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Sample records for healthy individuals assessed

  1. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-02-13

    Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in different contexts. The evidence of the validity of

  2. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

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    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  3. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop.

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    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-16

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  4. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient

  5. Nutriënt status assessment in individuals and populations for healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabolcs, P.; Saris, W.H.M.; Mathers, J.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schols, A.M.; Navis, G.; Kuipers, F.; Weber, P.; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient

  6. Perspectives on Communicating Biomarker-Based Assessments of Alzheimer’s Disease to Cognitively Healthy Individuals

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    Milne, Richard; Bunnik, Eline; Diaz, Ana; Richard, Edo; Badger, Shirlene; Gove, Dianne; Georges, Jean; Fauria, Karine; Molinuevo, Jose-Luis; Wells, Katie; Ritchie, Craig; Brayne, Carol

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials which target pathophysiological mechanisms associated with Alzheimer’s disease, research participants who are recruited based on biomarker test results should be informed about their increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s dementia. This paper presents the results of a qualitative focus group study of attitudes and concerns toward learning information about biomarker-based risk status among healthy research participants in the United Kingdom and Spain and people with dementia and their supporters/caregivers from countries represented in the European Working Group of People with Dementia of Alzheimer Europe. The study identified expectations related to learning risk status and preferences related to the content, quality, and follow-up of the disclosure process. The latter emphasize distinctions between risk and diagnoses, the importance of clear information about risk, and suggestions for risk reduction, as well as expectations for follow up and support. The implications of these preferences for practice are discussed. Providing details of research participants’ experience and views may serve as a guide for the development of processes for the responsible disclosure of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers. PMID:29480179

  7. The reliability of eyetracking to assess attentional bias to threatening words in healthy individuals.

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    Skinner, Ian W; Hübscher, Markus; Moseley, G Lorimer; Lee, Hopin; Wand, Benedict M; Traeger, Adrian C; Gustin, Sylvia M; McAuley, James H

    2017-08-15

    Eyetracking is commonly used to investigate attentional bias. Although some studies have investigated the internal consistency of eyetracking, data are scarce on the test-retest reliability and agreement of eyetracking to investigate attentional bias. This study reports the test-retest reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of 12 commonly used outcome measures thought to reflect the different components of attentional bias: overall attention, early attention, and late attention. Healthy participants completed a preferential-looking eyetracking task that involved the presentation of threatening (sensory words, general threat words, and affective words) and nonthreatening words. We used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to measure test-retest reliability (ICC > .70 indicates adequate reliability). The ICCs(2, 1) ranged from -.31 to .71. Reliability varied according to the outcome measure and threat word category. Sensory words had a lower mean ICC (.08) than either affective words (.32) or general threat words (.29). A longer exposure time was associated with higher test-retest reliability. All of the outcome measures, except second-run dwell time, demonstrated low measurement error ( .93). Recommendations are discussed for improving the reliability of eyetracking tasks in future research.

  8. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level...

  9. Social emotional information processing in adults: Development and psychometrics of a computerized video assessment in healthy controls and aggressive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Emil F; Fanning, Jennifer R; Fisher, Eliana; Couture, Laurel; Lee, Royce J

    2017-02-01

    A computerized version of an assessment of Social-Emotional Information Processing (SEIP) using audio-video film stimuli instead of written narrative vignettes was developed for use in adult participants. This task allows for an assessment of encoding or relevant/irrelevant social-emotional information, attribution bias, and endorsement of appropriate, physically aggressive, and relationally aggressive responses to aversive social-emotional stimuli. The psychometric properties of this Video-SEIP (V-SEIP) assessment were examined in 75 healthy controls (HC) and in 75 individuals with DSM-5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) and were also compared with the original questionnaire (SEIP-Q) version of the task (HC=26; IED=26). Internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest properties of the V-SEIP were good to excellent. In addition, IED participants displayed reduced encoding of relevant information from the film clips, elevated hostile attribution bias, elevated negative emotional response, and elevated endorsement of physically aggressive and relationally aggressive responses to the ambiguous social-emotional stimuli presented in the V-SEIP. These data indicate that the V-SEIP represents a valid and comprehensive alternative to the paper-and-pencil assessment of social-emotional information processing biases in adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Assessment of cardiac morphology and ventricular function in healthy Chinese individuals using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Minjie; Zhao Shihua; Jiang Shiliang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate reproducibility of cardiac MRI for assessment of cardiac morphology and ventricular function in selected normal Chinese Han population. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-nine normal volunteers underwent cardiac MRI using a 1.5 T MR system. HASTE and steady state free precession imaging were performed with long and short axis images and cine mode through the ventricle with wireless vector cardiac gating. The images were reviewed by two independent observers. The dimensions of cardiac chambers and ventricular function including ejection fraction (EF), end diastolic volume (EDV) , end systolic volume (ESV) and myocardial mass were evaluated. The data between male and female were compared by using two-tailed unpaired t test. Results: Total imaging time was (15±3) min. The anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium was (2.87±0.77) cm, the right atrial diameter perpendicular to the atrial septum was (3.61±0.57) cm, the end diastolic diameter of the left ventricle was (4.97± 0.52) cm, the end diastolic diameter of the right ventricle was (2.65±0.48) cm. On the left ventricle, EF was (60.62±7.08)%, EDV was (115.37±26.71) ml, ESV was (46.02±15.72) ml and LV mass was (82.97±24.03) g. On the right ventricle, EF was (47.73±6.50)%, EDV was (128.27±32.16) ml, ESV was (67.7±21.07) ml and RV mass was (48.24±13.42) g. There were no statistically significant differences in LVESV (P=0.144), LVEDV index (P=0.714), LVESV index (P=0.113), LVCI (P=0.199), RVEF (P=0.296) and RV mass (P=0.093), and statistically significant differences in other cardiac parameters between male and female. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI can provide useful information about cardiac function and morphology with a high level of reproducibility in normal Chinese Han population. (authors)

  11. The influence of age, gender and education on the performance of healthy individuals on a battery for assessing limb apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Mantovani-Nagaoka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Apraxia is defined as a disorder of learned skilled movements, in the absence of elementary motor or sensory deficits and general cognitive impairment, such as inattention to commands, object-recognition deficits or poor oral comprehension. Limb apraxia has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding and covers a wide spectrum of disorders, all involving motor cognition and the inability to perform previously learned actions. Demographic variables such as gender, age, and education can influence the performance of individuals on different neuropsychological tests. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of healthy subjects on a limb apraxia battery and to determine the influence of gender, age, and education on the praxis skills assessed. Methods: Forty-four subjects underwent a limb apraxia battery, which was composed of numerous subtests for assessing both the semantic aspects of gestural production as well as motor performance itself. The tasks encompassed lexical-semantic aspects related to gestural production and motor activity in response to verbal commands and imitation. Results: We observed no gender effects on any of the subtests. Only the subtest involving visual recognition of transitive gestures showed a correlation between performance and age. However, we observed that education level influenced subject performance for all sub tests involving motor actions, and for most of these, moderate correlations were observed between education level and performance of the praxis tasks. Conclusion: We conclude that the education level of participants can have an important influence on the outcome of limb apraxia tests.

  12. Comparative assessment of the diets of healthy individuals, subjects with preclinical coronary heart disease and patients with severe heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, D.M.; Eganyan, R.A.; Kovaleva, O.F.; Zhidko, N.I.; Danielov, G.Eh.; Rozhnov, A.V.; Shcherbakova, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    92 males aged 26 to 55 (28 healthy individuals, 45 persons with preclinical coronary heart disease and 19 patients with functional class 1-2 coronary heart disease) were examined to study the peculiarities and dietary patterns of persons with a high physical working capacity and having no typical clinical signs of the disease. All persons were subjected to a complex examination which included questionnarire, myocardial scintigraphy with 201 Tl at a maximum physical loading, echocardiography, coronaroangiography. Certain dietary peculiarities are established in persons with preclinical coronary heart disease

  13. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

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    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  14. Electroencephalographic Response to Different Odors in Healthy Individuals: A Promising Tool for Objective Assessment of Olfactory Disorders.

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    Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Adamec, Ivan; Jerbić, Ana Branka; Gabelić, Tereza; Hajnšek, Sanja; Habek, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine human central nervous system response to three different odors. Electrophysiological activity was recorded in the baseline state and for 3 odors, lemon, peppermint, and vanilla, in 16 healthy participants. Electrodes were separated into groups according to the spatial position on the head. Fast Fourier transformation was performed on every set, and mean value of activity in theta was exported. As theta showed statistically significant results, further analysis was based only on the theta frequency band. On electrodes FP1, F3, Fz, F4, F8, T7, C3, Cz, C4, T8, TP9, CP5, CP1, CP2, CP6, P7, P3, Pz, P4, P8, PO9, and PO10 there was statistically significant difference in the electrical activity of the brain between four conditions. For peppermint and lemon, there was statistically significant difference in activity between different regions-F(1.576, 23.637)=16.030, P=.000 and F(1.362, 20.425)=4.54, P=.035, respectively-where the activity in the central area was significantly reduced compared with the activity in the other 4 areas and in the left and right anterior and left posterior area, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for vanilla between specific areas, F(1.217, 18.257)=1.155, P=.309. The results indicate that olfactory stimuli can affect the frequency characteristics of the electrical activity of the brain. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  15. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

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    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging.

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    Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-12-11

    Increases in life expectancy make it important to remain healthy for as long as possible. Our objective was to examine the extent to which healthy behaviours in midlife, separately and in combination, predict successful aging. We used a prospective cohort design involving 5100 men and women aged 42-63 years. Participants were free of cancer, coronary artery disease and stroke when their health behaviours were assessed in 1991-1994 as part of the Whitehall II study. We defined healthy behaviours as never smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, physical activity (≥ 2.5 h/wk moderate physical activity or ≥ 1 h/wk vigorous physical activity), and eating fruits and vegetables daily. We defined successful aging, measured over a median 16.3-year follow-up, as good cognitive, physical, respiratory and cardiovascular functioning, in addition to the absence of disability, mental health problems and chronic disease (coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes). At the end of follow-up, 549 participants had died and 953 qualified as aging successfully. Compared with participants who engaged in no healthy behaviours, participants engaging in all 4 healthy behaviours had 3.3 times greater odds of successful aging (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-5.1). The association with successful aging was linear, with the odds ratio (OR) per increment of healthy behaviour being 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4; population-attributable risk for 1-4 v. 0 healthy behaviours 47%). When missing data were considered in the analysis, the results were similar to those of our main analysis. Although individual healthy behaviours are moderately associated with successful aging, their combined impact is substantial. We did not investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, but we saw clear evidence of the importance of healthy behaviours for successful aging.

  17. Study on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS performance in healthy individuals, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Garcia da Costa Armentano

    Full Text Available Abstract Executive deficits as well as deficits in episodic memory characterize the initial phases of Alzheimer Disease (AD and are clinically correlated to neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional loss. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment present more problems as to inhibitory response control, switching and cognitive flexibility. Objective: To compare performance on the BADS with performance on other executive functional tests among patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI to performance of control individuals and to examine discriminative capacity of BADS among these groups. Methods: The BADS was performed by 35 healthy controls, 13 patients with aMCI, and 16 mild probable AD patients. Besides performing the BADS, subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation which comprised: the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS, verbal fluency by phonemic categories (F.A.S and Concentrated Attention Test (CA. Results: There were no differences among groups by educational level, but performance differed for age (p<0.01. No difference between healthy controls and aMCI patients was found on total scores or subitems of the BADS. A significant difference was observed between aMCI and AD patients (p<0.05 and between controls and AD patients (p<0.05 on total and standard scores. Conclusions: Performance on the BADS differed between healthy individuals and mild AD patients. The BADS proved to be a sensitive method for discriminating AD from aMCI.

  18. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

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    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  19. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating

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    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.…

  20. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals

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    Arturo Pujia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04. The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006. In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Sacroiliac Joints Indicating Sacroiliitis According to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society Definition in Healthy Individuals, Runners, and Women With Postpartum Back Pain.

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    de Winter, Janneke; de Hooge, Manouk; van de Sande, Marleen; de Jong, Henriëtte; van Hoeven, Lonneke; de Koning, Anoek; Berg, Inger Jorid; Ramonda, Roberta; Baeten, Dominique; van der Heijde, Désirée; Weel, Angelique; Landewé, Robert

    2018-03-07

    To compare magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the sacroiliac (SI) joints of healthy subjects and individuals with known mechanical strain acting upon the SI joints to those of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and patients with chronic back pain. Three readers who had received standardized training and were blinded with regard to study group randomly scored MRIs of the SI joints of 172 subjects, including 47 healthy individuals without current or past back pain, 47 axial SpA patients from the Spondyloarthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort (with a previous MRI confirmed positive for sacroiliitis), 47 controls with chronic back pain (irrespective of MRI results) from the SPACE cohort, 7 women with postpartum back pain, and 24 frequent runners. MRIs were scored according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) definition and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index. Of the 47 healthy volunteers, 11 (23.4%) had an MRI positive for sacroiliitis, compared to 43 (91.5%) of 47 axial SpA patients and 3 (6.4%) of 47 patients with chronic back pain. Three (12.5%) of the 24 runners and 4 (57.1%) of the 7 women with postpartum back pain had a positive MRI. Using a SPARCC cutoff of ≥2 for positivity, 12 (25.5%) of 47 healthy volunteers, 46 (97.9%) of 47 positive axial SpA patients, 5 (10.6%) of 47 controls with chronic back pain, 4 (16.7%) of 24 runners, and 4 (57.1%) of 7 women with postpartum back pain had positive MRIs. Deep bone marrow edema (BME) lesions were not found in healthy volunteers, patients with chronic back pain, or runners, but were found in 42 (89.4%) of 47 positive axial SpA patients and in 1 (14.3%) of 7 women with postpartum back pain. A substantial proportion of healthy individuals without current or past back pain has an MRI positive for sacroiliitis according to the ASAS definition. Deep (extensive) BME lesions are almost exclusively found in axial SpA patients. © 2018 The Authors. Arthritis

  2. Determination of physical health status and healthy lifestyle behaviors of individuals with mental illness.

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    Erginer, Derya Kayar; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study is to determine the physical health status and healthy lifestyle behaviors of individuals with mental illness. A descriptive research design was used. The sample of the study consisted of 115 individuals with mental illness. The Health Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was used to assess the healthy lifestyle behaviors of the participants. Of the individuals, 49.6% were found to have metabolic syndrome. Individuals with mental illness obtained the lowest score from the physical activity dimension of the scale. Individuals with mental illness need to receive education and support, especially in terms of nutrition and exercise. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eric M; King, Dana E; Everett, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obese versus normal weight or overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between healthy lifestyle habits (eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily, exercising regularly, consuming alcohol in moderation, and not smoking) and mortality in a large, population-based sample stratified by body mass index (BMI). We examined the association between healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in a sample of 11,761 men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; subjects were ages 21 and older and fell at various points along the BMI scale, from normal weight to obese. Subjects were enrolled between October 1988 and October 1994 and were followed for an average of 170 months. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and marital status, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality for individuals who adhered to 0, 1, 2, or 3 healthy habits were 3.27 (2.36-4.54), 2.59 (2.06-3.25), 1.74 (1.51-2.02), and 1.29 (1.09-1.53), respectively, relative to individuals who adhered to all 4 healthy habits. When stratified into normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, all groups benefited from the adoption of healthy habits, with the greatest benefit seen within the obese group. Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with a significant decrease in mortality regardless of baseline body mass index.

  4. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...

  5. A longitudinal study of gene expression in healthy individuals

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    Tessier Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene expression in venous blood either as a pharmacodynamic marker in clinical trials of drugs or as a diagnostic test requires knowledge of the variability in expression over time in healthy volunteers. Here we defined a normal range of gene expression over 6 months in the blood of four cohorts of healthy men and women who were stratified by age (22–55 years and > 55 years and gender. Methods Eleven immunomodulatory genes likely to play important roles in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and infection in addition to four genes typically used as reference genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, as well as the full genome as represented by Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Results Gene expression levels as assessed by qRT-PCR and microarray were relatively stable over time with ~2% of genes as measured by microarray showing intra-subject differences over time periods longer than one month. Fifteen genes varied by gender. The eleven genes examined by qRT-PCR remained within a limited dynamic range for all individuals. Specifically, for the seven most stably expressed genes (CXCL1, HMOX1, IL1RN, IL1B, IL6R, PTGS2, and TNF, 95% of all samples profiled fell within 1.5–2.5 Ct, the equivalent of a 4- to 6-fold dynamic range. Two subjects who experienced severe adverse events of cancer and anemia, had microarray gene expression profiles that were distinct from normal while subjects who experienced an infection had only slightly elevated levels of inflammatory markers. Conclusion This study defines the range and variability of gene expression in healthy men and women over a six-month period. These parameters can be used to estimate the number of subjects needed to observe significant differences from normal gene expression in clinical studies. A set of genes that varied by gender was also identified as were a set of genes with elevated

  6. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  7. Emg Signal Analysis of Healthy and Neuropathic Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Sayed, Tabassum; Garg, Ridhi; Shreyam, Richa

    2017-08-01

    Electromyography is a method to evaluate levels of muscle activity. When a muscle contracts, an action potential is generated and this circulates along the muscular fibers. In electromyography, electrodes are connected to the skin and the electrical activity of muscles is measured and graph is plotted. The surface EMG signals picked up during the muscular activity are interfaced with a system. The EMG signals from individual suffering from Neuropathy and healthy individual, so obtained, are processed and analyzed using signal processing techniques. This project includes the investigation and interpretation of EMG signals of healthy and Neuropathic individuals using MATLAB. The prospective use of this study is in developing the prosthetic device for the people with Neuropathic disability.

  8. Muscle torque of healthy individuals and individuals with spastic hemiparesis after passive static streching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa DE Freitas, Sérgio Takeshi; DE Carvalho Abreu, Elizângela Márcia; Dos Reis, Mariane Cecilia; DE Souza Cunha, Bruna; Souza Moreira Prianti, Tamires; Pupio Silva Lima, Fernanda; Oliveira Lima, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Spasticity is one of the main causes of contracture, muscle weakness and subsequent functional incapacity. The passive static stretching can be included as having the purpose of increasing musculoskeletal flexibility, however, it also can influence the muscle torque. The objective is to verify the immediate effect of passive static stretching in the muscle strength of healthy and those who present spastic hemiparesis. There were assessed 20 subjects, 10 spastic hemiparetic (EG) and 10 healthy individuals (CG), including both sexes, aged between 22 and 78 years. The torque of extensor muscles of the knee was analyzed using isokinetic dynamometer. Results have shown that EG has less muscle torque compared to CG ( p torque after stretching ( p torque of CG after performing the program that was prescribed. Immediately after the passive stretch, a significant torque decrease can be seen in hypertonic muscle; it is believed that this reduction may be associated with the physiological overlap between actin and myosin filaments and so preventing the muscle to develop a maximum contraction.

  9. Regional differences of the urinary proteomes in healthy Chinese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Weiwei; Wu, Jianqiang; Pan, Li; Zhang, Fanshuang; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Biao; Shan, Guangliang; Gao, Youhe

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a promising biomarker source for clinical proteomics studies. Although regional physiological differences are common in multi-center clinical studies, the presence of significant differences in the urinary proteomes of individuals from different regions remains unknown. In this study, morning urine samples were collected from healthy urban residents in three regions of China and urinary proteins were preserved using a membrane-based method (Urimem). The urine proteomes of 27 normal s...

  10. Sensorimotor Control in Individuals With Idiopathic Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Rutger M J; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Farrell, Scott F; Snodgrass, Suzanne J

    2017-06-01

    (1) To identify reported tests used to assess sensorimotor control in individuals with idiopathic neck pain and (2) to investigate whether these tests can quantify differences between individuals with idiopathic neck pain and healthy individuals. Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus. Studies reporting sensorimotor outcomes in individuals with idiopathic neck pain or healthy individuals were identified. There were 1,677 records screened independently by 2 researchers for eligibility: 43 studies were included in the review, with 30 of these studies included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic quality was determined using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction table. Sensorimotor control was most commonly assessed by joint position error and postural sway. Pooled means for joint position error after cervical rotation in individuals with neck pain (range, 2.2°-9.8°) differed significantly (P=.04) compared with healthy individuals (range, 1.66°-5.1°). Postural sway with eyes open ranged from 4.85 to 10.5cm 2 (neck pain) and 3.5 to 6.6cm 2 (healthy) (P=.16), and postural sway with eyes closed ranged from 2.51 to 16.6cm 2 (neck pain) and 2.74 to 10.9cm 2 (healthy) (P=.30). Individual studies, but not meta-analysis, demonstrated differences between neck pain and healthy groups for postural sway. Other test conditions and other tests were not sufficiently investigated to enable pooling of data. The findings from this review suggest sensorimotor control testing may be clinically useful in individuals with idiopathic neck pain. However, results should be interpreted with caution because clinical differences were small; therefore, further cross-sectional research with larger samples is needed to determine the magnitude of the relation between

  11. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

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    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  12. Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daalman, Kirstin; van Zandvoort, Martine; Bootsman, Florian; Boks, Marco; Kahn, René; Sommer, Iris

    2011-11-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute a predisposition for AVH. However, it is difficult to disentangle a specific relation with AVH in patients with schizophrenia, as so many other factors can affect the performance on cognitive tests. Examining the cognitive profile of healthy individuals experiencing AVH may reveal a more direct association between AVH and aberrant cognitive functioning in a specific domain. For the current study, performance in executive functioning, memory (both short- and long-term), processing speed, spatial ability, lexical access, abstract reasoning, language and intelligence performance was compared between 101 healthy individuals with AVH and 101 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Although performance of both groups was within the normal range, not clinically impaired, significant differences between the groups were found in the verbal domain as well as in executive functioning. Performance on all other cognitive domains was similar in both groups. The predisposition to experience AVH is associated with lower performance in executive functioning and aberrant language performance. This association might be related to difficulties in the inhibition of irrelevant verbal information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Baseline frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals living in Turin (North-Western Italy): assessment of the effects of age, sex and GSTs gene polymorphisms on the levels of genomic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    The increased exposure to environmental pollutants has led to the awareness of the necessity for constant monitoring of human populations, especially those living in urban areas. This study evaluated the background levels of genomic damage in a sample of healthy subjects living in the urban area of Turin (Italy). The association between DNA damage with age, sex and GSTs polymorphisms was assessed. One hundred and one individuals were randomly sampled. Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) and Chromosomal Aberrations (CAs) assays, as well as genotyping of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes, were performed. Mean values of SCEs and CAs were 5.137 ± 0.166 and 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively. Results showed age and gender associated with higher frequencies of these two cytogenetic markers. The eldest subjects (51-65 years) showed significantly higher levels of genomic damage than younger individuals. GSTs polymorphisms did not appear to significantly influence the frequencies of either markers. The CAs background frequency observed in this study is one of the highest reported among European populations. Turin is one of the most polluted cities in Europe in terms of air fine PM10 and ozone and the clastogenic potential of these pollutants may explain the high frequencies of chromosomal rearrangements reported here.

  14. Anticardiolipin and antinuclear antibodies in the adult healthy Omani individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Buloshi, Mohamed S.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and normal versus abnormal levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in a healthy adult popultion of Omani's and whether a correlation exists in between aCL and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in this Omani population. A total of 521 healthy Omani individuals (333 males and 188) females aged between 17-54 years were investigated for the presence and quntities of aClL (immunoglubolin G (IgG)) and IgM isotypesusing a conventional enzyme linked immunosobrent assay. ANA were were detacted in this group, using standard indirect immunofloresence techniques. This study was conducted during the period 2002 through 2003 at the Immunology Laboratories, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The prevalence of of aCL in healthy Omani population was estimated to be 2.5% for IgG 3.1% for IgM. The cut off points for IgG and IgM were determined for the whole population as 22.5 IgG phospholipid (GPL) units and 15.7 IgM phospholipid (MPL) units, using the mean plus 5 standard deviations. Using these cut off values, aCL were not detected in the the majority of individuals (97%) and in the remainig 3% the levels were not very high. There was no significant difference between the levels of aCL in either the male or female groups and no significant correlation for the presence of aCL with the age in this studied population. ANA were detected in 76/521 (14.6%)of the population studied, with some individuals studied, with some individuals (0.8%) showing titers of 1:640, but there was no association with aCL. Although ANA is present in this healthy Omani population at high frequency and some individuals at high levels of aCL do not occur and their presence may be an indicator of autoimmune mediated pathalogy. (author)

  15. Characterization of the oral fungal microbiome (mycobiome in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A Ghannoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral microbiome-organisms residing in the oral cavity and their collective genome-are critical components of health and disease. The fungal component of the oral microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used a novel multitag pyrosequencing approach to characterize fungi present in the oral cavity of 20 healthy individuals, using the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS primers. Our results revealed the "basal" oral mycobiome profile of the enrolled individuals, and showed that across all the samples studied, the oral cavity contained 74 culturable and 11 non-culturable fungal genera. Among these genera, 39 were present in only one person, 16 genera were present in two participants, and 5 genera were present in three people, while 15 genera (including non-culturable organisms were present in >/=4 (20% participants. Candida species were the most frequent (isolated from 75% of participants, followed by Cladosporium (65%, Aureobasidium, Saccharomycetales (50% for both, Aspergillus (35%, Fusarium (30%, and Cryptococcus (20%. Four of these predominant genera are known to be pathogenic in humans. The low-abundance genera may represent environmental fungi present in the oral cavity and could simply be spores inhaled from the air or material ingested with food. Among the culturable genera, 61 were represented by one species each, while 13 genera comprised between 2 and 6 different species; the total number of species identified were 101. The number of species in the oral cavity of each individual ranged between 9 and 23. Principal component (PCO analysis of the obtained data set followed by sample clustering and UniFrac analysis revealed that White males and Asian males clustered differently from each other, whereas both Asian and White females clustered together. This is the first study that identified the "basal mycobiome" of healthy individuals, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of the oral mycobiome in

  16. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV. All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  17. Emotional intelligence components in alcohol dependent and mentally healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28±7.82 and 34.93±9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  18. Interferential electrical stimulation improves peripheral vasodilatation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferential electrical stimulation (IES, which may be linked to greater penetration of deep tissue, may restore blood flow by sympathetic nervous modulation; however, studies have found no association between the frequency and duration of the application and blood flow. We hypothesized that 30 min of IES applied to the ganglion stellate region might improve blood flow redistribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IES on metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. METHOD: Interferential electrical stimulation or a placebo stimulus (same protocol without electrical output was applied to the stellate ganglion region in eleven healthy subjects (age 25±1.3 years prior to exercise. Mean blood pressure (MBP, heart rate (HR, calf blood flow (CBF and calf vascular resistance (CVR were measured throughout exercise protocols (submaximal static handgrip exercise and with recovery periods with or without postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO+ and PECO -, respectively. Muscle metaboreflex control of calf vascular resistance was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve when circulation was occluded from the area under the curve from the AUC without circulatory occlusion. RESULTS: At peak exercise, increases in mean blood pressure were attenuated by IES (p<0.05, and the effect persisted under both the PECO+ and PECO- treatments. IES promoted higher CBF and lower CVR during exercise and recovery. Likewise, IES induced a reduction in the estimated muscle metaboreflex control (placebo, 21±5 units vs. IES, 6±3, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Acute application of IES prior to exercise attenuates the increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction during exercise and metaboreflex activation in healthy subjects.

