In consideration of PAR-2, there was a very strong expression up to the superficial layer of the epithelium, compared to PAR-1. On comparing the intensity of staining in the connective tissue of chronic periodontitis sample, there was an increased expression of PAR-2 compared with PAR-1. A low positive expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2 was observed in the epithelium and connective tissue of the healthy tissues. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrated the role of PAR-1 and 2 in periodontal inflammation.

  2. Risk of myocardial infarction and death associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among healthy individuals: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, E L; Gislason, G H; Jacobsen, S

    2008-01-01

    Use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several patient groups, but whether this excess risk exists in apparently healthy individuals has not been clarified. Using a historical cohort design, we estimated the risk of death...... and myocardial infarction associated with the use of NSAIDs. Participants in the study were selected from the Danish population and were defined as healthy according to a history of no hospital admissions and no concomitant selected pharmacotherapy. The source population consisted of 4,614,807 individuals...

  3. High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra-high-resolut......High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra......-high-resolution line-pair phantome with both systems. Secondly, we investigated 21 healthy volunteers of different phototypes with HD-OCT and RCM on volar forearm and compared the generated images. HD-OCT displays also differences depending on the skin phototype and anatomical site. The 3-μm lateral resolution...... of the HD-OCT could be confirmed by the phantom analysis. The identification of cells in the epidermis can be made by both techniques. RCM offers the best lateral resolution, and HD-OCT has the best penetration depth, providing images of individual cells deeper within the dermis. Eccrine ducts and hair...

  4. Can healthy, young adults uncover personal details of unknown target individuals in their dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlyle

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that undergraduate college students could incubate dreams containing information about unknown target individuals with significant life problems. In Experiment 1, students provided two baseline dreams. They were then exposed to a photo of an individual and invited to dream about a health problem (unknown to them and the experimenter) of that individual and asked to provide two more dreams. From a class of 65 students, 12 dreamers volunteered dreams about the unknown target. In Experiment 2, 66 students were asked to dream about the life problems of a second individual, simply by looking at the photo (experimental group). Another 56 students were exposed to this same paradigm, but the photo that they examined was computer generated and the target individual was fictitious (control group). The dream elements were objectively scored with categories devised using the Hall-Van de Castle system as a model. Data were ordinal, and the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to examine preincubation (baseline) versus postincubation (photo examination and incubation) dream content in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a Z score for proportions was used to compare differences in frequency of devised categories between experimental and control groups. In Experiment 1, the comparison of postincubation dreams (all categories combined) was significant compared with the preincubation dreams (Z = 2.09, P = .036). The postincubation dreams reflected the health problem of the target. In Experiment 2, the proportion of scored categories in experimental and control groups were compared at the preincubation and postincubation conditions. The proportions of "Combined" (all categories) was very significantly larger at the postincubation condition (Z = 6.27, P dreams of the experimental group were related to the problems of the target individual. Young, healthy adults are capable of dreaming details about the personal problems of an unknown individual

  5. Epicardial fat volume and aortic stiffness in healthy individuals. A quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Thomas, D.; Meier-Schroers, M.; Dabir, D.; Kuetting, D.; Luetkens, J.A.; Marx, C.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Sprinkart, A. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

    2016-09-15

    To determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) and aortic stiffness (assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in healthy individuals, and to investigate the relationship of these parameters, and their association with body mass index (BMI) and age. 58 subjects (29 men, mean age 44.7 ± 13.9 years[y]) underwent a CMR exam at 1.5 Tesla. A 2 D velocity-encoded CMR scan was acquired to determine PWV. The EFV was measured based on a 3 D-mDixon sequence. Group comparisons were made between younger (age < 45y; n=30; mean age 33.4 ± 6.6y) and older (> 45y; n=28; 56.7 ± 8.4y) subjects and between subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=28; BMI 21.9 ± 2.5 kg/m{sup 2}) and a BMI > 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=30; 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Associations between the determined parameters were assessed by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). The mean values of PWV and EFV (normalized to body surface area) were 6.9 ±1.9 m/s and 44.2 ± 25.0 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. The PWV and EFV were significantly higher in the older group (PWV=7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 m/s; EFV=54.7 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 34.5 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01, each), with no significant differences in BMI or sex. In the overweighted group the EFV was significantly higher than in subjects with a BMI < 25kg/m{sup 2} (EFV=56.1 ± 27.1 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 31.5 ± 14.6 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01) but without a significant difference in PWV. ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between EFV and PWV, also after adjustment for age (p=0.025). An association was found between age and EFV as well as PWV. EFV and PWV were related to each other also after adjustment for age. The metabolic and pro-inflammatory activity found with increased epicardial fat volume may promote the development of atherosclerosis and aortic stiffness. CMR may be valuable for future studies investigating the relationship between EFV and PWV in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

  6. Individual behavioral and neurochemical markers of unadapted decision-making processes in healthy inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaras, Elsa; Callebert, Jacques; Chennaoui, Mounir; Rabat, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of decision-making processes is the inter-individual variability between healthy subjects. These behavioral patterns could constitute risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, finding predictive markers of safe or risky decision-making is an important challenge for psychiatry research. We set up a mouse gambling task (MGT)-adapted from the human Iowa gambling task with uncertain contingencies between response and outcome that furthermore enables the emergence of inter-individual differences. Mice (n = 54) were further individually characterized for locomotive, emotional and cognitive behavior. Individual basal rates of monoamines and brain activation after the MGT were assessed in brain regions related to reward, emotion or cognition. In a large healthy mice population, 44 % showed a balanced strategy with limited risk-taking and flexible choices, 29 % showed a safe but rigid strategy, while 27 % adopted risky behavior. Risky mice took also more risks in other apparatus behavioral devices and were less sensitive to reward. No difference existed between groups regarding anxiety, working memory, locomotion and impulsivity. Safe/rigid mice exhibited a hypoactivation of prefrontal subareas, a high level of serotonin in the orbitofrontal cortex combined with a low level of dopamine in the putamen that predicted the emergence of rigid behavior. By contrast, high levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenalin in the hippocampus predicted the emergence of more exploratory and risky behaviors. The coping of C57bl/6J mice in MGT enables the determination of extreme patterns of choices either safe/rigid or risky/flexible, related to specific neurochemical and behavioral markers.

  7. Individual signatures and environmental factors shape skin microbiota in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuscó, Anna; Belanger, Janelle M; Gershony, Liza; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Levy, Kerinne; Medrano, Juan F; Sánchez, Armand; Oberbauer, Anita M; Francino, Olga

    2017-10-13

    The individual, together with its environment, has been reported as the main force driving composition and structure of skin microbiota in healthy dogs. Therefore, one of the major concerns when analyzing canine skin microbiota is the likely influence of the environment. Despite the dense fur covering, certain skin diseases exhibit differential prevalence among skin sites, dog breeds, and individuals. We have characterized the normal variability of dog skin microbiota in a well-controlled cohort of a large number of Golden-Labrador Retriever crossed dogs (N = 35) with similar ages, related genetic background, and a shared environment. We found that the individual drives the skin microbiota composition and structure followed by the skin site. The main bacterial classes inhabiting dog skin in this cohort are Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli. We also detected bacteria associated to the environment on different dog skin sites that could be reflecting the different degrees of exposure of each skin site and each dog. Network analyses elucidated bacterial interactions within and between skin sites, especially in the chin, abdomen, axilla, and perianal region, with the highly shared interactions probably representing an anatomical, behavioral, or environmental component. When analyzing each skin site independently to assess host-specific factors, we found that temporality (season of birth and time spent in the kennel) affected all the skin sites and specially the inner pinna. The most abundant taxon driving this difference was Sphingomonas. We also found taxonomic differences among male and female dogs on the abdomen, axilla, and back. We observed a large inter-individual variability and differences among skin sites. Host-specific variables, such as temporality or sex, were also shaping skin microbiota of healthy dogs, even in an environmental homogenous cohort.

  8. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Antral Gastritis in Peptic Ulcer Disease Patients and Normal Healthy Population of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Jeelani Romshoo; G. M. Malik; M. Youssuf Bhat; Ab. Rashid rather; Javaid Ahmad Basu; Khursheed Ahmad Qureshi

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric...

  9. Does family history of metabolic syndrome affect the metabolic profile phenotype in young healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Anna; Koczaj-Bremer, Magdalena; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kaźmierczak, Agnieszka; Ciurzyński, Michał; Ou-Pokrzewińska, Aisha; Mikocka, Ewelina; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Demkow, Urszula; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of high-risk individuals is key for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of a family history of metabolic syndrome (fhMetS) on the risk of metabolic disorders (abnormal body mass, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and blood pressure) in healthy young individuals. We studied CVD risk factors in 90 healthy volunteers, aged 27-39 years; of these, 78 had fhMetS and 12 were without fhMetS (control group). Fasting serum lipids, glucose, and insulin levels were assayed, and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure using, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system, were measured. Nutritional and physical activity habits were assessed. Despite similar nutritional and physical activity habits, abnormal body mass was found in 53.2% of the fhMetS participants and 46.1% of the control participants (p = 0.54). The occurrence of obesity was 19.4% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.69). Compared to the control participants, fhMetS was associated with significantly higher total cholesterol (5.46 mmol/L vs. 4.69 mmol/L, p family history of MetS.

  10. Beyond the sensorimotor plasticity: cognitive expansion of prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eMICHEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti and his colleagues in 1998. Mirror effects, i.e. simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent and collaborators in 2000. The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes.

  11. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  12. Relationship of Muscle Mass Determined by DEXA with Spirometric Results in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Holguera, Rafael; Turrión Nieves, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Torres, Rosa; Alonso, María Concepción

    2017-07-01

    Muscle mass maybe a determining factor in the variability of spirometry results in individuals of the same sex and age who have similar anthropometric characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the association between spirometric results from healthy individuals and their muscle mass assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A sample of 161 women and 144 men, all healthy non-smokers, was studied. Ages ranged from18 to77years. For each subject, spirometry results and total and regional lean mass values obtained by full body DEXA were recorded. A descriptive analysis of the variables and a regression analysis were performed to study the relationship between spirometric variables and lean body mass, correcting for age and body mass index (BMI). In both sexes all muscle mass variables correlated positively and significantly with spirometric variables, and to a greater extent in men. After partial adjustment of correlations by age and BMI, the factor which best explains the spirometric variables is the total lean body mass in men, and trunk lean body mass in women. In men, muscle mass in the lower extremities is most closely associated with spirometric results. In women, it is the muscle mass of the trunk. In both sexes muscle mass mainly affects FEV 1 . Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Are natural killer cells protecting the metabolically healthy obese patient?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia A

    2012-02-01

    With the emerging obesity pandemic, identifying those who appear to be protected from adverse consequences such as type 2 diabetes and certain malignancies will become important. We propose that the circulating immune system plays a role in the development of these comorbidities. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 52 patients with severe obesity attending a hospital weight-management clinic and 11 lean healthy controls. Patients were classified into metabolically "healthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 42.6 years, mean BMI 46.8 kg\\/m(2)) or "unhealthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 45 years, mean BMI 47.5 kg\\/m(2)) groups, based upon standard cutoff points for blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting glucose. Circulating lymphoid populations and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Obese patients had significantly less circulating natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) compared to lean controls. There were significantly higher levels of NK cells and CTLs in the healthy obese group compared to the unhealthy obese group (NK: 11.7% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.0001, CD8 13.4% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.04), independent of age and BMI and these NK cells were also less activated in the healthy compared to the unhealthy group (CD69, 4.1% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.03). This is the first time that quantitative differences in the circulating immune system of obese patients with similar BMI but different metabolic profiles have been described. The significantly higher levels of CTLs and NK cells, which express fewer inhibitory molecules, could protect against malignancy, infection, and metabolic disease seen in obesity.

  14. Fatty liver as a risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy to metabolically abnormal in non-overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Fukuda, Takuya; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies identified that metabolically abnormal non-obese phenotype is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that fatty liver had a clinical impact on progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. In this retrospective cohort study, 14,093 Japanese (7557 men and 6736 women), who received the health-checkup program from 2004 to 2012, were enrolled. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index 23.0-25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m 2 . Four metabolic factors (impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration) were used for definition of metabolically healthy (less than two factors) or metabolically abnormal (two or more). We divided the participants into three groups: metabolically healthy non-overweight (9755 individuals, men/women = 4290/5465), metabolically healthy overweight (2547 individuals, 1800/747) and metabolically healthy obesity (1791 individuals, 1267/524). Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Over the median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 873 metabolically healthy non-overweight, 512 metabolically healthy overweight and 536 metabolically healthy obesity individuals progressed to metabolically abnormal. The adjusted hazard risks of fatty liver on progression were 1.49 (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.83, p = 0.005) in metabolically healthy non-overweight, 1.37 (1.12-1.66, p = 0.002) in metabolically healthy overweight and 1.38 (1.15-1.66, p overweight individuals.

  15. Individual patient dosimetry using quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Oliva, J.; Baum, R.; Fisher, S.

    2002-01-01

    An approach is described to provide individual patient dosimetry for routine clinical use. Accurate quantitative SPECT imaging was achieved using appropriate methods. The volume of interest (VOI) was defined semi-automatically using a fixed threshold value obtained from phantom studies. The calibration factor to convert the voxel counts from SPECT images into activity values was determine from calibrated point source using the same threshold value as in phantom studies. From selected radionuclide the dose within and outside a sphere of voxel dimension at different distances was computed through dose point-kernels to obtain a discrete absorbed dose kernel representation around the volume source with uniform activity distribution. The spatial activity distribution from SPECT imaging was convolved with this kernel representation using the discrete Fourier transform method to yield three-dimensional absorbed dose rate distribution. The accuracy of dose rates calculation was validated by software phantoms. The absorbed dose was determined by integration of the dose rate distribution for each volume of interest (VOI). Parameters for treatment optimization such as dose rate volume histograms and dose rate statistic are provided. A patient example was used to illustrate our dosimetric calculations

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection among healthy individuals referred to the medical center laboratories in Tehran City, Capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Baghani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Humans’ infection occurred by incidental ingestion of eggs shed in feces of dogs or cats. Studies on general population are rare in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated seroprevalence, and risk factors associated with toxocariasis among the healthy individuals in Tehran, capital if Iran.Materials and Methods: In total, 374 sera samples were investigated for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG. We applied ELISA as screening test using available commercial kit. In addition, demographic data were obtained from participant’s questionnaires. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16.Results: The overall seroprevalence of toxocariasis was found 5.6% (21/374. Regarding the socio-demographic variables, age (P<0.001 and eating unwashed vegetables (P=0.049 were significantly associated to toxocariasis in univariate analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, only age (P<0.001 was identified as potential risk factor associated with Toxocara infection.Conclusion: This study revealed that seroprevalence of toxocariasis is relatively low in the healthy individuals in Tehran. We suggest carrying out further studies in the different part of Iran and investigate on the prevalence of toxocariasis in high-risk groups such as asthma, hyper-eosinophilic, epilepsy, rheumatism and schizophrenia patients.

  17. The effects of oxytocin on fear recognition in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal eFischer-Shofty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia often show a marked deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions, as part of broader impairment of social cognition. Research has shown that recognition of negative emotions, specifically fear recognition, is particularly impaired among patients with schizophrenia. Recently we reported that intranasal administration of OT (IN OT increased the ability to correctly recognize fear in a group of healthy men. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of IN OT administration on fear recognition among patients with schizophrenia. Based on previous research, we also sought to examine a possible selective effect of OT dependent on baseline performance, hypothesizing that IN OT would have a greater enhancement effect on less proficient individuals. It was thus hypothesized that patients will show more improvement in fear recognition following the administration of IN OT as compared to controls. Sixty six participants (31 schizophrenia patients, 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. All participants received treatment of a single dose of 24 IU IN OT and an equivalent amount of placebo, one week apart. The participants’ ability to accurately recognize fear and happiness was evaluated using a face morphing task. Overall, as a group, both patients and healthy control participants were more accurate in recognizing fearful facial expressions, but not happy faces, following IN OT administration, as compared to their performance following placebo. IN OT did not differentially affect emotion recognition in patients and healthy controls. Yet, the results indicated a selective effect for IN OT, in which the hormone improves fear recognition only among individuals whose baseline performance was below the median, regardless of their psychiatric status.

  18. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  19. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  20. Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Wang, Yulan; Hao, Fuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study employs spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of fecal extracts from healthy subjects and patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) to substantiate the potential use of spectroscopy as a non-invasive diagnostic tool and to characterize the fecal......-projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis using SIMCA-P + 12 and MATLAB. Significant differences were found in the metabolic profiles making it possible to differentiate between active IBD and controls and between UC and CD. The metabolites holding differential power primarily belonged to a range of amino...... acids, microbiota-related short chain fatty acids, and lactate suggestive of an inflammation-driven malabsorption and dysbiosis of the normal bacterial ecology. However, removal of patients with intestinal surgery and anti-TNF-α antibody treatment eliminated the discriminative power regarding UC versus...

  1. Study on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS performance in healthy individuals, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Garcia da Costa Armentano

    Full Text Available Abstract Executive deficits as well as deficits in episodic memory characterize the initial phases of Alzheimer Disease (AD and are clinically correlated to neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional loss. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment present more problems as to inhibitory response control, switching and cognitive flexibility. Objective: To compare performance on the BADS with performance on other executive functional tests among patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI to performance of control individuals and to examine discriminative capacity of BADS among these groups. Methods: The BADS was performed by 35 healthy controls, 13 patients with aMCI, and 16 mild probable AD patients. Besides performing the BADS, subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation which comprised: the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS, verbal fluency by phonemic categories (F.A.S and Concentrated Attention Test (CA. Results: There were no differences among groups by educational level, but performance differed for age (p<0.01. No difference between healthy controls and aMCI patients was found on total scores or subitems of the BADS. A significant difference was observed between aMCI and AD patients (p<0.05 and between controls and AD patients (p<0.05 on total and standard scores. Conclusions: Performance on the BADS differed between healthy individuals and mild AD patients. The BADS proved to be a sensitive method for discriminating AD from aMCI.

  2. Plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity in healthy controls compared with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Ulku; Gamsiz-Isik, Hikmet; Cifcibasi, Emine; Ademoglu, Evin; Yalcin, Funda

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and periodontally healthy controls. This cross-sectional study includes of 88 individuals seeking dental treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2011 and March 2012. Fifteen AgP patients were compared with 21 healthy controls (C1), while 36 CP patients were compared with 16 healthy controls (C2). Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded, and plasma and saliva samples were collected. The TAOC of the plasma and saliva samples were determined using a commercially available colorimetric kit. The plasma TAOC of both AgP and CP patients was significantly lower for C1 and C2. The salivary TAOC of CP patients was significantly lower for C2, but there was no significant difference between AgP patients and C1. Our results demonstrate that severe periodontitis may be associated with a lower plasma antioxidant capacity. The reduced antioxidant capacity in patients with severe periodontitis, especially with aggressive forms may be an important contributing factor to severe tissue destruction.

  3. Femoral cartilage thickness measurements in healthy individuals: learning, practicing and publishing with TURK-MUSCULUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Levent; Tunç, Hakan; Öken, Öznur; Ünlü, Zeliha; Durmuş, Bekir; Baysal, Özlem; Altay, Zuhal; Tok, Fatih; Akkaya, Nuray; Doğu, Beril; Çapkın, Erhan; Bardak, Ayşenur; Çarlı, Alparslan Bayram; Buğdaycı, Derya; Toktaş, Hasan; Dıraçoğlu, Demirhan; Gündüz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Kocabaş, Hilal; Erden, Gül; Günendi, Zafer; Kesikburun, Serdar; Omaç, Özlem Köroğlu; Taşkaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Şenel, Kazım; Uğur, Mahir; Yalçınkaya, Ebru Yılmaz; Öneş, Kadriye; Atan, Çiğdem; Akgün, Kenan; Bilgici, Ayhan; Kuru, Ömer; Özgöçmen, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the femoral cartilage thickness by using in-vivo musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) has been previously shown to be a valid and reliable method in previous studies; however, to our best notice, normative data has not been provided before in the healthy population.The aim of our study was to provide normative data regarding femoral cartilage thicknesses of healthy individuals with collaborative use of MSUS. This is across-sectional study run at Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Departments of 18 Secondary and Tertiary Centers in Turkey. 1544 healthy volunteers (aged between 25-40 years) were recruited within the collaboration of TURK-MUSCULUS (Turkish Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography Study Group). Subjects who had a body mass index value of less than 30 and who did not have signs and symptoms of any degenerative/inflammatory arthritis or other rheumatic diseases, history of knee trauma and previous knee surgery were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements were performed axially from the suprapatellar window by using linear probes while subjects' knees were in maximum flexion. Three (mid-point) measurements were taken from both knees (lateral condyle, intercondylar area, medial condyle). A total of 2876 knees (of 817 M, 621 F subjects) were taken into analysis after exclusion of inappropriate images. Mean cartilage thicknesses were significantly lower in females than males (all p< 0.001). Thickness values negatively correlated with age; negatively (females) and positively (males) correlated with smoking. Men who regularly exercised had thicker cartilage than who did not exercise (all p < 0.05). Increased age (in both sexes) and absence of exercise (males) were found to be risk factors for decreased cartilage thicknesses. Further data pertaining to other countries would be interesting to uncover whether ethnic differences also affect cartilage thickness. Collaborative use of MSUS seems to be promising in this regard.