  19. Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sun-Young; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-12-01

    Vojta reflex locomotion is important to main upright posture through stimulation of breast zone to patient with cerebral palsy. However, application in other diseases is no investigated. So, we determined the effects of stimulation of the breast zone on trunk stability in healthy individuals. Fourteen young healthy adults (7 males and 7 females) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (breast zone) and control group (arbitrary point). All groups were stimulated for 5 min on the left and right sides, respectively, for a total 10 times. We used the thickness of the external oblique abdominal muscle (EO), the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA), and the rectus abdominis muscles, as well as the area of the diaphragm by using ultrasonography. In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation ( P <0.05) while the thickness of the EO significantly decreased ( P <0.05). Also, the area of diaphragm in inspiration was significantly different ( P <0.05). Therefore, stimulation of the breast zone may be effective to improve trunk stability through activation of the TrA muscle and the diaphragm.

  20. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Andreadou, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively. Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study (maximum increase by 0.15 mm and 0.18 mm, respectively, P chocolate throughout the study (maximum absolute decrease 7.8%, P chocolate, indicating no alterations in plasma oxidant status. Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

  1. In-vivo patellar tracking in individuals with patellofemoral pain and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiarpour, Fateme; Lebrun, Constance M; Dhillon, Sukhvinder; Boulanger, Pierre

    2018-02-28

    Understanding of the exact cause of patellofemoral pain has been limited by methodological challenges to evaluate in-vivo joint motion. This study compared six degree-of-freedom patellar motion during a dynamic lunge task between individuals with patellofemoral pain and healthy individuals. Knee joints of eight females with patellofemoral pain and ten healthy females were imaged using a CT scanner in supine lying position, then by a dual-orthogonal fluoroscope while they performed a lunge. To quantify patellar motion, the three-dimensional models of the knee bones, reconstructed from CT scans, were registered on the fluoroscopy images using the Fluomotion registration software. At full knee extension, the patella was in a significantly laterally tilted (PFP: 11.77° ± 7.58° vs. healthy: 0.86° ± 4.90°; p = 0.002) and superiorly shifted (PFP: 17.49 ± 8.44 mm vs. healthy: 9.47 ± 6.16 mm, p = 0. 033) position in the patellofemoral pain group compared with the healthy group. There were also significant differences between the groups for patellar tilt at 45°, 60°, and 75° of knee flexion, and for superior-inferior shift of the patella at 30° flexion (p ≤ 0.031). In the non-weight-bearing knee extended position, the patella was in a significantly laterally tilted position in the patellofemoral pain group (7.44° ± 6.53°) compared with the healthy group (0.71° ± 4.99°). These findings suggest the critical role of passive and active patellar stabilizers as potential causative factors for patellar malalignment/maltracking. Future studies should investigate the associations between patellar kinematics with joint morphology, muscle activity, and tendon function in a same sample for a thorough understanding of the causes of patellofemoral pain. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Seroprevalance of rickettsioses among healthy individuals in Mersin province, Turkey

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    İlker Alakus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies relevant to rikettsial biology, its pathogenesis and diagnosis  have increase due to the increase of rickettsioses incidents in the world, particularly over the the past two decades. We investigated the seroprevalence of the ricketsia disease in the Mersin province of Turkey. Methods: This study included 450 healthy individuals aged 5 years and over, who had attended family health centers in Mersin city center. Serum samples collected during November 2011 were evaluated. Rickettsia antibody assays were used indirect immunofluorescenc techniques. Data were analyzed using a descriptive analysis, the Chi-Square Test and the Student T Test for comparison of variables. Results: The prevelance of ricketsia positivity was determined as 9.8%. The seropositivities were higher in males, in the unemployed, in the occupational risk groups, in people who live in rural regions, in people who work in gardens/farms, in picnickers, in countryside walkers, in hunters, in owners of livestock, in people with no history of rash diseases. When the relationship of spotted fever group (SFG seropositivity the risk factors was investigated, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: According to our study rickettsial disease is detected in Mersin and it was seen that the rickettsiosis disease need for more comprehensive studies to show the prevalence in all of Turkey.Keywords: Rickettsioses, seroprevelance, antibodies

  3. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, pcortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fear conditioning induced by interpersonal conflicts in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors' face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder.

  5. Fear Conditioning Induced by Interpersonal Conflicts in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors’ face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder. PMID:25978817

  6. Analysis of prototypical narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects

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    Gabriela Silveira

    Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective:[1] To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. [2] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals. [3] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.

  7. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  8. Increased blood BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Søndergaard, Mia H Greisen; Koefoed, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. BDNF levels were significantly increased...... in healthy individuals with (n = 76), compared with healthy individuals without (n = 39) a family history of depression and persisted after adjustment for age and gender differences. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute...... to an elevation of peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....

  9. Diet quality of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Lauren Thomas; Kiely, Mary; Yazici, Yusuf; Woolf, Kathleen

    2017-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) afflicts approximately 1.5 million American adults and is a major cause of disability. As disease severity worsens, individuals with RA may experience functional decline that can impact dietary intake. The objective of this study is to assess the diet quality of individuals with RA using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 and examine associations between diet quality and disease activity and functional status. This cross-sectional study assessed diet quality and disease activity and functional status in adults with RA. Participants completed seven-day weighed food records, which were scored using the HEI-2010. Participants had a fasting blood draw and completed the Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire to determine disease activity and functional status. The mean age of individuals with RA ( N = 84) was 53 ± 14 years, and 86.9% were female. The mean HEI-2010 total score was 58.7 ± 15.9, with 7.1% of participants scoring "good", 58.3% "fair", and 34.5% "poor". Most participants did not adhere to recommended intakes of total fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories. An unadjusted multiple linear regression model found duration of morning stiffness and C-reactive protein concentration to be significant variables to inversely predict HEI-2010 total score. The diet quality of many individuals with RA needs improvement and may be related to functional disability associated with RA. Healthcare providers should encourage individuals with RA to meet dietary guidelines and maintain a healthy diet. Moreover, healthcare providers should be aware of the potential impacts of functional disability on diet quality in individuals with RA.

  10. Preference conditioning in healthy individuals: correlates with hazardous drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Lockwood, Kathleen P; Magrys, Sylvia A; Olmstead, Mary C

    2010-06-01

    Conditioned reward is a classic measure of drug-induced brain changes in animal models of addiction. The process can be examined in humans using the Conditioned Pattern Preference (CPP) task, in which participants associate nonverbal cues with reward but demonstrate low awareness of this conditioning. Previously, we reported that alcohol intoxication does not affect CPP acquisition in humans, but our data indicated that prior drug use may impact conditioning scores. To test this possibility, the current study examined the relationship between self-reported alcohol use and preference conditioning in the CPP task. Working memory was assessed during conditioning by asking participants to count the cues that appeared at each location on a computer screen. Participants (69 female and 23 male undergraduate students) completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) as measures of hazardous drinking. Self-reported hazardous drinking was significantly correlated with preference conditioning in that individuals who scored higher on these scales exhibited an increased preference for the reward-paired cues. In contrast, hazardous drinking did not affect working memory errors on the CPP task. These findings support evidence that repeated drug use sensitizes neural pathways mediating conditioned reward and point to a neurocognitive disposition linking substance misuse and responses to reward-paired stimuli. The relationship between hazardous drinking and conditioned reward is independent of changes in cognitive function, such as working memory.

  11. All-Cause Mortality Risk of Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals in NHANES III

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    C. M. Durward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1 homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR <2.5; (2 ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3 combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications, triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males or <1.30 mmol/L (females, LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n=4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1±10.9 years, BMI 27.3±5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female. Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4, P<0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9, P<0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8, P<0.01. MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.

  12. Individual mobility: issues and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, D [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Problems relating to mobility will intensify in developing countries due to explosive growth in motorization. In the Western countries, individual travel needs will change as a result of demographics (e.g. an increase in the elderly population, working women and single person households), and new information and communication technology. Increased congestion and global warming are the principal concerns that impact mobility. To respond to these concerns, significant mobility improvements can be realized by replicating successful mobility strategies that have been implemented in some cities throughout the world. However, a more fundamental reappraisal will be necessary that considers mobility in an overall sustainability context. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) may provide a framework for a new mobility infrastructure that enables implementation of a dynamic transportation system. Such a system can adapt on a real-time basis to customer needs and social concerns. ITS enables pricing and control strategies to be more easily utilized on an episodic basis. Development of a rational approach to sustainable mobility requires the public and private sectors as well as various stakeholders to develop a shared vision of the future, since mobility goes beyond national and competitive interests. (author) 3 figs.

  13. Asymmetry Assessment Using Surface Topography in Healthy Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Ho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess geometric asymmetry in the torsos of individuals is important for detecting Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS. A markerless technique using Surface Topography (ST has been introduced as a non-invasive alternative to standard diagnostic radiographs. The technique has been used to identify asymmetry patterns associated with AIS. However, the presence and nature of asymmetries in the healthy population has not been properly studied. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify asymmetries and potential relationships to development factors such as age, gender, hand dominance and unilateral physical activity in healthy adolescents. Full torso scans of 83 participants were analyzed. Using Geomagic, deviation contour maps (DCMs were created by reflecting the torso along the best plane of sagittal symmetry with each spectrum normalized. Two classes of asymmetry were observed: twist and thickness each with subgroupings. Averaged interobserver and intraobserver Kappas for twist subgroupings were 0.84 and 0.84, respectively, and for thickness subgroupings were 0.53 and 0.63 respectively. Further significant relationships were observed between specific types of asymmetry and gender such as females displaying predominately twist asymmetry, and males with thickness asymmetry. However, no relationships were found between type of asymmetry and age, hand dominance or unilateral physical activity. Understanding asymmetries in healthy subjects will continue to enhance assessment ability of the markerless ST technique.

  14. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  15. Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2018-07-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Hen Eggs Consumption Enhances Microvascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Ana; Rasic, Lidija; Matic, Anita; Stupin, Marko; Kralik, Zlata; Kralik, Gordana; Grcevic, Manuela; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2018-04-10

    Whilst the beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients, the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched hen eggs on microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. Control group (N=16) ate three ordinary hen eggs (277 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day), and OMEGA-3 group (N=20) ate three omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (ALA 167 mg/egg, EPA 7 mg/egg, DHA 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP and BP were significantly decreased in OMEGA-3 group compared to baseline measurement, while there was no significant difference in Control group after the protocol compared to baseline. This is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFAs (ALA+EPA+DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in microvascular reactivity, BP and triglycerides level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factors attenuation and disease prevention.

  17. Activation of the attachment system and mentalization in depressive and healthy individuals: An experimental control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fizke Ella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.

  18. Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs. We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals.......Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs. We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals....

  19. Cause-specific cardiovascular risk associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs among healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Folke, Fredrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals.......Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals....

  20. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  1. Clinical study to assess the efficacy and safety of a citrus polyphenolic extract of red orange, grapefruit, and orange (Sinetrol-XPur) on weight management and metabolic parameters in healthy overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Elbez, Yves; Caillard, Philippe; Zamaria, Nicolas; Cloarec, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy and safety effects of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic citrus dry extract) in weight management; metabolic parameters; and inflammatory, glycemic and oxidative status. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sinetrol-XPur was given to overweight subjects twice daily with meals in the tested group (N = 47) versus a placebo group (N = 48). Waist and hip circumference and abdominal fat were decreased in the Sinetrol-XPur group as compared with the placebo group (p < 0.0001) (-5.71% vs. -1.56% for waist, -4.71% vs. -1.35% for hip and -9.73% vs. -3.18% for fat). Inflammatory markers were reduced (C-reactive protein: -22.87% vs. +61%; fibrinogen: -19.93% vs. -1.61%, p < 0.01). Oxidative stress was lowered as seen by the reduction of malondialdehyde (-14.03% vs. 2.76%) and the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione (17.38% vs. 2.19% and 4.63% vs. -2.36%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. Kidney, liver, and lipid panels remained unchanged. These results indicated that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing abdominal fat, waist and hip circumference, and body weight and for improving inflammatory, glycemic, and oxidative status in healthy overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

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    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  3. EFFECT OF HIGH ALTITUDE ON ERECTILE FUNCTION IN OTHERWISE HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

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    Usama Bin Zubair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of high altitude on Erectile function in otherwise healthy individuals and associated socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: January 2014 to March 2014 at Goma, Siachin. Material and Methods: One hundred & twenty two married male subjects living at an altitude of more than 15000 feet for more than 3 month and less than one year were included in the study. Erectile dysfunction (ED was assessed using International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5. Age, education, smoking, monthly income, any drug intake, altitude, duration of stay and weather conditions were correlated independently with ED. Results: Out of 122, 26 (21.3% had no ED, 18 had mild, 28 (14.8% had mild to moderate, 36(29.5% had moderate and 14 (11.5% had severe ED. Advancing age, low monthly income, smoking, high altitude, cold weather and longer duration of stay had significant association with ED (p-value<0.05 while education and use of any drug were not found significantly associated in our study. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction among otherwise healthy individuals when exposed to high altitude. Special attention should be paid on individuals with more age, less income and those working or residing at higher altitudes in peak winter season. Smoking and stay for longer durations should also be discouraged.

  4. Does family history of metabolic syndrome affect the metabolic profile phenotype in young healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Anna; Koczaj-Bremer, Magdalena; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kaźmierczak, Agnieszka; Ciurzyński, Michał; Ou-Pokrzewińska, Aisha; Mikocka, Ewelina; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Demkow, Urszula; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of high-risk individuals is key for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of a family history of metabolic syndrome (fhMetS) on the risk of metabolic disorders (abnormal body mass, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and blood pressure) in healthy young individuals. We studied CVD risk factors in 90 healthy volunteers, aged 27-39 years; of these, 78 had fhMetS and 12 were without fhMetS (control group). Fasting serum lipids, glucose, and insulin levels were assayed, and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure using, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system, were measured. Nutritional and physical activity habits were assessed. Despite similar nutritional and physical activity habits, abnormal body mass was found in 53.2% of the fhMetS participants and 46.1% of the control participants (p = 0.54). The occurrence of obesity was 19.4% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.69). Compared to the control participants, fhMetS was associated with significantly higher total cholesterol (5.46 mmol/L vs. 4.69 mmol/L, p family history of MetS.

  5. How does cryotherapy effect ankle proprioception in healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, Daniel; Cooper, Darren

    2017-09-01

    Objectives To investigate how a 15-min cryotherapy intervention effects proprioception by measuring joint positional sense (JPS) and static single legged balance. Design Repeated measures design. Setting Laboratory. Participants Eighteen healthy university sports team students (11 males, 7 females) aged between 20 and 21 years old. Main outcome measures Participants were treated with 15 min of Aircast Cryo-cuff. The subject's skin temperature was measured before and immediately after 15 min of cryotherapy treatment. Ankle active joint positional sense (A-JPS) and passive joint positional sense (P-JPS) were measured at pre-test, immediately post-test, and 5 min post-test. Static balance was measured by centre of pressure (CoP) mean path length, medial-lateral (ML) CoP mean deviation, and anterior-posterior (AP) CoP mean deviation and mean time-to-boundary (TtB) minima for AP and ML directions. Results No significant differences were found for the variables of JPS and static single balance testing after 15 min of cryotherapy treatment. However, mean differences for CoP mean path length and ML mean deviation were shown to improve following cryotherapy treatment, results not previously found in the literature. Conclusion Results suggest that 15 min of Cryo-cuff treatment does not significantly affect proprioception. Although the effect of cryotherapy on proprioception depends on cooling modality used, time frame applied, and joint applied to.

  6. Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions.

  7. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolezani, Elaine Cristina; Costa-Hong, Valéria, E-mail: hong.valeria@gmail.com; Correia, Gustavo; Mansur, Alfredo José; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido [Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior{sup ®} device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure related to the carotid functional measure

  8. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolezani, Elaine Cristina; Costa-Hong, Valéria; Correia, Gustavo; Mansur, Alfredo José; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior ® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure related to the carotid functional measure. The

  9. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Tolezani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. Objective: To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. Methods: This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. Results: The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01 and triglycerides (p = 0.02; intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01; diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03 and age (p = 0.02; relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively. Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01 and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01, while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03. Conclusion: In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic

  10. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct experience while eating: Laboratory outcomes among individuals with eating disorders versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Carmona, Cristina; Narváez, Vanessa; Seto, Victoria; Martin-Blanco, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; Soriano, José; Soler, Joaquim

    2017-12-01

    To compare individuals with eating disorders (EDs) to healthy controls (HCs) to assess for differences in direct engagement in the eating process. Participants (n=58) were asked to eat an orange slice. To assess the degree of direct engagement with the eating process, participants were asked to write down 10 thoughts about the experience of eating the orange slice. Next, the participants were instructed to classify the main focus of each thought as either experiential ("direct experience") or analytical ("thinking about"). A direct experience index (DEI) was computed by dividing the number of times that participants classified an experience as a "direct experience" (the numerator) by the total number of all observations (i.e., direct experience+thinking about). Participants also completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) to assess mindfulness facets and decentering, respectively. Compared to controls, participants in the EDs group presented significantly lower levels of direct experience during the eating task (EDs group: mean=43.54, SD=29.64; HCs group: mean=66.17, SD=22.23, p=0.03). Participants in the EDs group also scored significantly lower on other mindfulness-related variables. These findings suggest that engagement with the direct experience of eating is lower in individuals with EDs. Future research should investigate the role of mindfulness-based interventions to address direct experience while eating in individuals with EDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of insulin resistance in idiopathic hirsutism compared with polycystic ovary syndrome patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh; Kiafar, Bita; Barazandeh Ahmadabadi, Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Hirsutism is defined as the excessive male-pattern growth of hair in women. Hirsutism is often idiopathic or the consequence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is common in PCOS (especially in obese patients) but the association between insulin resistance and idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of insulin resistance in IH, compared with healthy individuals and patients with PCOS. The study included three groups, patients with idiopathic hirsutism, PCOS and healthy women. Each group included 30 non-obese women. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin level and insulin resistance (estimated by the homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IRIR]) were compared in the three groups. There was a significant difference between the age of the women with IH compared with two other groups. There were no significant difference in levels of serum insulin (P = 0.49, HOMA-IR (P = 0.47) and prevalence of insulin resistance (P = 0.07) in the three groups. The age-adjusted prevalence of insulin resistance was similar in the three groups. Insulin resistance was no more frequent in IH patients than in healthy control groups. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Periodontal Status of Chronic Renal Failure Patients and Systemically Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhika; Kumar, Uttam; Mallapragada, Siddharth; Agarwal, Pallavi

    2018-03-01

    Periodontitis, a chronic infectious disease, affects most of the population at one time or the other and its expression is a combination of hosts, microbial agents, and environmental factors. Extensive literature exists for the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Only a few studies performed in a limited number of patients have reported peri-odontal health status in chronic renal failure patients. Hence, the aim of the present study is to assess and compare the periodontal status of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis, predialysis with systemically healthy individuals. A total of 90 patients were divided into three groups. Group I: 30 renal dialysis patients. Group II: 30 predialysis patients. Control group comprised 30 systemically healthy patients who formed group III. Periodontal examination was carried out using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. The results of the study showed that the periodontal status of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis (dialysis group) and patients with chronic renal failure not undergoing renal dialysis (predialysis) when compared with systemically healthy subjects showed significantly higher mean scores of OHI-S, PI, and clinical attachment loss. Thus, patients with chronic renal failure showed poor oral hygiene and higher prevalence of periodontal disease. The dental community's awareness of implications of poor health within chronic renal failure patients should be elevated.

  14. A Quasi Actuarial Prospect for Individual Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William A.

    A conceptual model of individual assessment through the use of biodata responses with minimal input information is outlined. The process is considered especially applicable to industrial psychology. A scored autobiographical data form, which measures the individual's past behavior and experiences, provides for assignment to a specific subgroup…

  15. Relationship of Muscle Mass Determined by DEXA with Spirometric Results in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Holguera, Rafael; Turrión Nieves, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Torres, Rosa; Alonso, María Concepción

    2017-07-01

    Muscle mass maybe a determining factor in the variability of spirometry results in individuals of the same sex and age who have similar anthropometric characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the association between spirometric results from healthy individuals and their muscle mass assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A sample of 161 women and 144 men, all healthy non-smokers, was studied. Ages ranged from18 to77years. For each subject, spirometry results and total and regional lean mass values obtained by full body DEXA were recorded. A descriptive analysis of the variables and a regression analysis were performed to study the relationship between spirometric variables and lean body mass, correcting for age and body mass index (BMI). In both sexes all muscle mass variables correlated positively and significantly with spirometric variables, and to a greater extent in men. After partial adjustment of correlations by age and BMI, the factor which best explains the spirometric variables is the total lean body mass in men, and trunk lean body mass in women. In men, muscle mass in the lower extremities is most closely associated with spirometric results. In women, it is the muscle mass of the trunk. In both sexes muscle mass mainly affects FEV 1 . Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Epitope recognition patterns of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Gardas, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) are markers of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but naturally occurring TPOAb are also detectable in healthy, euthyroid individuals. In AITD, circulating TPOAb react mainly with two immunodominant regions (IDR), IDR...

  17. Individual behavioral and neurochemical markers of unadapted decision-making processes in healthy inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaras, Elsa; Callebert, Jacques; Chennaoui, Mounir; Rabat, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of decision-making processes is the inter-individual variability between healthy subjects. These behavioral patterns could constitute risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, finding predictive markers of safe or risky decision-making is an important challenge for psychiatry research. We set up a mouse gambling task (MGT)-adapted from the human Iowa gambling task with uncertain contingencies between response and outcome that furthermore enables the emergence of inter-individual differences. Mice (n = 54) were further individually characterized for locomotive, emotional and cognitive behavior. Individual basal rates of monoamines and brain activation after the MGT were assessed in brain regions related to reward, emotion or cognition. In a large healthy mice population, 44 % showed a balanced strategy with limited risk-taking and flexible choices, 29 % showed a safe but rigid strategy, while 27 % adopted risky behavior. Risky mice took also more risks in other apparatus behavioral devices and were less sensitive to reward. No difference existed between groups regarding anxiety, working memory, locomotion and impulsivity. Safe/rigid mice exhibited a hypoactivation of prefrontal subareas, a high level of serotonin in the orbitofrontal cortex combined with a low level of dopamine in the putamen that predicted the emergence of rigid behavior. By contrast, high levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenalin in the hippocampus predicted the emergence of more exploratory and risky behaviors. The coping of C57bl/6J mice in MGT enables the determination of extreme patterns of choices either safe/rigid or risky/flexible, related to specific neurochemical and behavioral markers.

  18. Individual signatures and environmental factors shape skin microbiota in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuscó, Anna; Belanger, Janelle M; Gershony, Liza; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Levy, Kerinne; Medrano, Juan F; Sánchez, Armand; Oberbauer, Anita M; Francino, Olga

    2017-10-13

    The individual, together with its environment, has been reported as the main force driving composition and structure of skin microbiota in healthy dogs. Therefore, one of the major concerns when analyzing canine skin microbiota is the likely influence of the environment. Despite the dense fur covering, certain skin diseases exhibit differential prevalence among skin sites, dog breeds, and individuals. We have characterized the normal variability of dog skin microbiota in a well-controlled cohort of a large number of Golden-Labrador Retriever crossed dogs (N = 35) with similar ages, related genetic background, and a shared environment. We found that the individual drives the skin microbiota composition and structure followed by the skin site. The main bacterial classes inhabiting dog skin in this cohort are Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli. We also detected bacteria associated to the environment on different dog skin sites that could be reflecting the different degrees of exposure of each skin site and each dog. Network analyses elucidated bacterial interactions within and between skin sites, especially in the chin, abdomen, axilla, and perianal region, with the highly shared interactions probably representing an anatomical, behavioral, or environmental component. When analyzing each skin site independently to assess host-specific factors, we found that temporality (season of birth and time spent in the kennel) affected all the skin sites and specially the inner pinna. The most abundant taxon driving this difference was Sphingomonas. We also found taxonomic differences among male and female dogs on the abdomen, axilla, and back. We observed a large inter-individual variability and differences among skin sites. Host-specific variables, such as temporality or sex, were also shaping skin microbiota of healthy dogs, even in an environmental homogenous cohort.

  19. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, J. H.; Schouten, A. C.; Aarts, R. G. K. M.; Meskers, C. G. M.; Maier, A. B.; van der Kooij, H.

    2015-01-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084

  20. Comparative polymorphism of BAT-26 between healthy individuals and cancer patients and its cancer risk implication for local Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanying; Liu, Li; Sun, Yi; Chen, Jie; Wang, Jianrong; Zhu, Changle; Lai, Rensheng; Xie, Ling

    2016-07-30

    BAT-26 is one of the representative markers for microsatellite instability evaluation and presents different polymorphisms in different ethnic populations. The current knowledge of its comparative polymorphism between healthy individuals and cancer patients in the Chinese population is insufficient. This study aims to analyze germline polymorphic variations of BAT-26 between healthy individuals and cancer patients in Chinese from Jiangsu province and the associated cancer risk implications. The various BAT-26 alleles and their percentages in cervical cells from 500 healthy women were assessed by direct sequencing. Twenty of these samples were also analyzed by fragment analysis. BAT-26 of blood DNA from 24 healthy individuals and 247 cancer patients was analyzed by fragment analysis. Compared with the sequencing results, 122.6-122.9 bp, 123.4-123.8 bp and 124.1-124.8 bp corresponded to the A25, A26 and A27 alleles, respectively. The 524 healthy individuals showed 4.58%, 92.18% and 3.24% of A25, A26 and A27, respectively. The variant alleles A18, A24, A28, A29 and A32 were only found in cancer patients, accounting for 0.81%, 0.40%, 0.40%, 0.40% and 0.40%, respectively; the A25, A26 and A27 alleles in cancer patients accounted for 6.48%, 77.33% and 13.77%. Healthy individuals had a stable BAT-26 profile within the quasimonomorphic variation range (QMVR), but cancer patients harbored variant alleles outside QMVR and showed a trend from quasimonomorph to polymonomorph, suggesting that variant alleles of BAT-26 in germline cells may be regarded as a potential marker of higher cancer risk in the Chinese population from Jiangsu province.

  1. Ecuador's Healthy Food Campaign: An Effectiveness Assessment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This would trigger changes in food production, retail, and marketing. ... assess and document the actual and potential impact of the social marketing campaign. ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ...

  2. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águida Foerster

    Full Text Available Introduction Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used to modify cortical excitability and promote motor learning. Objective To systematically review published data to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized studies that evaluated the tDCS effects on motor learning were included and the risk of bias was examined by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL with no language restriction. Results It was found 160 studies; after reading the title and abstract, 17 of those were selected, but just 4 were included. All studies involved healthy, right-handed adults. All studies assessed motor learning by the Jebsen Taylor Test or by the Serial Finger Tapping Task (SFTT. Almost all studies were randomized and all were blinding for participants. Some studies presented differences at SFTT protocol. Conclusion The result is insufficient to draw conclusions if tDCS influences the motor learning. Furthermore, there was significant heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters used. Further researches are needed to investigate the parameters that are more important for motor learning improvement and measure whether the effects are long-lasting or limited in time.

  3. Different circulating ghrelin responses to isoglucidic snack food in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini, S; Codella, R; Caumo, A; Marangoni, F; Luzi, L

    2011-02-01

    The last decade has seen much debate on ghrelin as a potential target for treating obesity. Despite a close connection between snack food intake and obesity, snacking is controversially reviewed as a good habit in a healthy nutritional regimen. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a different nutrient composition influences postprandial ghrelin levels and glucose increments induced by 6 isoglucidic snack food. 20 healthy individuals (10 M/10 F; BMI 23.1 ± 0.5; age 33 ± 0.67 years, mean and SE) from H San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Milan University were enrolled. The subjects underwent OGTT (50 g) and 6 isoglucidic test-meal loads to assess the ghrelin circulating levels and the area under glycemic curves induced by 6 commercial snacks. 3 h after hazelnut chocolate intake, ghrelin was significantly lower than with wafer chocolate intake (psnacks, the glycemic curves were not different even though hazelnut chocolate showed the lowest glycemic curve. Moreover, snack fat content was found to be inversely correlated to 3-h plasma ghrelin levels (psnack food administered in equivalent glucidic loads elicits postprandial ghrelin suppression and satiety ratings in different ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of ghrelin as hunger-hormone in the regulation of energy balance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  5. [Development of "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Shimanouchi, S; Kamei, T; Takagai, E; Hoshino, Y; Sugiyama, I

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life" aiming at expanding self-care power of family in community nursing practice. The subjects of this study covered those families in one hundred and fifty six instances that we had seized as subject for nursing care and study. The method of this study had constructed assessment guideline inductively out of each case, and modified it by applying to cases of families with health problems and others. As a result, we had formed nine items of "family power for healthy life" and three items of "conditions influencing family power for healthy life" for "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life".

  6. Using assessment to individualize early mathematics instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Kurz, Terri; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wood, Taffeta S; Morrison, Frederick J

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills. Second graders received mathematics instruction in small flexible learning groups based on their assessed learning needs. Results of the study (n=32 teachers, 370 students) revealed significant treatment effects on standardized mathematics assessments. With effect sizes (d) of 0.41-0.60, we show that we can significantly improve 2nd graders' mathematics achievement, including for children living in poverty, by using assessment data to individualize the mathematics instruction they receive. The instructional regime, ISI-Math, was implemented by regular classroom teachers and it led to about a 4-month achievement advantage on standardized mathematics tests when compared to students in control classrooms. These results were realized within one school year. Moreover, treatment effects were the same regardless of school-level poverty and students' gender, initial mathematics or vocabulary scores. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Falls of older individuals: medical assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Breucker, S; Nkodo Mekongo, Y P; Ibebeke, B; Pepersack, T

    2007-01-01

    Falls are one of the most common problems that threaten the independence of older individuals. They usually occur when impairments in multiple domains compromise the compensatory ability of the individual, as is the case for many geriatric syndromes. A number of the physical conditions and environmental situations predispose to falls. The medical risk factors of falls are reviewed. Falls in older individuals are rarely due to a single cause. Mechanisms that maintain postural stability are altered with aging (balance, gait speed, cardiovascular function). Female gender, past history of a fall, cognitive impairment, lower extremity weakness, balance problems, psychotropic drug use, arthritis, history of stroke, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, and anemia represent the most frequent causes of risk of falls. Physical examination should focus upon the above mentioned risk factors and also on the presence of orthostatic hypotension, visual acuity, hearing assessment, examination of the extremities for deformities or neuropathies, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity which contributes to falls in people with unexplained falls. In conclusion, assessment of older individual at risk of falls or who fall present medical specificities. However, these latter specificities should be included in a comprehensive assessment which focus on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Interventional strategies including comprehensive and interdisciplinary assessment lead to effective prevention.

  8. Prevalence of Oral Human Papilloma Virus in Healthy Individuals in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    SEIFI, Sharareh; ASVADI KERMANI, Iraj; DOLATKHAH, Roya; ASVADI KERMANI, Atabak; SAKHINIA, Ebrahim; ASGARZADEH, Mohammad; DASTGIRI, Saeed; EBRAHIMI, Ayoub; ASGHARI HAGGI, Arezou; NADRI, Mahsa; ASVADI KERMANI, Touraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Methods: Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers compl...

  9. Relationship between physical performance and self-reported function in healthy individuals across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer N; McKay, Marnee J; Hiller, Claire E; Moloney, Niamh; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Burns, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Functional outcome measures in clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions need to be meaningful to individuals. To investigate the relationship between physical performance and self/proxy-reported function in 1000 healthy children and adults. Cross-sectional observational study (1000 Norms Project). One thousand males and females aged 3-101 years, healthy by self-report and without major physical disability, were recruited. Twelve performance-based tests were analysed: vertical and long jump, two hand dexterity tests, four balance tests, stepping reaction time, 30-second chair stand, timed up-and-down stairs, and six-minute walk. Self/proxy-reported function was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Quality of Life questionnaire, Child Health Questionnaire, Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-6D Adolescent, AQoL-8D, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and work ability question. Bivariate and multivariate correlational analyses were constructed for infants (3-4y), children (5-10y), adolescents (11-17y), adults (18-59y) and older adults (60+). Socio-demographic characteristics were similar to the Australian population. Among infants/children, greater jump and sit-to-stand performance correlated with higher proxy-reported function (p  0.05). Greater jump, dexterity, balance, reaction time, sit-to-stand, stair-climbing and six-minute walk performance correlated with higher self-reported function in adults (r = -0.097 to.231; p physical measures which could form the basis of age-appropriate functional scales for clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  11. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhol...... of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals....

  12. Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, exercise and other risk factors on endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Catherine H; Wilson, John F; Ashfield-Watt, Pauline A L; Clark, Zoë E; Whiting, Jenny M; Lewis, Malcolm J; McDowell, Ian F W

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the pathogenesis of vascular disease that occurs before structural vascular changes or clinical symptoms are evident. Conventional risk factors, for example hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are associated with endothelial dysfunction, but the influence of other putative risk factors is not clear. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, a common polymorphism that induces hyperhomocysteinaemia, has been proposed as being a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A total of 126 healthy adults recruited by MTHFR C677T genotype (42 of each genotype, i.e. CC, CT and TT) underwent assessment of endothelial function. Brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasonic vessel "wall-tracking". Using multiple regression analysis, MTHFR genotype and 21 other subject and subject-lifestyle variables were investigated as potential predictors of endothelial function. FMD was influenced positively by frequency of aerobic exercise and by hormone replacement therapy, and negatively by increases in systolic blood pressure. MTHFR C677T genotype and the associated variation in plasma homocysteine levels did not influence FMD. Additionally, other factors, including plasma cholesterol and self-supplementation with either antioxidant vitamins or cod liver oil, showed no significant relationship with FMD, although these findings are compromised by the narrow range studied for cholesterol and the small number of subjects taking supplements. These observations have implications for risk factor management in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals.

  13. Effects of oral glucose load on endothelial function and on insulin and glucose fluctuations in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S

    2008-01-01

    to better understand and cope with the postprandial state in insulin resistant individuals. METHODS: We assessed post-oral glucose load endothelial function (flow mediated dilation), plasma insulin, and blood glucose in 9 healthy subjects. RESULTS: The largest increases in delta FMD values (fasting FMD......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postprandial hyperglycemia, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. We studied the effect of oral glucose load on insulin and glucose fluctuations, and on postprandial endothelial function in healthy individuals in order...... value subtracted from postprandial FMD value) occurred at 3 hours after both glucose or placebo load, respectively: 4.80 +/- 1.41 (P = .009) and 2.34 +/- 1.47 (P = .15). Glucose and insulin concentrations achieved maximum peaks at one hour post-glucose load. CONCLUSION: Oral glucose load does not induce...

  14. Automated detection of unfilled pauses in speech of healthy and brain-damaged individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    Automated detection of un lled pauses in speech of healthy and brain-damaged individuals Roelant Ossewaardea,b, Roel Jonkersa, Fedor Jalvingha,c, Roelien Bastiaansea aCenter for Language and Cognition, University of Groningen; bInstitute for ICT, HU University of Applied Science, Utrecht; cSt.

  15. T-cell dynamics in healthy and HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrisekoop, N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on T-cell dynamics in healthy and both treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals. Although the progressive decline in CD4+ T-cell numbers is the hallmark of HIV infection, the mechanisms behind this depletion remain controversial. Currently the most prevailing ideas include

  16. Assessment of ulceration risk in diabetic individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Alfonso Dutra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the risk factors for foot ulceration through the tracing of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease in individuals with type I and II diabetes, who were assisted in reference centers of the Federal District, Brazil. Method: a cross-sectional and analytical study, with the assessment of 117 individuals in outpatient clinics of the Federal District. Continuous variables were compared through Mann-Whitney test, and categorized variables, through Chi-square test for univariate analysis and Logistics regression test for multivariate analysis. Results: painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy was present in 37 (75.5% of the individuals with neuropathy. Deformities and loss of protective plant sensibility were related to neuropathy (p=0.014 and p=0.001, respectively. Of the 40 (34.2% individuals in the sample who presented peripheral arterial disease, 26 (65% presented calcification risk. Conclusion: signs of painful peripheral polyneuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, deformities, loss of protective plantar sensibility, and dry skin were identified as risk factors for ulceration.

  17. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Badoud

    Full Text Available To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO individuals.Thirty adults (35-70 yrs were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs.The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05. Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC.MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals.

  19. Enteroendocrine K and L cells in healthy and type 2 diabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Tina; Rhee, Nicolai A.; Pedersen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Enteroendocrine K and L cells are pivotal in regulating appetite and glucose homeostasis. Knowledge of their distribution in humans is sparse and it is unknown whether alterations occur in type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of enteroendocrine K and L cells...... and relevant prohormone-processing enzymes (using immunohistochemical staining), and to evaluate the mRNA expression of the corresponding genes along the entire intestinal tract in individuals with type 2 diabetes and healthy participants. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 12 individuals with type 2...... diabetes and 12 age- and BMI-matched healthy individuals underwent upper and lower double-balloon enteroscopy with mucosal biopsy retrieval from approximately every 30 cm of the small intestine and from seven specific anatomical locations in the large intestine. Results: Significantly different densities...

  20. Psychopathic traits are associated with cortical and subcortical volume alterations in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana B; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Almeida, Pedro R; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests psychopathy is associated with structural brain alterations that may contribute to the affective and interpersonal deficits frequently observed in individuals with high psychopathic traits. However, the regional alterations related to different components of psychopathy are still unclear. We used voxel-based morphometry to characterize the structural correlates of psychopathy in a sample of 35 healthy adults assessed with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Furthermore, we examined the regional grey matter alterations associated with the components described by the triarchic model. Our results showed that, after accounting for variation in total intracranial volume, age and IQ, overall psychopathy was negatively associated with grey matter volume in the left putamen and amygdala. Additional regression analysis with anatomical regions of interests revealed total triPM score was also associated with increased lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate volume. Boldness was positively associated with volume in the right insula. Meanness was positively associated with lateral OFC and striatum volume, and negatively associated with amygdala volume. Finally, disinhibition was negatively associated with amygdala volume. Results highlight the contribution of both subcortical and cortical brain alterations for subclinical psychopathy and are discussed in light of prior research and theoretical accounts about the neurobiological bases of psychopathic traits. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Corollary Discharge Failure in an Oculomotor Task Is Related to Delusional Ideation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassis, Raphaëlle; Del Cul, Antoine; Collins, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the sensory consequences of saccadic eye movements likely plays a crucial role in planning sequences of saccades and in maintaining visual stability despite saccade-caused retinal displacements. Deficits in predictive activity, such as that afforded by a corollary discharge signal, have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, and may lead to the emergence of positive symptoms, in particular delusions of control and auditory hallucinations. We examined whether a measure of delusional thinking in the general, non-clinical population correlated with measures of predictive activity in two oculomotor tasks. The double-step task measured predictive activity in motor control, and the in-flight displacement task measured predictive activity in trans-saccadic visual perception. Forty-one healthy adults performed both tasks and completed a questionnaire to assess delusional thinking. The quantitative measure of predictive activity we obtained correlated with the tendency towards delusional ideation, but only for the motor task, and not the perceptual task: Individuals with higher levels of delusional thinking showed less self-movement information use in the motor task. Variation of the degree of self-generated movement knowledge as a function of the prevalence of delusional ideation in the normal population strongly supports the idea that corollary discharge deficits measured in schizophrenic patients in previous researches are not due to neuroleptic medication. We also propose that this difference in results between the perceptual and the motor tasks may point to a dissociation between corollary discharge for perception and corollary discharge for action. PMID:26305115

  2. Comparison of four software packages for CT lung volumetry in healthy individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan F. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Molinari, Francesco [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Dufresne, Valerie [CHU de Charleroi - Hopital Vesale, Pneumologie, Montigny-le-Tilleul (Belgium); Gosset, Natacha [CHU Tivoli, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, La Louviere (Belgium); Silva, Mario; Bankier, Alexander A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    To compare CT lung volumetry (CTLV) measurements provided by different software packages, and to provide normative data for lung densitometric measurements in healthy individuals. This retrospective study included 51 chest CTs of 17 volunteers (eight men and nine women; mean age, 30 ± 6 years), who underwent spirometrically monitored CT at total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and mean inspiratory capacity (MIC). Volumetric differences assessed by four commercial software packages were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements and benchmarked against the threshold for acceptable variability between spirometric measurements. Mean lung density (MLD) and parenchymal heterogeneity (MLD-SD) were also compared with ANOVA. Volumetric differences ranged from 12 to 213 ml (0.20 % to 6.45 %). Although 16/18 comparisons (among four software packages at TLC, MIC, and FRC) were statistically significant (P < 0.001 to P = 0.004), only 3/18 comparisons, one at MIC and two at FRC, exceeded the spirometry variability threshold. MLD and MLD-SD significantly increased with decreasing volumes, and were significantly larger in lower compared to upper lobes (P < 0.001). Lung volumetric differences provided by different software packages are small. These differences should not be interpreted based on statistical significance alone, but together with absolute volumetric differences. (orig.)

  3. T helper cell subsets specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K Bayes

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the magnitude of antigen-specific memory T helper cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy humans and patients with cystic fibrosis.Peripheral blood human memory CD4(+ T cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells that had been infected with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The T helper response was determined by measuring proliferation, immunoassay of cytokine output, and immunostaining of intracellular cytokines.Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had robust antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa that not only contained a Th1 and Th17 component but also Th22 cells. In contrast to previous descriptions of human Th22 cells, these Pseudomonal-specific Th22 cells lacked the skin homing markers CCR4 or CCR10, although were CCR6(+. Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had similar levels of Th22 cells, but the patient group had significantly fewer Th17 cells in peripheral blood.Th22 cells specific to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are induced in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Along with Th17 cells, they may play an important role in the pulmonary response to this microbe in patients with cystic fibrosis and other conditions.

  4. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A.; Wotruba, Diana; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1) most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2) magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3) similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4) ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings indicated that

  5. The Intricate Relationship between Psychotic-Like Experiences and Associated Subclinical Symptoms in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Unterrassner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20–60 years, 73 females using correlational and linear regression analyses. PLE were assessed with the Magical Ideation Questionnaire, the revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire, and subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ. The revised Symptom Checklist 90, the SPQ, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale were used to measure subclinical negative symptoms, affective symptoms, and other symptoms such as, emotional instability. As hypothesized, we found that (1 most affective symptoms and all other subclinical symptoms correlated positively with all PLE, whereas we found only partial associations between negative symptoms and PLE. Notably, (2 magical ideation and paranormal beliefs correlated negatively with physical anhedonia. In the regression analyses we found (3 similar patterns of specific positive associations between PLE and other subclinical symptoms: Suspiciousness was a specific predictor of negative-like symptoms, whereas ideas of reference, unusual perceptual experiences, and dissociative anomalous perceptions specifically predicted anxiety symptoms. Interestingly, (4 ideas of reference negatively predicted physical anhedonia. Similarly, paranormal beliefs were negatively associated with constricted affect. Moreover, odd beliefs were a negative predictor of depression, emotional instability, and unspecific symptoms. Our findings

  6. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A biomechanical comparison of back and front squats in healthy trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, Jonathan C; Tillman, Mark D; Gutierrez, Gregory M; Chow, John W

    2009-01-01

    The strength and stability of the knee plays an integral role in athletics and activities of daily living. A better understanding of knee joint biomechanics while performing variations of the squat would be useful in rehabilitation and exercise prescription. We quantified and compared tibiofemoral joint kinetics as well as muscle activity while executing front and back squats. Because of the inherent change in the position of the center of mass of the bar between the front and back squat lifts, we hypothesized that the back squat would result in increased loads on the knee joint and that the front squat would result in increased knee extensor and decreased back extensor muscle activity. A crossover study design was used. To assess the net force and torque placed on the knee and muscle activation levels, a combination of video and force data, as well as surface electromyographic data, were collected from 15 healthy trained individuals. The back squat resulted in significantly higher compressive forces and knee extensor moments than the front squat. Shear forces at the knee were small in magnitude, posteriorly directed, and did not vary between the squat variations. Although bar position did not influence muscle activity, muscle activation during the ascending phase was significantly greater than during the descending phase. The front squat was as effective as the back squat in terms of overall muscle recruitment, with significantly less compressive forces and extensor moments. The results suggest that front squats may be advantageous compared with back squats for individuals with knee problems such as meniscus tears, and for long-term joint health.

  8. Effects of Oral Glucose Load on Endothelial Function and on Insulin and Glucose Fluctuations in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Major-Pedersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims. Postprandial hyperglycemia, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. We studied the effect of oral glucose load on insulin and glucose fluctuations, and on postprandial endothelial function in healthy individuals in order to better understand and cope with the postprandial state in insulin resistant individuals. Methods. We assessed post-oral glucose load endothelial function (flow mediated dilation, plasma insulin, and blood glucose in 9 healthy subjects. Results. The largest increases in delta FMD values (fasting FMD value subtracted from postprandial FMD value occurred at 3 hours after both glucose or placebo load, respectively: 4.80±1.41 (P = .009 and 2.34±1.47 (P = .15. Glucose and insulin concentrations achieved maximum peaks at one hour post-glucose load. Conclusion. Oral glucose load does not induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy individuals with mean insulin and glucose values of 5.6 mmol/L and 27.2 mmol/L, respectively, 2 hours after glucose load.

  9. The effects of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals: a literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Jillian L.; McAlpine, Caitlin T.; Primak, Kari A.; Kissel, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Context: The effect of the application of kinesiotape to skin overlying musculature on measurable athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals has not been well established. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the effect of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals. Methods: An electronic search strategy was conducted in MANTIS, Cochrane Library and EBSCO databases. Retrieved articles that met the eligibility criteria were rated for methodological quality by using an adaption of the critical appraisal criteria in Clinical Epidemiology by Sackett et al. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven articles had positive results in at least one athletic-based performance measure compared to controls. Conclusion: Evidence is lacking to support the use of kinesiotape as a successful measure for improving athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals. However, there is no evidence to show that kinesiotape has a negative effect on any of the performace measures. PMID:24302784

  10. Assessment of evaluations made to healthy eating policies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Cueto, Federico JA; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Shankar, Bhavani

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify and assess healthy eating policies at national level which have been evaluated in terms of their impact on awareness of healthy eating, food consumption, health outcome or cost/benefit. Design: Review of policy documents and their evaluations when available. Setting: European...... an evaluation of health impact, while three actions specifically measured any cost/benefit ratio. The indicators used in these evaluations were in most cases not comparable. Evaluation was more often found for public information campaigns, regulation of meals at schools/canteens and nutrition education...

  11. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Magnano

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein (IJV narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs has not been adequately assessed.We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA and aging.This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences.Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3 to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1, while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3 to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1. The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001 than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels.In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors.

  12. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Codella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM underwent 50 g OGTT (A and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01, suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01.

  13. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  14. Elastins from patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome and healthy individuals differ on the molecular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Huertas, Angela C Mora; Schräder, Christoph U

    2016-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a congenital disorder, which involves the heterozygous deletion of the elastin gene and other genes on chromosome 7. Clinical symptoms that are associated with hemizygosity of the essential extracellular matrix protein elastin include premature aging of the skin...... and supravalvular aortic stenosis. However, only little is known about the molecular basis of structural abnormalities in the connective tissue of WBS patients. Therefore, for the first time this study aimed to systematically characterize and compare the structure and amount of elastin present in skin and aortic...... tissue from WBS patients and healthy individuals. Elastin fibers were isolated from tissue biopsies, and it was found that skin of WBS patients contains significantly less elastin compared to skin of healthy individuals. Scanning electron microscopy and mass spectrometric measurements combined...

  15. The effects of peroral glycerol on plasma osmolarity in diabetic patients and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Sander, Birgit; la Cour, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol is used as a peroral treatment of increased intraocular and intracranial pressure due to its osmotic effect despite the potential increase in blood pressure and blood glucose. We examined the effects of peroral glycerol in diabetic patients and healthy individuals on blood pressure......, capillary glucose, and plasma osmolarity. On two separate days, 15 diabetic patients ingested glycerol in doses of 855 and 1710 mg/kg body weight in a randomised, unmasked sequence. Five healthy individuals ingested a dose of 1710 mg/kg body weight. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), capillary glucose (CG......, non-significant increase occurred in blood pressure. Maximal DeltaCG was approximately 1 mM irrespective of the dose and presence of diabetes (p > 0.1). The pOSM response was analysed with a kinetic model and found independent of the presence of diabetes (p = 0.6). The maximal fitted DeltapOSM was 12...