  4. Direct experience while eating: Laboratory outcomes among individuals with eating disorders versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Carmona, Cristina; Narváez, Vanessa; Seto, Victoria; Martin-Blanco, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; Soriano, José; Soler, Joaquim

    2017-12-01

    To compare individuals with eating disorders (EDs) to healthy controls (HCs) to assess for differences in direct engagement in the eating process. Participants (n=58) were asked to eat an orange slice. To assess the degree of direct engagement with the eating process, participants were asked to write down 10 thoughts about the experience of eating the orange slice. Next, the participants were instructed to classify the main focus of each thought as either experiential ("direct experience") or analytical ("thinking about"). A direct experience index (DEI) was computed by dividing the number of times that participants classified an experience as a "direct experience" (the numerator) by the total number of all observations (i.e., direct experience+thinking about). Participants also completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) to assess mindfulness facets and decentering, respectively. Compared to controls, participants in the EDs group presented significantly lower levels of direct experience during the eating task (EDs group: mean=43.54, SD=29.64; HCs group: mean=66.17, SD=22.23, p=0.03). Participants in the EDs group also scored significantly lower on other mindfulness-related variables. These findings suggest that engagement with the direct experience of eating is lower in individuals with EDs. Future research should investigate the role of mindfulness-based interventions to address direct experience while eating in individuals with EDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening for fecal carriage of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans and primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Zurfluh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of the occurrence of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 among humans is currently sparsely studied in Western Europe. Objectives To determine the occurrence of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of healthy humans with high occupational exposure to food and primary care patients in Switzerland. Methods Stool samples from 1091 healthy individuals and fecal swabs from 53 primary care patients were screened for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using LB agar containing 4 mg/L colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of colistin were determined for non-intrinsic colistin-resistant isolates. Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes. Results The fecal carriage rate of colistin resistant (MIC value >2 mg/l Enterobacteriaceae was 1.5% for healthy people and 3.8% for primary care patients. Isolates included Hafnia alvei (n = 9, Escherichia coli (n = 3, Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. None of the isolates harbored the mcr-1 or mcr-2 genes. Conclusions There is no evidence for the presence of MCR-producers in the fecal flora of healthy people or primary care patients. Therefore, the risk of transfer of mcr genes from animals, food or the environment to humans is likely to be low in Switzerland.

  6. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águida Foerster

    Full Text Available Introduction Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used to modify cortical excitability and promote motor learning. Objective To systematically review published data to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized studies that evaluated the tDCS effects on motor learning were included and the risk of bias was examined by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL with no language restriction. Results It was found 160 studies; after reading the title and abstract, 17 of those were selected, but just 4 were included. All studies involved healthy, right-handed adults. All studies assessed motor learning by the Jebsen Taylor Test or by the Serial Finger Tapping Task (SFTT. Almost all studies were randomized and all were blinding for participants. Some studies presented differences at SFTT protocol. Conclusion The result is insufficient to draw conclusions if tDCS influences the motor learning. Furthermore, there was significant heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters used. Further researches are needed to investigate the parameters that are more important for motor learning improvement and measure whether the effects are long-lasting or limited in time.

  7. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed ® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hemispheric metacontrol and cerebral dominance in healthy individuals investigated by means of chimeric faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2005-08-01

    Cerebral dominance and hemispheric metacontrol were investigated by testing the ability of healthy participants to match chimeric, entire, or half faces presented tachistoscopically. The two hemi-faces compounding chimeric or entire stimuli were presented simultaneously or asynchronously at different exposure times. Participants did not consciously detect chimeric faces for simultaneous presentations lasting up to 40 ms. Interestingly, a 20 ms separation between each half-chimera was sufficient to induce detection of conflicts at a conscious level. Although the presence of chimeric faces was not consciously perceived, performance on chimeric faces was poorer than on entire- and half-faces stimuli, thus indicating an implicit processing of perceptual conflicts. Moreover, the precedence of hemispheric stimulation over-ruled the right hemisphere dominance for face processing, insofar as the hemisphere stimulated last appeared to influence the response. This dynamic reversal of cerebral dominance, however, was not caused by a shift in hemispheric specialization, since the level of performance always reflected the right hemisphere specialization for face recognition. Thus, the dissociation between hemispheric dominance and specialization found in the present study hints at the existence of hemispheric metacontrol in healthy individuals.

  10. Different circulating ghrelin responses to isoglucidic snack food in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini, S; Codella, R; Caumo, A; Marangoni, F; Luzi, L

    2011-02-01

    The last decade has seen much debate on ghrelin as a potential target for treating obesity. Despite a close connection between snack food intake and obesity, snacking is controversially reviewed as a good habit in a healthy nutritional regimen. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a different nutrient composition influences postprandial ghrelin levels and glucose increments induced by 6 isoglucidic snack food. 20 healthy individuals (10 M/10 F; BMI 23.1 ± 0.5; age 33 ± 0.67 years, mean and SE) from H San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Milan University were enrolled. The subjects underwent OGTT (50 g) and 6 isoglucidic test-meal loads to assess the ghrelin circulating levels and the area under glycemic curves induced by 6 commercial snacks. 3 h after hazelnut chocolate intake, ghrelin was significantly lower than with wafer chocolate intake (psnacks, the glycemic curves were not different even though hazelnut chocolate showed the lowest glycemic curve. Moreover, snack fat content was found to be inversely correlated to 3-h plasma ghrelin levels (psnack food administered in equivalent glucidic loads elicits postprandial ghrelin suppression and satiety ratings in different ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of ghrelin as hunger-hormone in the regulation of energy balance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A public dataset of overground and treadmill walking kinematics and kinetics in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiane A. Fukuchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a typical clinical gait analysis, the gait patterns of pathological individuals are commonly compared with the typically faster, comfortable pace of healthy subjects. However, due to potential bias related to gait speed, this comparison may not be valid. Publicly available gait datasets have failed to address this issue. Therefore, the goal of this study was to present a publicly available dataset of 42 healthy volunteers (24 young adults and 18 older adults who walked both overground and on a treadmill at a range of gait speeds. Their lower-extremity and pelvis kinematics were measured using a three-dimensional (3D motion-capture system. The external forces during both overground and treadmill walking were collected using force plates and an instrumented treadmill, respectively. The results include both raw and processed kinematic and kinetic data in different file formats: c3d and ASCII files. In addition, a metadata file is provided that contain demographic and anthropometric data and data related to each file in the dataset. All data are available at Figshare (DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.5722711. We foresee several applications of this public dataset, including to examine the influences of speed, age, and environment (overground vs. treadmill on gait biomechanics, to meet educational needs, and, with the inclusion of additional participants, to use as a normative dataset.

  12. Low-grade inflammation is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, S R; Pedersen, O B; Petersen, M S

    2016-01-01

    status. Results: LGI was associated with lower haemoglobin (0·08 mm lower [0·12 g/dl], 95% confidence interval (CI): −0·11–0·05) and increased risk of low haemoglobin (OR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·05–1·43) in non-smokers. Conversely, LGI was associated with higher haemoglobin in smokers (0·12 mm [0·19 g/dl], 95......% CI: 0·06–0·18). Conclusion: In this first study of LGI and haemoglobin in healthy individuals, there was a negative association between LGI and haemoglobin in non-smokers. The association was positive in smokers, probably because smoking leads to both increased inflammation and increased haemoglobin...

  13. Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation during 100% Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Birna Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To detect how systemic hyperoxia affects oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in healthy individuals.Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 30 healthy individuals with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1. Oximetry was performed during breathing of room air, 100% oxygen (10 minutes, 6L/min and then again room air (10 minutes recovery.Mean oxygen saturation rises modestly in retinal arterioles during 100% oxygen breathing (94.5%±3.8 vs. 92.0%±3.7% at baseline, p<0.0001 and dramatically in retinal venules (76.2%±8.0% vs. 51.3%±5.6%, p<0.0001. The arteriovenous difference decreased during 100% oxygen breathing (18.3%±9.0% vs. 40.7%±5.7%, p<0.0001. The mean diameter of arterioles decreased during 100% oxygen breathing compared to baseline (9.7±1.4 pixels vs. 10.3±1.3 pixels, p<0.0001 and the same applies to the mean venular diameter (11.4±1.2 pixels vs. 13.3±1.5 pixels, p<0.0001.Breathing 100% oxygen increases oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and more so in venules and constricts them compared to baseline levels. The dramatic increase in oxygen saturation in venules reflects oxygen flow from the choroid and the unusual vascular anatomy and oxygen physiology of the eye.

  14. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent......Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  15. Heart rate variability analysis in healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure and heart transplanted patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentina Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find parameters to characterize heart rate variability (HRV and discriminate healthy subjects and patients with heart diseases. The parameters used for discrimination characterize the different components of HRV memory (short and long and are extracted from HRV recordings using parametric as well as non parametric methods. Thus, the parameters are: spectral components at low frequencies (LH and high frequencies (HF which are associated with the short memory of HRV and the long memory parameter (d obtained from autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA models. In the non parametric context, short memory (α1 and long memory (α2 parameters are obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The sample used in this study contains 24-hour Holter HRV recordings of 30 subjects: 10 healthy individuals, 10 patients suffering from congestive heart failure and 10 heart transplanted patients from the Noltisalis database. It was found that short memory parameters present higher values for the healthy individuals whereas long memory parameters present higher values for the diseased individuals. Moreover, there is evidence that ARFIMA modeling allows the discrimination between the 3 groups under study, being advantageous over DFA.

  16. A Multilevel Approach to Breastfeeding Promotion: Using Healthy Start to Deliver Individual Support and Drive Collective Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruth, Chelsey; Goodman, Jacqueline; Bragg, Brian; Gray, Dara

    2017-12-01

    Purpose Breastfeeding has been linked to a host of positive health effects for women and children. However, disparities in breastfeeding initiation and duration prevent many low-income and African-American women from realizing these benefits. Existing breastfeeding promotion efforts often do not reach women who need support the most. In response, the Westside Healthy Start program (WHS), located in Chicago, Illinois, developed an ongoing multilevel approach to breastfeeding promotion. Description Key elements of our WHS breastfeeding model include individual education and counseling from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum and partnership with a local safety-net hospital to implement the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and provide lactation support to delivering patients. Assessment In the year our model was implemented, 44.6% (49/110) of prenatal WHS participants reported that they planned to breastfeed, and 67.0% (183/273) of delivered participants initiated. Among participants reaching 6 months postpartum, 10.5% (9/86) were breastfeeding. WHS also had 2667 encounters with women delivering at our partner hospital during breastfeeding rounds, with 65.1% of contacts initiating. Community data was not available to assess the efficacy of our model at the local level. However, WHS participants fared better than all delivering patients at our partner hospital, where 65.0% initiated in 2015. Conclusion Healthy Start programs are a promising vehicle to improve breastfeeding initiation at the individual and community level. Additional evaluation is necessary to understand barriers to duration and services needed for this population.

  17. Inter-donor variation in cell subset specific immune signaling responses in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Diane M; Louie, Brent; Wang, Ena; Pos, Zoltan; Marincola, Francesco M; Hawtin, Rachael E; Cesano, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Single cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parameter flow cytometry based approach that allows for the simultaneous interrogation of intracellular signaling pathways in multiple cell subpopulations within heterogeneous tissues, without the need for individual cell subset isolation. Thus, the technology is extremely well-suited for characterizing the multitude of interconnected signaling pathways and immune cell subpopulations that regulate the function of the immune system. Recently, SCNP was applied to generate a functional map of the healthy human immune cell signaling network by profiling immune signaling pathways downstream of 12 immunomodulators in 7 distinct immune cell subsets within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 60 healthy donors. In the study reported here, the degree of inter-donor variation in the magnitude of the immune signaling responses was analyzed. The highest inter-donor differences in immune signaling pathway activity occurred following perturbation of the immune signaling network, rather than in basal signaling. When examining the full panel of immune signaling responses, as one may expect, the overall degree of inter-donor variation was positively correlated (r = 0.727) with the magnitude of node response (i.e. a larger median signaling response was associated with greater inter-donor variation). However, when examining the degree of heterogeneity across cell subpopulations for individual signaling nodes, cell subset specificity in the degree of inter-donor variation was observed for several nodes. For such nodes, relatively weak correlations between inter-donor variation and the magnitude of the response were observed. Further, within the phenotypically distinct subpopulations, a fraction of the immune signaling responses had bimodal response profiles in which (a) only a portion of the cells had elevated phospho-protein levels following modulation and (b) the proportion of responsive cells varied by donor. These data

  18. Developmental trajectories of the fronto-temporal lobes from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Matsui, Mie; Uematsu, Akiko; Noguchi, Kyo; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Brain development during early life in healthy individuals is rapid and dynamic, indicating that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. The frontal and temporal lobes are known to play a particularly important role in cognition. The study of healthy frontal and temporal lobe development in children is therefore of considerable importance. A better understanding of how these brain regions develop could also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Some developmental studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine infant brains, but it remains the case that relatively little is known about cortical brain development in the first few years of life. In the present study we examined whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe developmental trajectories from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals, considering gender and brain hemisphere differences. We performed a cross-sectional, longitudinal morphometric MRI study of 114 healthy individuals (54 females and 60 males) aged 1 month to 25 years old (mean age ± SD 8.8 ± 6.9). We measured whole brain, temporal and frontal lobe gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) volumes, following previously used protocols. There were significant non-linear age-related volume changes in all regions. Peak ages of whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe development occurred around pre-adolescence (9-12 years old). GM volumes for all regions increased significantly as a function of age. Peak age was nevertheless lobe specific, with a pattern of earlier peak ages for females in both temporal and frontal lobes. Growth change in whole brain GM volume was larger in males than in females. However, GM volume growth changes for the temporal and frontal lobes showed a somewhat different pattern. GM volume for both temporal and frontal lobes showed a greater increase in females until around 5-6 years old, at which point this tendency reversed (GM volume

  19. Multimodal movement prediction - towards an individual assistance of patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Andrea Kirchner

    Full Text Available Assistive devices, like exoskeletons or orthoses, often make use of physiological data that allow the detection or prediction of movement onset. Movement onset can be detected at the executing site, the skeletal muscles, as by means of electromyography. Movement intention can be detected by the analysis of brain activity, recorded by, e.g., electroencephalography, or in the behavior of the subject by, e.g., eye movement analysis. These different approaches can be used depending on the kind of neuromuscular disorder, state of therapy or assistive device. In this work we conducted experiments with healthy subjects while performing self-initiated and self-paced arm movements. While other studies showed that multimodal signal analysis can improve the performance of predictions, we show that a sensible combination of electroencephalographic and electromyographic data can potentially improve the adaptability of assistive technical devices with respect to the individual demands of, e.g., early and late stages in rehabilitation therapy. In earlier stages for patients with weak muscle or motor related brain activity it is important to achieve high positive detection rates to support self-initiated movements. To detect most movement intentions from electroencephalographic or electromyographic data motivates a patient and can enhance her/his progress in rehabilitation. In a later stage for patients with stronger muscle or brain activity, reliable movement prediction is more important to encourage patients to behave more accurately and to invest more effort in the task. Further, the false detection rate needs to be reduced. We propose that both types of physiological data can be used in an and combination, where both signals must be detected to drive a movement. By this approach the behavior of the patient during later therapy can be controlled better and false positive detections, which can be very annoying for patients who are further advanced in

  20. Unique Neural Characteristics of Atypical Lateralization of Language in Healthy Individuals

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    Szymon P. Biduła

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 63 healthy participants, including left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, we tested how atypical lateralization of language—i. e., bilateral or right hemispheric language representation—differs from the typical left-hemisphere dominance. Although regardless of their handedness, all 11 participants from the atypical group engaged classical language centers, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the right-hemisphere components of the default mode network (DMN, including the angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, were also critically involved during the verbal fluency task. Importantly, activity in these regions could not be explained in terms of mirroring the typical language pattern because left-hemisphere dominant individuals did not exhibit similar significant signal modulations. Moreover, when spatial extent of language-related activity across whole brain was considered, the bilateral language organization entailed more diffuse functional processing. Finally, we detected significant differences between the typical and atypical group in the resting-state connectivity at the global and local level. These findings suggest that the atypical lateralization of language has unique features, and is not a simple mirror image of the typical left hemispheric language representation.

  1. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-02-13

    Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in different contexts. The evidence of the validity of

  2. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gazelato de Mello Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. Methods: From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+ and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-. All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001. After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04. Conclusions: Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.

  3. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  4. Determination of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Healthy Obese and Non-obese Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, A.; Sattar, A.; Tariq, K. M.; Najamussahar; Hashim, R.; Almani, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIP Rawalpindi in collaboration with department of medicine military hospital(MH) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2008 to Mar 2009. Methods: Eighty obese(n=40) and non-obese(n=40) subjects were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Plasma insulin, glucose, and serum total cholestrol were estimated in fasting state. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and beta cell function by HOMA- equation. Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol. Mean insulin resistance in obese group was found to be 11.1 +- 5.1(range 7.0-16.2) and in non-obese group it was 0.9+-0.4 (range 0.5-1.3). This difference was highly significant (p=0.001). There was a highly significant difference between the two groups in term of beta cell function with mean rank 60.1 for obese group and 20.9 non obese groups (Asym sig. 2 tailed 0.000). Also the correlation (r = 0.064) between insulin resistance and beta cell function in obese group is highly significant (p = 0.000). Mean serum leptin levels were lower (6.3 ng/ml) in non-obese, and high (57.2 ng/ml) in the obese group. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is found higher in obese individuals. Beta cell function is significantly different between obese and non-obese groups. (author)

  5. Gene expression patterns in CD4+ peripheral blood cells in healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Sara J; Van Keulen, Virginia P; Scheid, Adam D; Allen, Kathleen S; Bradshaw, Renee K; Jen, Jin; Peikert, Tobias; Middha, Sumit; Zhang, Yuji; Block, Matthew S; Markovic, Svetomir N; Pease, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Melanoma patients exhibit changes in immune responsiveness in the local tumor environment, draining lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Immune-targeting therapies are revolutionizing melanoma patient care increasingly, and studies show that patients derive clinical benefit from these newer agents. Nonetheless, predicting which patients will benefit from these costly therapies remains a challenge. In an effort to capture individual differences in immune responsiveness, we are analyzing patterns of gene expression in human peripheral blood cells using RNAseq. Focusing on CD4+ peripheral blood cells, we describe multiple categories of immune regulating genes, which are expressed in highly ordered patterns shared by cohorts of healthy subjects and stage IV melanoma patients. Despite displaying conservation in overall transcriptome structure, CD4+ peripheral blood cells from melanoma patients differ quantitatively from healthy subjects in the expression of more than 2000 genes. Moreover, 1300 differentially expressed genes are found in transcript response patterns following activation of CD4+ cells ex vivo, suggesting that widespread functional discrepancies differentiate the immune systems of healthy subjects and melanoma patients. While our analysis reveals that the transcriptome architecture characteristic of healthy subjects is maintained in cancer patients, the genes expressed differentially among individuals and across cohorts provide opportunities for understanding variable immune states as well as response potentials, thus establishing a foundation for predicting individual responses to stimuli such as immunotherapeutic agents.

  6. Study of the kinematic variables of unilateral and habitual mastication of healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinato, Fernanda; Oliveira, Andréia Gussi de; Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Zeredo, Jorge Luis Lopes; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Corrêa, Eliane C R

    2017-03-30

    To describe and compare the temporal-spatial kinematic variables of mandibular movement during deliberate unilateral and habitual mastication in healthy young-adult individuals. The study sample was composed of eight male healthy volunteers aged 19 to 24 years. The kinematic data were obtained using a motion analysis system - Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) ProReflex MCU. Recordings were performed during deliberate unilateral mastication (UM) and habitual mastication (HM) of firm-consistency gummy candy. The following variables were analyzed: (1) masticatory sequence: duration, number of masticatory cycles, and chewing rate; (2) masticatory cycle: duration, vertical and medial-lateral mandibular range of motion in relation to the skull, and maximum velocity during the opening and closing phases. Data of the variables were compared during UM and HM by the paired t test, and the effect sizes ('d' Cohen) were calculated. Regarding the variables of the masticatory sequence, smaller chewing rate was observed for UM compared with that for HM (1.19±0.21Hz and 1.29±0.16Hz, respectively, p=0.004, d=0.53). Smaller values of maximum velocity during the opening (MU=67.4 mm/s and MH=80.02, p=0.053, d=0.80) and closing (MU=71.77±9.35mm/s and MH=3.51±7mm/s, p=0.014, d=0.79) phases of the masticatory cycle were observed in deliberate unilateral mastication compared with those in habitual mastication. Kinematic variables associated with the sequence and cycle of mastication are influenced by the chewing pattern adopted - deliberate unilateral or habitual.