  16. Comparison of Ecological Micro-Expression Recognition in Patients with Depression and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlin Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of ordinary facial expressions in patients with depression, and have not investigated the processing characteristics of ecological micro-expressions (MEs, i.e., MEs that presented in different background expressions in these patients. Based on this, adopting the ecological MEs recognition paradigm, this study aimed to comparatively evaluate facial ME recognition in depressed and healthy individuals. The findings of the study are as follows: (1 background expression: the accuracy (ACC in the neutral background condition tended to be higher than that in the fear background condition, and the reaction time (RT in the neutral background condition was significantly longer than that in other backgrounds. The type of ME and its interaction with the type of background expression could affect participants’ ecological MEs recognition ACC and speed. Depression type: there was no significant difference between the ecological MEs recognition ACC of patients with depression and healthy individuals, but the patients’ RT was significantly longer than that of healthy individuals; and (2 patients with depression judged happy MEs that were presented against different backgrounds as neutral and judged neutral MEs that were presented against sad backgrounds as sad. The present study suggested the following: (1 ecological MEs recognition was influenced by background expressions. The ACC of happy MEs was the highest, of neutral ME moderate and of sadness and fear the lowest. The response to the happy MEs was significantly shorter than that of identifying other MEs. It is necessary to conduct research on ecological MEs recognition; (2 the speed of patients with depression in identifying ecological MEs was slower than of healthy individuals; indicating that the patients’ cognitive function was impaired; and (3 the patients with depression showed negative bias in the ecological MEs recognition task, reflecting

  17. Effect of upper body plyometric training on physical performance in healthy individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Deepika; Hussain, M Ejaz; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2018-01-01

    To determine the impact of upper body plyometric training (UBPT) on physical performance parameters such as strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance and power in healthy individuals. PubMed, Scopus, ResearchGate and ERIC databases were searched up to August 2017. Selection of articles was done if they described the outcomes of an upper body plyometric exercise intervention; included measures of strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance, or power; included healthy individuals; used a randomized control trial; and had full text available in English language. The exclusion criteria were unpublished research work and clubbing of UBPT with some other type(s) of training apart from routine sports training. PEDro scale was used to rate the quality of studies eligible for this review. Initially 264 records were identified and out of them only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria and were selected (PEDro score = 4 to 6). Though large to very small effects observed in improving ball throwing velocity, ball throwing distance, power and strength of upper limb muscles after UBPT, the results should be implemented with caution. Inconclusive results obtained preclude any strong conclusion regarding the efficacy of UBPT on physical performance in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anxiety Sensitivity and Metacognition in Iranian Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zargar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosomatic disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders in which psychological factors play an important role in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of medical conditions. The most important category of psychosomatic disorders is functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. The present study aimed to compare anxiety sensitivity (AS and metacognitions between patients with FGID and healthy individuals in Isfahan, Iran.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 50 patients (13 men and 37 women with FGID who were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist and had the study inclusion criteria and 50 matched healthy individuals (15 men and 35 women. The subjects were randomly selected. The data collection tools consisted of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index‎-Revised (ASI-R and Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire (MCQ-30. The data were analyzed in SPSS software.Results: The results showed that there were significant differences in all subscales of ASI-R and MCQ-30, except the fear of publicly observable symptoms subscale in the ASI-R and negative beliefs about the uncontrollability of thoughts and corresponding danger (UD subscale in MCQ-30 between patients with FGID and healthy individuals.Conclusion: The results showed that AS and metacognitive beliefs about worry play a crucial role in psychosomatic disorders such as FGID. Anxiety has appeared as the common component between FGID. Hence, the management of anxiety in FGID by clinicians in the treatment of these disorders is recommended.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Esophageal Candidiasis in Healthy Individuals: A Single Center Experience in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeuk; Lee, Chang Geun; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Lim, Chi Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is the most frequent opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised host. However, we have found EC in healthy individuals through esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 281 patients who had been incidentally diagnosed with EC. We also conducted age and sex matched case control study to identify the risk factor for EC. Results The prevalence of EC was 0.32% (281/88125). The most common coexisting EGD finding was reflux esophagitis (49/281, 17.4%). An antifungal agent was prescribed in about half of EC, 139 cases (49.5%). Follow-up EGD was undertaken in 83 cases (29.5%) and 20 cases of candidiasis was persistently found. Case control study revealed EC were more often found in user of antibiotics (p=0.015), corticosteroids (p=0.002) and herb medication (p=0.006) as well as heavy drinking (pantibiotics, corticosteroids and herb as well as heavy drinking were significant risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. PMID:23225813

  20. Selfie Aging Index: An Index for the Self-assessment of Healthy and Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Judite; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Fonseca, Miguel; Teodoro, Tomás; Barros, Pedro Pita; Botelho, Maria-Amália

    2017-01-01

    Governments across Europe want to promote healthy and active aging, as a matter of both public health and economic sustainability. Designing policies focused on the most vulnerable groups requires information at the individual level. However, a measure of healthy and active aging at the individual level does not yet exist. This paper develops the Selfie Aging Index (SAI), an individual-level index of healthy and active aging. The SAI is developed thinking about a tool that would allow each person to take a selfie of her aging status. Therefore, it is based entirely on self-assessed indicators. This paper also illustrates how the SAI may look like in practice. The SAI is based on the Biopsychosocial Assessment Model (MAB), a tool for the multidimensional assessment of older adults along three domains: biological, psychological, and social. Indicators are selected and their weights determined based on an ordered probit model that relates the MAB indicators to self-assessed health, which proxies healthy and active aging. The ordered probit model predicts the SAI based on the estimated parameters. Finally, predictions are rescaled to the 0-1 interval. Data for the SAI development come from the Study of the Aging Profiles of the Portuguese Population and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe. The selected indicators are BMI, having difficulties moving around indoors and performing the activities of daily living, feeling depressed, feeling nervous, lacking energy, time awareness score, marital status, having someone to confide in, education, type of job, exercise, and smoking status. The model also determines their weights. Results shed light on various factors that contribute significantly to healthy and active aging. Two examples are mental health and exercise, which deserve more attention from individuals themselves, health-care professionals, and public health policy. The SAI has the potential to put the individual at the center of the healthy and

  1. Dysfunctional Attitudes and Coping Strategies in Substance Dependent and Healthy Individuals

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    Yousef A'zami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: From the psychological point of view, coping strategies and attitudes have considerable effects on people’s tendency towards risky behavior, including opioid substance abuse. Dysfunctional attitudes are attitudes and beliefs that predispose the individual toward depression and psychological disorder, generally speaking. Usually, people use three types of coping strategies when confronting stressful situations problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance strategies. This study therefore aimed to compare dysfunctional attitudes and coping strategies in substance-dependent & healthy individuals. Methods: A causal-comparative study was conducted. The population under study consisted of 100 addicts attending Robat-Karim’s addiction rehabilitation centers who were selected through simple random sampling. Another 100 ordinary individuals were matched with the addicts. The dysfunctional attitudes scale and the coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Results: The two groups differed significantly in their dysfunctional attitudes and problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Substance-dependent individuals applied emotion-focused coping more and had greater dysfunctional attitudes than the healthy ones, and the latter applied problem-focused strategies more. Discussion: Based on our results, addicts have greater dysfunctional attitudes than non-addicts. Therefore, better treatment and rehabilitation results may be obtained by preparing grounds for appropriate psychological interventions and coping strategies in substance-dependent individuals.

  2. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72) or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45). The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK) cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant) and 41% lower interleukin (IL)-12 levels (significant). The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05) than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:29238351

  3. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjoo Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72 or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45. The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant and 41% lower interleukin (IL-12 levels (significant. The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05 than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities.

  4. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

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    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  5. Morphological and molecular features of oral fluid-derived exosomes: oral cancer patients versus healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Salo, Tuula; Vered, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer (OC) patients are at high risk to develop recurrent disease or secondary primary cancers with no available biomarkers to detect these events until a visible lesion is readily present and diagnosed by biopsy. Exosomes secreted by cancer cells are involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. We aimed to determine morphological and molecular differences between oral fluid (OF)-derived exosomes of OC patients and those isolated from healthy individuals (HI). OF from OC patients (n = 36) and HI (n = 25) was initially assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Following ultracentrifugation, exosomal pellets of OC patients and HI were morphologically examined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting (WB) were used to analyze the expression of exosomal markers--CD9, CD81 and CD63. NTA showed that OC samples of OF had a significantly higher concentration of nanoparticles/ml (p = 0.01) and modal nanoparticle size (p = 0.002) compared to HI. The difference in size was structurally highlighted by AFM three-dimensional images applied on exosomal pellets. ELISA and WB showed differential expression of exosomal markers in OC exosomes compared to HI: lower expression of CD81 and CD9 in contrast to a higher expression of CD63 (~53 kDa). OF-derived exosomes from OC patients differ both morphologically and molecularly from exosomes present in HI. This study is a baseline that provides a starting point for finding exosomal biomarkers for early detection of malignant changes in high-risk patients without overt clinical signs/lesions.

  6. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals.

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    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  7. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

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    Prashanth Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  8. Diurnal variation of connective tissue metabolites in early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis and in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottenburger, T; Junker, P; Hørslev-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    To study the circadian variability of circulating connective tissue metabolites in patients with very early (VERA) and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (LRA) and in healthy control individuals.......To study the circadian variability of circulating connective tissue metabolites in patients with very early (VERA) and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (LRA) and in healthy control individuals....

  9. Human T-cell responses to Aspergillus fumigatus : In healthy individuals and patients with Aspergillus-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolink, H.

    2017-01-01

    The T-cell mediated immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus was studied in healthy individuals and in several patient groups. In peripheral blood of healthy individuals low frequencies of Aspergillus-specific CD4+ T-cells with a Thelper 1 profile were present. In patients with invasive

  10. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

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    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular

  11. Static postural balance in healthy individuals: Comparisons between three age groups

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    Yanne Salviano Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare static postural balance of healthy individuals of three age groups in different conditions of support and vision. Seventy one individuals, divided into 3 groups, were analyzed: young group (YG: 22.2 ± 2.1 years, middle aged group (MAG: 50.7 ± 5.7 years and older individuals group (EG: 66.8 ± 5.4 years. Their balance was tested on a force platform, under 3 support and 3 visual conditions. Measures included: total (TD, anterior-posterior (APD and mediolateral displacement (MLD of the center of pressure (CoP. ANOVA revealed significant differences for interactions between group X support conditions and group X visual conditions for the 3 variables (p<0.01, with greater displacements for the MAG and EG groups during single-leg stance with partial and occluded vision (p<0.05. Static postural balance decreased over time in healthy individuals, and conditions of support and visual negatively affected balance with the increment of age.

  12. Prevalence of Oral Human Papilloma Virus in Healthy Individuals in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEIFI, Sharareh; ASVADI KERMANI, Iraj; DOLATKHAH, Roya; ASVADI KERMANI, Atabak; SAKHINIA, Ebrahim; ASGARZADEH, Mohammad; DASTGIRI, Saeed; EBRAHIMI, Ayoub; ASGHARI HAGGI, Arezou; NADRI, Mahsa; ASVADI KERMANI, Touraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Methods: Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers completed questionnaires and signed a written consent. For data analysis descriptive statistic, chi square test and odds ratio was used. Results: The frequency of oral HPV in healthy individuals was 6.1 %(seven participant).The most frequent type was HPV-18 in five of them. HPV-6 and HPV-66 each was detected in one case. Relation of oral HPV positivity to demographic features and risk factors was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of oral HPV infection in our community is the same as many other communities of developing countries, stressing that HPV-18 were the dominant type. PMID:23514804

  13. Prevalence of oral human papilloma virus in healthy individuals in East azerbaijan province of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Sharareh; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Dolatkhah, Roya; Asvadi Kermani, Atabak; Sakhinia, Ebrahim; Asgarzadeh, Mohammad; Dastgiri, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Ayoub; Asghari Haggi, Arezou; Nadri, Mahsa; Asvadi Kermani, Touraj

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers completed questionnaires and signed a written consent. For data analysis descriptive statistic, chi square test and odds ratio was used. The frequency of oral HPV in healthy individuals was 6.1 %(seven participant).The most frequent type was HPV-18 in five of them. HPV-6 and HPV-66 each was detected in one case. Relation of oral HPV positivity to demographic features and risk factors was not statistically significant. The prevalence of oral HPV infection in our community is the same as many other communities of developing countries, stressing that HPV-18 were the dominant type.

  14. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

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    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  15. Effect of dietary cholesterol and plant sterol consumption on plasma lipid responsiveness and cholesterol trafficking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Ramprasath, Vanu; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals. A randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n 49) with three treatment phases of 4-week duration were conducted in a Manitoba Hutterite population. During each phase, participants consumed one of the three treatments as a milkshake containing 600 mg/d dietary cholesterol, 2 g/d plant sterols or a control after breakfast meal. Plasma lipid profile was determined and cholesterol absorption and synthesis were measured by oral administration of [3, 4-13C] cholesterol and 2H-labelled water, respectively. Dietary cholesterol consumption increased total (0·16 (sem 0·06) mmol/l, P=0·0179) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 (sem 0·03) mmol/l, P=0·0216) concentrations with no changes in cholesterol absorption or synthesis. Plant sterol consumption failed to reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations despite showing a reduction (6 %, P=0·0004) in cholesterol absorption. An over-compensatory reciprocal increase in cholesterol synthesis (36 %, P=0·0026) corresponding to a small reduction in absorption was observed with plant sterol consumption, possibly resulting in reduced LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant sterols. These data suggest that inter-individual variability in cholesterol trafficking mechanisms may profoundly impact plasma lipid responses to dietary sterols in healthy individuals.

  16. No effect of escitalopram versus placebo on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Soendergaard, Mia H Greisen

    2016-01-01

    with a family history of depression. METHODS: We measured changes in BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and whole-blood BDNF levels in 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. RESULTS: We found...... no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels...... in the escitalopram-treated group. CONCLUSION: The results of this randomised trial suggest that escitalopram 10 mg has no effect on peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....

  17. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar Pammi, V S; Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh, Purushothaman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Rappai Mary, Paramban; Seema, Satish; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-04-01

    Neuroeconomics employs neuroscience techniques to explain decision-making behaviours. Prospect theory, a prominent model of decision-making, features a value function with parameters for risk and loss aversion. Recent work with normal participants identified activation related to loss aversion in brain regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the brain network for loss aversion in pathologies such as depression has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study is to employ the value function from prospect theory to examine behavioural and neural manifestations of loss aversion in depressed and healthy individuals to identify the neurobiological markers of loss aversion in economic behaviour. We acquired behavioural data and fMRI scans while healthy controls and patients with depression performed an economic decision-making task. Behavioural loss aversion was higher in patients with depression than in healthy controls. fMRI results revealed that the two groups shared a brain network for value function including right ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right amygdala. However, the neural loss aversion results revealed greater activations in the right dorsal striatum and the right anterior insula for controls compared with patients with depression, and higher activations in the midbrain region ventral tegmental area for patients with depression compared with controls. These results suggest that while the brain network for loss aversion is shared between depressed and healthy individuals, some differences exist with respect to differential activation of additional areas. Our findings are relevant to identifying neurobiological markers for altered decision-making in the depressed. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Epicardial fat volume and aortic stiffness in healthy individuals. A quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Thomas, D.; Meier-Schroers, M.; Dabir, D.; Kuetting, D.; Luetkens, J.A.; Marx, C.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Sprinkart, A. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

    2016-09-15

    To determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) and aortic stiffness (assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in healthy individuals, and to investigate the relationship of these parameters, and their association with body mass index (BMI) and age. 58 subjects (29 men, mean age 44.7 ± 13.9 years[y]) underwent a CMR exam at 1.5 Tesla. A 2 D velocity-encoded CMR scan was acquired to determine PWV. The EFV was measured based on a 3 D-mDixon sequence. Group comparisons were made between younger (age < 45y; n=30; mean age 33.4 ± 6.6y) and older (> 45y; n=28; 56.7 ± 8.4y) subjects and between subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=28; BMI 21.9 ± 2.5 kg/m{sup 2}) and a BMI > 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=30; 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Associations between the determined parameters were assessed by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). The mean values of PWV and EFV (normalized to body surface area) were 6.9 ±1.9 m/s and 44.2 ± 25.0 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. The PWV and EFV were significantly higher in the older group (PWV=7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 m/s; EFV=54.7 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 34.5 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01, each), with no significant differences in BMI or sex. In the overweighted group the EFV was significantly higher than in subjects with a BMI < 25kg/m{sup 2} (EFV=56.1 ± 27.1 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 31.5 ± 14.6 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01) but without a significant difference in PWV. ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between EFV and PWV, also after adjustment for age (p=0.025). An association was found between age and EFV as well as PWV. EFV and PWV were related to each other also after adjustment for age. The metabolic and pro-inflammatory activity found with increased epicardial fat volume may promote the development of atherosclerosis and aortic stiffness. CMR may be valuable for future studies investigating the relationship between EFV and PWV in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

  19. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  20. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Beryllium-specific immune response in primary cells from healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Anu; Sauer, Nancy N.; Gupta, Goutam

    2004-01-01

    The effect of beryllium (Be) exposure has been extensively studied in patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). CBD patients carry mutated MHC class II alleles and show a hyperproliferation of T cells upon Be exposure. The exact mechanism of Be-induced T-cell proliferation in these patients is not clearly understood. It is also not known how the inflammatory and suppressive cytokines maintain a balance in healthy individuals and how this balance is lost in CBD patients. To address these issues, we have initiated cellular and biochemical studies to identify Be-responsive cytokines and other cellular markers that help maintain a balance in healthy individuals. We have established an immune cell model derived from a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and dendritic cells (DCs). In this article, we demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 shows decreased release whereas suppressive cytokine IL10 shows enhanced release after 5-10 h of Be treatment. Furthermore, the Be-specific pattern of IL6 and IL10 release is dependent upon induction of threonine phosphorylation of a 45 kDa cytosolic protein (p45), as early as 90 min after Be treatment. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3'K) by wortmannin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by SB203580 reveal that PI3'K mediates Be-specific p45 phosphorylation and IL6 release, whereas p38 MAPK regulates the release of IL6 and IL10 and the phosphorylation of p45 independent of metal-salt treatment. While the IL10 and IL6 release pathways are uncoupled in these cells, they are linked to phosphorylation of p45. These findings suggest that the balance between IL10 and IL6 release and the correlated p45 phosphorylation are important components of the Be-mediated immune response in healthy individuals

  2. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications.This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air.Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information.Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2. Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change.Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  3. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L; Levänen, Bettina; Nording, Malin; Klepczynska-Nyström, Anna; Sköld, Magnus; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Grunewald, Johan; Svartengren, Magnus; Hammock, Bruce D; Larsson, Britt-Marie; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M; Wheelock, Craig E

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  4. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  5. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, Y.; Adem, E.; Getahun, M.; Tajebe, F.; Kiflie, A.; Hailu, A.; Raynes, J.; Mengesha, B.; Ayele, T. A.; Shkedy, Z.; Lemma, M.; Diro, E.; Toulza, F.; Modolell, M.; Munder, M.; Müller, I.; Kropf, P.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4–16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI <16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (≥18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to

  6. Psychophysiological types of clinically healthy individuals with different levels of teeth resistance to caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Khalturina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is a result of the psychophysiological tests with the help of cutting examination and psychogeometrical tests for 76 healthy individuals ages 20,18±1,25 years, having different caries resistance. It is known that group of people with poor caries resistance has a conflict type of personality. There is a positive tendency to growth of anxiety level and reducing caries resistance. The article concludes that the prophylaxis of caries and its complications must contain methods of psychophysiological correction

  7. Reduced glomerular size- and charge-selectivity in clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Deckert, T

    1995-01-01

    The pathophysiologic mechanism behind microalbuminuria, a potential atherosclerotic risk factor, was explored by measuring fractional clearances of four endogenous plasma proteins of different size and electric charge (albumin, beta 2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin G4). Twenty......-eight clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin excretion of 6.6-150 micrograms min-1, and 60 matched control subjects were studied. Fractional immunoglobulin G clearance was higher (geometric means (95% confidence intervals)) 3.0 (2.3-3.9) x 10(-6), n = 28, vs. 2.1 (1...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of nailfold capillaries by capillaroscopy in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Christian; Kundi, Michael; Katzenschlager, Reinhold; Hirschl, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy (NVC) is a diagnostic tool particularly useful in the differential diagnosis of rheumatic and connective tissue diseases. Although successfully applied since many years, little is known about prevalence and distribution of NVC changes in healthy individuals. NVC was performed in 120 individuals (57 men and 63 women; age 18 to 70 years) randomly selected according to predefined age and sex strata. Diseases associated with NVC changes were excluded. The nailfolds of eight fingers were assessed according to standardized procedures. A scoring system was developed based on the distribution of the number of morphologically deviating capillaries, microhaemorrhages, and capillary density. Only 18 individuals (15 %) had no deviation in morphology, haemorrhages, or capillary density on any finger. Overall 67 % had morphological changes, 48 % had microhaemorrhages, and 40 % of volunteers below 40 years of age and 18 % above age 40 had less than 8 capillaries/mm. Among morphological changes tortous (43 %), ramified (47 %), and bushy capillaries (27 %) were the most frequently altered capillary types. A semiquantitative scoring system was developed in such a way that a score above 1 indicates an extreme position (above the 90th percentile) in the distribution of scores among healthy individuals. Altered capillaries occur frequently among healthy individuals and should be interpreted as normal unless a suspicious increase in their frequency is determined by reference to the scoring system. Megacapillaries and diffuse loss of capillaries were not found and seem to be of specific diagnostic value.

  9. Assessment of Parent Orientation towards Autonomy vs. Control in Promoting Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Padilla, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    Self-determination theory has been widely applied to understanding individuals' health-related behaviors such as eating healthy foods and exercising. Different reasons for engagement are associated with varying levels of personal agency or autonomy. Authority figures in the environment can be supportive of autonomy or, in contrast, controlling. Although researchers have assessed individuals' perceptions of the autonomy-support in their environments, studies have not directly examined the authority figures' orientations to autonomy with respect to health contexts. A new scale, Parent Orientations to Health, was created to investigate parent orientation to autonomy and control with respect to healthy eating and exercise in children. One hundred and forty-three parents of elementary school-aged children responded to the scale. Scale validation and reliability results indicate that the scale successfully assessed parent orientation towards autonomy for children in health contexts. Furthermore, parent autonomy orientation varied according to child weight status and the healthiness of the child's diet. Parent orientation towards autonomy can be evaluated through the use of the Parent Orientations to Health scale. In addition, parent autonomy orientation is associated with both the healthiness of the child's diet (as perceived by the parent) and the child's body mass index. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  10. High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra-high-resolut......High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra......-high-resolution line-pair phantome with both systems. Secondly, we investigated 21 healthy volunteers of different phototypes with HD-OCT and RCM on volar forearm and compared the generated images. HD-OCT displays also differences depending on the skin phototype and anatomical site. The 3-μm lateral resolution...... of the HD-OCT could be confirmed by the phantom analysis. The identification of cells in the epidermis can be made by both techniques. RCM offers the best lateral resolution, and HD-OCT has the best penetration depth, providing images of individual cells deeper within the dermis. Eccrine ducts and hair...

  11. Can healthy, young adults uncover personal details of unknown target individuals in their dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlyle

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that undergraduate college students could incubate dreams containing information about unknown target individuals with significant life problems. In Experiment 1, students provided two baseline dreams. They were then exposed to a photo of an individual and invited to dream about a health problem (unknown to them and the experimenter) of that individual and asked to provide two more dreams. From a class of 65 students, 12 dreamers volunteered dreams about the unknown target. In Experiment 2, 66 students were asked to dream about the life problems of a second individual, simply by looking at the photo (experimental group). Another 56 students were exposed to this same paradigm, but the photo that they examined was computer generated and the target individual was fictitious (control group). The dream elements were objectively scored with categories devised using the Hall-Van de Castle system as a model. Data were ordinal, and the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to examine preincubation (baseline) versus postincubation (photo examination and incubation) dream content in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a Z score for proportions was used to compare differences in frequency of devised categories between experimental and control groups. In Experiment 1, the comparison of postincubation dreams (all categories combined) was significant compared with the preincubation dreams (Z = 2.09, P = .036). The postincubation dreams reflected the health problem of the target. In Experiment 2, the proportion of scored categories in experimental and control groups were compared at the preincubation and postincubation conditions. The proportions of "Combined" (all categories) was very significantly larger at the postincubation condition (Z = 6.27, P dreams of the experimental group were related to the problems of the target individual. Young, healthy adults are capable of dreaming details about the personal problems of an unknown individual

  12. Comparison of L-selectin blood level and gene polymorphism in tuberculosis patients with healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini, Peyman; Shirvani, Maria; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh

    2018-02-12

    The inflammatory response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli influences tuberculosis (TB) progression. In this study, we aimed to identify the Phe206Leu polymorphism and serum L-selectin level in TB patients, compared to healthy individuals. Ninety patients with a diagnosis of TB and 90 healthy controls were selected in this study. The serum L-selectin level was determined, using ELISA. L-selectin polymorphism was also evaluated using PCR. For data analysis, SPSS was used at a significance level of 0.05. According to the findings, the mean±SD age of the participants was 57.5 ± 18.4 and 56.5 ± 17.5 years in the TB and healthy groups, respectively. The TB group showed a significantly higher serum L-selectin level (1721.1 ± 330.9) versus the healthy controls (1624 ± 279). The L-selectin Phe allele frequencies were higher than the Leu allele frequencies in the main population, whereas the patients and controls were not significantly different. Eight (0.04%) subjects had Leu/Leu genotypes, 84 (46.6%) carried Phe/Leu genotypes, and 88 (48.8%) had Phe/Phe genotypes. Our results showed that the groups were not significantly different regarding L-selectin genotypes. TB patients had a significantly higher serum L-selectin level, compared to the controls. Based on the findings, the incidence of TB and L-selectin polymorphism in the Phe206Leu gene had no significant association. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Beyond the sensorimotor plasticity: cognitive expansion of prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eMICHEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti and his colleagues in 1998. Mirror effects, i.e. simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent and collaborators in 2000. The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes.

  14. Gut flora profiling and fecal metabolite composition of colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Jianping; Rao, Benqiang; Deng, Li

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and its morbidity and mortality rates are increasing due to alterations to human lifestyle and dietary habits. The relationship between human gut flora and colorectal cancer has attracted increasing attention. In the present study, a metabolic fingerprinting technique that combined pyrosequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to compare the differences in gut flora profiling and fecal metabolites between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the abundance and diversity of gut flora between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer (P>0.05) and the dominant bacterial phyla present in the gut of both groups included Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia . At the bacterial strain/genus level, significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of 18 species of bacteria (Pflora profiling and metabolite composition. These findings suggest that gut flora disorder results in the alteration of bacterial metabolism, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The results of the present study are useful as a foundation for further studies to elucidate a potential colorectal cancer diagnostic index and therapeutic targets.

  15. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  16. HIP2: An online database of human plasma proteins from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Changyu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the introduction of increasingly powerful mass spectrometry (MS techniques for clinical research, several recent large-scale MS proteomics studies have sought to characterize the entire human plasma proteome with a general objective for identifying thousands of proteins leaked from tissues in the circulating blood. Understanding the basic constituents, diversity, and variability of the human plasma proteome is essential to the development of sensitive molecular diagnosis and treatment monitoring solutions for future biomedical applications. Biomedical researchers today, however, do not have an integrated online resource in which they can search for plasma proteins collected from different mass spectrometry platforms, experimental protocols, and search software for healthy individuals. The lack of such a resource for comparisons has made it difficult to interpret proteomics profile changes in patients' plasma and to design protein biomarker discovery experiments. Description To aid future protein biomarker studies of disease and health from human plasma, we developed an online database, HIP2 (Healthy Human Individual's Integrated Plasma Proteome. The current version contains 12,787 protein entries linked to 86,831 peptide entries identified using different MS platforms. Conclusion This web-based database will be useful to biomedical researchers involved in biomarker discovery research. This database has been developed to be the comprehensive collection of healthy human plasma proteins, and has protein data captured in a relational database schema built to contain mappings of supporting peptide evidence from several high-quality and high-throughput mass-spectrometry (MS experimental data sets. Users can search for plasma protein/peptide annotations, peptide/protein alignments, and experimental/sample conditions with options for filter-based retrieval to achieve greater analytical power for discovery and validation.

  17. Alpha band cortico-muscular coherence occurs in healthy individuals during mechanically-induced tremor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Budini

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC. Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05. During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05. Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops.

  18. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease...

  19. Fatty liver as a risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy to metabolically abnormal in non-overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Fukuda, Takuya; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies identified that metabolically abnormal non-obese phenotype is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that fatty liver had a clinical impact on progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. In this retrospective cohort study, 14,093 Japanese (7557 men and 6736 women), who received the health-checkup program from 2004 to 2012, were enrolled. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index 23.0-25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m 2 . Four metabolic factors (impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration) were used for definition of metabolically healthy (less than two factors) or metabolically abnormal (two or more). We divided the participants into three groups: metabolically healthy non-overweight (9755 individuals, men/women = 4290/5465), metabolically healthy overweight (2547 individuals, 1800/747) and metabolically healthy obesity (1791 individuals, 1267/524). Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Over the median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 873 metabolically healthy non-overweight, 512 metabolically healthy overweight and 536 metabolically healthy obesity individuals progressed to metabolically abnormal. The adjusted hazard risks of fatty liver on progression were 1.49 (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.83, p = 0.005) in metabolically healthy non-overweight, 1.37 (1.12-1.66, p = 0.002) in metabolically healthy overweight and 1.38 (1.15-1.66, p overweight individuals.

  20. Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguigni, Valerio; Manco, Melania; Sorge, Roberto; Gnessi, Lucio; Francomano, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 h after ingesting ice cream. Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]), nitric oxide (NOx) bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress (determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H 2 O 2 ]), endothelium function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and exercise tolerance (stress test) were assessed, and the double product was measured. Serum polyphenols (P ice cream ingestion. No changes were found after control ice cream ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  2. Subjective perception of safety in healthy individuals working with 7 T MRI scanners: a retrospective multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Mahsa; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Speck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    To retrospectively assess perception of safety of healthy individuals working with human 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. A total of 66 healthy individuals with a mean age of 31 ± 7 years participated in this retrospective multicentre survey study. Nonparametric correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relation between self-reported perception of safety and prevalence of sensory effects while working with 7 T MRI scanners for an average 47 months. The results indicated that 98.5 % of the study participants had a neutral or positive feeling about safety aspects at 7 T MRI scanners. 45.5 % reported that they feel very safe and none of the participants stated that they feel moderately or very unsafe while working with 7 T MRI scanners. Perception of safety was not affected by the number of hours per week spent in the vicinity of the 7 T MRI scanner or the duration of experience with 7 T MRI. More than 50 % of individuals experienced vertigo and metallic taste while working with 7 T MRI scanners. However, participants' perceptions of safety were not affected by the prevalence of MR-related symptoms. The overall data indicated an average perception of a moderately safe work environment. To our knowledge, this study delineates the first attempt to assess the subjective safety perception among 7 T MRI workers and suggests further investigations are indicated.

  3. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point.A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected.A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the individual and common core microbiota in healthy adults. The

  4. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  5. Wii Balance Board: Reliability and Clinical Use in Assessment of Balance in Healthy Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Puell, Vivian Neiva; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sérgio; Otero Vaghetti, César Augusto; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Force plate is considered gold standard tool to assess body balance. However the Wii Balance Board (WBB) platform is a trustworthy equipment to assess stabilometric components in young people. Thus, we aim to examine the reliability of measures of center of pressure with WBB in healthy elderly women. Twenty one healthy and physically active women were enrolled in the study (age: 64 ± 7 years; body mass index: 29 ± 5 kg/m2. The WBB was used to assess the center of pressure measures in the individuals. Pressure was linearly applied to different points to test the platform precision. Three assessments were performed, with two of them being held on the same day at a 5- to 10-minute interval, and the third one was performed 48 h later. A linear regression analysis was used to find out linearity, while the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. The platform precision was adequate (R2 = 0.997, P = 0.01). Center of pressure measures showed an excellent reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient values were > 0.90; p < 0.01). The WBB is a precise and reliable tool of body stability quantitative measure in healthy active elderly women and its use should be encouraged in clinical settings.

  6. Comparison of Postural Stubility and Auditory Short- Term Memory Taks Interference between Patients with Functional Ankle Instability and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hayati

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With increased recognition of the importance of conscious process and cognition activities in the stability and regulation of posture and also in line of probable adaptation in central nervous system in patients with functional ankle instability, this study was aimed to assess interference patterns between short–term memory task and postural stability tasks in functional ankle instability patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Materials & Methods: In this cross–sectional and case–control study, with dual–task paradigm fifteen functional ankle instability patients whom were selected simply and conveniently and fifteen healthy persons whom were matched with patients as control group were assessed and compared. Six steps of tests were performed for every case with two situation of balance Biodex system instability and three situation of auditory short–term memory task. Data were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA. Results: Finding showed that there was significant interference between postural task and cognitive task in both groups (P<0.05 , but there was no significant difference between interferences of two groups. Conclusion: Present study, certificated disruption in information processing in a peripheral musculoskeletal injury such as functional ankle instability. Application of training programs in order to facilitate central information processing in balance rehabilitation process of this patients and improved dual–task paradigms with different degrees of cognitive and postural tasks seems to be effective.

  7. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    recall their workload accurately. However, it has been shown that the bias shown in subjective ratings can actually provide insight into significant...or subconsciously and embark on load shedding, postponing a task to permit another decision action to be completed in a required timeframe (Smith...or slow heart rate or unique physiological measure will not add unnecessary bias to the data. Individual baseline measures are typically taken at the

  8. Femoral cartilage thickness measurements in healthy individuals: learning, practicing and publishing with TURK-MUSCULUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Levent; Tunç, Hakan; Öken, Öznur; Ünlü, Zeliha; Durmuş, Bekir; Baysal, Özlem; Altay, Zuhal; Tok, Fatih; Akkaya, Nuray; Doğu, Beril; Çapkın, Erhan; Bardak, Ayşenur; Çarlı, Alparslan Bayram; Buğdaycı, Derya; Toktaş, Hasan; Dıraçoğlu, Demirhan; Gündüz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Kocabaş, Hilal; Erden, Gül; Günendi, Zafer; Kesikburun, Serdar; Omaç, Özlem Köroğlu; Taşkaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Şenel, Kazım; Uğur, Mahir; Yalçınkaya, Ebru Yılmaz; Öneş, Kadriye; Atan, Çiğdem; Akgün, Kenan; Bilgici, Ayhan; Kuru, Ömer; Özgöçmen, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the femoral cartilage thickness by using in-vivo musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) has been previously shown to be a valid and reliable method in previous studies; however, to our best notice, normative data has not been provided before in the healthy population.The aim of our study was to provide normative data regarding femoral cartilage thicknesses of healthy individuals with collaborative use of MSUS. This is across-sectional study run at Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Departments of 18 Secondary and Tertiary Centers in Turkey. 1544 healthy volunteers (aged between 25-40 years) were recruited within the collaboration of TURK-MUSCULUS (Turkish Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography Study Group). Subjects who had a body mass index value of less than 30 and who did not have signs and symptoms of any degenerative/inflammatory arthritis or other rheumatic diseases, history of knee trauma and previous knee surgery were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements were performed axially from the suprapatellar window by using linear probes while subjects' knees were in maximum flexion. Three (mid-point) measurements were taken from both knees (lateral condyle, intercondylar area, medial condyle). A total of 2876 knees (of 817 M, 621 F subjects) were taken into analysis after exclusion of inappropriate images. Mean cartilage thicknesses were significantly lower in females than males (all p< 0.001). Thickness values negatively correlated with age; negatively (females) and positively (males) correlated with smoking. Men who regularly exercised had thicker cartilage than who did not exercise (all p < 0.05). Increased age (in both sexes) and absence of exercise (males) were found to be risk factors for decreased cartilage thicknesses. Further data pertaining to other countries would be interesting to uncover whether ethnic differences also affect cartilage thickness. Collaborative use of MSUS seems to be promising in this regard.

  9. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  10. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: a similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2015-02-28

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed ® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemispheric metacontrol and cerebral dominance in healthy individuals investigated by means of chimeric faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2005-08-01

    Cerebral dominance and hemispheric metacontrol were investigated by testing the ability of healthy participants to match chimeric, entire, or half faces presented tachistoscopically. The two hemi-faces compounding chimeric or entire stimuli were presented simultaneously or asynchronously at different exposure times. Participants did not consciously detect chimeric faces for simultaneous presentations lasting up to 40 ms. Interestingly, a 20 ms separation between each half-chimera was sufficient to induce detection of conflicts at a conscious level. Although the presence of chimeric faces was not consciously perceived, performance on chimeric faces was poorer than on entire- and half-faces stimuli, thus indicating an implicit processing of perceptual conflicts. Moreover, the precedence of hemispheric stimulation over-ruled the right hemisphere dominance for face processing, insofar as the hemisphere stimulated last appeared to influence the response. This dynamic reversal of cerebral dominance, however, was not caused by a shift in hemispheric specialization, since the level of performance always reflected the right hemisphere specialization for face recognition. Thus, the dissociation between hemispheric dominance and specialization found in the present study hints at the existence of hemispheric metacontrol in healthy individuals.

  14. A public dataset of overground and treadmill walking kinematics and kinetics in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiane A. Fukuchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a typical clinical gait analysis, the gait patterns of pathological individuals are commonly compared with the typically faster, comfortable pace of healthy subjects. However, due to potential bias related to gait speed, this comparison may not be valid. Publicly available gait datasets have failed to address this issue. Therefore, the goal of this study was to present a publicly available dataset of 42 healthy volunteers (24 young adults and 18 older adults who walked both overground and on a treadmill at a range of gait speeds. Their lower-extremity and pelvis kinematics were measured using a three-dimensional (3D motion-capture system. The external forces during both overground and treadmill walking were collected using force plates and an instrumented treadmill, respectively. The results include both raw and processed kinematic and kinetic data in different file formats: c3d and ASCII files. In addition, a metadata file is provided that contain demographic and anthropometric data and data related to each file in the dataset. All data are available at Figshare (DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.5722711. We foresee several applications of this public dataset, including to examine the influences of speed, age, and environment (overground vs. treadmill on gait biomechanics, to meet educational needs, and, with the inclusion of additional participants, to use as a normative dataset.

  15. Low-grade inflammation is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, S R; Pedersen, O B; Petersen, M S

    2016-01-01

    status. Results: LGI was associated with lower haemoglobin (0·08 mm lower [0·12 g/dl], 95% confidence interval (CI): −0·11–0·05) and increased risk of low haemoglobin (OR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·05–1·43) in non-smokers. Conversely, LGI was associated with higher haemoglobin in smokers (0·12 mm [0·19 g/dl], 95......% CI: 0·06–0·18). Conclusion: In this first study of LGI and haemoglobin in healthy individuals, there was a negative association between LGI and haemoglobin in non-smokers. The association was positive in smokers, probably because smoking leads to both increased inflammation and increased haemoglobin...

  16. Serum total antioxidant status in cardiovascular patients and in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.

    2010-01-01

    The previous studies suggest that low serum total antioxidant status (TAS) might be related to oxidative stress. To further examine the TAS, we investigated its relation in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Total 39 samples of males and females were collected; age ranged from 18 to 86 years and divided them into two groups. Group I included 30 samples of cardiovascular patients; group 2 included 9 healthy individuals as control group. In group I, patients suffering from Myocardial infarction (Ml) showed low TAS values compared to the patients suffering from angina. The rest of the patients in group I showed TAS value within the reference range (1.3- 1.77 mmoVL). The present study concluded that the TAS value in MI patients is lower than patients suffering from angina pectoris, further it was also concluded that aging and smoking both leads to the decrease in the level of T AS. (author)

  17. Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation during 100% Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Birna Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To detect how systemic hyperoxia affects oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in healthy individuals.Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 30 healthy individuals with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1. Oximetry was performed during breathing of room air, 100% oxygen (10 minutes, 6L/min and then again room air (10 minutes recovery.Mean oxygen saturation rises modestly in retinal arterioles during 100% oxygen breathing (94.5%±3.8 vs. 92.0%±3.7% at baseline, p<0.0001 and dramatically in retinal venules (76.2%±8.0% vs. 51.3%±5.6%, p<0.0001. The arteriovenous difference decreased during 100% oxygen breathing (18.3%±9.0% vs. 40.7%±5.7%, p<0.0001. The mean diameter of arterioles decreased during 100% oxygen breathing compared to baseline (9.7±1.4 pixels vs. 10.3±1.3 pixels, p<0.0001 and the same applies to the mean venular diameter (11.4±1.2 pixels vs. 13.3±1.5 pixels, p<0.0001.Breathing 100% oxygen increases oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and more so in venules and constricts them compared to baseline levels. The dramatic increase in oxygen saturation in venules reflects oxygen flow from the choroid and the unusual vascular anatomy and oxygen physiology of the eye.

  18. Inter-donor variation in cell subset specific immune signaling responses in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Diane M; Louie, Brent; Wang, Ena; Pos, Zoltan; Marincola, Francesco M; Hawtin, Rachael E; Cesano, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Single cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parameter flow cytometry based approach that allows for the simultaneous interrogation of intracellular signaling pathways in multiple cell subpopulations within heterogeneous tissues, without the need for individual cell subset isolation. Thus, the technology is extremely well-suited for characterizing the multitude of interconnected signaling pathways and immune cell subpopulations that regulate the function of the immune system. Recently, SCNP was applied to generate a functional map of the healthy human immune cell signaling network by profiling immune signaling pathways downstream of 12 immunomodulators in 7 distinct immune cell subsets within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 60 healthy donors. In the study reported here, the degree of inter-donor variation in the magnitude of the immune signaling responses was analyzed. The highest inter-donor differences in immune signaling pathway activity occurred following perturbation of the immune signaling network, rather than in basal signaling. When examining the full panel of immune signaling responses, as one may expect, the overall degree of inter-donor variation was positively correlated (r = 0.727) with the magnitude of node response (i.e. a larger median signaling response was associated with greater inter-donor variation). However, when examining the degree of heterogeneity across cell subpopulations for individual signaling nodes, cell subset specificity in the degree of inter-donor variation was observed for several nodes. For such nodes, relatively weak correlations between inter-donor variation and the magnitude of the response were observed. Further, within the phenotypically distinct subpopulations, a fraction of the immune signaling responses had bimodal response profiles in which (a) only a portion of the cells had elevated phospho-protein levels following modulation and (b) the proportion of responsive cells varied by donor. These data

  19. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieten, R W; Goorhuis, A; Jonker, E F F; de Bree, G J; de Visser, A W; van Genderen, P J J; Remmerswaal, E B M; Ten Berge, I J M; Visser, L G; Grobusch, M P; van Leeuwen, E M M

    2016-06-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen patients using different immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy individuals vaccinated 0-22 years ago were included. The serological response was measured using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses were measured following proliferation and re-stimulation with YFV peptide pools. Phenotypic characteristics and cytokine responses of CD8(+) T-cells were determined using class I tetramers. The geometric mean titre of neutralizing antibodies was not different between the groups (p = 0.77). The presence of YFV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell did not differ between patients and healthy individuals (15/15, 100.0% vs. 29/30, 96.7%, p = 0.475). Time since vaccination correlated negatively with the number of YFV-specific CD8(+) T-cells (r = -0.66, p = 0.0045). Percentages of early-differentiated memory cells increased (r = 0.67, p = 0.017) over time. These results imply that YF vaccination is effective despite certain immunosuppressive drug regimens. An early-differentiated memory-like phenotype persisted, which is associated with effective expansion upon re-encounter with antigen, suggesting a potent memory T-cell pool remains. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Multilevel Approach to Breastfeeding Promotion: Using Healthy Start to Deliver Individual Support and Drive Collective Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruth, Chelsey; Goodman, Jacqueline; Bragg, Brian; Gray, Dara

    2017-12-01

    Purpose Breastfeeding has been linked to a host of positive health effects for women and children. However, disparities in breastfeeding initiation and duration prevent many low-income and African-American women from realizing these benefits. Existing breastfeeding promotion efforts often do not reach women who need support the most. In response, the Westside Healthy Start program (WHS), located in Chicago, Illinois, developed an ongoing multilevel approach to breastfeeding promotion. Description Key elements of our WHS breastfeeding model include individual education and counseling from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum and partnership with a local safety-net hospital to implement the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and provide lactation support to delivering patients. Assessment In the year our model was implemented, 44.6% (49/110) of prenatal WHS participants reported that they planned to breastfeed, and 67.0% (183/273) of delivered participants initiated. Among participants reaching 6 months postpartum, 10.5% (9/86) were breastfeeding. WHS also had 2667 encounters with women delivering at our partner hospital during breastfeeding rounds, with 65.1% of contacts initiating. Community data was not available to assess the efficacy of our model at the local level. However, WHS participants fared better than all delivering patients at our partner hospital, where 65.0% initiated in 2015. Conclusion Healthy Start programs are a promising vehicle to improve breastfeeding initiation at the individual and community level. Additional evaluation is necessary to understand barriers to duration and services needed for this population.

  1. Transport of mucoid mucus in healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize and compare the in vitro transport properties of respiratory mucoid secretion in individuals with no lung disease and in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchiectasis. Methodology: Samples of mucus were collected from 21 volunteers presenting no lung disease who had undergone surgery, from 10 patients presenting chronic COPD, and from 16 patients with bronchiectasis. Mucociliary transport (MCT, transport by cough (SCM, and contact angle (CAM were evaluated. Results: MCT was found to be greater in healthy individuals (1.0 ± 0.19 than in COPD (0.91 ± 0.17 and bronchiectasis (0.76 ± 0.23 patients (p < 0.05, whereas SCM was greater in COPD patients (16.31 ± 7.35 cm than in patients with bronchiectasis (12.16 ± 6.64 cm and healthy individuals (10.50 ± 25.8 cm (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding CAM. Conclusion: Mucus from healthy individuals allows better mucociliary transport compared to that from patients with lung diseases. However, the mucus from COPD patients allows a better transport by coughing, demonstrating that these individuals have adapted to a defence mechanism compared to patients with bronchiectasis, who have impairment in their ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar e comparar as propriedades de transporte in vitro da secreção respiratória de aspeto mucoide (M de indivíduos sem doença respiratória e de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC e bronquiectasias estáveis. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 21 amostras de indivíduos sem doença pulmonar submetidos a processos cirúrgicos, 10 amostras de pacientes com DPOC e 16 amostras de pacientes com bronquiectasias quanto ao transporte mucociliar (TMC, deslocamento na máquina simuladora de tosse (MST e ângulo de contacto (AC. Resultados: Maior TMC das amostras de indivíduos sem doença respiratória (1,0

  2. Developmental trajectories of the fronto-temporal lobes from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Matsui, Mie; Uematsu, Akiko; Noguchi, Kyo; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Brain development during early life in healthy individuals is rapid and dynamic, indicating that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. The frontal and temporal lobes are known to play a particularly important role in cognition. The study of healthy frontal and temporal lobe development in children is therefore of considerable importance. A better understanding of how these brain regions develop could also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Some developmental studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine infant brains, but it remains the case that relatively little is known about cortical brain development in the first few years of life. In the present study we examined whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe developmental trajectories from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals, considering gender and brain hemisphere differences. We performed a cross-sectional, longitudinal morphometric MRI study of 114 healthy individuals (54 females and 60 males) aged 1 month to 25 years old (mean age ± SD 8.8 ± 6.9). We measured whole brain, temporal and frontal lobe gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) volumes, following previously used protocols. There were significant non-linear age-related volume changes in all regions. Peak ages of whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe development occurred around pre-adolescence (9-12 years old). GM volumes for all regions increased significantly as a function of age. Peak age was nevertheless lobe specific, with a pattern of earlier peak ages for females in both temporal and frontal lobes. Growth change in whole brain GM volume was larger in males than in females. However, GM volume growth changes for the temporal and frontal lobes showed a somewhat different pattern. GM volume for both temporal and frontal lobes showed a greater increase in females until around 5-6 years old, at which point this tendency reversed (GM volume

  3. Clinical assessment of organizational strategy: An examination of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pia; White, Desirée A

    2015-06-01

    During the assessment of patients with cognitive difficulties, clinicians often examine strategic processing, particularly the ability to use organization-based strategies to efficiently complete various tasks. Several commonly used neuropsychological tasks are currently thought to provide measures of organizational strategic processing, but empirical evidence for the construct validity of these strategic measures is needed before interpreting them as measuring the same underlying ability. This is particularly important for the assessment of organizational strategic processing because the measures span cognitive domains (e.g., memory strategy, language strategy) as well as types of organization. In the present study, 200 adults were administered cognitive tasks commonly used in clinical practice to assess organizational strategic processing. Factor analysis was used to examine whether these measures of organizational strategic processing, which involved different cognitive domains and types of organization, could be operationalized as measuring a unitary construct. A very good-fitting model of the data demonstrated no significant shared variance among any of the strategic variables from different tasks (root mean square error of approximation strategic processing is highly specific to the demands and goals of individual tasks even when tasks share commonalities such as involving the same cognitive domain. In the design of neuropsychological batteries involving the assessment of organizational strategic processing, it is recommended that various strategic measures across cognitive domains and types of organizational processing are selected as guided by each patient's individual cognitive difficulties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Unique Neural Characteristics of Atypical Lateralization of Language in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon P. Biduła

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 63 healthy participants, including left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, we tested how atypical lateralization of language—i. e., bilateral or right hemispheric language representation—differs from the typical left-hemisphere dominance. Although regardless of their handedness, all 11 participants from the atypical group engaged classical language centers, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the right-hemisphere components of the default mode network (DMN, including the angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, were also critically involved during the verbal fluency task. Importantly, activity in these regions could not be explained in terms of mirroring the typical language pattern because left-hemisphere dominant individuals did not exhibit similar significant signal modulations. Moreover, when spatial extent of language-related activity across whole brain was considered, the bilateral language organization entailed more diffuse functional processing. Finally, we detected significant differences between the typical and atypical group in the resting-state connectivity at the global and local level. These findings suggest that the atypical lateralization of language has unique features, and is not a simple mirror image of the typical left hemispheric language representation.

  5. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity are not related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Holst, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    age 47.0±18.7, range 23-86) to determine if trait aggression and trait impulsivity were related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding (5-HT2AR) as measured with [(18)F]-altanserin PET imaging. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity were assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ...... and the AQ or BIS-11 total scores. Also, there was no significant interaction between gender and frontal cortex 5-HT2AR in predicting trait aggression and trait impulsivity. This is the first study to examine how 5-HT2AR relates to trait aggression and trait impulsivity in a large sample of healthy......Numerous studies indicate that the serotonergic (5-HT) transmitter system is involved in the regulation of impulsive aggression and there is from post-mortem, in vivo imaging and genetic studies evidence that the 5-HT2A receptor may be involved. We investigated 94 healthy individuals (60 men, mean...