  7. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Transcutaneous Oxygen Partial Pressure During Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lan; Ye, Yong; Li, Chunfeng; Gao, Guangkai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is to increase the oxygen (O₂) supply to the body significantly. Because of the toxic side effects and complications of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂), the environmental pressure and treatment time must be restricted. The research team hypothesized that other therapies administered during HBOT could safely improve the value of the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO₂) during HBOT and improve its therapeutic effect. The study intended to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) while receiving HBOT had a greater effect for healthy individuals than HBOT or EA alone or EA combined with normobaric pure oxygen (pure O₂). The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study was performed in the Department of Hyperbaric Medicine at the No. 401 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Qingdao, China. A total of 81 volunteers were recruited. After thorough physical examination and laboratory testing, 21 volunteers were excluded from the study. Participants included 60 healthy volunteers. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 15 participants each: (1) an HBOT group, (2) an EA group, (3) an EA During HBOT group, and (4) an EA Combined With Pure O₂group. Because at the current technology level a blood gas analyzer cannot test PaO₂during HBOT, transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (PtcO₂) of the participants was tested instead. Before, during, and after EA, variations in PtcO₂were monitored in each group. For the EA During HBOT group, (1) the increase in PtcO₂during EA was significantly greater than that observed for the other 3 groups (P > .05). The EA During HBOT method provided improvements in the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of HBOT, and the study's results partially demonstrated the accuracy of the research team's hypothesis that EA therapy applied during HBOT could safely improve the value of PtcO₂(PaO₂) during HBOT and produce a greater therapeutic effect.

  9. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals.

  10. Relationship between physical performance and self-reported function in healthy individuals across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer N; McKay, Marnee J; Hiller, Claire E; Moloney, Niamh; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Burns, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Functional outcome measures in clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions need to be meaningful to individuals. To investigate the relationship between physical performance and self/proxy-reported function in 1000 healthy children and adults. Cross-sectional observational study (1000 Norms Project). One thousand males and females aged 3-101 years, healthy by self-report and without major physical disability, were recruited. Twelve performance-based tests were analysed: vertical and long jump, two hand dexterity tests, four balance tests, stepping reaction time, 30-second chair stand, timed up-and-down stairs, and six-minute walk. Self/proxy-reported function was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Quality of Life questionnaire, Child Health Questionnaire, Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-6D Adolescent, AQoL-8D, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and work ability question. Bivariate and multivariate correlational analyses were constructed for infants (3-4y), children (5-10y), adolescents (11-17y), adults (18-59y) and older adults (60+). Socio-demographic characteristics were similar to the Australian population. Among infants/children, greater jump and sit-to-stand performance correlated with higher proxy-reported function (p  0.05). Greater jump, dexterity, balance, reaction time, sit-to-stand, stair-climbing and six-minute walk performance correlated with higher self-reported function in adults (r = -0.097 to.231; p physical measures which could form the basis of age-appropriate functional scales for clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Red wine consumption improves in vitro migration of endothelial progenitor cells in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Alshiek, Jonia; Aharon, Anat; Brenner, Benjamin; Roguin, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the maintenance of vascular endothelial function. The moderate consumption of red wine provides cardiovascular protection. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of EPC migration in young, healthy individuals who drank red wine. Fourteen healthy volunteers consumed 250 mL red wine daily for 21 consecutive days. Vascular endothelial function, plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF1alpha) concentrations, and the number, migration, and nitric oxide production of EPCs were determined before and after the daily consumption of red wine. EPCs were glucose stressed to study the effect of red wine on EPC migration, proliferation, and senescence and to study the expressions of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and members of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling pathway by Western blotting. Daily red wine consumption for 21 consecutive days significantly enhanced vascular endothelial function. Although plasma SDF1alpha concentrations were unchanged, EPC count and migration were significantly increased after this 21-d consumption period. Red wine increased the migration, proliferation, CXCR4 expression, and activity of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and decreased the extent of apoptosis in glucose-stressed EPCs. The results of the present study indicate that red wine exerts its effect through the up-regulation of CXCR4 expression and activation of the SDF1alpha/CXCR4/Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, which results in increased EPC migration and proliferation and decreased extent of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that these effects could be linked to the mechanism of cardiovascular protection that is associated with the regular consumption of red wine.

  12. Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, exercise and other risk factors on endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Catherine H; Wilson, John F; Ashfield-Watt, Pauline A L; Clark, Zoë E; Whiting, Jenny M; Lewis, Malcolm J; McDowell, Ian F W

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the pathogenesis of vascular disease that occurs before structural vascular changes or clinical symptoms are evident. Conventional risk factors, for example hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are associated with endothelial dysfunction, but the influence of other putative risk factors is not clear. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, a common polymorphism that induces hyperhomocysteinaemia, has been proposed as being a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A total of 126 healthy adults recruited by MTHFR C677T genotype (42 of each genotype, i.e. CC, CT and TT) underwent assessment of endothelial function. Brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasonic vessel "wall-tracking". Using multiple regression analysis, MTHFR genotype and 21 other subject and subject-lifestyle variables were investigated as potential predictors of endothelial function. FMD was influenced positively by frequency of aerobic exercise and by hormone replacement therapy, and negatively by increases in systolic blood pressure. MTHFR C677T genotype and the associated variation in plasma homocysteine levels did not influence FMD. Additionally, other factors, including plasma cholesterol and self-supplementation with either antioxidant vitamins or cod liver oil, showed no significant relationship with FMD, although these findings are compromised by the narrow range studied for cholesterol and the small number of subjects taking supplements. These observations have implications for risk factor management in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals.

  13. Iron-related gene variants and brain iron in multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron homeostasis is known to be disturbed in multiple sclerosis (MS, yet little is known about the association of common gene variants linked to iron regulation and pathological tissue changes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the association of genetic determinants linked to iron regulation with deep gray matter (GM magnetic susceptibility in both healthy controls (HC and MS patients. Four hundred (400 patients with MS and 150 age- and sex-matched HCs were enrolled and obtained 3 T MRI examination. Three (3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with iron regulation were genotyped: two SNPs in the human hereditary hemochromatosis protein gene HFE: rs1800562 (C282Y mutation and rs1799945 (H63D mutation, as well as the rs1049296 SNP in the transferrin gene (C2 mutation. The effects of disease and genetic status were studied using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM voxel-based analysis (VBA and region-of-interest (ROI analysis of the deep GM. The general linear model framework was used to compare groups. Analyses were corrected for age and sex, and adjusted for false discovery rate. We found moderate increases in susceptibility in the right putamen of participants with the C282Y (+6.1 ppb and H63D (+6.9 ppb gene variants vs. non-carriers, as well as a decrease in thalamic susceptibility of progressive MS patients with the C282Y mutation (left: −5.3 ppb, right: −6.7 ppb, p < 0.05. Female MS patients had lower susceptibility in the caudate (−6.0 ppb and putamen (left: −3.9 ppb, right: −4.6 ppb than men, but only when they had a wild-type allele (p < 0.05. Iron-gene linked increases in putamen susceptibility (in HC and relapsing remitting MS and decreases in thalamus susceptibility (in progressive MS, coupled with apparent sex interactions, indicate that brain iron in healthy and disease states may be influenced by genetic factors.

  14. A Comparison of Coping Styles and Quality of Life in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Salehi omran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the medical world one of the most interaction between body and mind are related to coronary heart disease and it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. For this reason, identifying psychological risk factors in this context is necessary. In this regard, this study was performed with aimed to coping styles and quality of life in CHD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional performed on 100 patients with coronary heart disease and 100 healthy subjects. Data was collected through Lazarus and Folkman coping styles questionnaires that included four problematic coping and  four emotion-focused coping style and quality of life of the World Health Organization in four aspects of  physical, psychological, environmental and social relationship with demographic characteristics were collected and compared. FINDINGS: The mean of direct confrontive coping style in patients (8.75±2.81 were significantly more than healthy individuals (7.95±2.86 (p=0.036, the mean of escape-avoidance coping style in patients (9.80±4.59 were significantly more than healthy individuals (8.38±4.25 (p=0.045, and was not found significant difference between two groups in Problem-focused coping style, Also there was a significant difference in quality of life between two groups, in the physical health domain (p=0.000, psychological domain(p=0.001, social relationship domain (p=0.007 and environmental domain (p=0.003. CONCLUSION: Result showed that the quality of life in CHD patients were lower than healthy individuals and CHD patients used direct confrontive coping style and escape-avoidance coping style, more than healthy individuals. Therefore this two styles can be considered as risk factors for CHD.

  15. Evaluation of intra-individual test–re-test variability of uroflowmetry in healthy women and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunacek, Libor; Gärtner, Marcel; Krhut, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to evaluate the intra-individual variability of uroflowmetry (UFM) in healthy control subjects and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence. Methods: A total of 35 healthy controls (group A) and 105 women suffering from urinary...... incontinence were enrolled in the study. Thirty-five women suffered from stress urinary incontinence (group B), 35 women suffered from mixed urinary incontinence (group C), and 35 women with overactive bladder both dry and wet (group D). All participants were asked to perform UFM measurement three times......-individual difference in any of the recorded parameters was identified among the three UFM recordings in groups A, C, and D. The intra-individual variability of the following parameters reached statistical significance in patients suffering from stress urinary incontinence (group B): Qmax (p = 0.0016), Qave (p = 0...

  16. A comparative analysis of the postural and diurnal ocular perfusion pressure of young healthy individuals of different ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin J. Munsamy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP regulates the flow of blood to the optic nerve and is determined by the interaction between intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure (BP. Low OPP increases the incidence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. The aim is to compare the diurnal (i.e. morning vs. afternoon and postural (i.e. seated vs. supine OPP in healthy individuals from different ethnicities aged between 18 and 30 years. Methodology: Averaged IOP and BP measurements were obtained with an ICare rebound tonometer and an automated sphygmomanometer, respectively. Measurements were taken in the morning and afternoon, in the supine and seated positions in healthy young adults: Africans (n = 10, white people (n = 10, mixed-race people (n = 10 and Indians (n = 10. Results: The whole sample (N = 40 displayed a statistically significant reduction in postural and diurnal OPP both in the supine position and in the morning, respectively. A comparative analysis revealed that Africans displayed statistically significant reduction in OPP when compared to other ethnicities. Discussion: A change in posture to the supine position has a greater impact on the reduction of OPP when compared to diurnal changes. Africans displayed clinically significant reduction in OPP which may increase the incidence of POAG in this ethnicity at an early age. Conclusion: Our findings question whether OPP should be considered as a biomarker in the dark-skinned individuals. An evaluation of BP and IOP in the supine position is recommended for all patients to obtain more conclusive readings.

  17. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A.; Wotruba, Diana; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1) most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2) magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3) similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4) ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings indicated that

  18. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1 most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2 magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3 similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4 ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings

  19. Gender Difference of Gastric Emptying in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Functional Dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Taniguchi, Kanami; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is one of the reasons why functional dyspepsia (FD) occurs. The 13C-acetate breath test is widely used to evaluate gastric emptying. Nevertheless, the standard value of 13C-acetate breath test has not taken into account the gender difference of gastric emptying among healthy individuals. The main aim of this study was to readjust the standard value of 13C-acetate breath test in the light of gender differences. In addition, we clarified the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD using the modified standard values of 13C-acetate breath test. Fifty-two healthy individuals and 126 patients with patients with FD were enrolled. Gastric emptying was evaluated by the 13C-acetate breath test. The cut-off points of Tmax for the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying were determined on the basis of results from healthy individuals making a distinction of genders. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, scores of anxiety and depression, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption were compared between the delayed gastric emptying group and the non-delayed gastric emptying group. Since gastric emptying was delayed in healthy women compared with that in healthy men (Tmax, 53.6 ± 19.3 vs. 42.7 ± 16.9 min, p = 0.04), we set the cut-off points of Tmax at 60 min in men and at 75 min in women. In patients with FD, the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying was not different between men and women with the modified standard values of 13C-acetate breath test. (31.0 vs. 27.4%, p = 0.68). BMI was lower in the delayed gastric emptying group than in the non-delayed group among the male patients. Reflux symptoms were more severe in delayed gastric emptying group than in the non-delayed group among the female patients. The standard values of 13C-acetate breath test should be modified bearing the gender difference in mind. It provides us more appropriate information to understand the

  20. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress is impaired in leukocytes from metabolically unhealthy vs healthy obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, C; Rovira-Llopis, S; Lopez-Domenech, S; Diaz-Morales, N; Blas-Garcia, A; Veses, S; Morillas, C; Victor, V M; Rocha, M; Hernandez-Mijares, A

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to obesity, but the influence of metabolic disturbances on these parameters and their relationship with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unknown. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate whether metabolic profile influences ER and oxidative stress in an obese population with/without comorbidities. A total of 113 obese patients were enrolled in the study; 29 were metabolically healthy (MHO), 53 were metabolically abnormal (MAO) and 31 had type 2 diabetes (MADO). We assessed metabolic parameters, proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6), mitochondrial and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione levels, antioxidant enzymes activity, total antioxidant status, mitochondrial membrane potential and ER stress marker expression levels (glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), P-subunit 1 alpha (P-eIF2α) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). The MAO and MADO groups showed higher blood pressure, atherogenic dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammatory profile than that of MHO subjects. Total and mitochondrial ROS production was enhanced in MAO and MADO patients, and mitochondrial membrane potential and catalase activity differed significantly between the MADO and MHO groups. In addition, decreases in glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity were observed in the MADO vs MAO and MHO groups. GRP78 and CHOP protein and gene expression were higher in the MAO and MADO groups with respect to MHO subjects, and sXBP1 gene expression was associated with the presence of diabetes. Furthermore, MAO patients exhibited higher levels of ATF6 than their MHO counterparts. Waist circumference was positively correlated with ATF6 and GRP78, and A1c was positively correlated with P-Eif2α. Interestingly, CHOP was positively correlated with TNFα and total ROS production and GRP78 was negatively correlated with glutathione levels. Our findings support the

  1. [The meta-analysis of data from individual patients].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, M.M.; Reitsma, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    - An IPD (Individual Participant Data) meta-analysis requires collecting original individual patient data and calculating an estimated effect based on these data.- The use of individual patient data has various advantages: the original data and the results of published analyses are verified,

  2. Antibody response to the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy and infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Insa; Jacob, Susanne; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Schubert, Uwe; Patti, Joseph M; Ong, Mei-Fang; Gross, Jürgen; Justinger, Christoph; Renno, Jörg H; Preissner, Klaus T; Bischoff, Markus; Herrmann, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) from Staphylococcus aureus has been suggested as a vaccine candidate and for therapeutic use due to its immunomodulating and antiangiogenic properties; however, little is known about anti-Eap antibodies in humans. We determined anti-Eap antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot and measured serum samples from 92 patients with proven S. aureus infections and 93 healthy controls. The functionality of antibodies was assessed by a phagocytosis assay using Eap-coated fluorescent microspheres. Antibodies were detected in all human samples, but not in mice. Patients showed significantly higher titers than controls [immunoglobulin M (IgM), P=0.007; IgG, PEap alone was sufficient to promote phagocytosis by peripheral blood mononuclear cell and granulocytes that was moderately enhanced in the presence of human serum, but no correlation was found with the levels of anti-Eap antibodies. Anti-Eap antibodies are prevalent in all tested humans and correlate with the severity of S. aureus infection; however, they do not seem to provide protection against invasive infections. Before considering Eap for therapy or as a vaccine candidate, further studies are warranted to assess the impact of the interference between Eap and its specific antibodies. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute effects of rearfoot manipulation on dynamic standing balance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassinger, Craig A; Rockett, Ariel; Pitman, Lucas; Murphy, Matthew Matt; Peters, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic standing balance is essential to perform functional activities and is included in the treatment of many lower extremity injuries. Physiotherapists utilize many methods to restore standing balance including stability exercises, functional retraining, and manual therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a rearfoot distraction manipulation on dynamic standing balance. Twenty healthy participants (age: 24.4 ± 2.8 years; height: 162.9 ± 37.7 cm; mass: 68.0 ± 4.8 kg; right leg dominant = 20) completed this study. Following familiarization, dynamic standing balance was assessed during: (1) an experimental condition immediately following a rearfoot distraction manipulation, and (2) a control condition. Dominant leg balance was quantified using the Y-balance test which measures lower extremity reach distances. Reach distances were normalized to leg length and measured in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions. Overall balance was calculated through the summing of all normalized directions. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to compare balance scores for parametric and non-parametric data as appropriate. Significance was set at 0.05 a priori. Effect size (ES) was calculated to determine the clinical impact of the manipulation. Increased reach distances (indicating improved balance) were noted following manipulation for overall balance (p = 0.03, ES = 0.26) and in the posteromedial direction (p = 0.01, ES = 0.42). Reach distances did not differ for the anterior (p = 0.11, ES = 0.16) or posterolateral (p = 0.11, ES = 0.25) components. Dynamic standing balance improved after a rearfoot distraction manipulation in healthy participants. It is hypothesized that manual therapy applied to the foot and ankle may be beneficial to augment other therapeutic modalities when working with patients to improve dynamic standing balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECT OF POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS ON VITAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Hazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural drainage is used exclusively or in combination with other airway clearance techniques in the management of chronic pulmonary diseases. Postural drainage therapy helps to prevent accumulation of secretions in patients who are at high risk for pulmonary complications. It also helps to remove accumulated secretions from the lungs.The role of body positioning on lung function and the clinical implications of postural drainage has been identified in a variety of settings including intensive care units. There is dearth in literature on effects on postural drainage on vital parameters. Thus the objective of the study was to measure the vital parameters at different postural drainage positions in healthy asymptomatic adults. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. The instruments used in the current study included a Pulse oximeter, Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, Postural drainage table.The outcome measures of interest were heart rate, respiratoryrate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and Borg’s scale of rate of perceived exertion. The changes in the vital signs were recorded at different head down titling position of 0°, 15° & 30° in both supine and prone lying positions Results: Statistical significant difference was found for Systolic Blood Pressure in prone lying at different degrees of tilt (p=0.001 and Diastolic Blood Pressure in prone lying (p=0.000. Conclusion: Postural drainage positioning should be given with caution and under proper monitoring as there is a risk of change in the blood pressure even in asymptomatic elderly population. The monitoring of vital signs should be done during the therapy to decrease the risk of complications.

  5. Neural networks engaged in tactile object manipulation: patterns of expression among healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seitz Rüdiger J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory object discrimination has been shown to involve widespread cortical and subcortical structures in both cerebral hemispheres. In this study we aimed to identify the networks involved in tactile object manipulation by principal component analysis (PCA of individual subjects. We expected to find more than one network. Methods Seven healthy right-handed male volunteers (aged 22 to 44 yrs manipulated with their right hand aluminium spheres during 5 s with a repetition frequency of 0.5-0.7 Hz. The correlation coefficients between the principal component temporal expression coefficients and the hemodynamic response modelled by SPM (ecc determined the task-related components. To establish reproducibility within subjects and similarity of functional connectivity patterns among subjects, regional correlation coefficients (rcc were computed between task-related component image volumes. By hierarchically categorizing, selecting and averaging the task-related component image volumes across subjects according to the rccs, mean component images (MCIs were derived describing neural networks associated with tactile object manipulation. Results Two independent mean component images emerged. Each included the primary sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the manipulating hand. The region extended to the premotor cortex in MCI 1, whereas it was restricted to the hand area of the primary sensorimotor cortex in MCI 2. MCI 1 showed bilateral involvement of the paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereas MCI 2 implicated the midline thalamic nuclei and two areas of the rostral dorsal pons. Conclusions Two distinct networks participate in tactile object manipulation as revealed by the intra- and interindividual comparison of individual scans. Both were employed by most subjects, suggesting that both are involved in normal somatosensory object discrimination.

  6. A biomechanical comparison of back and front squats in healthy trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Jonathan C; Tillman, Mark D; Gutierrez, Gregory M; Chow, John W

    2009-01-01

    The strength and stability of the knee plays an integral role in athletics and activities of daily living. A better understanding of knee joint biomechanics while performing variations of the squat would be useful in rehabilitation and exercise prescription. We quantified and compared tibiofemoral joint kinetics as well as muscle activity while executing front and back squats. Because of the inherent change in the position of the center of mass of the bar between the front and back squat lifts, we hypothesized that the back squat would result in increased loads on the knee joint and that the front squat would result in increased knee extensor and decreased back extensor muscle activity. A crossover study design was used. To assess the net force and torque placed on the knee and muscle activation levels, a combination of video and force data, as well as surface electromyographic data, were collected from 15 healthy trained individuals. The back squat resulted in significantly higher compressive forces and knee extensor moments than the front squat. Shear forces at the knee were small in magnitude, posteriorly directed, and did not vary between the squat variations. Although bar position did not influence muscle activity, muscle activation during the ascending phase was significantly greater than during the descending phase. The front squat was as effective as the back squat in terms of overall muscle recruitment, with significantly less compressive forces and extensor moments. The results suggest that front squats may be advantageous compared with back squats for individuals with knee problems such as meniscus tears, and for long-term joint health.