  6. Physical Activity May Be Associated with Conditioned Pain Modulation in Women but Not Men among Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM, a phenomenon also known as diffuse noxious inhibitory control, is thought to be affected by various factors, including sex and level of physical activity. However, the involvement of these factors in CPM remains unclear. Methods. Eighty-six healthy young subjects (M/F, 43/43 participated in this study. Participants were assessed on the basis of their mechanical pressure pain threshold (PPT, CPM response, body mass index (BMI, basal metabolic rate (BMR, and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA over a week, using a motion counter. Response to CPM was evaluated as PPT during painful cold stimulation relative to baseline PPT. Results. Men showed significantly higher baseline PPT than women; however, this difference was no longer significant after controlling for confounders. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed BMR to be a significant contributor towards baseline PPT in the entire study population. In contrast, although there were no significant contributors to CPM response among men and in the overall study group, MVPA was positively associated with CPM response among women (β = 0.397. Conclusions. These results suggest that, among healthy young individuals, CPM response may be associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in women but not in men.

  7. Assessment of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Mara de Oliveira Rodrigues Luiz; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing evaluation of older individuals with coronary disease referred to heart surgery. To identify the characteristics of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery (MR), using an evaluating protocol composed by a water test, cervical auscultation and pulse oximetry. The Assessment Protocol for Dysphagia Risk through a Combined Swallowing test and Vital Signs monitoring was used (PADTC)--measurements of HR and SpO2 (heart rate and oxygen saturation), water swallowing test with 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ml, measurement of respiratory rate and cervical auscultation. The electronic stethoscope was used to analyze the number of swallows, response time and swallowing sound classification. In the Research Group (RG) older individuals with heart disease who were referred to MR were included. In the Control Group (CG) healthy older individuals were included. 38 older individuals were evaluated in the RG (mean age 68 years). In the CG, 30 older individuals were evaluated (mean age 70 years). There was a significant difference for the swallowing response time in older individuals with heart disease who presented HR below 60: swallowing response was shorter for 3 ml, 10 ml, 15 ml e 20 ml. HR was lower for individuals with heart disease. No significant difference was found between the groups for the other analyzed parameters. Older individuals with heart disease presented differences in the swallowing function when compared to healthy older individuals. Older individuals with heart disease presented alterations in the temporal coordination between breathing and swallowing, thus indicating risk for dysphagia.

  8. Trunk Muscle EMG During Intermediate Pilates Mat Exercises in Beginner Healthy and Chronic Low Back Pain Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ivye L R; Queiroz, Bergson; Loss, Jefferson; Amorim, César; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic pattern of core muscles during intermediate Pilates mat exercises between healthy people and those with low back pain. We evaluated healthy participants (n = 19; mean ± standard deviation [SD]: age 28 ± 8 years, body mass 65 ± 10 kg, height 160.0 ± 9.1 cm) and a low back pain group (n = 13; mean ± SD: age 30 ± 9 years, body mass 67 ± 12 kg, height 170.0 ± 6.6 cm). Electromyographic analysis assessed the multifidus, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles during classical Pilates exercises (single leg stretch, criss-cross, and dead bug). We calculated the root mean square normalized by maximum voluntary contraction, and the time of peak activation was provided by a linear envelope and normalized by the total movement cycle. The criss-cross exercise presented the highest values of root mean square for trunk flexors (rectus abdominis and oblique) compared with the other exercises, followed by the single leg stretch and the dead bug, which had similar muscle activation. The single leg stretch presented more activation of the rectus abdominis and oblique, whereas the criss-cross and dead bug created more activation of the oblique compared with the multifidus and rectus. The Pilates exercises presented different muscle recruitment patterns, and allowed the activation of the lumbopelvic stabilizing muscles even in the first session for healthy individuals and those with chronic low back pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gazelato de Mello Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. Methods: From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+ and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-. All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001. After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04. Conclusions: Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.

  10. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  11. Determination of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Healthy Obese and Non-obese Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, A.; Sattar, A.; Tariq, K. M.; Najamussahar; Hashim, R.; Almani, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIP Rawalpindi in collaboration with department of medicine military hospital(MH) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2008 to Mar 2009. Methods: Eighty obese(n=40) and non-obese(n=40) subjects were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Plasma insulin, glucose, and serum total cholestrol were estimated in fasting state. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and beta cell function by HOMA- equation. Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol. Mean insulin resistance in obese group was found to be 11.1 +- 5.1(range 7.0-16.2) and in non-obese group it was 0.9+-0.4 (range 0.5-1.3). This difference was highly significant (p=0.001). There was a highly significant difference between the two groups in term of beta cell function with mean rank 60.1 for obese group and 20.9 non obese groups (Asym sig. 2 tailed 0.000). Also the correlation (r = 0.064) between insulin resistance and beta cell function in obese group is highly significant (p = 0.000). Mean serum leptin levels were lower (6.3 ng/ml) in non-obese, and high (57.2 ng/ml) in the obese group. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is found higher in obese individuals. Beta cell function is significantly different between obese and non-obese groups. (author)

  12. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  13. Study of the kinematic variables of unilateral and habitual mastication of healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinato, Fernanda; Oliveira, Andréia Gussi de; Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Zeredo, Jorge Luis Lopes; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Corrêa, Eliane C R

    2017-03-30

    To describe and compare the temporal-spatial kinematic variables of mandibular movement during deliberate unilateral and habitual mastication in healthy young-adult individuals. The study sample was composed of eight male healthy volunteers aged 19 to 24 years. The kinematic data were obtained using a motion analysis system - Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) ProReflex MCU. Recordings were performed during deliberate unilateral mastication (UM) and habitual mastication (HM) of firm-consistency gummy candy. The following variables were analyzed: (1) masticatory sequence: duration, number of masticatory cycles, and chewing rate; (2) masticatory cycle: duration, vertical and medial-lateral mandibular range of motion in relation to the skull, and maximum velocity during the opening and closing phases. Data of the variables were compared during UM and HM by the paired t test, and the effect sizes ('d' Cohen) were calculated. Regarding the variables of the masticatory sequence, smaller chewing rate was observed for UM compared with that for HM (1.19±0.21Hz and 1.29±0.16Hz, respectively, p=0.004, d=0.53). Smaller values of maximum velocity during the opening (MU=67.4 mm/s and MH=80.02, p=0.053, d=0.80) and closing (MU=71.77±9.35mm/s and MH=3.51±7mm/s, p=0.014, d=0.79) phases of the masticatory cycle were observed in deliberate unilateral mastication compared with those in habitual mastication. Kinematic variables associated with the sequence and cycle of mastication are influenced by the chewing pattern adopted - deliberate unilateral or habitual.

  14. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Transcutaneous Oxygen Partial Pressure During Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lan; Ye, Yong; Li, Chunfeng; Gao, Guangkai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is to increase the oxygen (O₂) supply to the body significantly. Because of the toxic side effects and complications of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂), the environmental pressure and treatment time must be restricted. The research team hypothesized that other therapies administered during HBOT could safely improve the value of the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO₂) during HBOT and improve its therapeutic effect. The study intended to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) while receiving HBOT had a greater effect for healthy individuals than HBOT or EA alone or EA combined with normobaric pure oxygen (pure O₂). The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study was performed in the Department of Hyperbaric Medicine at the No. 401 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Qingdao, China. A total of 81 volunteers were recruited. After thorough physical examination and laboratory testing, 21 volunteers were excluded from the study. Participants included 60 healthy volunteers. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 15 participants each: (1) an HBOT group, (2) an EA group, (3) an EA During HBOT group, and (4) an EA Combined With Pure O₂group. Because at the current technology level a blood gas analyzer cannot test PaO₂during HBOT, transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (PtcO₂) of the participants was tested instead. Before, during, and after EA, variations in PtcO₂were monitored in each group. For the EA During HBOT group, (1) the increase in PtcO₂during EA was significantly greater than that observed for the other 3 groups (P > .05). The EA During HBOT method provided improvements in the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of HBOT, and the study's results partially demonstrated the accuracy of the research team's hypothesis that EA therapy applied during HBOT could safely improve the value of PtcO₂(PaO₂) during HBOT and produce a greater therapeutic effect.

  16. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals.

  17. Red wine consumption improves in vitro migration of endothelial progenitor cells in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Alshiek, Jonia; Aharon, Anat; Brenner, Benjamin; Roguin, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the maintenance of vascular endothelial function. The moderate consumption of red wine provides cardiovascular protection. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of EPC migration in young, healthy individuals who drank red wine. Fourteen healthy volunteers consumed 250 mL red wine daily for 21 consecutive days. Vascular endothelial function, plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF1alpha) concentrations, and the number, migration, and nitric oxide production of EPCs were determined before and after the daily consumption of red wine. EPCs were glucose stressed to study the effect of red wine on EPC migration, proliferation, and senescence and to study the expressions of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and members of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling pathway by Western blotting. Daily red wine consumption for 21 consecutive days significantly enhanced vascular endothelial function. Although plasma SDF1alpha concentrations were unchanged, EPC count and migration were significantly increased after this 21-d consumption period. Red wine increased the migration, proliferation, CXCR4 expression, and activity of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and decreased the extent of apoptosis in glucose-stressed EPCs. The results of the present study indicate that red wine exerts its effect through the up-regulation of CXCR4 expression and activation of the SDF1alpha/CXCR4/Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, which results in increased EPC migration and proliferation and decreased extent of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that these effects could be linked to the mechanism of cardiovascular protection that is associated with the regular consumption of red wine.

  18. 99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide: biokinetics and radiation dosimetry in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-García, Blanca E; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Luna-Gutiérrez, Myrna A; Ignacio-Alvarez, Eleazar; Pedraza-López, Martha; Manzano-Mayoral, Cesar

    2017-11-01

    About 90% of insulinomas are benign and 5-15% are malignant. Benign insulinomas express the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, which recognizes exendin-4 and low levels of the somatostatin receptor (SSTR, which recognizes octreotide), whereas malignant insulinomas overexpress SSTR and low levels of GLP-1R. Recently, Lys(Tc-EDDA/HYNIC)-exendin(9-39)/Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr-octreotide was formulated to detect 100% of insulinomas. The aim of this study was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide in four healthy individuals. Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide was obtained from a lyophilized formulation with radiochemical purities of more than 97%, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole-body images from four healthy individuals were acquired at 20 min, 2, 6, and 24 h after Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide administration. Regions of interest were drawn around the source organs on each time frame. Each region of interest was corrected by background, attenuation, scattered radiation, and physical decay. The image sequence was used to extrapolate the Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide time-activity curves of each organ to adjust the biokinetic model and calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation doses. Furthermore, in a patient suspicious of harboring an insulinoma, whole-body single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images were obtained at 3 h. For four healthy individuals, the blood activity showed a half-life value of 1.20 min for the fast component (T1/2 α=ln 2/34.71), 8.7 min for the first slow component (T1/2 β=ln 2/4.76), and 1.7 h for the second slow component (T1/2 γ=ln 2/0.401). The average equivalent doses calculated for a study using 555 MBq were 15.10, 4.13, 3.08, 2.61, and 1.90 mSv for the kidneys, upper large intestinal wall, lower large

  19. FEAST: Empowering Community Residents to Use Technology to Assess and Advocate for Healthy Food Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L; Winter, Sandra J; Romero, Priscilla Padilla; King, Abby C

    2017-04-01

    Creating environments that support healthy eating is important for successful aging, particularly in light of the growing population of older adults in the United States. There is an urgent need to identify innovative upstream solutions to barriers experienced by older adults in accessing and buying healthy food. FEAST (Food Environment Assessment STudy) is an effort that is part of the global Our Voice initiative, which utilizes a combination of technology and community-engaged methods to empower citizen scientists (i.e., community residents) to: (1) use the Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool (Discovery Tool) mobile application to collect data (geocoded photos, audio narratives) about aspects of their environment that facilitate or hinder healthy living; and (2) use findings to advocate for change in partnership with local decision and policy makers. In FEAST, 23 racially/ethnically diverse, low-income, and food-insecure older adults residing in urban, North San Mateo County, CA, were recruited to use the Discovery Tool to examine factors that facilitated or hindered their access to food as well as their food-related behaviors. Participants collectively reviewed data retrieved from the Discovery Tool and identified and prioritized important, yet feasible, issues to address. Access to affordable healthy food and transportation were identified as the major barriers to eating healthfully and navigating their neighborhood food environments. Subsequently, participants were trained in advocacy skills and shared their findings with relevant decision and policymakers, who in turn dispelled myths and discussed and shared resources to address relevant community needs. Proximal and distal effects of the community-engaged process at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were documented and revealed individual-, community-, and policy-level impacts. Finally, FEAST contributes to the evidence on multi-level challenges that low-income, racially/ethnically diverse older adults experience

  20. Assessment of Tandem Measurements of pH and Total Gut Transit Time in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolajczyk, Adam E; Watson, Sydeaka; Surma, Bonnie L; Rubin, David T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The variation of luminal pH and transit time in an individual is unknown, yet is necessary to interpret single measurements. This study aimed to assess the intrasubject variability of gut pH and transit time in healthy volunteers using SmartPill devices (Covidien, Minneapolis, MN). Methods: Each subject (n=10) ingested two SmartPill devices separated by 24?h. Mean pH values were calculated for 30?min after gastric emptying (AGE), before the ileocecal (BIC) valve, after the ileocec...

  1. The effect of action observation/execution on mirror neuron system recruitment: an fMRI study in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Roberto; Rocca, Maria A; Fumagalli, Silvia; Cattrysse, Erik; Kerckhofs, Eric; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Action observation and execution activate regions that are part of the motor and mirror neuron systems (MNS). Using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), we defined the presence and extent of MNS activation during three different motor tasks with the dominant, right-upper limb in healthy individuals. The influence of the modality of task administration (execution, observation, observation and execution) was also investigated. fMRI scans during the execution (E) of a motor task, the observation (O) of a video showing the same task performed by another person and the simultaneous observation and execution (OE) of the task were obtained from three groups of healthy subjects (15 subjects per group) randomized to perform: a simple motor (SM) task, a complex motor (CM) task and a finalistic motor (FM) task. Manual dexterity was assessed using the 9-hole peg test and maximum finger tapping frequency. MNS activation was higher during FM than SM or CM tasks, independently from the modality of administration (E, O, or OE). Inferior frontal gyrus recruitment was more significant during SM than CM tasks in the E and O conditions. Compared to SM and FM, CM task resulted in increased recruitment of brain regions involved in complex motor task performance. Compared to O and E, OE resulted in the recruitment of additional, specific, brain areas in the cerebellum, temporal and parietal lobes. The modality of administration and the type of task modulated MNS recruitment during motor acts. This might have practical implications for the set-up of individualized motor rehabilitation strategies.

  2. Acute effects of rearfoot manipulation on dynamic standing balance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassinger, Craig A; Rockett, Ariel; Pitman, Lucas; Murphy, Matthew Matt; Peters, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic standing balance is essential to perform functional activities and is included in the treatment of many lower extremity injuries. Physiotherapists utilize many methods to restore standing balance including stability exercises, functional retraining, and manual therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a rearfoot distraction manipulation on dynamic standing balance. Twenty healthy participants (age: 24.4 ± 2.8 years; height: 162.9 ± 37.7 cm; mass: 68.0 ± 4.8 kg; right leg dominant = 20) completed this study. Following familiarization, dynamic standing balance was assessed during: (1) an experimental condition immediately following a rearfoot distraction manipulation, and (2) a control condition. Dominant leg balance was quantified using the Y-balance test which measures lower extremity reach distances. Reach distances were normalized to leg length and measured in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions. Overall balance was calculated through the summing of all normalized directions. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to compare balance scores for parametric and non-parametric data as appropriate. Significance was set at 0.05 a priori. Effect size (ES) was calculated to determine the clinical impact of the manipulation. Increased reach distances (indicating improved balance) were noted following manipulation for overall balance (p = 0.03, ES = 0.26) and in the posteromedial direction (p = 0.01, ES = 0.42). Reach distances did not differ for the anterior (p = 0.11, ES = 0.16) or posterolateral (p = 0.11, ES = 0.25) components. Dynamic standing balance improved after a rearfoot distraction manipulation in healthy participants. It is hypothesized that manual therapy applied to the foot and ankle may be beneficial to augment other therapeutic modalities when working with patients to improve dynamic standing balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibody response to the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy and infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Insa; Jacob, Susanne; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Schubert, Uwe; Patti, Joseph M; Ong, Mei-Fang; Gross, Jürgen; Justinger, Christoph; Renno, Jörg H; Preissner, Klaus T; Bischoff, Markus; Herrmann, Mathias

    2011-06-01

    The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) from Staphylococcus aureus has been suggested as a vaccine candidate and for therapeutic use due to its immunomodulating and antiangiogenic properties; however, little is known about anti-Eap antibodies in humans. We determined anti-Eap antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot and measured serum samples from 92 patients with proven S. aureus infections and 93 healthy controls. The functionality of antibodies was assessed by a phagocytosis assay using Eap-coated fluorescent microspheres. Antibodies were detected in all human samples, but not in mice. Patients showed significantly higher titers than controls [immunoglobulin M (IgM), P=0.007; IgG, PEap alone was sufficient to promote phagocytosis by peripheral blood mononuclear cell and granulocytes that was moderately enhanced in the presence of human serum, but no correlation was found with the levels of anti-Eap antibodies. Anti-Eap antibodies are prevalent in all tested humans and correlate with the severity of S. aureus infection; however, they do not seem to provide protection against invasive infections. Before considering Eap for therapy or as a vaccine candidate, further studies are warranted to assess the impact of the interference between Eap and its specific antibodies. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An assessment of individualized technical ear training for audio production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungyoung

    2015-07-01

    An individualized technical ear training method is compared to a non-individualized method. The efficacy of the individualized method is assessed using a standardized test conducted before and after the training period. Participants who received individualized training improved better than the control group on the test. Results indicate the importance of individualized training for acquisition of spectrum-identification and spectrum-matching skills. Individualized training, therefore, should be implemented by default into technical ear training programs used in audio production industry and education.

  5. Neural networks engaged in tactile object manipulation: patterns of expression among healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seitz Rüdiger J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory object discrimination has been shown to involve widespread cortical and subcortical structures in both cerebral hemispheres. In this study we aimed to identify the networks involved in tactile object manipulation by principal component analysis (PCA of individual subjects. We expected to find more than one network. Methods Seven healthy right-handed male volunteers (aged 22 to 44 yrs manipulated with their right hand aluminium spheres during 5 s with a repetition frequency of 0.5-0.7 Hz. The correlation coefficients between the principal component temporal expression coefficients and the hemodynamic response modelled by SPM (ecc determined the task-related components. To establish reproducibility within subjects and similarity of functional connectivity patterns among subjects, regional correlation coefficients (rcc were computed between task-related component image volumes. By hierarchically categorizing, selecting and averaging the task-related component image volumes across subjects according to the rccs, mean component images (MCIs were derived describing neural networks associated with tactile object manipulation. Results Two independent mean component images emerged. Each included the primary sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the manipulating hand. The region extended to the premotor cortex in MCI 1, whereas it was restricted to the hand area of the primary sensorimotor cortex in MCI 2. MCI 1 showed bilateral involvement of the paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereas MCI 2 implicated the midline thalamic nuclei and two areas of the rostral dorsal pons. Conclusions Two distinct networks participate in tactile object manipulation as revealed by the intra- and interindividual comparison of individual scans. Both were employed by most subjects, suggesting that both are involved in normal somatosensory object discrimination.

  6. Air trapping on computed tomography images of healthy individuals: effects of respiration and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Tate, E.; Watarai, J.; Sasaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationships of changes in the lung area during respiration and of individual body mass index (BMI) to air trapping on expiratory computed tomography (CT) in young non-smoking adults of either gender. Methods: The volunteers were 10 women and 10 men (mean age 25.7 years) who were healthy lifelong non-smokers. We obtained both end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT images at three levels: the upper, middle and lower lung. The ratio of cross-sectional lung area upon expiration to cross-sectional lung area upon inspiration (lung area ratio) was determined for each lung at each of the three levels. In cases showing air trapping, we calculated the percentage of area of air in relation to the total lung area in each section. BMI was calculated for each participant. Results: Air trapping was present in dependent areas of the lungs of 6 women and 5 men. The mean percentage of area of air trapped was statistically greater for men (9.8 ± 9.2%) than for women (4.9 ± 5.2%). The mean lung area ratio was 0.52 ± 0 14 among volunteers with air trapping (66 sections) and 0.69 ± 0.12 among those without air trapping (54 sections) (p < 0.001). At each lung level, the mean lung area ratio was greater in individuals with air trapping than in those without. Mean BMI was also greater in these people (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Change in the respiratory lung area and BMI contribute to development of air trapping

  7. Ergospirometry and Echocardiography in Early Stage of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lima Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a syndrome characterized by changes in diastolic function; it is more prevalent among the elderly, women, and individuals with systemic hypertension (SH and diabetes mellitus. However, in its early stages, there are no signs of congestion and it is identified in tests by adverse remodeling, decreased exercise capacity and diastolic dysfunction. Objective: To compare doppler, echocardiographic (Echo, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET variables - ergospirometry variables - between two population samples: one of individuals in the early stage of this syndrome, and the other of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty eight outpatients diagnosed with heart failure according to Framingham’s criteria, ejection fraction > 50% and diastolic dysfunction according to the european society of cardiology (ESC, and 24 healthy individuals underwent Echo and CPET. Results: The group of patients showed indexed atrial volume and left ventricular mass as well as E/E’ and ILAV/A´ ratios significantly higher, in addition to a significant reduction in peak oxygen consumption and increased VE/VCO2 slope, even having similar left ventricular sizes in comparison to those of the sample of healthy individuals. Conclusion: There are significant differences between the structural and functional variables analyzed by Echo and CPET when comparing two population samples: one of patients in the early stage of heart failure with ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50% and another of healthy individuals.

  8. Associations between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and brain function during probabilistic learning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Thomas M; Ihssen, Niklas; Brindley, Lisa M; Tansey, Katherine E; Mantripragada, Kiran; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Linden, David E J

    2016-02-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia liability can be explained by additive genetic factors. Risk profile scores (RPS) directly index risk using a summated total of common risk variants weighted by their effect. Previous studies suggest that schizophrenia RPS predict alterations to neural networks that support working memory and verbal fluency. In this study, we apply schizophrenia RPS to fMRI data to elucidate the effects of polygenic risk on functional brain networks during a probabilistic-learning neuroimaging paradigm. The neural networks recruited during this paradigm have previously been shown to be altered to unmedicated schizophrenia patients and relatives of schizophrenia patients, which may reflect genetic susceptibility. We created schizophrenia RPS using summary data from the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium (Schizophrenia Working Group) for 83 healthy individuals and explore associations between schizophrenia RPS and blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) during periods of choice behavior (switch-stay) and reflection upon choice outcome (reward-punishment). We show that schizophrenia RPS is associated with alterations in the frontal pole (PWHOLE-BRAIN-CORRECTED  = 0.048) and the ventral striatum (PROI-CORRECTED  = 0.036), during choice behavior, but not choice outcome. We suggest that the common risk variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia can be associated with alterations in the neural circuitry that support the processing of changing reward contingencies. Hum Brain Mapp 37:491-500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Psychological Profiles in the Prediction of Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Individuals.

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    Louisia Starnino

    Full Text Available Shorter telomere length (TL may signal premature cellular aging and increased risk for disease. While depression and psychosocial stress have been associated with shorter telomeres, other psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease have received less attention.To evaluate the association between TL and psychological risk factors (symptoms of anxiety and depression, hostility and defensiveness traits for heart disease, and to examine whether chronological age and sex moderate the associations observed.132 healthy men and women (Mage = 45.34 years completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory II, The Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Relative TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR of total genomic DNA samples. A series of hierarchical linear regressions were performed controlling for pertinent covariates.Shorter TL was observed among individuals high in defensiveness (β = -.221 and depressive symptoms (β = -.213, as well as in those with less hostility (β =.256 and anxiety (β =.220(all Ps<.05. Psychological variables explained 19% of the variance over and above that explained by covariates (age, sex, exercise, alcohol consumption, systemic inflammation, and 24-hr mean arterial pressure. Age moderated the relation between TL and defensiveness (β =.179, p =.03. Sex did not influence any of the relations.Telomere length is associated with psychological burden though the direction of effect differs depending on the psychological variables under study. Further research is needed to determine the reasons for and implications of these seemingly contradictory findings.

  10. The effects of coffee consumption on serum lipids and lipoprotein in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuegbu, A J; Agbedana, E O

    2001-01-01

    The changes in total serum cholestrol, serum triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol after twenty eight (28) days of consumption of moderate quantity of a commercial coffee preparation (NESCAFE brand) were studied in 30 human subjects consisting of 20 male and 10 female healthy adults. Significant increases in the mean total serum cholesterol concentration (110.8-126.5 mg/100 mls) and LDL- cholesterol concentration (78.4-94.5 mg/100 ml) were observed in the subjects. No significant differences were obtained in the mean HDL cholesterol concentration and in the mean serum triglyceride levels. The differences observed in the mean total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the individual male and female groups studied were not statistically significant. The results from this study suggest that short-term consumption of coffee may increase the total serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. It is therefore possible that long-term consumption of coffee may lead to clinically significant alterations in serum lipid profile and could be important in the aetiology of atherosclerotic vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease.

  11. Sequence comparison of six human microRNAs genes between tuberculosis patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amila, A; Acosta, A; Sarmiento, M E; Suraiya, Siti; Zafarina, Z; Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in diseases development. Therefore, human miRNAs may be able to inhibit the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the human host by targeting critical genes of the pathogen. Mutations within miRNAs can alter their target selection, thereby preventing them from inhibiting Mtb genes, thus increasing host susceptibility to the disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic association of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with six human miRNAs genes, namely, hsa-miR-370, hsa-miR-520d, hsa-miR-154, hsa-miR-497, hsa-miR-758, and hsa-miR-593, which have been predicted to interact with Mtb genes. The objective of the study was to determine the possible sequence variation of selected miRNA genes that are potentially associated with the inhibition of critical Mtb genes in TB patients. The study did not show differences in the sequences compared with healthy individuals without antecedents of TB. This result could have been influenced by the sample size and the selection of miRNA genes, which need to be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The overlapping community structure of structural brain network in young healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Community structure is a universal and significant feature of many complex networks in biology, society, and economics. Community structure has also been revealed in human brain structural and functional networks in previous studies. However, communities overlap and share many edges and nodes. Uncovering the overlapping community structure of complex networks remains largely unknown in human brain networks. Here, using regional gray matter volume, we investigated the structural brain network among 90 brain regions (according to a predefined anatomical atlas in 462 young, healthy individuals. Overlapped nodes between communities were defined by assuming that nodes (brain regions can belong to more than one community. We demonstrated that 90 brain regions were organized into 5 overlapping communities associated with several well-known brain systems, such as the auditory/language, visuospatial, emotion, decision-making, social, control of action, memory/learning, and visual systems. The overlapped nodes were mostly involved in an inferior-posterior pattern and were primarily related to auditory and visual perception. The overlapped nodes were mainly attributed to brain regions with higher node degrees and nodal efficiency and played a pivotal role in the flow of information through the structural brain network. Our results revealed fuzzy boundaries between communities by identifying overlapped nodes and provided new insights into the understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of the human brain. This study provides the first report of the overlapping community structure of the structural network of the human brain.

  13. Pupillographic assessment of sleepiness in sleep-deprived healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B; Wilhelm, H; Lüdtke, H; Streicher, P; Adler, M

    1998-05-01

    Spontaneous pupillary-behavior in darkness provides information about a subject's level of sleepiness. In the present work, pupil measurements in complete darkness and quiet have been recorded continuously over 11-minute period with infrared video pupillography at 25 Hz. The data have been analyzed to yield three parameters describing pupil behavior; the power of diameter variation at frequencies below 0.8 Hz (slow changes in pupil size), the pupillary unrest index, and the average pupil size. To investigate the changes of these parameters in sleep deprivation, spontaneous pupillary behavior in darkness was recorded every 2 hours in 13 healthy subjects from 19:00 to 07:00 during forced wakefulness. On each occasion, comparative subjective sleepiness was assessed with a self-rating scale (Stanford Sleepiness Scale, SSS). The power of slow pupillary oscillations (< or = 0.8 Hz) increased significantly and so did the values of SSS, while basic pupil diameter decreased significantly. Slow pupillary oscillations and SSS did not correlate well in general but high values of pupil parameters were always associated with high values in subjective rating. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between ongoing sleep deprivation and typical changes in the frequency profiles of spontaneous pupillary oscillations and the tendency to instability in pupil size in normals. These findings suggest that the results of pupil data analysis permit an objective measurement of sleepiness.

  14. The oral microbiome of patients with axial spondyloarthritis compared to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Bisanz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A loss of mucosal tolerance to the resident microbiome has been postulated in the aetiopathogenesis of spondyloarthritis, thus the purpose of these studies was to investigate microbial communities that colonise the oral cavity of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA and to compare these with microbial profiles of a matched healthy population. Methods. Thirty-nine participants, 17 patients with AxSpA and 22 age and gender-matched disease-free controls were recruited to the study. For patients with AxSpA, disease activity was assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI. All participants underwent a detailed dental examination to assess oral health, including the presence of periodontal disease assessed using probing pocket depth (PPD. Plaque samples were obtained and their bacterial populations were profiled using Ion Torrent sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Results.Patients with AxSpA had active disease (BASDAI 4.1 ± 2.1 [mean ± SD], and a significantly greater prevalence of periodontitis (PPD ≥ 4 mm at ≥4 sites than controls. Bacterial communities did not differ between the two groups with multiple metrics of α and β diversity considered. Analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs and higher levels of taxonomic assignment did not provide strong evidence of any single taxa associated with AxSpA in the subgingival plaque. Discussion. Although 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not identify specific bacterial profiles associated with AxSpA, there remains the potential for the microbiota to exert functional and metabolic influences in the oral cavity which could be involved in the pathogenesis of AxSpA.

  15. Cognitive biases and auditory verbal hallucinations in healthy and clinical individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, K.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Derks, E. M.; Peters, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several cognitive biases are related to psychotic symptoms, including auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). It remains unclear whether these biases differ in voice-hearers with and without a 'need-for-care'. Method. A total of 72 healthy controls, 72 healthy voice-hearers and 72 clinical

  16. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress is impaired in leukocytes from metabolically unhealthy vs healthy obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, C; Rovira-Llopis, S; Lopez-Domenech, S; Diaz-Morales, N; Blas-Garcia, A; Veses, S; Morillas, C; Victor, V M; Rocha, M; Hernandez-Mijares, A

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to obesity, but the influence of metabolic disturbances on these parameters and their relationship with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unknown. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate whether metabolic profile influences ER and oxidative stress in an obese population with/without comorbidities. A total of 113 obese patients were enrolled in the study; 29 were metabolically healthy (MHO), 53 were metabolically abnormal (MAO) and 31 had type 2 diabetes (MADO). We assessed metabolic parameters, proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6), mitochondrial and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione levels, antioxidant enzymes activity, total antioxidant status, mitochondrial membrane potential and ER stress marker expression levels (glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), P-subunit 1 alpha (P-eIF2α) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). The MAO and MADO groups showed higher blood pressure, atherogenic dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammatory profile than that of MHO subjects. Total and mitochondrial ROS production was enhanced in MAO and MADO patients, and mitochondrial membrane potential and catalase activity differed significantly between the MADO and MHO groups. In addition, decreases in glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity were observed in the MADO vs MAO and MHO groups. GRP78 and CHOP protein and gene expression were higher in the MAO and MADO groups with respect to MHO subjects, and sXBP1 gene expression was associated with the presence of diabetes. Furthermore, MAO patients exhibited higher levels of ATF6 than their MHO counterparts. Waist circumference was positively correlated with ATF6 and GRP78, and A1c was positively correlated with P-Eif2α. Interestingly, CHOP was positively correlated with TNFα and total ROS production and GRP78 was negatively correlated with glutathione levels. Our findings support the

  17. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages.

  18. A Smart Insole to Promote Healthy Aging for Frail Elderly Individuals: Specifications, Design, and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piau, Antoine; Charlon, Yoann; Campo, Eric; Vellas, Bruno; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2015-05-25

    Older individuals frequently experience reversible "frailty syndrome,", increasing incidence of disability. Although physical exercise interventions may delay functional decline, there are difficulties in implementing them and performing seamless follow-up at home. Very few technological solutions attempt to address this challenge and improve individual participation. Our objectives are to (1) develop a technological solution designed to support active aging of frail older persons, (2) conduct a first laboratory evaluation of the device, and (3) design a multidimensional clinical trial to validate our solution. We conducted a first phase of multidisciplinary meetings to identify real end users and health professional's unmet needs, and to produce specifications for the architecture of the solution. In a second phase, we performed laboratory tests of the first proposed prototype (a smart insole) with 3 healthy volunteers. We then designed an ongoing clinical trial to finalize the multidimensional evaluation and improvement of the solution. To respond to the needs expressed by the stakeholders (frailty monitoring and adherence improvement), we developed a prototype of smart shoe insole to monitor key parameters of frailty during daily life and promote walking. It is a noninvasive wireless insole, which automatically measures gait parameters and transmits information to a remote terminal via a secure Internet connection. To ensure the solution's autonomy and transparency, we developed an original energy harvesting system, which transforms mechanical energy produced by the user's walking movement into electrical energy. The first laboratory tests of this technological solution showed good reliability measures and also a good acceptability for the users. We have planned an original iterative medical research protocol to validate our solution in real life. Our smart insole could support preventive strategies against disability in primary care by empowering the older

  19. High affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR monoclonal antibodies cloned from healthy human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ryser

    Full Text Available We report here the cloning of native high affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy human donors. The cells that express these mAbs are rare, present at a frequency of less than one per 105 memory B-cells. Using our proprietary multiplexed screening and cloning technology CellSpot™ we assessed the presence of memory B-cells reactive to foreign and endogenous disease-associated antigens within the same individual. When comparing the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B-cells analyzed in over 20 screening campaigns, we found a strong correlation of the presence of anti-TIM-3 memory B-cells with memory B-cells expressing mAbs against three disease-associated antigens: (i bacterial DNABII proteins that are a marker for Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections, (ii hemagglutinin (HA of influenza virus and (iii the extracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK. One of the native anti-KIR mAbs has similar characteristics as lirilumab, an anti-KIR mAb derived from immunization of humanized transgenic mice that is in ongoing clinical trials. It is interesting to speculate that these native anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR antibodies may function as natural regulatory antibodies, analogous to the pharmacological use in cancer treatment of engineered antibodies against the same targets. Further characterization studies are needed to define the mechanisms through which these native antibodies may function in healthy and disease conditions.

  20. ASSESSING INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION: A NEW MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Hari Suryaningrum

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to propose a new model in assessing individual performance on information technology adoption. The new model to assess individual performance was derived from two different theories: decomposed theory of planned behavior and task-technology fit theory. Although many researchers have tried to expand these theories, some of their efforts might lack of theoretical assumptions. To overcome this problem and enhance the coherence of the integration, I used a theory from social scien...

  1. Effects of FR-91 on Immune Cells from Healthy Individuals and from Patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. M. Lombardi

    2009-01-01

    and TNF- was also observed in the NHL group. In conclusion FR-91 seems to affect lymphocyte subpopulations, in vitro cytokine production, as well as mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner in both healthy individuals and NHL patients.

  2. HE4 Tissue Expression and Serum HE4 Levels in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Benign or Malignant Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Nikoline S; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus K

    2014-01-01

    , this review aims to systematically outline published results of HE4 tissue expression and serum HE4 levels in healthy individuals and patients with benign or malignant tumors. Our findings suggest scientific basis for a potential diagnostic ability of HE4 in gynecologic cancer and lung cancer, and further...

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  4. Effect of hypoxia and hyperoxia on exercise performance in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Schneider, Simon R; Bloch, Konrad E

    2017-12-01

    Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange, and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude. In studies performed near sea level in healthy subjects, as well as in patients with PH, maximal performance during progressive ramp exercise and endurance of submaximal constant-load exercise were substantially enhanced by breathing oxygen-enriched air. Both in healthy individuals and in PH patients, these improvements were mediated by a better arterial, muscular, and cerebral oxygenation, along with a reduced sympathetic excitation, as suggested by the reduced heart rate and alveolar ventilation at submaximal isoloads, and an improved pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, especially in patients with PH. In summary, in healthy individuals and in patients with PH, alterations in the inspiratory Po 2 by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or normobaric hyperoxia reduce or enhance exercise performance, respectively, by modifying oxygen delivery to the muscles and the brain, by effects on cardiovascular and respiratory control, and by alterations in pulmonary gas exchange. The understanding of these physiological mechanisms helps in counselling individuals planning altitude or air travel and prescribing oxygen therapy to patients with PH.

  5. Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Konstantinos I; Spyrou, Nikolaos; Bougioukas, Konstantinos I; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2018-07-15

    Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals. Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration. Regarding other cognitive domains, such as long-term memory, spatial memory, memory scanning, attention, executive function, response inhibition, word fluency, reaction time and mental fatigue, the results were conflicting. Performance on cognitive tasks stayed unchanged in young individuals. Vegetarians responded better than meat-eaters in memory tasks but for other cognitive domains no differences were observed. Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals. Since creatine is safe, future studies should include larger sample sizes. It is imperative that creatine should be tested on patients with dementias or cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Frontal assessment battery in a Brazilian sample of healthy controls: normative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Beato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show data on the performance of healthy subjects in the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, correlating with gender, age, education, and scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-five healthy individuals with mean age of 66.4±10.6 years-old were evaluated. Mean total FAB scores were established according to the educational level. RESULTS: Mean total FAB scores according to the educational level were 10.9±2.3, for one to three years; 12.8±2.7, for four to seven years; 13.8±2.2, for eight to 11 years; and 15.3±2.3, for 12 or more years. Total FAB scores correlated significantly with education (r=0.47; p<0.0001 and MMSE scores (r=0.39; p<0.0001. No correlation emerged between FAB scores, age, and gender. CONCLUSION: In this group of healthy subjects, the Brazilian version of the FAB proved to be influenced by the education level, but not by age and gender.

  7. Randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of hesperidin 2S on validated cardiovascular biomarkers in healthy overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salden, Bouke N; Troost, Freddy J; de Groot, Eric; Stevens, Yala R; Garcés-Rimón, Marta; Possemiers, Sam; Winkens, Bjorn; Masclee, Ad A

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid with antioxidant and other biological properties, potentially exerts beneficial effects on endothelial function (EF). We investigated the effect of hesperidin 2S supplementation on EF in overweight individuals. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 68 individuals were randomly assigned to receive hesperidin 2S (450 mg/d) or a placebo for 6 wk. At baseline and after 6 wk of intervention, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were assessed. Acute, reversible ED was induced by intake of a high-fat meal (HFM). A second FMD scan was performed 2 h postprandially, and adhesion molecules were assessed 2 and 4 h postprandially. An additional exploratory analysis was performed in subjects with baseline FMD ≥3%. No significant change in fasting or postprandial FMD was observed after 6 wk of hesperidin intake compared with placebo intake. However, there was a trend for a reduction of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sP-selectin, SBP, and DBP after 6 wk of hesperidin treatment. In the FMD ≥3% group, hesperidin protected individuals from postprandial ED (P = 0.050) and significantly downregulated sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 (all P ≤ 0.030). The results reported in the current article were not adjusted for multiplicity. Six weeks of consumption of hesperidin 2S did not improve basal or postprandial FMD in our total study population. There was a tendency toward a reduction of adhesion molecules and a decrease in SBP and DBP. Further exploratory analyses revealed that, in subjects with baseline FMD ≥3%, hesperidin 2S improved ED after an HFM and reduced adhesion molecules. These results indicate the cardiovascular health benefits of hesperidin 2S in overweight and

  8. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  9. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gumenyuk

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS (habitual total sleep time (TST 7 h 32 m vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS (habitual TST ≤6 h. To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS, and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS, were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep, and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively. The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  10. Predicting hemispheric dominance for language production in healthy individuals using support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Laure; Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Genuer, Robin; Laurent, Alexandre; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Joliot, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to assess hemispheric pattern of language dominance of 47 individuals categorized as non-typical for language from their hemispheric functional laterality index (HFLI) measured on a sentence minus word-list production fMRI-BOLD contrast map. The SVM classifier was trained at discriminating between Dominant and Non-Dominant hemispheric language production activation pattern on a group of 250 participants previously identified as Typicals (HFLI strongly leftward). Then, SVM was applied to each hemispheric language activation pattern of 47 non-typical individuals. The results showed that at least one hemisphere (left or right) was found to be Dominant in every, except 3 individuals, indicating that the "dominant" type of functional organization is the most frequent in non-typicals. Specifically, left hemisphere dominance was predicted in all non-typical right-handers (RH) and in 57.4% of non-typical left-handers (LH). When both hemisphere classifications were jointly considered, four types of brain patterns were observed. The most often predicted pattern (51%) was left-dominant (Dominant left-hemisphere and Non-Dominant right-hemisphere), followed by right-dominant (23%, Dominant right-hemisphere and Non-Dominant left-hemisphere) and co-dominant (19%, 2 Dominant hemispheres) patterns. Co-non-dominant was rare (6%, 2 Non-Dominant hemispheres), but was normal variants of hemispheric specialization. In RH, only left-dominant (72%) and co-dominant patterns were detected, while for LH, all types were found, although with different occurrences. Among the 10 LH with a strong rightward HFLI, 8 had a right-dominant brain pattern. Whole-brain analysis of the right-dominant pattern group confirmed that it exhibited a functional organization strictly mirroring that of left-dominant pattern group. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5871-5889, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Flow cytometric analysis of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 and surface glycoproteins in patients with immune thrombocytopenia and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubak, Peter; Kristensen, Steen D; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-06-01

    Immature platelets may contain more platelet enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 than mature platelets. Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have a higher fraction of immature platelets and can therefore be utilized as a biological model for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression. The aims were to develop flow cytometric assays for platelet COX-1 and COX-2 and to investigate the COX-1 and COX-2 platelet expression, platelet turnover, and platelet glycoproteins in ITP patients (n = 10) compared with healthy individuals (n = 30). Platelet count and platelet turnover parameters (mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and immature platelet count (IPC)) were measured by flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-5000). Platelet COX-1, COX-2, and the glycoproteins (GP)IIb, IX, Ib, Ia, and IIIa were all analyzed by flow cytometry (Navios) and expressed as median fluorescence intensity. COX analyses were performed in both whole blood and platelet rich plasma (PRP), whereas platelet glycoproteins were analyzed in whole blood only. ITP patients had significantly lower platelet count (55 × 10 9 /L) than healthy individuals (240 × 10 9 /L, p platelet count and IPC (both p-values Platelet COX-1 expression was higher in ITP patients than healthy individuals using whole blood (p COX-1 platelet turnover and COX-1 expression (all p-values platelet turnover and COX-1 and COX-2 expressions (all p-values platelet turnover in ITP patients (all p-values 0.14, rho = 0.11-0.28). In conclusion, ITP patients expressed higher COX-1 and platelet glycoprotein levels than healthy individuals. COX-1 and platelet glycoproteins demonstrated positive correlations with platelet turnover in ITP patients. In healthy individuals, COX-1 and COX-2 expression correlated positively with platelet turnover. PRP was more sensitive compared with whole blood as regards determination of COX. Therefore, PRP is the recommended matrix for investigating COX-1 and COX-2 in

  12. A graphical method for comparing nocturnal oxygen saturation profiles in individuals and populations: Application to healthy infants and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Dakin, Carolyn; Edwards, Bradley A; Wilson, Stephen J; MacLean, Joanna E

    2018-05-01

    Pulse-oximetry (SpO 2 ) allows the identification of important clinical physiology. However, summary statistics such as mean values and desaturation incidence do not capture the complexity of the information contained within continuous recordings. The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to quantify important SpO 2 characteristics; and assess its utility in healthy infant and preterm neonate cohorts. An algorithm was developed to calculate the desaturation incidence, depth, and duration. These variables are presented using three plots: SpO 2 cumulative-frequency relationship; desaturation-depth versus incidence; desaturation-duration versus incidence. This method was applied to two populations who underwent nocturnal pulse-oximetry: (1) thirty-four healthy term infants studied at 2-weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24-months of age and (2) thirty-seven neonates born <26 weeks and studied at discharge from NICU (37-44 weeks post-conceptual age). The maturation in healthy infants was characterized by reduced desaturation index (27.2/h vs 3.3/h at 2-weeks and 24-months, P < 0.01), and increased percentage of desaturation events ≥6-s in duration (27.8% vs 43.2% at 2-weeks and 3-months, P < 0.01). Compared with term-infants, preterm infants had a greater desaturation incidence (54.8/h vs 27.2/h, P < 0.01), and these desaturations were deeper (52.9% vs 37.6% were ≥6% below baseline, P < 0.01). The incidence of longer desaturations (≥14-s) in preterm infants was correlated with healthcare utilization over the first 24-months (r = 0.63, P < 0.01). This tool allows the objective comparison of extended oximetry recordings between groups and for individuals; and serves as a basis for the development of reference ranges for populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Yoga reduces perceived stress and exhaustion levels in healthy elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Eric; Tilton, Katherine; Eickholt, Nicole; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether a 7-week yoga intervention could improve physical function, perceived stress, and mental/emotional wellness in elderly participants. 8 participants (66.5 ± 0.3 years) attended 2 60-min Hatha yoga sessions/week for 7 weeks, and performed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Balance was assessed using a 5-test battery. Flexibility was measured by sit-and-reach and shoulder flexibility tests. Functional mobility tests included 8-ft up-and-go, 5 chair stands, and 4-m walk. Participants completed SF-12, exhaustion level, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. SF-12 Mental Component Summary scores, exhaustion levels, and PSS scores improved post-intervention. No differences were found for physical function measures. Yoga participation can improve mental/emotional wellness, exhaustion levels, and stress levels in elderly individuals, even without measurable improvements in physical function. Clinicians and health practitioners who work with the elderly should consider yoga as a potential therapeutic modality for improving important aspects of quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Generating genius: how an Alzheimer's drug became considered a 'cognitive enhancer' for healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lucie; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2014-05-12

    Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly supported by the results of a small study published by Yesavage et al. in 2002 on non-demented pilots (30-70 years old). The factors contributing to this specific interpretation of this study's results are unclear. We examined print media and interdisciplinary bioethics coverage of this small study, aiming to provide insight into how evidence from research may be shaped within different discourses, potentially influencing important policy, ethics, and clinical decisions. Systematic qualitative content analysis was used to examine how this study was reported in 27 media and 22 bioethics articles. Articles were analyzed for content related to: (1) headlines and titles; (2) colloquialisms; and, (3) accuracy of reporting of the characteristics and results of the study. In media and bioethics articles referencing this small study, strong claims were made about donepezil as a CE drug. The majority of headlines, titles, and colloquialisms used enhancement language and the majority of these suggest that donepezil could be used to enhance intellectual ability. Further, both literatures moved between reporting the results of the primary study and magnifying the perceived connection between these results and the CE debate that was alluded to in the primary study. Specific descriptions of the results overwhelmingly reported an improvement in performance on a flight simulator, while more general statements claimed donepezil enhanced cognitive performance. Further, a high level of reporting accuracy was found regarding study characteristics of the original study, but variable levels of accuracy surrounded the presentation of complex characteristics (i.e., methods) or

  15. The effects of patterned electrical stimulation combined with voluntary contraction on spinal reciprocal inhibition in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary contraction (VC) on the modulation of reciprocal inhibition induced by patterned electrical stimulation (PES) in healthy individuals. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. PES was applied to the common peroneal nerve...... a soleus H-reflex conditioning-test paradigm at the time points of before, immediately after, 10 min after, 20 min after, and 30 min after the tasks. PES+VC increased the amount of reciprocal inhibition, with after-effects lasting up to 20 min. PES alone increased reciprocal inhibition and maintained...

  16. Examination of validity of fall risk assessment items for screening high fall risk elderly among the healthy community-dwelling Japanese population

    OpenAIRE

    DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...

  17. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  18. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; Laurinavicius, Antonio Gabriele; Lotufo, Paulo A; Conceição, Raquel D; Morita, Fernando; Katz, Marcelo; Wajngarten, Maurício; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Bosworth, Hayden B; Santos, Raul Dias

    2017-06-29

    Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years) individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+) and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-). All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04). Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals. Sintomas depressivos estão associados de forma independente ao risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular (DCV) em indivíduos com DCV não diagnosticada. Os mecanismos subjacentes a essa associação, entretanto, não estão claros. Inflamação tem sido indicada como um possível elo mecanicista entre depressão e DCV. Este estudo avaliou a associação entre

  19. High carriage of adherent invasive E. coli in wildlife and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, Oumaïra; Vignal, Cécile; Titécat, Marie; Foligné, Benoît; Pariente, Benjamin; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Neut, Christel

    2018-01-01

    Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Since AIEC was first described in 1999, despite important progress on its genomic and immune characterizations, some crucial questions remain unanswered, such as whether there exists a natural reservoir, or whether there is asymptomatic carriage. The ECOR collection, including E. coli strains isolated mainly from the gut of healthy humans and animals, constitutes an ideal tool to investigate AIEC prevalence in healthy condition. A total of 61 E. coli strains were examined for characteristics of AIEC. The adhesion, invasion and intramacrophage replication capabilities (AIEC phenotype) of 61 intestinal E. coli strains were determined. The absence of virulence-associated diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (EPEC, ETEC, EIEC, EHEC, DAEC, EAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli was checked. Out of 61 intestinal strains, 13 (21%) exhibit the AIEC phenotype, 7 are from human origin and 6 are from animal origin. Prevalence of AIEC strains is about 24 and 19% in healthy humans and animals respectively. These strains are highly genetically diverse as they are distributed among the main described phylogroups. Among E. coli strains from the ECOR collection, we also detected strains able to detach I-407 cells. Our study described for the first time AIEC strains isolated from the feces of healthy humans and animals.

  20. Effects of Ageism on Individual and Health Care Providers' Responses to Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature to support the contention that misconceptions about the aging process have a detrimental effect on healthy aging. Seeks to demonstrate how stereotyping can affect the shape and nature of programs for elderly people. Argues that for long-lasting change to occur, service providers need to target these negative attitudes in…

  1. Cell-free DNA in healthy individuals, noncancerous disease and strong prognostic value in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Appelt, Ane L; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate total cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients during treatment with second-line chemotherapy and in healthy controls and patients with different comorbidities. Patient treated with second-line irinotecan for metastatic CRC (n = 100), a cohort...