  7. Air trapping on computed tomography images of healthy individuals: effects of respiration and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Tate, E.; Watarai, J.; Sasaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationships of changes in the lung area during respiration and of individual body mass index (BMI) to air trapping on expiratory computed tomography (CT) in young non-smoking adults of either gender. Methods: The volunteers were 10 women and 10 men (mean age 25.7 years) who were healthy lifelong non-smokers. We obtained both end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT images at three levels: the upper, middle and lower lung. The ratio of cross-sectional lung area upon expiration to cross-sectional lung area upon inspiration (lung area ratio) was determined for each lung at each of the three levels. In cases showing air trapping, we calculated the percentage of area of air in relation to the total lung area in each section. BMI was calculated for each participant. Results: Air trapping was present in dependent areas of the lungs of 6 women and 5 men. The mean percentage of area of air trapped was statistically greater for men (9.8 ± 9.2%) than for women (4.9 ± 5.2%). The mean lung area ratio was 0.52 ± 0 14 among volunteers with air trapping (66 sections) and 0.69 ± 0.12 among those without air trapping (54 sections) (p < 0.001). At each lung level, the mean lung area ratio was greater in individuals with air trapping than in those without. Mean BMI was also greater in these people (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Change in the respiratory lung area and BMI contribute to development of air trapping

  8. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p ceiling effects, with 0% of the participants achieving the lowest and highest score, respectively. The PROMIS PF CAT correlates strongly with currently used patient-reported outcome measures of physical function and demonstrates no ceiling effects for patients with meniscal injury requiring surgery. It may be a reasonable alternative to more burdensome patient-reported outcome measures.

  9. Psychopathic traits are associated with cortical and subcortical volume alterations in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana B; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Almeida, Pedro R; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests psychopathy is associated with structural brain alterations that may contribute to the affective and interpersonal deficits frequently observed in individuals with high psychopathic traits. However, the regional alterations related to different components of psychopathy are still unclear. We used voxel-based morphometry to characterize the structural correlates of psychopathy in a sample of 35 healthy adults assessed with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Furthermore, we examined the regional grey matter alterations associated with the components described by the triarchic model. Our results showed that, after accounting for variation in total intracranial volume, age and IQ, overall psychopathy was negatively associated with grey matter volume in the left putamen and amygdala. Additional regression analysis with anatomical regions of interests revealed total triPM score was also associated with increased lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate volume. Boldness was positively associated with volume in the right insula. Meanness was positively associated with lateral OFC and striatum volume, and negatively associated with amygdala volume. Finally, disinhibition was negatively associated with amygdala volume. Results highlight the contribution of both subcortical and cortical brain alterations for subclinical psychopathy and are discussed in light of prior research and theoretical accounts about the neurobiological bases of psychopathic traits. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Psychological Profiles in the Prediction of Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Individuals.

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    Louisia Starnino

    Full Text Available Shorter telomere length (TL may signal premature cellular aging and increased risk for disease. While depression and psychosocial stress have been associated with shorter telomeres, other psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease have received less attention.To evaluate the association between TL and psychological risk factors (symptoms of anxiety and depression, hostility and defensiveness traits for heart disease, and to examine whether chronological age and sex moderate the associations observed.132 healthy men and women (Mage = 45.34 years completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory II, The Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Relative TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR of total genomic DNA samples. A series of hierarchical linear regressions were performed controlling for pertinent covariates.Shorter TL was observed among individuals high in defensiveness (β = -.221 and depressive symptoms (β = -.213, as well as in those with less hostility (β =.256 and anxiety (β =.220(all Ps<.05. Psychological variables explained 19% of the variance over and above that explained by covariates (age, sex, exercise, alcohol consumption, systemic inflammation, and 24-hr mean arterial pressure. Age moderated the relation between TL and defensiveness (β =.179, p =.03. Sex did not influence any of the relations.Telomere length is associated with psychological burden though the direction of effect differs depending on the psychological variables under study. Further research is needed to determine the reasons for and implications of these seemingly contradictory findings.

  11. The effects of coffee consumption on serum lipids and lipoprotein in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuegbu, A J; Agbedana, E O

    2001-01-01

    The changes in total serum cholestrol, serum triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol after twenty eight (28) days of consumption of moderate quantity of a commercial coffee preparation (NESCAFE brand) were studied in 30 human subjects consisting of 20 male and 10 female healthy adults. Significant increases in the mean total serum cholesterol concentration (110.8-126.5 mg/100 mls) and LDL- cholesterol concentration (78.4-94.5 mg/100 ml) were observed in the subjects. No significant differences were obtained in the mean HDL cholesterol concentration and in the mean serum triglyceride levels. The differences observed in the mean total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the individual male and female groups studied were not statistically significant. The results from this study suggest that short-term consumption of coffee may increase the total serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. It is therefore possible that long-term consumption of coffee may lead to clinically significant alterations in serum lipid profile and could be important in the aetiology of atherosclerotic vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease.

  12. The overlapping community structure of structural brain network in young healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Community structure is a universal and significant feature of many complex networks in biology, society, and economics. Community structure has also been revealed in human brain structural and functional networks in previous studies. However, communities overlap and share many edges and nodes. Uncovering the overlapping community structure of complex networks remains largely unknown in human brain networks. Here, using regional gray matter volume, we investigated the structural brain network among 90 brain regions (according to a predefined anatomical atlas in 462 young, healthy individuals. Overlapped nodes between communities were defined by assuming that nodes (brain regions can belong to more than one community. We demonstrated that 90 brain regions were organized into 5 overlapping communities associated with several well-known brain systems, such as the auditory/language, visuospatial, emotion, decision-making, social, control of action, memory/learning, and visual systems. The overlapped nodes were mostly involved in an inferior-posterior pattern and were primarily related to auditory and visual perception. The overlapped nodes were mainly attributed to brain regions with higher node degrees and nodal efficiency and played a pivotal role in the flow of information through the structural brain network. Our results revealed fuzzy boundaries between communities by identifying overlapped nodes and provided new insights into the understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of the human brain. This study provides the first report of the overlapping community structure of the structural network of the human brain.

  13. Comparison of four software packages for CT lung volumetry in healthy individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan F. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Molinari, Francesco [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Dufresne, Valerie [CHU de Charleroi - Hopital Vesale, Pneumologie, Montigny-le-Tilleul (Belgium); Gosset, Natacha [CHU Tivoli, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, La Louviere (Belgium); Silva, Mario; Bankier, Alexander A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    To compare CT lung volumetry (CTLV) measurements provided by different software packages, and to provide normative data for lung densitometric measurements in healthy individuals. This retrospective study included 51 chest CTs of 17 volunteers (eight men and nine women; mean age, 30 ± 6 years), who underwent spirometrically monitored CT at total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and mean inspiratory capacity (MIC). Volumetric differences assessed by four commercial software packages were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements and benchmarked against the threshold for acceptable variability between spirometric measurements. Mean lung density (MLD) and parenchymal heterogeneity (MLD-SD) were also compared with ANOVA. Volumetric differences ranged from 12 to 213 ml (0.20 % to 6.45 %). Although 16/18 comparisons (among four software packages at TLC, MIC, and FRC) were statistically significant (P < 0.001 to P = 0.004), only 3/18 comparisons, one at MIC and two at FRC, exceeded the spirometry variability threshold. MLD and MLD-SD significantly increased with decreasing volumes, and were significantly larger in lower compared to upper lobes (P < 0.001). Lung volumetric differences provided by different software packages are small. These differences should not be interpreted based on statistical significance alone, but together with absolute volumetric differences. (orig.)

  14. Malignant otitis externa in a healthy non-diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Peng, Hong; Mo, Ting-Ting; Liang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    A healthy 60-year-old male was initially treated for external otitis, and subsequently received multiple surgeries including abscess drainage, temporal bone debridement, canaloplasty of the external auditory meatus, and fistula excision and was treated with numerous antibiotics at another hospital over a 1-year period. He was seen at our hospital on February 14, 2014 with a complaint of a non-healing wound behind the left ear and drainage of purulent fluid. He had no history of diabetes mellitus or compromised immune function. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies at our hospital showed osteomyelitis involving the left temporal, occipital, and sphenoid bones, the mandible, and an epidural abscess. Routine blood testing and tests of immune function were normal, and no evidence of other infectious processes was found. He was diagnosed with malignant otitis externa (MOE). Bone debridement and incision and drainage of the epidural abscess were performed, and vancomycin was administered because culture results revealed Corynebacterium jeikeium, Corynebacterium xerosis, and Enterococcus faecalis. MOE should be considered in healthy patients with external otitis who fail initial treatment.

  15. New and Improved T-wave Morphology Parameters to Differentiate Healthy Individuals from those with Cardiomyopathy and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, E. C.; Schlegel, T. T.; Arenare, B.; DePalma, J. L.; Starc, V.; Rahman, M. A.; Delgado, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the ability of several known as well as new ECG repolarization parameters to differentiate healthy individuals from patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CM). Advanced high-fidelity 12-lead ECG tests (approx. 5-min supine) were first performed on a "training set" of 99 individuals: 33 with ischemic or dilated CM and low ejection fraction (EF less than 40%); 33 with catheterization-proven obstructive CAD but normal EF; and 33 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. The following multiple parameters of T-wave morphology (TWM) were derived via signal averaging and singular value decomposition (SVD, which yields 8 eigenvalues, rho(sub 1) greater than rho(sub 2)...greater than rho(sub 8) and studied for their retrospective accuracy in detecting underlying disease: 1) Principal component analysis ratio of the T wave (T-PCA) = 100*rho(sub 2)/rho(sub 1); 2) Relative T-wave residuum (rTWR) = 100* SIGMA (rho(sub 4)(sup 2) +...+ rho(sub 8)(sup 2)); 3) Modified complexity ratio of the T wave (T-mCR) = 100*SIGMA(rho(sub 3)(sup 2) +...+rho(sb 8) (sup 2)); and 4) Normalized 3-dimensional volume of the T wave (nTV) = 100*(rho(sub 2)*rho(sub 3)/rho(sub 1)(sup 2). All TWM parameters significantly differentiated CAD from controls (p less than 0.0001), and also CM from controls (p less than 0.0001). Retrospective areas under the ROC curve were 0.77, 0.81, 0.82, and 0.83 (CAD vs. controls) and 0.93, 0.89, 0.95 and 0.96 (CM vs. controls) for T-PCA, rTWR, T-mCR and nTV respectively. The newer TWM parameters (T-mCR and nTV) thus outperformed the more established parameters (T-PCA and rTWR), presumably by putting a greater emphasis on the third T-wave eigenvalue, which in most healthy subjects has little energy compared to the first two eigenvalues. Subsequent prospective analyses have also yielded similar results, such that we conclude that diagnostic differentiation of pathology from non-pathology may be especially aided by detecting

  16. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: Resting distal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    pressure and DBPtoe - DBPankle) were found in the new reference data compared to the old. No significant difference between the mean values of the gradient (DBPankle - systolic arm blood pressure) was found between the old and new reference data, although the variation was significantly wider in the new......Objective. Most patients referred to our department for distal blood pressure (DBP) determination on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd) are more than 60 years of age, whereas the only available reference data for resting pressure are based on data from healthy individuals aged....... Material and methods. Group I comprised 31 healthy persons aged between 61 and 87 years and group II 14 healthy middle-aged hospital staff members aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results. For group I, significantly greater gradients (DBPtoe - systolic arm blood...

  17. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of crude seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum in healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudassir, Hina Akram; Qureshi, Shamim Akhter; Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Ahsan, Muhammad; Kamran, Musab; Jafar, Sakina

    2018-05-01

    This study first time reports the hypoglycaemic activity of crude seeds powder (CSP) of Centratherum anthelminticum in healthy and type 2 diabetic volunteers. In addition, hypolipidemic effect of same CSP was also determined in healthy volunteers. Healthy individuals were divided into control and two test groups T1 and T2 treated with 200 & 400mg of CSP. Similarly, type 2 diabetic patients were also divided into positive control (PC) treated with metformin 600mg and two test groups DT1 (CSP 400mg + metformin 600mg) & DT2 (CSP 400mg). Each group has 6 individuals and each treatment was done orally. CSP 400mg was found more hypoglycaemic on all time intervals from 30 to 120min when oral glucose tolerance test was conducted in healthy volunteers. Both test quantities of CSP 200 & 400 mg were found successful in same healthy persons in decreasing the levels of triglycerides & total cholesterol (pDT2) -24.99% and -20.62% respectively as compared to diabetic group only treated with metformin (PC), (p<0.01). Therefore, CSP of C antheminticum proves effective hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic agent by possibly inducing glucose tolerance in healthy individuals and type 2 diabetic patients.

  18. Comparison of cognitive flexibility and planning ability in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    PAAST, Negin; KHOSRAVI, Zohreh; MEMARI, Amir Hossein; SHAYESTEHFAR, Monir; ARBABI, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Aim Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified ...

  19. Quality of life in mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals: the validation of the Greek version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginieri-Coccossis, Maria; Triantafillou, Eugenia; Tomaras, Vlasis; Liappas, Ioannis A; Christodoulou, George N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2009-10-13

    The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire is a generic quality of life (QoL) measurement tool used in various cultural and social settings and across different patient and healthy populations. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Greek version, with an emphasis on the ability of the instrument to capture QoL differences between mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals. A total of 425 Caucasian participants were tested, as to form 3 groups: (a) 124 psychiatric patients (schizophrenia n = 87, alcohol abuse/dependence n = 37), (b) 234 patients with physical illness (hypertension n = 139, cancer n = 95), and (c) 67 healthy control individuals. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed indicating that a four-factor model can provide an adequate instrument structure for the participating groups (GFI 0.92). Additionally, internal consistency of the instrument was shown to be acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.78 to 0.90 regarding the four -domain model, and from 0.40 to 0.90 regarding the six-domain one. Evidence based on Pearson's r and Independent samples t-test indicated satisfactory test/retest reliability, as well as good convergent validity tested with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Life Satisfaction Inventory (LSI). Furthermore, using Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, the instrument demonstrated good discriminatory ability between healthy, mentally ill and physically ill participants, as well as within the distinct patient groups of schizophrenic, alcohol dependent, hypertensive and cancer patients. Healthy individuals reported significantly higher QoL, particularly in the physical health domain and in the overall QoL/health facet. Mentally ill participants were distinctively differentiated from physically ill in several domains, with the greatest difference and reduction observed in the social relationships domain and in the overall Qo

  20. Quality of life in mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals: The validation of the Greek version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liappas Ioannis A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100 questionnaire is a generic quality of life (QoL measurement tool used in various cultural and social settings and across different patient and healthy populations. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Greek version, with an emphasis on the ability of the instrument to capture QoL differences between mentally ill, physically ill and healthy individuals. Methods A total of 425 Caucasian participants were tested, as to form 3 groups: (a 124 psychiatric patients (schizophrenia n = 87, alcohol abuse/dependence n = 37, (b 234 patients with physical illness (hypertension n = 139, cancer n = 95, and (c 67 healthy control individuals. Results Confirmatory factor analysis was performed indicating that a four-factor model can provide an adequate instrument structure for the participating groups (GFI 0.92. Additionally, internal consistency of the instrument was shown to be acceptable, with Cronbach's α values ranging from 0.78 to 0.90 regarding the four -domain model, and from 0.40 to 0.90 regarding the six-domain one. Evidence based on Pearson's r and Independent samples t-test indicated satisfactory test/retest reliability, as well as good convergent validity tested with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and the Life Satisfaction Inventory (LSI. Furthermore, using Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, the instrument demonstrated good discriminatory ability between healthy, mentally ill and physically ill participants, as well as within the distinct patient groups of schizophrenic, alcohol dependent, hypertensive and cancer patients. Healthy individuals reported significantly higher QoL, particularly in the physical health domain and in the overall QoL/health facet. Mentally ill participants were distinctively differentiated from physically ill in several domains, with the greatest difference and reduction observed in the social

  1. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

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    Daniel J. V. Beetsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs, these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.

  2. Analysis of the individual radio sensitivity of breast cancer patients; Untersuchungen zur individuellen Strahlenempfindlichkeit von Brustkrebspatientinnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Judith

    2013-04-04

    Individual radiosensitivity has a crucial impact on radiotherapy related side effects. A prediction of individual radiosensitivity could avoid these side effects. Our aim was to study a breast cancer collective for its variation of individual radiosensitivity. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 129 individuals. 67 breast cancer patients and 62 healthy and age matched individuals were looked at and their individual radiosensitivity was estimated by a 3-color Fluorescence in situ hybridization approach. Blood samples were obtained (i) before starting adjuvant radiotherapy and were in vitro irradiated by 2 Gy; (ii) after 5 single doses of 1.8 Gy and after 72 h had elapsed. DNA of lymphocytes was probed with whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. The rate of breaks per metaphase was analyzed and used as a predictor of individual radiosensitivity. Breast cancer patients were distinctly more radio-sensitive compared to healthy controls. Additionally the distribution of the cancer patients' radiosensitivity was broader. A subgroup of 9 rather radio-sensitive and 9 rather radio-resistant patients was identified. A subgroup of patients aged between 40 and 50 was distinctly more radio-sensitive than younger or older patients. The in vivo irradiation approach was not applicable to detect individual radiosensitivity. In the breast cancer collective a distinctly resistant and sensitive subgroup is identified, which could be subject for treatment adjustment. Especially in the range of age 40 to 50 patients have an increased radiosensitivity. An in vivo irradiation in a breast cancer collective is not suitable to estimate individual radiosensitivity due to a low deposed dose.

  3. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2018-03-01

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA 1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cognitive biases and auditory verbal hallucinations in healthy and clinical individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, K.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Derks, E. M.; Peters, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several cognitive biases are related to psychotic symptoms, including auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). It remains unclear whether these biases differ in voice-hearers with and without a 'need-for-care'. Method. A total of 72 healthy controls, 72 healthy voice-hearers and 72 clinical

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Magnano

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein (IJV narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs has not been adequately assessed.We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA and aging.This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences.Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3 to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1, while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3 to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1. The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001 than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels.In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors.

  6. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

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    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  7. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  8. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Codella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM underwent 50 g OGTT (A and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01, suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01.

  9. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages.

  10. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  11. Characterization of a novel panel of plasma microRNAs that discriminates between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia-Yi; Liang, Hong-Wei; Pan, Xin-Ling; Li, Di; Jiao, Na; Liu, Yan-Hong; Fu, Jin; He, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhao, Chi-Hao; Li, Dong-Hai; Dai, En-Yu; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Feng-Min; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Xi; Ling, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Cavities are important in clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in the regulation of inflammation, the relation between plasma miRNA and pulmonary tuberculosis with cavity remains unknown. In this study, plasma samples were derived from 89 cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (CP-TB) patients, 89 non-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (NCP-TB) patients and 95 healthy controls. Groups were matched for age and gender. In the screening phase, Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNA profiles in plasma samples pooled from CP-TB patients, NCP-TB patients and healthy controls. During the training and verification phases, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to verify the differential expression of selected miRNAs among groups. Illumina high-throughput sequencing identified 29 differentially expressed plasma miRNAs in TB patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis validated miR-769-5p, miR-320a and miR-22-3p as miRNAs that were differently present between TB patients and healthy controls. ROC curve analysis revealed that the potential of these 3 miRNAs to distinguish TB patients from healthy controls was high, with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) ranged from 0.692 to 0.970. Moreover, miR-320a levels were decreased in drug-resistant TB patients than pan-susceptible TB patients (AUC = 0.882). In conclusion, we identified miR-769-5p, miR-320a and miR-22-3p as potential blood-based biomarkers for TB. In addition, miR-320a may represent a biomarker for drug-resistant TB.

  12. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: cocoa instead of ambrosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2006-06-01

    Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa have beneficial acute and short-term effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults with cardiovascular risk factors, and in patients with coronary artery disease. Furthermore, dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa may have a blood pressure-lowering effect. These effects can be attributed to flavonoids and are mainly mediated through increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether these effects of chocolate on arterial function are translated into clinical benefit.

  13. Individualized Vascular Disease Prevention in High-Risk Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, L

    2016-01-01

    In the pharmacologic prevention of vascular events, clinicians need to translate average effects from a clinical trial to the individual patient. Prediction models can contribute to individualized vascular disease prevention by selecting patients for treatment based on estimated risk or expected

  14. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  15. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  16. Generating genius: how an Alzheimer's drug became considered a 'cognitive enhancer' for healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lucie; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2014-05-12

    Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly supported by the results of a small study published by Yesavage et al. in 2002 on non-demented pilots (30-70 years old). The factors contributing to this specific interpretation of this study's results are unclear. We examined print media and interdisciplinary bioethics coverage of this small study, aiming to provide insight into how evidence from research may be shaped within different discourses, potentially influencing important policy, ethics, and clinical decisions. Systematic qualitative content analysis was used to examine how this study was reported in 27 media and 22 bioethics articles. Articles were analyzed for content related to: (1) headlines and titles; (2) colloquialisms; and, (3) accuracy of reporting of the characteristics and results of the study. In media and bioethics articles referencing this small study, strong claims were made about donepezil as a CE drug. The majority of headlines, titles, and colloquialisms used enhancement language and the majority of these suggest that donepezil could be used to enhance intellectual ability. Further, both literatures moved between reporting the results of the primary study and magnifying the perceived connection between these results and the CE debate that was alluded to in the primary study. Specific descriptions of the results overwhelmingly reported an improvement in performance on a flight simulator, while more general statements claimed donepezil enhanced cognitive performance. Further, a high level of reporting accuracy was found regarding study characteristics of the original study, but variable levels of accuracy surrounded the presentation of complex characteristics (i.e., methods) or

  17. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P.; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P.; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T.; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C.; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Kapczinski, Flávio; Rosa, Adriane R.; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychologic...

  18. Healthy lifestyle intervention for adult clinic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Hatzigeorgiou, Christos; Anglin, Judith; Xie, Ding; Besenyi, Gina M; De Leo, Gianluca; Stewart, Jessica; Wilkins, Thad

    2017-01-01

    Diet and exercise therapy have been reported to be effective in improving blood glucose control and are an important part of treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The goal of this study is to examine the efficacy of a healthy lifestyle intervention for adult clinic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as measured by Hgb-A1c, cardiovascular indicators, physical activity, weight, and BMI. Also of interest are optimal strategies for subject recruitment, the number of intervention sessions attended, and participant use of the Fitbit watch to monitor their physical activity and track food and beverage consumption. A pre/post-test design will be used in this pilot study. Non-institutionalized adult patients (n=50) aged 18-65 years who have been seen at the Augusta Health outpatient clinics (General Internal Medicine or Family Medicine) for type 2 diabetes in the past 12 months, and who are interested in reducing their risk of disease recurrence through healthy lifestyle behaviors, will be eligible to participate. At orientation visit, eligible individuals will be asked to provide written informed consent. Consenting volunteers (n=50) will be asked to complete the baseline and 6-month follow-up questionnaire and to participate in 12 weekly group sessions of 90 min duration, involving physical activity and to meet with a dietitian (baseline, one month, 90 days) to receive individualized advice on diet and nutrition. The technology-based intervention will use wrist-worn Fitbit Blaze physical activity monitoring devices. This pilot study will provide important information about the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a healthy lifestyle intervention for adult clinic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of consumer-facing devices such as the Fitbit watch has the potential advantage over the use of research accelerometers, pedometers, or actigraphs in increasing the likelihood that the intervention will be sustainable after the study ends.

  19. The effects of patterned electrical stimulation combined with voluntary contraction on spinal reciprocal inhibition in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary contraction (VC) on the modulation of reciprocal inhibition induced by patterned electrical stimulation (PES) in healthy individuals. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. PES was applied to the common peroneal nerve...... a soleus H-reflex conditioning-test paradigm at the time points of before, immediately after, 10 min after, 20 min after, and 30 min after the tasks. PES+VC increased the amount of reciprocal inhibition, with after-effects lasting up to 20 min. PES alone increased reciprocal inhibition and maintained...

  20. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: Lifetime Prevalence, Correlates and Mechanisms in Healthy and Clinical Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia ede Leede-Smith

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH has been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnaogogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s. This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example; the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the comparison of underlying

  2. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; Laurinavicius, Antonio Gabriele; Lotufo, Paulo A; Conceição, Raquel D; Morita, Fernando; Katz, Marcelo; Wajngarten, Maurício; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Bosworth, Hayden B; Santos, Raul Dias

    2017-06-29

    Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years) individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+) and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-). All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04). Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals. Sintomas depressivos estão associados de forma independente ao risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular (DCV) em indivíduos com DCV não diagnosticada. Os mecanismos subjacentes a essa associação, entretanto, não estão claros. Inflamação tem sido indicada como um possível elo mecanicista entre depressão e DCV. Este estudo avaliou a associação entre

  3. High carriage of adherent invasive E. coli in wildlife and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, Oumaïra; Vignal, Cécile; Titécat, Marie; Foligné, Benoît; Pariente, Benjamin; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Neut, Christel

    2018-01-01

    Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Since AIEC was first described in 1999, despite important progress on its genomic and immune characterizations, some crucial questions remain unanswered, such as whether there exists a natural reservoir, or whether there is asymptomatic carriage. The ECOR collection, including E. coli strains isolated mainly from the gut of healthy humans and animals, constitutes an ideal tool to investigate AIEC prevalence in healthy condition. A total of 61 E. coli strains were examined for characteristics of AIEC. The adhesion, invasion and intramacrophage replication capabilities (AIEC phenotype) of 61 intestinal E. coli strains were determined. The absence of virulence-associated diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (EPEC, ETEC, EIEC, EHEC, DAEC, EAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli was checked. Out of 61 intestinal strains, 13 (21%) exhibit the AIEC phenotype, 7 are from human origin and 6 are from animal origin. Prevalence of AIEC strains is about 24 and 19% in healthy humans and animals respectively. These strains are highly genetically diverse as they are distributed among the main described phylogroups. Among E. coli strains from the ECOR collection, we also detected strains able to detach I-407 cells. Our study described for the first time AIEC strains isolated from the feces of healthy humans and animals.

  4. Effects of Ageism on Individual and Health Care Providers' Responses to Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature to support the contention that misconceptions about the aging process have a detrimental effect on healthy aging. Seeks to demonstrate how stereotyping can affect the shape and nature of programs for elderly people. Argues that for long-lasting change to occur, service providers need to target these negative attitudes in…

  5. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  6. Classical and additional antiphospholipid antibodies in blood samples of ischemic stroke patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel-Neiderman, Narin-Nard; Tanne, David; Goren, Idan; Rotman-Pikielny, Pnina; Levy, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Classical antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLa) are found in 6-25% of blood samples from stroke patients. The frequency of novel aPLa antibodies in blood samples of CVA patients is not known. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on blood samples from 209 CVA patients (170 samples were obtained during the acute phase and 39 samples were from patients with complete carotid stenosis) and compared to 54 healthy controls. Subjects were tested for the presence of the classical aPL antibodies anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2-glycoprotein (aβ2gI), in addition to antiphosphatidylethanolamine (aPE), anti-phosphatidylserine (aPS), and Annexin V. All antibodies were tested for both IgM and IgG subclasses. Numeric analysis of the antibody titer levels (μ/ml) revealed a significantly higher subclinical titer by two standard deviations of many aPL autoantibodies among CVA patients (Pv < 0.05). However, according to the kit manufacturer's cutoff value, no positive antibodies were found except a trend toward higher percentage of positive aPS IgG titer in the CVA group compared to controls (6.2 vs. %0; P = 0.077). According to the manufacturer's cutoff, significantly higher levels of positive antibodies were not found among stroke patients. However, the absolute ELISA values of stroke patients were significantly higher. These results suggest that lower cutoff values than those used for APS diagnosis should be used for risk stratification of CVA among healthy individuals.

  7. Effects of oral glucose load on endothelial function and on insulin and glucose fluctuations in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S

    2008-01-01

    to better understand and cope with the postprandial state in insulin resistant individuals. METHODS: We assessed post-oral glucose load endothelial function (flow mediated dilation), plasma insulin, and blood glucose in 9 healthy subjects. RESULTS: The largest increases in delta FMD values (fasting FMD......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postprandial hyperglycemia, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. We studied the effect of oral glucose load on insulin and glucose fluctuations, and on postprandial endothelial function in healthy individuals in order...... value subtracted from postprandial FMD value) occurred at 3 hours after both glucose or placebo load, respectively: 4.80 +/- 1.41 (P = .009) and 2.34 +/- 1.47 (P = .15). Glucose and insulin concentrations achieved maximum peaks at one hour post-glucose load. CONCLUSION: Oral glucose load does not induce...

  8. Anorectal function in patients with complete rectal prolapse. Differences between continent and incontinent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, J V; Buch, E; Alós, R; Solana, A; Fernández, C; Villoslada, C; García-Armengol, J; Hinojosa, J

    1998-11-01

    A study is made of the alterations in anorectal physiology among rectal prolapse patients, evaluating the differences between fecal continent and incontinent individuals. Eighteen patients with complete rectal prolapse were divided into two groups: Group A (8 continent individuals) and Group B (10 incontinent women), while 22 healthy women were used as controls (Group C). Clinical exploration and perineal level measurements were performed, along with anorectal manometry, electrophysiology, and anorectal sensitivity to electrical stimuli. The main antecedents of the continent subjects were excess straining efforts, while the incontinent women presented excess straining and complex deliveries. Pathological perineal descent was a frequent finding in both groups, with a hypotonic anal canal at rest (p rest than the continent women (p rest, regardless of whether they are continent to feces or not. Continent patients have less pudendal neuropathy and therefore less pressure alterations at voluntary sphincter squeeze than incontinent individuals.

  9. Gait variability measurements in lumbar spinal stenosis patients: part A. Comparison with healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, N C; Christakis, D G; Tzagarakis, G N; Chlouverakis, G I; Kampanis, N A; Stergiopoulos, K N; Katonis, P G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the gait variability of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (experimental group) with healthy individuals (control group). The hypothesis is that the preoperative gait variability of the experimental group is higher than the control group. The experimental group consisted of 35 adults (18 males, 17 females). The subjects of the experimental group suffered exclusively from spinal stenosis. The patients were determined by MRI scans. A tri-axial accelerometer sensor was used for the gait measurement, and differential entropy algorithm was used to quantify the gait acceleration signal. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire was used to determine the condition on the day of the measurement. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was utilized to assess the diagnostic value of the method and determine a cut-off value. There is a statistically significant difference between gait variability in the control group and the experimental group. ROC analysis determines a cut-off differential entropy value. The cut-off value has a 97.6% probability of separating patients with spinal stenosis from healthy subjects. The Oswestry Low Back Questionnaire is well correlated with the spectral differential entropy values

  10. The Comparison of Ankle Muscles Isometric Strength and Foot Eversion in Male Individuals with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome and Healthy Peers: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mazloum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proximal and distal factors to the knee joint can be assumed as etiology of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Some distal factors include excessive foot pronation and medial tibia torsion. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle musculature strength and rearfoot eversion in individuals with and without PFPS. Methods: Forty males (20 healthy and 20 patients voluntarily participated in this case-control study. Isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion range of motion (ROM, and Navicular depression were respectively evaluated by handheld dynamometer, goniometry, and Navicular Drop Test by a single examiner for both groups. To analyze the measurements, Independent Samples t test for parametric data and Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data at P0.05. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between patients with PFPS and healthy counterparts regarding rearfoot eversion and Navicular depression (P>0.05. Conclusion: It can be deduced that isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion ROM, and foot pronation are not difference in patients with PFPS and healthy persons. 

  11. Effects of short term water immersion on peripheral reflex excitability in hemiplegic and healthy individuals: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, N J; Valtonen, A M; Waller, B; Pöyhönen, T; Avela, J

    2016-03-01

    Reflex excitability is increased in hemiplegic patients compared to healthy controls. One challenge of stroke rehabilitation is to decrease the effects of hyperreflexia, which may be possible with water immersion. Methods/Aims: The present study examined the effects of acute water immersion on electrically-evoked Hmax:Mmax ratios (a measure of reflex excitability) in 7 hyperreflexive hemiplegic patients and 7 age-matched healthy people. Hmax:Mmax ratios were measured from soleus on dry land (L1), immediately after (W1) and 5 minutes after immersion (W5), and again after five minutes on land (L5). Water immersion led to an acute increase in Hmax:Mmax ratio in both groups. However, after returning to dry land, there was a non-significant decrease in the Hmax:Mmax ratio of 8% in the hemiplegic group and 10% in healthy controls compared to pre-immersion values. A short period of water immersion can decrease peripheral reflex excitability after returning to dry land in both healthy controls and post-stroke patients, although longer immersion periods may be required for sustainable effects. Water immersion may offer promise as a low-risk, non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical method of decreasing hyperreflexivity, and could thus support aquatic rehabilitation following stroke.

  12. Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.

  13. Effects of Oral Glucose Load on Endothelial Function and on Insulin and Glucose Fluctuations in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Major-Pedersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims. Postprandial hyperglycemia, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. We studied the effect of oral glucose load on insulin and glucose fluctuations, and on postprandial endothelial function in healthy individuals in order to better understand and cope with the postprandial state in insulin resistant individuals. Methods. We assessed post-oral glucose load endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, plasma insulin, and blood glucose in 9 healthy subjects. Results. The largest increases in delta FMD values (fasting FMD value subtracted from postprandial FMD value occurred at 3 hours after both glucose or placebo load, respectively: 4.80±1.41 (P = .009 and 2.34±1.47 (P = .15. Glucose and insulin concentrations achieved maximum peaks at one hour post-glucose load. Conclusion. Oral glucose load does not induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy individuals with mean insulin and glucose values of 5.6 mmol/L and 27.2 mmol/L, respectively, 2 hours after glucose load.

  14. The effects of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals: a literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Jillian L.; McAlpine, Caitlin T.; Primak, Kari A.; Kissel, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Context: The effect of the application of kinesiotape to skin overlying musculature on measurable athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals has not been well established. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the effect of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals. Methods: An electronic search strategy was conducted in MANTIS, Cochrane Library and EBSCO databases. Retrieved articles that met the eligibility criteria were rated for methodological quality by using an adaption of the critical appraisal criteria in Clinical Epidemiology by Sackett et al. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven articles had positive results in at least one athletic-based performance measure compared to controls. Conclusion: Evidence is lacking to support the use of kinesiotape as a successful measure for improving athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals. However, there is no evidence to show that kinesiotape has a negative effect on any of the performace measures. PMID:24302784

  15. Recapitulation of Clinical Individual Susceptibility to Drug-Induced QT Prolongation in Healthy Subjects Using iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Shinozawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66 in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known target-binding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.

  16. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due...... of the intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to cause impaired proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected individuals in vitro. Sumatriptan, a 5HT1d receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes...

  17. The Influence of Age on Hemodynamic Parameters During Rest and Exercise in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Bakkestrøm, Rine; Thomsen, Jacob H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to obtain hemodynamic estimates across a wide age span and in both sexes for future reference and compare these estimates with current guideline diagnostic hemodynamic thresholds for abnormal filling pressure and pulmonary hypertension. BACKGROUND: At present....... METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants, evenly distributed with respect to age (20 to 80 years) and sex (32 women/30 men), were prospectively enrolled in the study. Participants were all deemed healthy by medical history, echocardiography, exercise test, spirometry, blood tests, and electrocardiogram....... Participants had hemodynamic parameters measured using right heart catheterization during rest, passive leg raise, and incremental exercise. RESULTS: During rest, all hemodynamic parameters were similar between age groups, apart from blood pressure. During leg raise and incremental exercise...

  18. Reductive stress in young healthy individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badía, Mari-Carmen; Giraldo, Esther; Dasí, Francisco; Alonso, Dolores; Lainez, Jose M; Lloret, Ana; Viña, Jose

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) but this has not been studied in young healthy persons at risk of the disease. Carrying an Apo ε4 allele is the major genetic risk factor for AD. We have observed that lymphocytes from young, healthy persons carrying at least one Apo ε4 allele suffer from reductive rather than oxidative stress, i.e., lower oxidized glutathione and P-p38 levels and higher expression of enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, such as glutamylcysteinyl ligase and glutathione peroxidase. In contrast, in the full-blown disease, the situation is reversed and oxidative stress occurs, probably because of the exhaustion of the antioxidant mechanisms just mentioned. These results provide insights into the early events of the progression of the disease that may allow us to find biomarkers of AD at its very early stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on albumin-131I exchange by means of the whole body radiometry in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, N.I.; Kalashnikov, B.V.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bolovin, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The whole body radiometry method was used to elaborate a technique of processing experimental data with subsequent calculation of the turnover indices of human serum albumin labelled by 131 I. The studies on albumin metabolism in 36 healthy men showed that in the albumin synthesis synthesis rate equal to 1455 g a day, the albumin level in the extravascular space exceeded by 2.96 times (357.1 g) that of the total albumin (120.8 g) in the plasma. About half of the plasma albumin comes from the plasma to the extravascular space daily. The turnover indices calculated by the technique applied are comparable with the data presented by other investigators. The elaborated technique is sufficiently simple and informative, makes it possible to study albumin metabolism (without taking blood samples and collecting urine) in healthy persons, and what is of special importance, in various pathological conditions

  20. [Variables involved in the individual and collective practice of healthy habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ubaque, Juan C; García-Ubaque, César A; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a descriptive review of the concepts related to the practice of healthy habits by identifying the main variables associated with their managment in terms of health promotion actions. In consultation with groups working in health promotion in the city of performed by consulting databases and documentary sources. The strategy and criteria for the selection of documents was previously defined. Finally, we proceeded to organizing and structuring the information. It was established that, to promote healthy habits, four groups of behavior are involved: a) consumption, b) phyisical activity and hygiene, c) safety, and d) social participation. All of these are reviewed in order to point out the main concepts contained in each. The promotion of healthy habits must involve not only the transmission of behaviors associated with them. It must also involve understanding and adapting these habits to the environments of life in which people operate, with consideration for the different roles that they perform and the psychological and cultural demands that each space implies.

  1. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....

  2. Distinction of leukemia patients' and healthy persons' serum using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Yuchan; Chen, Xianliang; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, FTIR spectroscopy was applied to compare the serum from leukemia patients with the serum from healthy persons. IR spectra of leukemia patients' serum were similar with IR spectra of healthy persons' serum, and they were all made up of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, etc. In order to identify leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum, the H1075/H1542, H1045/H1467, H2959/H2931 ratios were measured. The H2959/H2931 ratio had the highest significant difference among these ratios and might be a useful factor for identifying leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum. Furthermore, from curve fitting, the RNA/DNA (A1115/A1028) ratios were observed to be lower in leukemia patients' serum than those in healthy persons' serum. The results indicated FTIR spectroscopic study of serum might be a useful tool in the field of leukemia research and diagnosis.

  3. The role of color in the implicit memory performance of healthy older adults and individuals with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2005-01-01

    Although the Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in this study were severely impaired in recognition performance, their naming performance demonstrated normal priming across transformations in object color. This is evidence for preserved implicit shape-based memory performance in AD patients. For colored-object decision, healthy older adult control participants but not AD patients showed priming for new associations between previously encountered object shapes and colors. The author argues, on the basis of this colored object decision performance, that the deficits present in AD do not allow shape and color to be integrated to form a novel unitized representation that can be used to benefit cognitive performance. 2005 APA

  4. Implementation of healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: patients as coproducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kristin; Bendtsen, Preben; Krevers, Barbro

    2014-11-01

    To explore and theorize how patients perceive, interpret, and reactin healthy lifestyle promotion situations in primary care and to investigate patients' role in implementation of lifestyle promotion illustrated by typologies. Grounded theory was used to assess qualitative interview data from 22 patients with varied experience of healthy lifestyle promotion. Data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis. A substantive theory of being healthy emerged from the data. The theory highlights the processes that are important for implementation before, during, and after lifestyle promotion. Three interconnected categories emerged from the data: conditions for being healthy, managing being healthy, and interactions about being healthy; these formed the core category: being healthy. A typology proposed four patient trajectories on being healthy: resigned, receivers, coworkers, and leaders. Patients coproduced the implementation of lifestyle promotion through the degree of transparency, which was a result of patients' expectations and situation appraisals. Different approaches are needed during lifestyle promotion depending on a variety of patient-related factors. The typology could guide practitioners in their lifestyle promotion practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of potential salivary acetaldehyde production from ethanol in oral cancer patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaelli, H; Apaydin, A; Aydil, B; Ayhan, M; Karadeniz, A; Ozel, S; Yılmaz, E; Akgün, B; Eren, B

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde has been implicated as a major factor in oral carcinogenesis associated with alcohol consumption. In this study, saliva samples from oral cancer patients and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro with ethanol in order to investigate factors which can influence salivary acetaldehyde production. A total of 66 individuals (40 males and 26 females, mean age 52 years) participated in the study. Participants were classified into three groups: Group 1 (oral cancer patients [n = 20]); Group 2 (poor dental health status [n = 25]) and Group 3 (good dental health status [n=21]). Every patient chewed a 1g piece of paraffin chewing gum for 1 minute then saliva samples were collected from all individuals. After in vitro incubation of the samples with ethanol, the levels of salivary acetaldehyde production was measured by head space gas chromatography. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman's Correlations analysis were performed for statistical analyses. The salivary acetaldehyde production was significantly higher (p oral hygiene habits and dental visits, smoking and presence of a dental prosthesis were significant parameters for increased levels of salivary acetaldehyde production from alcohol. The evaluation of salivary acetaldehyde production after in vitro incubation with ethanol may be useful for early detection of oral cancer. According to the results of this study, the significantly higher levels of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cancer patients and individuals with poor dental health status may suggest a possible link between increased salivary acetaldehyde production and oral cancer. Improved oral hygiene can effectively decrease the level of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cavity. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 269-274.

  6. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers: Inter- and Intra-Individual Variance and Reproducibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Sejer Hansen

    Full Text Available Clinical pain models can be applied when investigating basic physiologic pain responses in healthy volunteers. Several pain models exist; however, only few have been adequately validated. Our primary aim with this prospective study was to investigate the intra- and inter-individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min in healthy volunteers.Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min., and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied.For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra-observer intra-person correlation of 0.85, 95% CI [0.78, 0.90], an intra-observer inter-person correlation of 0.03, 95% CI [0.00, 0.16], and a coefficient of variation of 0.17, 95% CI [0.14, 0.21] was demonstrated. Four percent of the study population had areas of secondary hyperalgesia both below the 1st and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006.We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary hyperalgesia. We conclude that brief thermal sensitization produce secondary hyperalgesia with a high level of reproducibility, which can be applied to investigate different phenotypes related to secondary hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02166164.

  7. Individual Test Point Fluctuations of Macular Sensitivity in Healthy Eyes and Eyes With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Measured With Microperimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Ventura, Dora Fix; Németh, János

    2018-04-01

    To establish fluctuation limits, it was considered that not only overall macular sensitivity but also fluctuations of individual test points in the macula might have clinical value. Three repeated measurements of microperimetry were performed using the Standard Expert test of Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) in healthy subjects ( N = 12, age = 23.8 ± 1.5 years old) and in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ( N = 11, age = 68.5 ± 7.4 years old). A total of 37 macular points arranged in four concentric rings and in four quadrants were analyzed individually and in groups. The data show low fluctuation of macular sensitivity of individual test points in healthy subjects (average = 1.38 ± 0.28 dB) and AMD patients (average = 2.12 ± 0.60 dB). Lower sensitivity points are more related to higher fluctuation than to the distance from the central point. Fixation stability showed no effect on the sensitivity fluctuation. The 95th percentile of the standard deviations of healthy subjects was, on average, 2.7 dB, ranging from 1.2 to 4 dB, depending on the point tested. Point analysis and regional analysis might be considered prior to evaluating macular sensitivity fluctuation in order to distinguish between normal variation and a clinical change. S tatistical methods were used to compare repeated microperimetry measurements and to establish fluctuation limits of the macular sensitivity. This analysis could add information regarding the integrity of different macular areas and provide new insights into fixation points prior to the biofeedback fixation training.

  8. Capture, learning, and classification of upper extremity movement primitives in healthy controls and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge; Uddin, Jasim; Nilsen, Dawn; Mclnerney, James; Fadoo, Ammarah; Omofuma, Isirame B; Hughes, Shatif; Agrawal, Sunil; Allen, Peter; Schambra, Heidi M

    2017-07-01

    There currently exist no practical tools to identify functional movements in the upper extremities (UEs). This absence has limited the precise therapeutic dosing of patients recovering from stroke. In this proof-of-principle study, we aimed to develop an accurate approach for classifying UE functional movement primitives, which comprise functional movements. Data were generated from inertial measurement units (IMUs) placed on upper body segments of older healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Subjects performed activities commonly trained during rehabilitation after stroke. Data processing involved the use of a sliding window to obtain statistical descriptors, and resulting features were processed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The likelihoods of the states, resulting from the HMM, were segmented by a second sliding window and their averages were calculated. The final predictions were mapped to human functional movement primitives using a Logistic Regression algorithm. Algorithm performance was assessed with a leave-one-out analysis, which determined its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for all classified primitives. In healthy control and stroke participants, our approach identified functional movement primitives embedded in training activities with, on average, 80% precision. This approach may support functional movement dosing in stroke rehabilitation.

  9. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient

  10. Nutriënt status assessment in individuals and populations for healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabolcs, P.; Saris, W.H.M.; Mathers, J.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schols, A.M.; Navis, G.; Kuipers, F.; Weber, P.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient

  11. Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Häggström, Jenny; Fowler, Christopher J; Nording, Malin L

    2017-06-01

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and...

  13. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina Del Mar; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35) than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001). Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008). Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  14. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  15. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Fassler, Juliane; Huber, Nadine; Xu, Pengfei; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Templin, Markus; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Wolf, Anna Maria; Knippschild, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) and morbidly obese (MO) patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers), 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD). Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p<0.002) and grading (p=0.015) of rectal tumor patients. The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology

  16. Survey of Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in the Patients with Brucellosis and Comparing with Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Eini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection. Metabolism of trace elements such as zinc and copper can influence the response of immunity system and can activate host 's immunochemical mechanisms against the organism. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in serum levels of Zn and Cu in patients with brucellosis in pre and post treatment compared with healthy persons. Methods: In this individual matched case-control study, 26 patients participated who were admitted to infectious unit of Farshchian Hospital with brucellosis. Moreover, 26 healthy individuals were included in the control group. 5mL of venous blood was taken from all cases in pre-treatment as well post-treatment. Then, the serum samples were diluted with deionized water, and Cu and Zn levels were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: In this study, 26 patients with brucellosis were enrolled, who were 13 men (50% and 13 women (50%. No significant difference was observed between the patients and the control group in regard with their age and sex. Serum level of Cu in patients with brucellosis was found to be 100.31µg/dl and 92.81µg/dl, respectively before and after the treatment (P=0.495. Serum level of Cu in healthy individuals was reported to be 97.96µg/dl. In addition, serum level of Zn in the patients and controls was 93 µg/dl and 96.38 µg/dl, respectively (P= 0.625. Patients' Zn Serum level was found to be 90.27µg/dl after the treatment. Conclusion: In this study, no significant changes were observed in serum levels of copper and zinc in the patients with brucellosis in comparison with the control group. Besides, no significant changes were reported in serum levels of these elements in the patients in the end of treatment.

  17. Effect of dietary cholesterol and plant sterol consumption on plasma lipid responsiveness and cholesterol trafficking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Ramprasath, Vanu; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals. A randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n 49) with three treatment phases of 4-week duration were conducted in a Manitoba Hutterite population. During each phase, participants consumed one of the three treatments as a milkshake containing 600 mg/d dietary cholesterol, 2 g/d plant sterols or a control after breakfast meal. Plasma lipid profile was determined and cholesterol absorption and synthesis were measured by oral administration of [3, 4-13C] cholesterol and 2H-labelled water, respectively. Dietary cholesterol consumption increased total (0·16 (sem 0·06) mmol/l, P=0·0179) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 (sem 0·03) mmol/l, P=0·0216) concentrations with no changes in cholesterol absorption or synthesis. Plant sterol consumption failed to reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations despite showing a reduction (6 %, P=0·0004) in cholesterol absorption. An over-compensatory reciprocal increase in cholesterol synthesis (36 %, P=0·0026) corresponding to a small reduction in absorption was observed with plant sterol consumption, possibly resulting in reduced LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant sterols. These data suggest that inter-individual variability in cholesterol trafficking mechanisms may profoundly impact plasma lipid responses to dietary sterols in healthy individuals.

  18. No evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect of escitalopram intervention in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Eva; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Erikstrup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to patients with depression randomised to a single daily dose of either 10mg escitalopram or placebo for four weeks. No significant differences were found in any of the cytokine levels between the participants treated with escitalopram (n=21) or placebo (n=23). Our data does thus not support the hypothesis...... of a global anti-inflammatory effect of escitalopram on cytokines in healthy subjects....

  19. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillenbrand Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC and morbidly obese (MO patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Methods Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers, 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD. Results Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p Conclusions The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology.

  20. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Girard

    Full Text Available De novo mutations (DNM are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots.

  1. Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anton; Heinrich, Johanna; von Schacky, Clemens

    2017-06-19

    A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% ( p Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8-11%).

  2. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9–16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention...... contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested...... that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal...

  3. Comparison of Neutrophil Apoptosis by the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exotoxins between Healthy Individuals and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khazaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be colonized in different human tissues and result in some infections potentially. Thus, considering that these bacteria are resistance to most of the current antibiotics, an examination on pathogenesis mechanisms of such bacteria can be effective in controlling the infections developed by it.Materials and Methods: In this project, among 40 blood samples (20 healthy persons, 20 infants, an amount of 5 ml (2 ml in the infants heparinized blood was collected form each and then neutrophils were isolated by a standard method and were counted by neubauer lam. After culturing Pseudomonas bacteria in broth medium, some tubes with densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 McFarland were prepared and the bacteria were isolated by centrifuge method with 3000rpm for 10 minutes and then its exotoxin were exposed to neutrophils of the groups under study. The effect of time and the bacteria count on the amount of the secreted toxin and in adjacency to neutrophils was measured.Results: There were 11 men and 9 women in the health group and the infants group consisted of 12 boys and 8 girls. Death cell percentage of neutrophils was 100% in the health group and 8.90% in the infants group. Percentage of bacterial growth in the medium 1 and 2 McFarland was zero; in the medium 3 McFarland, it was 12.5% in the healthy group and 1% in the infants group (p<0.10. The average rate of cell death in the minute 15th was different in two groups (68.5% in health group vs. 92.5% in the infants (p<0.0005. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of Pseudomonas bacteria on the development of early cell death in the infants very well. As it was shown, this effect is time-dependent and this cell death (apoptosis is occurred in the infants earlier than health people.

  4. The Effects of Cryotherapy on Knee Joint Position Sense and Force Production Sense in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furmanek Mariusz P.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The proprioceptive information received from mechanoreceptors is potentially responsible for controlling the joint position and force differentiation. However, it is unknown whether cryotherapy influences this complex mechanism. Previously reported results are not universally conclusive and sometimes even contradictory. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of local cryotherapy on knee joint position sense (JPS and force production sense (FPS. The study group consisted of 55 healthy participants (age: 21 ± 2 years, body height: 171.2 ± 9 cm, body mass: 63.3 ± 12 kg, BMI: 21.5 ± 2.6. Local cooling was achieved with the use of gel-packs cooled to -2 ± 2.5°C and applied simultaneously over the knee joint and the quadriceps femoris muscle for 20 minutes. JPS and FPS were evaluated using the Biodex System 4 Pro apparatus. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA did not show any statistically significant changes of the JPS and FPS under application of cryotherapy for all analyzed variables: the JPS’s absolute error (p = 0.976, its relative error (p = 0.295, and its variable error (p = 0.489; the FPS’s absolute error (p = 0.688, its relative error (p = 0.193, and its variable error (p = 0.123. The results indicate that local cooling does not affect proprioceptive acuity of the healthy knee joint. They also suggest that local limited cooling before physical activity at low velocity did not present health or injury risk in this particular study group.

  5. The Effects of Cryotherapy on Knee Joint Position Sense and Force Production Sense in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanek, Mariusz P.; Słomka, Kajetan J.; Sobiesiak, Andrzej; Rzepko, Marian; Juras, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The proprioceptive information received from mechanoreceptors is potentially responsible for controlling the joint position and force differentiation. However, it is unknown whether cryotherapy influences this complex mechanism. Previously reported results are not universally conclusive and sometimes even contradictory. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of local cryotherapy on knee joint position sense (JPS) and force production sense (FPS). The study group consisted of 55 healthy participants (age: 21 ± 2 years, body height: 171.2 ± 9 cm, body mass: 63.3 ± 12 kg, BMI: 21.5 ± 2.6). Local cooling was achieved with the use of gel-packs cooled to -2 ± 2.5°C and applied simultaneously over the knee joint and the quadriceps femoris muscle for 20 minutes. JPS and FPS were evaluated using the Biodex System 4 Pro apparatus. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any statistically significant changes of the JPS and FPS under application of cryotherapy for all analyzed variables: the JPS’s absolute error (p = 0.976), its relative error (p = 0.295), and its variable error (p = 0.489); the FPS’s absolute error (p = 0.688), its relative error (p = 0.193), and its variable error (p = 0.123). The results indicate that local cooling does not affect proprioceptive acuity of the healthy knee joint. They also suggest that local limited cooling before physical activity at low velocity did not present health or injury risk in this particular study group. PMID:29599858

  6. Short-term respiratory effects of e-cigarettes in healthy individuals and smokers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Teloniatis, Stephanie I; Tzavara, Chara K; Gennimata, Sofia A; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the duration of immediate respiratory effects of e-cigarette smoking (ECS) and tested the hypothesis that ECS has more prominent effects in asthmatics compared with healthy smokers (HS). Fifty-four smokers, 27 healthy (HS group) and 27 with intermittent asthma (mild asthma (MA) group) underwent a control session (no liquid, no resistor coil inside e-cigarette cartridge) and an experimental session of ECS using standardized puffing settings. Impulse oscillometry impedance (Z), resistance (R), reactance (X) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured before and 0, 15 and 30 min after control and experimental sessions. Control session revealed no significant changes. In the experimental session, immediately post-ECS, both groups exhibited a significant increase in respiratory system total impedance at 5 Hz (Z5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 10 Hz (R10) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 20 Hz (R20) (P < 0.05), resonant frequency (P < 0.001) and reactance area (P < 0.05). MA exhibited higher baseline values and a more prominent effect immediately after ECS compared with HS for Z5 (P = 0.022), R5 (P = 0.010) and R10 (P = 0.013). FeNO decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.001); HS returned to baseline values in ≤15 min while the MA maintained significantly lower values for an additional 15 min (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline values at 30 min post-ECS. A single session of ECS had respiratory mechanical and inflammatory effects, which were more prominent in smokers with asthma. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Individuals With Schizophrenia and Healthy Aging: Testing the Accelerated Aging Hypothesis of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhana; Mulsant, Benoit H; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-07-01

    Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population. An overall decrease is observed in BDNF expression in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and in older individuals compared to a younger cohort. There is a marked decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal regions and in the periphery among older individuals and those with schizophrenia; however, data for BDNF expression in the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices and the hippocampus is inconclusive. Accelerated aging hypothesis is supported based on frontal regions and peripheral studies; however, further studies are needed in other brain regions.

  8. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Antral Gastritis in Peptic Ulcer Disease Patients and Normal Healthy Population of Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, G. M.; Bhat, M. Youssuf; rather, Ab. Rashid; Basu, Javaid Ahmad; Qureshi, Khursheed Ahmad

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy population of Kashmir. Methods: 50 peptic ulcer patients (duodenal ulcer = 46, gastric ulcer = 2 and combined duodenal and gastric ulcer = 2) and 30 asymptomatic healthy volunteers were included in this study. Peptic ulcer was diagnosed on endoscopic examination. 4–6 punch biopsies were taken from gastric antrum in all the individuals and in case of gastric ulcer an additional biopsy was taken from the edge of the ulcer to exclude its malignant nature. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) organism was diagnosed using three different test methods, viz. Histology (using Giemsa Stain), Microbiology (Gram Stain) and Biochemistry (using one minute Endoscopy Room Test). Histological diagnosis of H. pylori was taken as the “gold standard” for the presence of H. pylori organism. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made using Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain and the gastritis was classified as active chronic gastritis and superficial chronic gastritis. Results: Out of 30 peptic ulcer disease patients with associated antral gastritis, 27 (90%) were positive for H. pylori on histological examination (13 superficial chronic gastritis and 14 active chronic gastritis) whereas out of 8 healthy volunteers with histological evidence of chronic antral gastritis, H. pylori was observed in 7 individuals (87.50%) (4 active chronic gastritis and 3 superficial chronic gastritis). Conclusion: A highly significant association between H. pylori infection with chronic antral gastritis both in peptic ulcer disease patients and healthy volunteers of Kashmir was found in this study. Association between H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis was 90% in peptic ulcer group and 87.50% in healthy population (P<0.005). PMID:18493464

  10. Gulhane Military Medical Academy Training Hospital, the applicant Determination of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Individuals Diagnosed Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Kuru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD diagnosed with identification of individuals in specific behaviors to improve health, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. METHODS: This descriptive study of data types of the Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GATA Hospital cardiology clinic in December 2009 - February 2010 were collected. The study group, at least 6 months before the diagnosis of CAD area, between the ages of 20-65 individuals who accept and participate in the study (n = 300 formed. Sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors of the personal information form for the 33-item, 52-item scale of a healthy lifestyle behaviors and health status of the single-item scale working group of the detection technique applied to the face-to-face interview. The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD for the development of health behaviors in the case of individuals diagnosed with the identification, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. The statistical analysis techniques such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis were used for the comparison. RESULTS: Of the group 57,7% were males, 46,3% were 50-59 years of age and 56,3% were higher education graduates. As regard to total Health Promotion Life-Style Profile Scale scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, gender, education, disease period, occupation and chronic condition groups. As regard to the average PHSS scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, education, body mass index, disease period, occupation, chronic condition and CAD related course groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Healthy lifestyle behaviors before planning training programs, individual models of health behavior and the behavior of individuals using the analyzed factors affecting.. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 287-298

  11. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  12. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done....... OBJECTIVE: To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis...... was used. RESULTS: Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise...

  13. Emotional intelligence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katrin; Driessen, Martin; Behnia, Behnoush; Wingenfeld, Katja; Roepke, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Emotional intelligence as a part of social cognition has, to our knowledge, never been investigated in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), though the disorder is characterized by aspects of emotional dysfunctioning. PTSD often occurs with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as a common comorbidity. Studies about social cognition and emotional intelligence in patients with BPD propose aberrant social cognition, but produced inconsistent results regarding emotional intelligence. The present study aims to assess emotional intelligence in patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, PTSD with comorbid BPD, and BPD patients without comorbid PTSD, as well as in healthy controls. 71 patients with PTSD (41 patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, 30 patients with PTSD with comorbid BPD), 56 patients with BPD without PTSD, and 63 healthy controls filled in the Test of Emotional Intelligence (TEMINT). Patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD showed impairments in emotional intelligence compared to patients with BPD without PTSD, and compared to healthy controls. These impairments were not restricted to specific emotions. Patients with BPD did not differ significantly from healthy controls. This study provides evidence for an impaired emotional intelligence in PTSD without comorbid BPD compared to BPD and healthy controls, affecting a wide range of emotions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation does not affect lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength...... training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions......). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm...

  16. Endogenous Pain Modulation Induced by Extrinsic and Intrinsic Psychological Threat in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Moss, Penny; Cheng, Tak Ho; Garnier, Alexandre; Wright, Anthony; Wand, Benedict M

    2018-03-01

    Many factors interact to influence threat perception and the subsequent experience of pain. This study investigated the effect of observing pain (extrinsic threat) and intrinsic threat of pain to oneself on pressure pain threshold (PPT). Forty socially connected pairs of healthy volunteers were threat-primed and randomly allocated to experimental or control roles. An experimental pain modulation paradigm was applied, with non-nociceptive threat cues used as conditioning stimuli. In substudy 1, the extrinsic threat to the experimental participant was observation of the control partner in pain. The control participant underwent hand immersion in noxious and non-noxious water baths in randomized order. Change in the observing participant's PPT from baseline to mid- and postimmersion was calculated. A significant interaction was found for PPT between conditions and test time (F 2,78  = 24.9, P Extrinsic and intrinsic threat of pain, in the absence of any afferent input therefore influences pain modulation. This may need to be considered in studies that use noxious afferent input with populations who show dysfunctional pain modulation. The effect on endogenous analgesia of observing another's pain and of threat of pain to oneself was investigated. Extrinsic as well as intrinsic threat cues, in the absence of any afferent input, increased pain thresholds, suggesting that mere threat of pain may initiate analgesic effects in traditional noxious experimental paradigms. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-12-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9-16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  19. MRI of the brain in neurologically healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, O.; Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Ylikoski, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document the MRI appearances of the brain in healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. T2- and proton density-weighted axial slices were obtained in 61 volunteers, 30-86 years of age. After visual inspection, signal intensities of brain structures were measured on T2-weighted images. Age-related changes became increasingly apparent after age 50. The main findings were that signal intensity of the white matter increased concomitantly with widening of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; that basal ganglia remained stable; that high-signal foci in white matter increased in number and size after the age of 50 years; that periventricular high-signal foci were constant after the age of 65 years. Our visual impression of a decrease in signal intensity of the central grey matter with age seems to be mistaken. Pathological processes should be suspected if periventricular foci are found in middle-aged or young subjects. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Perspectives on Communicating Biomarker-Based Assessments of Alzheimer’s Disease to Cognitively Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Richard; Bunnik, Eline; Diaz, Ana; Richard, Edo; Badger, Shirlene; Gove, Dianne; Georges, Jean; Fauria, Karine; Molinuevo, Jose-Luis; Wells, Katie; Ritchie, Craig; Brayne, Carol

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials which target pathophysiological mechanisms associated with Alzheimer’s disease, research participants who are recruited based on biomarker test results should be informed about their increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s dementia. This paper presents the results of a qualitative focus group study of attitudes and concerns toward learning information about biomarker-based risk status among healthy research participants in the United Kingdom and Spain and people with dementia and their supporters/caregivers from countries represented in the European Working Group of People with Dementia of Alzheimer Europe. The study identified expectations related to learning risk status and preferences related to the content, quality, and follow-up of the disclosure process. The latter emphasize distinctions between risk and diagnoses, the importance of clear information about risk, and suggestions for risk reduction, as well as expectations for follow up and support. The implications of these preferences for practice are discussed. Providing details of research participants’ experience and views may serve as a guide for the development of processes for the responsible disclosure of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers. PMID:29480179

  1. Use of the Wii Gaming System for Balance Rehabilitation: Establishing Parameters for Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Melissa K; Andeway, Kathleen; Eppenstein, Paula; Ruroede, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to establish balance parameters for the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii Fit™" Balance Board system with three common games, in a sample of healthy adults, and to evaluate the balance measurement reproducibility with separation by age. This was a prospective, multivariate analysis of variance, cohort study design. Seventy-five participants who satisfied all inclusion criteria and completed an informed consent were enrolled. Participants were grouped into age ranges: 21-35 years (n=24), 36-50 years (n=24), and 51-65 years (n=27). Each participant completed the following games three consecutive times, in a randomized order, during one session: "Balance Bubble" (BB) for distance and duration, "Tight Rope" (TR) for distance and duration, and "Center of Balance" (COB) on the left and right sides. COB distributed weight was fairly symmetrical across all subjects and trials; therefore, no influence was assumed on or interaction with other "Wii Fit" measurements. Homogeneity of variance statistics indicated the assumption of distribution normality of the dependent variables (rates) were tenable. The multivariate analysis of variance included dependent variables BB and TR rates (distance divided by duration to complete) with age group and trials as the independent variables. The BB rate was statistically significant (F=4.725, PWii Fit" can discriminate among age groups across trials. The results show promise as a viable tool to measure balance and distance across time (speed) and center of balance distribution.

  2. Study of OH● Radicals in Human Serum Blood of Healthy Individuals and Those with Pathological Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Linert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is constantly under attack from free radicals that occur as part of normal cell metabolism, and by exposure to environmental factors such as UV light, cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants and gamma radiation. The resulting “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS circulate freely in the body with access to all organs and tissues, which can have serious repercussions throughout the body. The body possesses a number of mechanisms both to control the production of ROS and to cope with free radicals in order to limit or repair damage to tissues. Overproduction of ROS or insufficient defense mechanisms leads to a dangerous disbalance in the organism. Thereby several pathomechanisms implicated in over 100 human diseases, e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, physiological disease, aging, etc., can be induced. Thus, a detailed investigation on the quantity of oxygen radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH● in human serum blood, and its possible correlation with antioxidant therapy effects, is highly topical. The subject of this study was the influence of schizophrenia on the amount of OH● in human serum blood. The radicals were detected by fluorimetry, using terephthalic acid as a chemical trap. For all experiments the serum blood of healthy people was used as a control group.

  3. The reliability of eyetracking to assess attentional bias to threatening words in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ian W; Hübscher, Markus; Moseley, G Lorimer; Lee, Hopin; Wand, Benedict M; Traeger, Adrian C; Gustin, Sylvia M; McAuley, James H

    2017-08-15

    Eyetracking is commonly used to investigate attentional bias. Although some studies have investigated the internal consistency of eyetracking, data are scarce on the test-retest reliability and agreement of eyetracking to investigate attentional bias. This study reports the test-retest reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of 12 commonly used outcome measures thought to reflect the different components of attentional bias: overall attention, early attention, and late attention. Healthy participants completed a preferential-looking eyetracking task that involved the presentation of threatening (sensory words, general threat words, and affective words) and nonthreatening words. We used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to measure test-retest reliability (ICC > .70 indicates adequate reliability). The ICCs(2, 1) ranged from -.31 to .71. Reliability varied according to the outcome measure and threat word category. Sensory words had a lower mean ICC (.08) than either affective words (.32) or general threat words (.29). A longer exposure time was associated with higher test-retest reliability. All of the outcome measures, except second-run dwell time, demonstrated low measurement error ( .93). Recommendations are discussed for improving the reliability of eyetracking tasks in future research.

  4. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  5. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  6. The thermoregulation of healthy individuals, overweight-obese, and diabetic from the plantar skin thermogram: a clue to predict the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renero-C, Francisco-J

    2017-01-01

    Background : Thermoregulation is a complex autonomic process to keep or to dissipate heat in the human body. Methods : In this work, by means of the thermogram of the plantar skin, the thermoregulation of healthy individuals, overweight-obese, and diabetic is discussed. Results : The thermograms of the plantar skin, for the healthy individuals, are: (1) symmetrical, the temperature distribution of the right foot being a mirror image of that of the left foot ; (2) the thermograms of women, on average, are 3°C colder than those of the men; and (3) the temperature distributions decrease distally from the medial longitudinal arch. The plantar skin thermograms of overweight-obese individuals show: (1) increased average temperature of both feet and for both genders; (2) no symmetry between the left and right feet thermograms; and (3) the temperature distribution is still decreasing from the medial longitudinal arch to the periphery of the foot. However, the standard deviation, for each averaged temperature of the angiosomes, shows greater uncertainty. Most thermograms of diabetic individuals show temperature increase on the plantar skin, and are mostly symmetric between left and right feet. Conclusions: An asymmetric thermogram of the plantar skin of diabetic individuals, where one foot is hotter than the other, may mean that the coldest foot is losing the capacity to communicate properly with the central nervous system and/or that vasoconstriction/vasodilatation is having problems in regulating the passing of blood through the vessels. Thus, the asymmetric thermograms of diabetic patients, and particularly those coldest regions of foot are of interest, because of the reduction of the local autonomic sensing and the lack of achieving properly the passing of the blood.

  7. Intestinal permeability of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in patients with Crohn's disease and their healthy relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, M.; Eriksen, J.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Muckadell, O.B.S. de

    1989-01-01

    An increased intestinal permeability has been proposed as an aetiologic factor in Crohn's disease. The 24-h urinary excretion of 100 μCi 51 Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to test the permeability in 15 patients with Crohn's disease and in 20 healthy first-degree relatives, who were known to have a genetic predisposition to inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty-eight healthy persons not related to patients with inflammatory bowel disease served as control material. The 51 Cr-EDTA excretion of the relatives was not significantly higher than that of the controls, whereas patients with Crohn's disease had a significantly higher excretion than both the relatives and the controls. Among patients the increased excretion was found only if the small intestine was involved. It is concluded that 1) as a group, patient with Crohn's disease in the small intestine have an increased intestinal permeability, in contrast to their healthy relatives, who have a normal permeability; 2) a considerable overlap of the results of the 51 Cr-EDTA test was found between the groups studied, and the test is not suitable for evaluating individual patients; 3) the results do not support the hypothesis of an increase in intestinal permeability as an aetiologic factor in Crohn's disease. 29 refs

  8. Pendrin and NIS antibodies are absent in healthy individuals and are rare in autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas H; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Weetman, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    prevalence than the controls: NISAb: 17% vs 0% (P Graves' disease (GD) and 14% (5/37) of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) had NISAb, (P ...OBJECTIVE: Antibodies against thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase and the TSH receptor are accepted as pathophysiological and diagnostic biomarkers in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). In contrast, the prevalence, aetiology and clinical relevance of autoantibodies against the human sodium...

  9. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  10. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gumenyuk

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS (habitual total sleep time (TST 7 h 32 m vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS (habitual TST ≤6 h. To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS, and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS, were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep, and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively. The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  11. Predicting hemispheric dominance for language production in healthy individuals using support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Laure; Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Genuer, Robin; Laurent, Alexandre; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Joliot, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to assess hemispheric pattern of language dominance of 47 individuals categorized as non-typical for language from their hemispheric functional laterality index (HFLI) measured on a sentence minus word-list production fMRI-BOLD contrast map. The SVM classifier was trained at discriminating between Dominant and Non-Dominant hemispheric language production activation pattern on a group of 250 participants previously identified as Typicals (HFLI strongly leftward). Then, SVM was applied to each hemispheric language activation pattern of 47 non-typical individuals. The results showed that at least one hemisphere (left or right) was found to be Dominant in every, except 3 individuals, indicating that the "dominant" type of functional organization is the most frequent in non-typicals. Specifically, left hemisphere dominance was predicted in all non-typical right-handers (RH) and in 57.4% of non-typical left-handers (LH). When both hemisphere classifications were jointly considered, four types of brain patterns were observed. The most often predicted pattern (51%) was left-dominant (Dominant left-hemisphere and Non-Dominant right-hemisphere), followed by right-dominant (23%, Dominant right-hemisphere and Non-Dominant left-hemisphere) and co-dominant (19%, 2 Dominant hemispheres) patterns. Co-non-dominant was rare (6%, 2 Non-Dominant hemispheres), but was normal variants of hemispheric specialization. In RH, only left-dominant (72%) and co-dominant patterns were detected, while for LH, all types were found, although with different occurrences. Among the 10 LH with a strong rightward HFLI, 8 had a right-dominant brain pattern. Whole-brain analysis of the right-dominant pattern group confirmed that it exhibited a functional organization strictly mirroring that of left-dominant pattern group. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5871-5889, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Metabolic signatures of cultured human adipocytes from metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available Among obese subjects, metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity (MHO/MUHO can be differentiated: the latter is characterized by whole-body insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and subclinical inflammation. Aim of this study was, to identify adipocyte-specific metabolic signatures and functional biomarkers for MHO versus MUHO.10 insulin-resistant (IR vs. 10 insulin-sensitive (IS non-diabetic morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 Caucasians were matched for gender, age, BMI, and percentage of body fat. From subcutaneous fat biopsies, primary preadipocytes were isolated and differentiated to adipocytes in vitro. About 280 metabolites were investigated by a targeted metabolomic approach intracellularly, extracellularly, and in plasma.Among others, aspartate was reduced intracellularly to one third (p = 0.0039 in IR adipocytes, pointing to a relative depletion of citric acid cycle metabolites or reduced aspartate uptake in MUHO. Other amino acids, already known to correlate with diabetes and/or obesity, were identified to differ between MUHO's and MHO's adipocytes, namely glutamine, histidine, and spermidine. Most species of phosphatidylcholines (PCs were lower in MUHO's extracellular milieu, though simultaneously elevated intracellularly, e.g., PC aa C32∶3, pointing to increased PC synthesis and/or reduced PC release. Furthermore, altered arachidonic acid (AA metabolism was found: 15(S-HETE (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; 0 vs. 120pM; p = 0.0014, AA (1.5-fold; p = 0.0055 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22∶6; 2-fold; p = 0.0033 were higher in MUHO. This emphasizes a direct contribution of adipocytes to local adipose tissue inflammation. Elevated DHA, as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, might be a hint for counter-regulatory mechanisms in MUHO.We identified adipocyte-inherent metabolic alterations discriminating between MHO and MUHO.

  13. Acute ingestion of beetroot juice increases exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet L Kroll

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the airways' innate immune response, and the fraction of exhaled NO at a flow rate of 50mL per second (FENO50 has been utilized to capture NO. Deficits in NO are linked to loss of bronchoprotective effects in airway challenges and predict symptoms of respiratory infection. While beetroot juice supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance by increasing dietary nitrate consumption, few studies have examined the impact of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on airway NO in contexts beyond an exercise challenge, which we know influences FENO50.We therefore examined the influence of a beetroot juice supplement on FENO50 in healthy males and females (n = 38 during periods of rest and in normoxic conditions. FENO50, heart rate, blood pressure, and state affect were measured at baseline, 45 minutes, and 90 minutes following ingestion of 70ml beetroot juice (6.5 mmol nitrate. Identical procedures were followed with ingestion of 70ml of water on a control day.After beetroot consumption, average values of the natural log of FENO50 (lnFENO50 increased by 21.3% (Cohen's d = 1.54, p < .001 45 minutes after consumption and by 20.3% (Cohen's d = 1.45, p < .001 90 min after consumption. On the other hand, only very small increases in FENO50 were observed after consumption of the control liquid (less than 1% increase. A small subset (n = 4 of participants completed an extended protocol lasting over 3 hours, where elevated levels of FENO50 persisted. No significant changes in cardiovascular measures were observed with this small single dose of beetroot juice.As NO serves a key role in innate immunity, future research is needed to explore the potential clinical utility of beetroot and dietary nitrate to elevate FENO50 and prevent respiratory infection.

  14. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  15. Intramuscular temperature changes during and after 2 different cryotherapy interventions in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kimberly A; Herman, Daniel C; Hertel, Jay; Saliba, Susan A

    2012-08-01

    Crossover. To compare the time required to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline temperature, and to compare intramuscular temperature 90 minutes posttreatment, between 2 cryotherapy modalities. Cryotherapy is used to treat pain from muscle injuries. Cooler intramuscular temperatures may reduce cellular metabolism and secondary hypoxic injury to attenuate acute injury response, specifically the rate of chemical mediator activity. Modalities that decrease intramuscular temperature quickly may be beneficial in the treatment of muscle injuries. Eighteen healthy subjects received 2 cryotherapy conditions, crushed-ice bag (CIB) and cold-water immersion (CWI), in a randomly allocated order, separated by 72 hours. Each condition was applied until intramuscular temperature decreased 8°C below baseline. Intramuscular temperature was monitored in the gastrocnemius, 1 cm below subcutaneous adipose tissue. The primary outcome was time to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline. A secondary outcome was intramuscular temperature at the end of a 90-minute rewarming period. Paired t tests were used to examine outcomes. Time to reach an 8°C reduction in intramuscular temperature was not significantly different between CIB and CWI (mean difference, 2.6 minutes; 95% confidence interval: -3.10, 8.30). Intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes post-CWI compared to CIB (mean difference, 2.8°C; 95% confidence interval: 2.07°C, 3.52°C). There was no difference in time required to reduce intramuscular temperature 8°C 1 cm below adipose tissue using CIB and CWI. However, intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes following CWI. These results provide clinicians with information that may guide treatment-modality decisions.

  16. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  17. The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: an FMRI investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im Quah-Smith

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As laser acupuncture is being increasingly used to treat mental disorders, we sought to determine whether it has a biologically plausible effect by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the cerebral activation patterns from laser stimulation of relevant acupoints.Ten healthy subjects were randomly stimulated with a fibreoptic infrared laser on 4 acupoints (LR14, CV14, LR8 and HT7 used for depression following the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, and 1 control non-acupoint (sham point in a blocked design (alternating verum laser and placebo laser/rest blocks, while the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI response was recorded from the whole brain on a 3T scanner. Many of the acupoint laser stimulation conditions resulted in different patterns of neural activity. Regions with significantly increased activation included the limbic cortex (cingulate and the frontal lobe (middle and superior frontal gyrus. Laser acupuncture tended to be associated with ipsilateral brain activation and contralateral deactivation that therefore cannot be simply attributed to somatosensory stimulation.We found that laser stimulation of acupoints lead to activation of frontal-limbic-striatal brain regions, with the pattern of neural activity somewhat different for each acupuncture point. This is the first study to investigate laser acupuncture on a group of acupoints useful in the management of depression. Differing activity patterns depending on the acupoint site were demonstrated, suggesting that neurological effects vary with the site of stimulation. The mechanisms of activation and deactivation and their effects on depression warrant further investigation.

  18. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Pattern of Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors in Population Younger than 55 Years and Above 55 Years: A Population Study of 31999 Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Nadia Hatmi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available More than eighty percent of patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD have conventional risk factors. Prevalence of well known risk factors seems to show a different pattern in younger patients and individual above 55 years. To evaluate the pattern of conventional CHD risk factors in healthy individuals in two different age groups. A large scale population based survey of 31999 individuals from ten medical centers was designed. Screening of risk factors was performed upon these protocols: taking medical history, physical examination and blood tests of complete blood cell counts, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, urinalysis and creatinine. Prevalence of the risk factors in healthy people aged above 55 years were: 8.1% for systolic blood pressure (SBP>140 mmHg, 3.8% for diastolic blood pressure (DBP>90mmHg, 13.9% for fasting blood glucose (FBS≥126 Mg/dl, 36.9% for total cholesterol>200 Mg/dl, 19.2% for triglyceride (TG>200 Mg/dl, 67.8% for HDL-c130 Mg/dl, 4.72 for TC/HDL-c ratio, 2.88 for LDL-c/HDL/c ratio and 4.24 for TG/HDL-c ratio. Prevalence of risk factors in individuals younger than 55 years were: 1.7% for SBP>140 mmHg, 1.2% for DBP>90 mmHg, 5.2% for FBS≥126 Mg/dl, 31.3% for TC>200 Mg/dl, 21.5% for TG>200 Mg/dl, 69.4% for HDL-c130 Mg/dl, 4.7 for TC/HDL-c ratio, 2.83 for LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and 4.43 for TG/HDL-c ratio. In univariate model of analysis: prevalence of the risk factors were significantly higher in age above 55 years than in people younger than 55 years except for hypertriglyceridemia and HDL-c200 Mg/dl P= 0.002, HDL-c140 mmHg P=0.001. Pattern of such a CHD risk factors of FBS≥126 Mg/dl, TG>200 Mg/dl, HDL-c140 mmHg demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the age above 55 years to the healthy people younger than 55 years. These results cab be implicated to set up prediction models for stratifying individuals at higher risk of CHD.

  20. In vivo measurement of GABA transmission in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankle, W Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y; Prasad, Konasale M; Mason, N Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A; Narendran, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. The binding of [(11)C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [(11)C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). [(11)C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [(11)C]flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition.

  1. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point.A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected.A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the individual and common core microbiota in healthy adults. The

  2. Intestinal Microbial Community Differs between Acute Pancreatitis Patients and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi Mei; Zhang, Zheng Yu; Zhang, Chen Huan; Wu, Jing; Wang, You Xin; Zhang, Guo Xin

    2018-01-01

    A case control study including 45 acute pancreatitis and 44 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the association between intestinal microbial community and acute pancreatitis. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to profile the microbiological composition of the samples. In total, 27 microbial phyla were detected and the samples of pancreatitis patients contained fewer phyla. Samples from acute pancreatitis patients contained more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and fewer Firmicutes and Actinobacteria than those from healthy volunteers. PCoA analyses distinguished the fecal microbial communities of acute pancreatitis patients from those of healthy volunteers. The intestinal microbes of acute pancreatitis patients are different from those of healthy volunteers. Modulation of the intestinal microbiome may serve as an alternative strategy for treating acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement and validation of measures for impulsive food choice across obese and healthy-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena; Tabor, Ann; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-12-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done. To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis was used. Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise to perform during pregnancy. The intervention was experienced to have benefits on both their physical health and their mental well-being. Crowded swimming pools were perceived as the greatest barrier. It is feasible to perform a RCT using the described intervention. The intervention was accepted by the participants because it supported their desire to be physically active during pregnancy. The main barrier was crowded swimming pools and this issue must be addressed in a future RCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptation of postural recovery responses to a vestibular sensory illusion in individuals with Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark E; Cavanaugh, James T; Foreman, K Bo; Shaffer, Scott W; Marcus, Robin; Dibble, Leland E

    2017-10-01

    The ability to adapt postural responses to sensory illusions diminishes with age and is further impaired by Parkinson disease. However, limited information exists regarding training-related adaptions of sensory reweighting in these populations. This study sought to determine whether Parkinson disease or age would differentially affect acute postural recovery or adaptive postural responses to novel or repeated exposure to sensory illusions using galvanic vestibular stimulation during quiet stance. Acutely, individuals with Parkinson disease demonstrated larger center of pressure coefficient of variation compared to controls. Unlike individuals with Parkinson disease and asymptomatic older adults, healthy young adults acutely demonstrated a reduction in Sample Entropy to the sensory illusion. Following a period of consolidation Sample Entropy increased in the healthy young group, which coincided with a decreased center of pressure coefficient of variation. Similar changes were not observed in the Parkinson disease or older adult groups. Taken together, these results suggest that young adults learn to adapt to vestibular illusion in a more robust manner than older adults or those with Parkinson disease. Further investigation into the nature of this adaptive difference is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguigni, Valerio; Manco, Melania; Sorge, Roberto; Gnessi, Lucio; Francomano, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 h after ingesting ice cream. Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]), nitric oxide (NOx) bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress (determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H 2 O 2 ]), endothelium function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and exercise tolerance (stress test) were assessed, and the double product was measured. Serum polyphenols (P ice cream ingestion. No changes were found after control ice cream ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Swallowing Function Between Dysphagia Patients and Healthy Subjects Using High-Resolution Manometry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Taek; Yi, Youbin; Lee, Jung-Sang; Kim, Kunwoo; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare swallowing function between healthy subjects and patients with pharyngeal dysphagia using high resolution manometry (HRM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HRM for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. Methods Seventy-five patients with dysphagia and 28 healthy subjects were included in this study. Diagnosis of dysphagia was confirmed by a videofluoroscopy. HRM was performed to measure pressure and timing information at the velopharynx (VP), tongue base (TB), and upper esophage...

  9. Providers and Patients Caught Between Standardization and Individualization: Individualized Standardization as a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Lena; Pfaff, Holger

    2018-01-01

    In their 2017 article, Mannion and Exworthy provide a thoughtful and theory-based analysis of two parallel trends in modern healthcare systems and their competing and conflicting logics: standardization and customization. This commentary further discusses the challenge of treatment decision-making in times of evidence-based medicine (EBM), shared decision-making and personalized medicine. From the perspective of systems theory, we propose the concept of individualized standardization as a solution to the problem. According to this concept, standardization is conceptualized as a guiding framework leaving room for individualization in the patient physician interaction. The theoretical background is the concept of context management according to systems theory. Moreover, the comment suggests multidisciplinary teams as a possible solution for the integration of standardization and individualization, using the example of multidisciplinary tumor conferences and highlighting its limitations. The comment also supports the authors’ statement of the patient as co-producer and introduces the idea that the competing logics of standardization and individualization are a matter of perspective on macro, meso and micro levels. PMID:29626403

  10. Tracking functional brain changes in patients with depression under psychodynamic psychotherapy using individualized stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wiswede

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neurobiological models of depression posit limbic hyperactivity that should normalize after successful treatment. For psychotherapy, though, brain changes in patients with depression show substantial variability. Two critical issues in relevant studies concern the use of unspecific stimulation experiments and relatively short treatment protocols. Therefore changes in brain reactions to individualized stimuli were studied in patients with depression after eight months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. METHODS: 18 unmedicated patients with recurrent major depressive disorder were confronted with individualized and clinically derived content in a functional MRI experiment before (T1 and after eight months (T2 of psychodynamic therapy. A control group of 17 healthy subjects was also tested twice without intervention. The experimental stimuli were sentences describing each participant's dysfunctional interpersonal relationship patterns derived from clinical interviews based on Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD. RESULTS: At T1 patients showed enhanced activation compared to controls in several limbic and subcortical regions, including amygdala and basal ganglia, when confronted with OPD sentences. At T2 the differences in brain activity between patients and controls were no longer apparent. Concurrently, patients had improved significantly in depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: Using ecologically valid stimuli, this study supports the model of limbic hyperactivity in depression that normalizes after treatment. Without a control group of untreated patients measured twice, though, changes in patients' brain activity could also be attributed to other factors than psychodynamic therapy.

  11. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  12. Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Sebastian; Weis, Philipp; Page, Lukas; Helm, Johanna; Lazariotou, Maria; Einsele, Hermann; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154 + A. fumigatus reactive T cells were evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers. All subjects completed a standardised questionnaire addressing their mould exposure. Subjects with intensive mould exposure in their professional or residential surrounding demonstrated considerably higher mean frequencies of A. fumigatus reactive T-helper and T-memory cells. Comparative evaluation of multiple measurements over time demonstrated relatively conserved reactive T-cell frequencies in the absence of major changes to the exposure profile, whereas those frequently exposed in professional environment or with changes to their risk score demonstrated a marked dependency of antigen reactive T-cell frequencies on recent mould exposure. This pilot study was the first to provide data on the intra-individual variability in A. fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies and its linkage to mould encounter. Fungus reactive T cells are to be considered a valued tool for the assessment of environmental mould exposure. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Patient Characteristics Predicting Readmission Among Individuals Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa; Murtaugh, Christopher M.; Shah, Shivani; Barrón-Vaya, Yolanda; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Peng, Timothy R.; Zhu, Carolyn W.; Feldman, Penny H.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is difficult to manage and increasingly common with many individuals experiencing frequent hospitalizations. Little is known about patient factors consistently associated with hospital readmission. A literature review was conducted to identify heart failure patient characteristics, measured before discharge, that contribute to variation in hospital readmission rates. Database searches yielded 950 potential articles, of which 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics generally have a very modest effect on all-cause or heart failure–related readmission within 7 to 180 days of index hospital discharge. A range of cardiac diseases and other comorbidities only minimally increase readmission rates. No single patient characteristic stands out as a key contributor across multiple studies underscoring the challenge of developing successful interventions to reduce readmissions. Interventions may need to be general in design with the specific intervention depending on each patient's unique clinical profile. PMID:26180045

  14. Patient Characteristics Predicting Readmission Among Individuals Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa; Murtaugh, Christopher M; Shah, Shivani; Barrón-Vaya, Yolanda; Bowles, Kathryn H; Peng, Timothy R; Zhu, Carolyn W; Feldman, Penny H

    2016-02-01

    Heart failure is difficult to manage and increasingly common with many individuals experiencing frequent hospitalizations. Little is known about patient factors consistently associated with hospital readmission. A literature review was conducted to identify heart failure patient characteristics, measured before discharge, that contribute to variation in hospital readmission rates. Database searches yielded 950 potential articles, of which 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics generally have a very modest effect on all-cause or heart failure-related readmission within 7 to 180 days of index hospital discharge. A range of cardiac diseases and other comorbidities only minimally increase readmission rates. No single patient characteristic stands out as a key contributor across multiple studies underscoring the challenge of developing successful interventions to reduce readmissions. Interventions may need to be general in design with the specific intervention depending on each patient's unique clinical profile. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Glucose uptake heterogeneity of the leg muscles is similar between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    Difficulties in ambulation are one of the main problems reported by patients with multiple sclerosis. A previous study by our research group showed increased recruitment of muscle groups during walking, but the influence of skeletal muscle properties, such as muscle fiber activity, has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this investigation was to use the novel method of calculating glucose uptake heterogeneity in the leg muscles of patients with multiple sclerosis and compare these results to healthy controls. Eight patients with multiple sclerosis (4 men) and 8 healthy controls (4 men) performed 15 min of treadmill walking at a comfortable self-selected speed following muscle strength tests. Participants were injected with ≈ 8 mCi of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose during walking after which positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was performed. No differences in muscle strength were detected between multiple sclerosis and control groups (P>0.27). Within the multiple sclerosis, group differences in muscle volume existed between the stronger and weaker legs in the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus (Pmuscle group or individual muscle of the legs (P>0.16, P≥0.05). Patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls showed similar muscle fiber activity during walking. Interpretations of these results, with respect to our previous study, suggest that walking difficulties in patients with multiple sclerosis may be more associated with altered central nervous system motor patterns rather than alterations in skeletal muscle properties. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Characteristics of Opium Addicts with Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Barzegar, Afsoon; Husein, Afzal; Malic, Claudia; Sheikhazadi, Elham; Saberi-Anary, Seyed Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage. The pattern of dermatoglyphics - finger and A-B prints - obtained from a group of opium users(121 patients) was compared to those obtained from a group of opium non-users (121 patients) from Birjand,Iran. The results were analyzed using chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that although A-B ridges of palms and fingers in our study group were highercompared to the control group, there was no significant difference between these groups. The only significantdifference was the fingerprint patterns of the left ring finger in the study group, which lacked the arch patternand had less loop patterns. The dominant type of fingerprint in the left ring finger was the whorl. In ouropium user group, the arch and loop fingerprint patterns were heterogeneous and significantly different incomparison with the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a genetic factor may increase the predisposition to recreational drugusage. Further research is required to confirm this possible impact of genetic factors on the addiction process.

  17. Comparing Personality Traits , Coping Strategies, and Attributional Styles of Opioid-Dependent Patients and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Moradi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is carried on to compare personality traits, coping strategies, and attributional styles of opiate-dependent patients and healthy people. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sctional and comparative research, three scales Eysenk Personality Questionaire RS (EPQ-RS, Coping Response Inventory (CRI, and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ are used to measure the mentioned variables on 158 people (78 opiate-dependent patient and 80 healthy people selected by accessible sampling method. Research data were examined on the basis of T-test for independent groups and logistic regression. Results: Results of T-test showed that there were significant differences between healthy and patient group in Coping Response Inventory and Personality Traits Subscale(except Lying subscale and attribution styles for negative events (P<0.001. Logistic regression results showed that all of these variables which entered in model, are able to predict distinction one group from other patient group and healthy one in a meaningful way(P<0.001. Conclusion: opiate-dependent patients when they face problems significantly use problem-solving strategies, social support seeking, and cognitive evaluation significantly less than healthy group and use physical inhibition and emotional inhibition significantly more than the healthy group. Also, drug-dependent patients in terms of tendency to Neuroticism, psychoticism and introversion were significantly higher than the healthy group, and they had more pessimistic attributional style towards negative events. On the other hand it became apparent that some aspects of personality characteristics, coping strategies, and attributional style considerably were able to distinguish healthy people from opiate-dependent patients.

  18. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  19. Yoga reduces perceived stress and exhaustion levels in healthy elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Eric; Tilton, Katherine; Eickholt, Nicole; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether a 7-week yoga intervention could improve physical function, perceived stress, and mental/emotional wellness in elderly participants. 8 participants (66.5 ± 0.3 years) attended 2 60-min Hatha yoga sessions/week for 7 weeks, and performed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Balance was assessed using a 5-test battery. Flexibility was measured by sit-and-reach and shoulder flexibility tests. Functional mobility tests included 8-ft up-and-go, 5 chair stands, and 4-m walk. Participants completed SF-12, exhaustion level, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. SF-12 Mental Component Summary scores, exhaustion levels, and PSS scores improved post-intervention. No differences were found for physical function measures. Yoga participation can improve mental/emotional wellness, exhaustion levels, and stress levels in elderly individuals, even without measurable improvements in physical function. Clinicians and health practitioners who work with the elderly should consider yoga as a potential therapeutic modality for improving important aspects of quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards precision prevention: Technologies for identifying healthy individuals with high risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Zachary D; Engelward, Bevin P; Brenner, David J; Begley, Thomas J; Sobol, Robert W; Bielas, Jason H; Stambrook, Peter J; Wei, Qingyi; Hu, Jennifer J; Terry, Mary Beth; Dilworth, Caroline; McAllister, Kimberly A; Reinlib, Les; Worth, Leroy; Shaughnessy, Daniel T

    2017-08-01

    The rise of advanced technologies for characterizing human populations at the molecular level, from sequence to function, is shifting disease prevention paradigms toward personalized strategies. Because minimization of adverse outcomes is a key driver for treatment decisions for diseased populations, developing personalized therapy strategies represent an important dimension of both precision medicine and personalized prevention. In this commentary, we highlight recently developed enabling technologies in the field of DNA damage, DNA repair, and mutagenesis. We propose that omics approaches and functional assays can be integrated into population studies that fuse basic, translational and clinical research with commercial expertise in order to accelerate personalized prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases linked to aberrant responses to DNA damage. This collaborative approach is generally applicable to efforts to develop data-driven, individualized prevention and treatment strategies for other diseases. We also recommend strategies for maximizing the use of biological samples for epidemiological studies, and for applying emerging technologies to clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  2. Older Adults Co-Creating Meaningful Individualized Social Activities Online for Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusi, Madeleine; Nilsson, Ingeborg; Lindgren, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Social isolation and loneliness among older people is a growing problem with negative effects on physical and mental health. In co-creation with older adults individualized social activities were designed where older adults through computer mediated communication were able to participate in social activities without leaving their homes. Four types of activities were designed; outdoor activity, music event, visiting a friend and leisure activity. A participatory action research design was applied, where end users together with scientists from two research fields developed, tested and evaluated online participation in the activities. Usability and safety of the systems were major concerns among older adults. The evaluation pointed out that level of simplicity, usability and audio-video quality determined the level of satisfaction with the human interaction during the activity, thereby affecting the meaningfulness of the activity. The research presented in this paper constitutes the first step in a long-term research process aiming at developing a digital coaching system that gives older adults personalized support for increasing participation in meaningful social activities.

  3. Are there healthy obese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  5. EEG spectral coherence data distinguish chronic fatigue syndrome patients from healthy controls and depressed patients--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Frank H; McAnulty, Gloria B; McCreary, Michelle C; Cuchural, George J; Komaroff, Anthony L

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies suggest central nervous system involvement in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet there are no established diagnostic criteria. CFS may be difficult to differentiate from clinical depression. The study's objective was to determine if spectral coherence, a computational derivative of spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), could distinguish patients with CFS from healthy control subjects and not erroneously classify depressed patients as having CFS. This is a study, conducted in an academic medical center electroencephalography laboratory, of 632 subjects: 390 healthy normal controls, 70 patients with carefully defined CFS, 24 with major depression, and 148 with general fatigue. Aside from fatigue, all patients were medically healthy by history and examination. EEGs were obtained and spectral coherences calculated after extensive artifact removal. Principal Components Analysis identified coherence factors and corresponding factor loading patterns. Discriminant analysis determined whether spectral coherence factors could reliably discriminate CFS patients from healthy control subjects without misclassifying depression as CFS. Analysis of EEG coherence data from a large sample (n = 632) of patients and healthy controls identified 40 factors explaining 55.6% total variance. Factors showed highly significant group differentiation (p EEG spectral coherence analysis identified unmedicated patients with CFS and healthy control subjects without misclassifying depressed patients as CFS, providing evidence that CFS patients demonstrate brain physiology that is not observed in healthy normals or patients with major depression. Studies of new CFS patients and comparison groups are required to determine the possible clinical utility of this test. The results concur with other studies finding neurological abnormalities in CFS, and implicate temporal lobe involvement in CFS pathophysiology.

  6. Subjective perception of safety in healthy individuals working with 7 T MRI scanners: a retrospective multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Mahsa; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Speck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    To retrospectively assess perception of safety of healthy individuals working with human 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. A total of 66 healthy individuals with a mean age of 31 ± 7 years participated in this retrospective multicentre survey study. Nonparametric correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relation between self-reported perception of safety and prevalence of sensory effects while working with 7 T MRI scanners for an average 47 months. The results indicated that 98.5 % of the study participants had a neutral or positive feeling about safety aspects at 7 T MRI scanners. 45.5 % reported that they feel very safe and none of the participants stated that they feel moderately or very unsafe while working with 7 T MRI scanners. Perception of safety was not affected by the number of hours per week spent in the vicinity of the 7 T MRI scanner or the duration of experience with 7 T MRI. More than 50 % of individuals experienced vertigo and metallic taste while working with 7 T MRI scanners. However, participants' perceptions of safety were not affected by the prevalence of MR-related symptoms. The overall data indicated an average perception of a moderately safe work environment. To our knowledge, this study delineates the first attempt to assess the subjective safety perception among 7 T MRI workers and suggests further investigations are indicated.

  7. Improving introspection to inform free will regarding the choice by healthy individuals to use or not use cognitive enhancing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, David S

    2009-06-16

    A commentary in Nature entitled "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy" (Greely et al 2008 Nature 456: 702-705) offers an opportunity to move toward a humane societal appreciation of mind-altering drugs. Using cognitive enhancing drugs as an exemplar, this article presents a series of hypotheses concerning how an individual might learn optimal use. The essence of the proposal is that individuals can cultivate sensitivity to the effects of ever-smaller amounts of psychoactive drugs thereby making harm less likely and benign effects more probable. Four interrelated hypotheses are presented and briefly discussed. 1. Humans can learn to discriminate ever-smaller doses of at least some mind-altering drugs; a learning program can be designed or discovered that will have this outcome. 2. The skill to discriminate drugs and dose can be generalized, i.e. if learned with one drug a second one is easier and so on. 3. Cultivating this skill/knack would be beneficial in leading to choices informed by a more accurate sense of mind-body interactions. 4. From a philosophical point of view learning the effects of ever-smaller doses of psychoactive agents offers a novel path into and to transcend the objective/subjective barrier and the mind/body problem.Whatever the fate of these specific hypotheses, discussion of cognitive enhancing drugs for healthy individuals has the potential to inspire innovative educational and public policy initiatives toward all types of mind-altering drugs and the people who use them.

  8. Improving introspection to inform free will regarding the choice by healthy individuals to use or not use cognitive enhancing drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A commentary in Nature entitled "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy" (Greely et al 2008 Nature 456: 702–705 offers an opportunity to move toward a humane societal appreciation of mind-altering drugs. Using cognitive enhancing drugs as an exemplar, this article presents a series of hypotheses concerning how an individual might learn optimal use. The essence of the proposal is that individuals can cultivate sensitivity to the effects of ever-smaller amounts of psychoactive drugs thereby making harm less likely and benign effects more probable. Four interrelated hypotheses are presented and briefly discussed. 1. Humans can learn to discriminate ever-smaller doses of at least some mind-altering drugs; a learning program can be designed or discovered that will have this outcome. 2. The skill to discriminate drugs and dose can be generalized, i.e. if learned with one drug a second one is easier and so on. 3. Cultivating this skill/knack would be beneficial in leading to choices informed by a more accurate sense of mind-body interactions. 4. From a philosophical point of view learning the effects of ever-smaller doses of psychoactive agents offers a novel path into and to transcend the objective/subjective barrier and the mind/body problem. Whatever the fate of these specific hypotheses, discussion of cognitive enhancing drugs for healthy individuals has the potential to inspire innovative educational and public policy initiatives toward all types of mind-altering drugs and the people who use them.

  9. Studying the effect of different elements in gastric emptying that produce normal variations in `healthy` individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, L. [Sydney University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Maintaining the rate of emptying solids and liquids at normal levels, is an essential component for the correct functioning of the entire gastro-intestinal tract. There is no single-test available which provides a `baseline` for all gastric emptying studies. This problem arises due to many elements which normally effect the rate of gastric emptying, such as those dealing with patient factors, the composition of the liquid/solid meal used and also which radiopharmaceutical is chosen. It is therefore recommended that each Nuclear Medicine practice needs to set-up guidelines which are able to be consistently reproduced. One such guideline may be in the form of a `liquid glucose meal` which provides consistent and accurate results for gastric emptying studies 18 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Why Oats Are Safe and Healthy for Celiac Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins) are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes). Avenins are present at a

  11. Catalase activity of IgG antibodies from the sera of healthy donors and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Evgeny A; Smirnova, Ludmila P; Bokhan, Nikolay A; Semke, Arkadiy V; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2017-01-01

    We present first evidence showing that some electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs from the sera of patients with schizophrenia (36.4%) and their Fab and F(ab)2 fragments as well as from healthy donors (33.3%) possess catalase activity. The relative catalase activity of IgGs from the sera of individual schizophrenia patients (and healthy donors) significantly varied from patient to patient, but the activity of IgGs from healthy donors is on average 15.8-fold lower than that for schizophrenia patients. After extensive dialysis of purified IgGs against EDTA chelating metal ions, the relative catalase activity of IgGs decreases on average approximately 2.5-3.7-fold; all IgGs possess metal-dependent and independent catalase activity. The addition of external Me2+ ions to dialyzed and non-dialyzed IgGs leads to a significant increase in their activity. The best activator of dialyzed and non-dialyzed IgGs is Co2+, the activation by Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+ ions were rare and always lower than by Co2+. Every IgG preparation demonstrates several individual sets of very well expressed pH optima in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.5. These data speak for the individual repertoire of catalase IgGs in every person and an extreme diversity of abzymes in their pH optima and activation by different metal ions. It is known that antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutases, catalases, and glutathione peroxidases represent critical defense mechanisms preventing oxidative modifications of DNA, proteins, and lipids. Catalase activity of human IgGs could probably also play a major role in the protection of organisms from oxidative stress and toxic compounds.

  12. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela P. Vasconcelos-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD, in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36, unaffected siblings (n=35, and healthy controls (n=44. Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST. A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21, unaffected siblings (n=14, and healthy controls (n=22 also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Results: Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35 than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p < 0.001 and siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001. Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008. Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p < 0.030 and in the number of correctly completed categories on WCST (p = 0.030. Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Conclusion: Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  13. DEFB1 polymorphisms and salivary hBD-1 concentration in Oral Lichen Planus patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesello, Vania; Zupin, Luisa; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Biasotto, Matteo; Pozzato, Gabriele; Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Crovella, Sergio; Segat, Ludovica

    2017-01-01

    The aetiology of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, is not yet well understood. Since innate immunity may be hypothesized as involved in the susceptibility to OLP, we studied human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1) an antimicrobial peptide constitutively expressed in the saliva, looking at functional genetic variants possibly able to diminish hBD-1 production an consequently conferring major susceptibility to OLP. We analysed three DEFB1 polymorphisms at 5' UTR, -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), -20G>A (rs11362) and two DEFB1 polymorphisms at 3'UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031), c*87A>G (rs1800971), with the aim of correlating these genetic variants and hBD-1 salivary level in a group of OLP patients and in healthy subjects. We also evaluated hBD-1 salivary concentrations, using ELISA, in OLP and healthy controls. We compared hBD-1 concentrations in OLP and healthy subjects: hBD-1 concentration was significantly higher in OLP patients respect to control. When considering the correlation between DEFB1 polymorphisms genotypes and hBD-1 expression levels, significant results were obtained for SNPs -52G>A (p=0.03 both in OLP patients and healthy individuals) and -44C>G (p=0.02 in OLP patients). hBD-1 production was different between OLP and healthy subjects (not age-matched with OLP). DEFB1 gene polymorphisms, -52G>A and -44C>G, correlated with hBD-1 salivary concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Ramanathan, Murali; Benedict, Ralph; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive reserve has been implicated as a possible protective factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but to date no study has compared reserve-building activities across disease cours