  2. Prophylactic vitamin D in healthy infants: assessing the need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Agustina; Rodríguez, Julián; Carvajal, Ignacio; Prieto, M A Luz; Rodríguez, Rosa M A; Pérez, Ana M A; Cepeda, Angeles; Nuño, Fernando; Santos, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the need for vitamin D prophylaxis in healthy infants. This was a prospective and randomized study performed at primary care clinics. Eighty-eight full-term 1-month-old healthy infants were randomly assigned to receive (n = 41) or not (n = 47) 402 IU/d of vitamin D for 1 year. Primary outcome measures were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations at 3, 6, and 12 months of age; secondary measures included data on feeding, habitat, season of birth, sun exposure, and physical examination. At 3 and 6 months of age, serum 25OHD levels (±SD) were significantly higher (P vitamin D deficiency. Serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations were weakly but significantly correlated (r = -0.29, P = .009) at 3 months of age. Healthy infants without vitamin D prophylaxis had lower circulating concentrations of 25OHD at 3 and 6 months of age, the lowest value being found in 3-month breast-fed infants. The clinical relevance of these findings is probably negligible because serum 25OHD levels spontaneously increased with age and were not associated with high serum PTH. Clinical manifestations of rickets were not observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  4. Comparison of Epstein Barr Virus Antibodies And Tcell Cytokines Production in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hassan Zarnani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Multiple sclerosis(MS is the most common autoimmune disease of central nervous system with destruction of myelin sheath mediated by auto reactive CD4+ T Lymphocytes. Because of the possible role of Epstein-Barr virus in etiology of MS and T cells immune response, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti-Epstein Barr virus antibodies as a marker of reactivity and production of TH1 and TH2 cytokines in MS patients and healthy individuals.   Methods: Blood samples were taken from 68 MS patients at different stages of diseases and 20 apparently healthy individuals and plasma levels of anti- EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 and viral capsid antigen (VCA antibodies determined and concentrations of IFN- [1] , IL-12 and IL-4 in culture supernatants of PHA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were measured by ELISA.   Results: The mean levels of anti EBNA-1 and VCAantibodies were significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p=0.04, p=0.001 respectively. Concentrations of IFN- [1] , IL-4 & IL-12 were also significantly higher in MS patients than healthy individuals (p=0.001, p=0.005, p=0.002, respectively. Significant correlation was found between anti EBNA-1 and VCAantibodies and IL-12 production (p =0.02, r=0.27& p=0.04, r=0.25, respectively; whereas no significant correlation was found between these antibodies and production of IFN- [1] or IL-4.   Conclusions: Due to elevated level of anti-EBV antibodies and T cell Cytokines in MS patients Rather than healthy individuals, Epstein Barr virus may play role in etiology of MS disease through activation of T cells immune response.

  5. DNA damage and repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy individuals and cancer patients: a pilot study on the implications in the clinical response to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Silvina Beatriz; Vargas-Roig, Laura M; Drago, Gisela; Ibarra, Jorge; Ciocca, Daniel R

    2006-07-28

    Drug resistance is considered the main impediment to successful cancer chemotherapy. The quest for a method useful to predict individual responses to chemotherapy prior to treatment is highly desired. This study was designed to determine the individual influences of doxorubicin and cisplatin on the degree of DNA damage, DNA repair and hMSH2 and the hMLH1 protein expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and their correlations with the clinical response. PBL were obtained from 25 cancer patients (pre- and post-chemotherapy) and from 10 healthy persons, cultured and exposed to doxorubicin or cisplatin. Cells were collected at T0 (immediately after drug treatment) and 24h after damage (T24). The alkaline comet assay was employed to assess the DNA damage and repair function, and immunocytochemistry to study hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression. Clinical response was evaluated after three cycles of chemotherapy. Pre-chemotherapy PBL from cancer patients showed significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage than healthy persons, with appreciable interindividual variations between them. The in vivo administration of antineoplasic drugs was accompanied by significant DNA damage, and an increased in the number of apoptotic cells. Cancer patients with complete response showed a high number of apoptotic cells. The DNA migration increased at T0 and at T24 in cisplatin-treated patients, reflecting a decreased rate of cisplatin adducts repair than that observed in healthy individuals. The ability to repair DNA lesions in doxorubicin-damaged cells was very similar between healthy individuals and cancer patients. Cisplatin-treated patients that died by the disease showed lower DNA migration than the mean value. The expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was practically identical between healthy individuals and cancer patients. Nevertheless, chemotherapy induced a depletion mostly of hMLH1. In 83% of cisplatin-treated patients with CR the hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression at T24 was higher than the

  6. Assessment of Working Memory in Individuals With Stuttering in Comparison With Individuals With Normal Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Liz Varghese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common in literature to relate stuttering with some other deficit that interferes with communicative functions. Working memory comprises the system of human memory dedicated to both temporary storages of phonological detail and allocation of cognitive resources necessary for forming lasting memories. In this study we have analyzed the performance of individuals with stuttering on various working memory tasks. The aim of study is to compare the working memory abilities in individuals with stuttering and individuals with normal fluency on various working memory tasks. A total of 30 individuals with stuttering and 30 individuals with normal fluency in the age range of 18 – 40 years participated in the study. The Working Memory domain will be assessed using The Manipal Manual for Cognitive Linguistic Abilities (MMCLA which consists of auditory word retrieval, auditory letter and number recall, auditory word list recall, auditory delayed sentence recall, visual practice recall, visual letter and number recall, visual word list recall and visual delayed sentence recall. Results revealed that the individuals with normal fluency had superior performance compared to the individuals with stuttering. Hence, it’s helpful to understand the involvement of working memory in stuttering and incorporate working memory training along with the conventional fluency therapy.

  7. Recapitulation of Clinical Individual Susceptibility to Drug-Induced QT Prolongation in Healthy Subjects Using iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

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    Tadahiro Shinozawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66 in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known target-binding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.

  8. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due...... of the intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to cause impaired proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected individuals in vitro. Sumatriptan, a 5HT1d receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes...

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  11. Comparison of anxiety and depression in patients with acne vulgaris and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchai Javad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units, which chiefly involves face and upper part of the trunk. Its prevalence is highest in adolescence, where the individual counters several psychosocial changes. Depression, suicidal thoughts, and low self esteem are reported in the patients with this disease. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare prevalence of anxiety and depression in the patients with acne vulgaris and normal population. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 82 patients with acne vulgaris and 82 persons without acne who referred to a dermatology clinic and a specialized office for skin diseases in Rasht were studied. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire and severity of acne was evaluated by Global Acne Grading System (GAGS. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 14.0 software, independent T-test, multi variate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and chi-square test for comparison the quantitative and ordinal data, respectively; with α=0.05. Results: Prevalence of anxiety and mean of anxiety scores were 68.3% and 9.17 ± 3.52, respectively, in patients group and 39.1% and 7.10 ± 3.07, respectively, in control group in which there was a significant difference (P = 0.001. Prevalence of depression and mean of depression scores were 25.6% and 5.34 ± 3.29, respectively, in patients group and 28.1% and 5.01 ± 3.32, respectively, in control group in which there was no significant difference. Conclusion: According to high prevalence of anxiety in patients with acne vulgaris, assessment of the screening mental status of the patients by simple questionnaire such as HADS is suggested.

  12. The Influence of Age on Hemodynamic Parameters During Rest and Exercise in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Bakkestrøm, Rine; Thomsen, Jacob H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to obtain hemodynamic estimates across a wide age span and in both sexes for future reference and compare these estimates with current guideline diagnostic hemodynamic thresholds for abnormal filling pressure and pulmonary hypertension. BACKGROUND: At present....... METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants, evenly distributed with respect to age (20 to 80 years) and sex (32 women/30 men), were prospectively enrolled in the study. Participants were all deemed healthy by medical history, echocardiography, exercise test, spirometry, blood tests, and electrocardiogram....... Participants had hemodynamic parameters measured using right heart catheterization during rest, passive leg raise, and incremental exercise. RESULTS: During rest, all hemodynamic parameters were similar between age groups, apart from blood pressure. During leg raise and incremental exercise...

  13. Reductive stress in young healthy individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badía, Mari-Carmen; Giraldo, Esther; Dasí, Francisco; Alonso, Dolores; Lainez, Jose M; Lloret, Ana; Viña, Jose

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) but this has not been studied in young healthy persons at risk of the disease. Carrying an Apo ε4 allele is the major genetic risk factor for AD. We have observed that lymphocytes from young, healthy persons carrying at least one Apo ε4 allele suffer from reductive rather than oxidative stress, i.e., lower oxidized glutathione and P-p38 levels and higher expression of enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, such as glutamylcysteinyl ligase and glutathione peroxidase. In contrast, in the full-blown disease, the situation is reversed and oxidative stress occurs, probably because of the exhaustion of the antioxidant mechanisms just mentioned. These results provide insights into the early events of the progression of the disease that may allow us to find biomarkers of AD at its very early stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on albumin-131I exchange by means of the whole body radiometry in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, N.I.; Kalashnikov, B.V.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bolovin, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The whole body radiometry method was used to elaborate a technique of processing experimental data with subsequent calculation of the turnover indices of human serum albumin labelled by 131 I. The studies on albumin metabolism in 36 healthy men showed that in the albumin synthesis synthesis rate equal to 1455 g a day, the albumin level in the extravascular space exceeded by 2.96 times (357.1 g) that of the total albumin (120.8 g) in the plasma. About half of the plasma albumin comes from the plasma to the extravascular space daily. The turnover indices calculated by the technique applied are comparable with the data presented by other investigators. The elaborated technique is sufficiently simple and informative, makes it possible to study albumin metabolism (without taking blood samples and collecting urine) in healthy persons, and what is of special importance, in various pathological conditions

  15. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Variables involved in the individual and collective practice of healthy habits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ubaque, Juan C; García-Ubaque, César A; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a descriptive review of the concepts related to the practice of healthy habits by identifying the main variables associated with their managment in terms of health promotion actions. In consultation with groups working in health promotion in the city of performed by consulting databases and documentary sources. The strategy and criteria for the selection of documents was previously defined. Finally, we proceeded to organizing and structuring the information. It was established that, to promote healthy habits, four groups of behavior are involved: a) consumption, b) phyisical activity and hygiene, c) safety, and d) social participation. All of these are reviewed in order to point out the main concepts contained in each. The promotion of healthy habits must involve not only the transmission of behaviors associated with them. It must also involve understanding and adapting these habits to the environments of life in which people operate, with consideration for the different roles that they perform and the psychological and cultural demands that each space implies.

  17. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  18. Identification and assessment of markers of biotin status in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Wei Kay; Giraud, David; Schlegel, Vicki L.; Wang, Dong; Lee, Bo Hyun; Zempleni, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Human biotin requirements are unknown and the identification of reliable markers of biotin status is necessary to fill this knowledge gap. Here, we used an outpatient feeding protocol to create states of biotin deficiency, sufficiency and supplementation in sixteen healthy men and women. A total of twenty possible markers of biotin status were assessed, including the abundance of biotinylated carboxylases in lymphocytes, the expression of genes from biotin metabolism and the urinary excretion of biotin and organic acids. Only the abundance of biotinylated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (holo-MCC) and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (holo-PCC) allowed for distinguishing biotin-deficient and biotin-sufficient individuals. The urinary excretion of biotin reliably identified biotin-supplemented subjects, but did not distinguish between biotin-depleted and biotin-sufficient individuals. The urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid detected some biotin-deficient subjects, but produced a meaningful number of false-negative results and did not distinguish between biotin-sufficient and biotin-supplemented individuals. None of the other organic acids that were tested were useful markers of biotin status. Likewise, the abundance of mRNA coding for biotin transporters, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotin-dependent carboxylases in lymphocytes were not different among the treatment groups. Generally, datasets were characterised by variations that exceeded those seen in studies in cell cultures. We conclude that holo-MCC and holo-PCC are the most reliable, single markers of biotin status tested in the present study. PMID:23302490

  19. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J

    2012-06-01

    Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG)-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g) pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g), TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g) or whey protein (Wh, 30 g) in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA) concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE) was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

  20. Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvonen Kristiina R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein. Methods Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2 participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g, TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g or whey protein (Wh, 30 g in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Results All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

  1. The Area of Secondary Hyperalgesia following Heat Stimulation in Healthy Male Volunteers: Inter- and Intra-Individual Variance and Reproducibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Sejer Hansen

    Full Text Available Clinical pain models can be applied when investigating basic physiologic pain responses in healthy volunteers. Several pain models exist; however, only few have been adequately validated. Our primary aim with this prospective study was to investigate the intra- and inter-individual variation in secondary hyperalgesia elicited by brief thermal sensitization (45°C for 3 min in healthy volunteers.Fifty healthy volunteers were included. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization were investigated by 2 observers on 4 experimental days, with a minimum interval of 7 days. Additionally, heat pain detection threshold and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C for 1 min., and the psychological tests Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score were applied.For areas of secondary hyperalgesia, an intra-observer intra-person correlation of 0.85, 95% CI [0.78, 0.90], an intra-observer inter-person correlation of 0.03, 95% CI [0.00, 0.16], and a coefficient of variation of 0.17, 95% CI [0.14, 0.21] was demonstrated. Four percent of the study population had areas of secondary hyperalgesia both below the 1st and above the 3rd quartile considering all included participants. Heat pain detection threshold predicted area of secondary hyperalgesia with an adjusted R2 of 0.20 (P = 0.0006.We have demonstrated a low intra-individual, and a high inter-individual variation in thermally induced secondary hyperalgesia. We conclude that brief thermal sensitization produce secondary hyperalgesia with a high level of reproducibility, which can be applied to investigate different phenotypes related to secondary hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02166164.

  2. Welfare assessment in broiler farms: transect walks versus individual scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-10-01

    Current scientific approaches to welfare assessment in broilers are based on individual sampling that can be time consuming under field conditions. On the other hand, farmers conduct routine checks based on walks through the house to screen birds' health condition. We adapted the walks through following line transect methodology used in wildlife studies to explore their feasibility as a welfare assessment tool. The aim of this study was to compare broiler welfare assessed by individual sampling and transect walks. We evaluated 6 identically managed flocks. For individual sampling, we collected measures on 150 birds, including weight, breast dirtiness, hock and footpad dermatitis, lameness, and immobility. Transect observations were conducted by slowly walking on randomized paths within each house recording: immobility, lameness, back dirtiness, sickness, agony, and dead. Transect walks allowed detection of small variations (P < 0.003) in the prevalence of most welfare indicators considered with consistency in interobserver reliability (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, assessments across transects were highly consistent (P ≥ 0.05). Individual sampling was also sensitive to differences across houses (P < 0.01) with the exception of immobility (P = 0.783). No differences were found across sampling locations (P ≥ 0.05). However, both methods differed greatly in the frequency of the incidence of the parameters considered. For example, immobility varied from 0.2 ± 0.02% for transect walks to 4 ± 2.3% for individual sampling, whereas lameness varied between 0.8 ± 0.07% and 24.2 ± 4.7% for transect and samplings, respectively. It is possible that the transect approach may have overlooked walking deficiencies because a large number of birds were scored, although if this was the case, the consistency obtained in the scoring across observers and transects would be surprising. Differences may also be related to possibly biased individual sampling procedures, where less mobile

  3. Jumping to conclusions style along the continuum of delusions: delusion-prone individuals are not hastier in decision making than healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Ho-wai So

    Full Text Available Literature comparing 'jumping to conclusions' (JTC between patients and healthy controls has demonstrated the importance of the reasoning bias in the development of delusions. When groups that vary along the entire delusional continuum are included, the relationship between JTC and delusionality is less clear. This study compared JTC and delusional dimensions between 28 patients with delusions, 35 delusion-prone individuals and 32 non-delusion-prone individuals. Delusion proneness was defined by an established threshold based on the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Two versions of the beads task (85:15 and 60:40 were used to measure JTC. As hypothesized, patients manifested hastier data gathering than the two non-clinical groups on both beads tasks. However, delusion-prone individuals did not manifest a hastier decision making style than non-delusion prone individuals. Instead, non-delusion-prone participants showed more JTC bias than delusion-prone individuals on the easier beads task. There was no evidence for a dose-response relationship between JTC and delusional dimensions, with correlations between JTC and PDI scores found in the non-delusion-prone group only. The present finding confirms the link between an extreme JTC bias and the presence of clinical delusions, and argues against a linear relationship between JTC and delusionality along the symptomatic continuum.

  4. Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Häggström, Jenny; Fowler, Christopher J; Nording, Malin L

    2017-06-01

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and...

  6. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati Hojjat

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which caused by a group of yeasts formerly named pityrosporium. The taxonomy of these lipophilic yeasts has recently been modified and includes seven species referred as Malassezia. The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from pityriasis versicolor lesions and those isolated from healthy skins. Methods Differentiation of all malassezia species performed using morphological features and physiological test including catalase reaction, Tween assimilation test and splitting of esculin. Results In pityriasis versicolor lesions, the most frequently isolated species was M. globosa (53.3%, followed by M. furfur (25.3%, M. sympodialis(9.3%, M. obtusa (8.1% and M. slooffiae (4.0%. The most frequently isolated species in the skin of healthy individuals were M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. sloofiae and M. restricta which respectively made up 41.7%, 25.0%, 23.3%, 6.7% and 3.3% of the isolated species. Conclusions According to our data, M. globosa was the most prevalent species in the skin of healthy individuals which recovered only in the yeast form. However, the Mycelial form of M. globosa was isolated as the dominant species from pityriasis versicolor lesions. Therefore, the role of predisposing factors in the conversion of this yeast to mycelium and its subsequent involvement in pityriasis versicolor pathogenicity should be considered.

  7. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tertiary Care Hospital, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia species. Our aim was to identify Malassezia species from PV patients and healthy individuals in Punjab. Materials and Methods: Modified Dixon agar was used as isolation culture medium. Identification was based on morphological observation and biochemical evaluation. The biochemical evaluation consisted of culture onto Sabouraud dextrose agar, catalase reaction, Tween assimilation, Cremophor EL assimilation, splitting of esculin and growth at 38 0 C. Results: Out of 58 microscopically diagnosed cases of PV, growth was obtained from 54 (93.10% cases. The most frequently isolated species were M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. furfur which made up 51.79%, 31.42% and 18.51% of the isolated etiological agents respectively. However, the major isolate from the back of healthy individuals was M. sympodialis (47.61%, followed by M.obtusa (19.04%, M. globosa (14.20%, M. furfur (9.52%, M. pachydermatis (4.76% and M. slooffiae (4.76%. Conclusions: M. globosa in its mycelial phase was the main etiological agent, but as normal flora from the back of healthy subjects, it was found in significantly less number (P = 0.01, suggesting that the higher pathogenicity of M. globosa in terms of enzymatic endowment, might be the cause of its predominance in PV lesions.

  8. No effect of escitalopram versus placebo on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy individuals: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Soendergaard, Mia H Greisen; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Winkel, Per; Kessing, Lars V

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to play an important role in the course of depression including the response to antidepressants in patients with depression. We aimed to study the effect of an antidepressant intervention on peripheral BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression. We measured changes in BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and whole-blood BDNF levels in 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10 mg versus placebo for 4 weeks. We found no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group in the change in BDNF mRNA expression and whole-blood BDNF levels. Post hoc analyses showed a statistically significant negative correlation between plasma escitalopram concentration and change in whole-blood BDNF levels in the escitalopram-treated group. The results of this randomised trial suggest that escitalopram 10 mg has no effect on peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals.

  9. Regional glucose metabolism within cortical Brodmann areas in healthy individuals and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hsieh, Pauline; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Platholi, Jimcy; LiCalzi, Elizabeth M; Cartwright, Charles; Hollander, Eric

    2004-01-01

    A new Brodmann area (BA) delineation approach was applied to FDG-PET scans of autistic patients and healthy volunteers (n = 17 in each group) to examine relative glucose metabolism (rGMR) during performance of a verbal memory task. In the frontal lobe, patients had lower rGMR in medial/cingulate regions (BA 32, 24, 25) but not in lateral regions (BA 8-10) compared with healthy controls. Patients had higher rGMR in occipital (BA 19) and parietal regions (BA 39) compared with controls, but there were no group differences in temporal lobe regions. Among controls, better recall and use of the semantic-clustering strategy was associated with greater lateral and medial frontal rGMR, while decreased rGMR in medial-frontal regions was associated with greater perseverative/intrusion errors. Patients failed to show these patterns. Autism patients have dysfunction in some but not all of the key brain regions subserving verbal memory performance, and other regions may be recruited for task performance. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  11. Physical Activity May Be Associated with Conditioned Pain Modulation in Women but Not Men among Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro, Yukiko; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Terasawa, Yuta; Arai, Young-Chang P.; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Ushida, Takahiro; Matsubara, Takako

    2017-01-01

    Background. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM), a phenomenon also known as diffuse noxious inhibitory control, is thought to be affected by various factors, including sex and level of physical activity. However, the involvement of these factors in CPM remains unclear. Methods. Eighty-six healthy young subjects (M/F, 43/43) participated in this study. Participants were assessed on the basis of their mechanical pressure pain threshold (PPT), CPM response, body mass index (BMI), basal metabolic r...

  12. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-03

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knee bioelectric impedance assessment in healthy/with osteoarthritis subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Pino, Alexandre Visintainer; De Almeida, Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues; De Souza, Márcio Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyzes parameters estimated by bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) in subjects with healthy and with osteoarthritis (OA) knees. Thirty-two male volunteers, members of the Parachute Military Infantry Brigade of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participated in the study (62 knee joints). Clinical specialists used the Dejour scale for OA classification and divided the subjects into a control (without OA) and a pathological group (with different degrees of OA). BIS data were obtained in a standing position using a BIS technique based on the current response to a step voltage excitation. Differences between groups were measured by means of a Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test. Results indicate that raw bioimpedance parameters seem to be sensitive to the physiological changes associated with OA. Thus, data indicate that extra-cellular resistance (Re) and reactance of the equivalent capacitance (Xcx) increase according to the disease intensity (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the BIS technique seems to be able to provide the objective and non-invasive basis for helping the diagnosis of knee OA

  14. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Girard

    Full Text Available De novo mutations (DNM are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots.

  15. Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Wang, Yulan; Hao, Fuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study employs spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of fecal extracts from healthy subjects and patients with active or inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) to substantiate the potential use of spectroscopy as a non-invasive diagnostic tool and to characterize the fecal......-projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis using SIMCA-P + 12 and MATLAB. Significant differences were found in the metabolic profiles making it possible to differentiate between active IBD and controls and between UC and CD. The metabolites holding differential power primarily belonged to a range of amino...... acids, microbiota-related short chain fatty acids, and lactate suggestive of an inflammation-driven malabsorption and dysbiosis of the normal bacterial ecology. However, removal of patients with intestinal surgery and anti-TNF-α antibody treatment eliminated the discriminative power regarding UC versus...

  16. Bioavailability of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Added to a Variety of Sausages in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anton; Heinrich, Johanna; von Schacky, Clemens

    2017-06-19

    A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index Omega-3 Index increased from 4.18 ± 0.54 to 5.72 ± 0.66% ( p Omega-3 Index per intake of EPA and DHA we observed was higher than for other sources previously studied, indicating superior bioavailability. As increasing production of EPA and DHA is difficult, improvements of bioavailability can facilitate reaching the target range for the Omega-3 Index (8-11%).

  17. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9–16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention...... contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested...... that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal...

  18. Comparison of Neutrophil Apoptosis by the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exotoxins between Healthy Individuals and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khazaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be colonized in different human tissues and result in some infections potentially. Thus, considering that these bacteria are resistance to most of the current antibiotics, an examination on pathogenesis mechanisms of such bacteria can be effective in controlling the infections developed by it.Materials and Methods: In this project, among 40 blood samples (20 healthy persons, 20 infants, an amount of 5 ml (2 ml in the infants heparinized blood was collected form each and then neutrophils were isolated by a standard method and were counted by neubauer lam. After culturing Pseudomonas bacteria in broth medium, some tubes with densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 McFarland were prepared and the bacteria were isolated by centrifuge method with 3000rpm for 10 minutes and then its exotoxin were exposed to neutrophils of the groups under study. The effect of time and the bacteria count on the amount of the secreted toxin and in adjacency to neutrophils was measured.Results: There were 11 men and 9 women in the health group and the infants group consisted of 12 boys and 8 girls. Death cell percentage of neutrophils was 100% in the health group and 8.90% in the infants group. Percentage of bacterial growth in the medium 1 and 2 McFarland was zero; in the medium 3 McFarland, it was 12.5% in the healthy group and 1% in the infants group (p<0.10. The average rate of cell death in the minute 15th was different in two groups (68.5% in health group vs. 92.5% in the infants (p<0.0005. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of Pseudomonas bacteria on the development of early cell death in the infants very well. As it was shown, this effect is time-dependent and this cell death (apoptosis is occurred in the infants earlier than health people.

  19. The Effects of Cryotherapy on Knee Joint Position Sense and Force Production Sense in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furmanek Mariusz P.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The proprioceptive information received from mechanoreceptors is potentially responsible for controlling the joint position and force differentiation. However, it is unknown whether cryotherapy influences this complex mechanism. Previously reported results are not universally conclusive and sometimes even contradictory. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of local cryotherapy on knee joint position sense (JPS and force production sense (FPS. The study group consisted of 55 healthy participants (age: 21 ± 2 years, body height: 171.2 ± 9 cm, body mass: 63.3 ± 12 kg, BMI: 21.5 ± 2.6. Local cooling was achieved with the use of gel-packs cooled to -2 ± 2.5°C and applied simultaneously over the knee joint and the quadriceps femoris muscle for 20 minutes. JPS and FPS were evaluated using the Biodex System 4 Pro apparatus. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA did not show any statistically significant changes of the JPS and FPS under application of cryotherapy for all analyzed variables: the JPS’s absolute error (p = 0.976, its relative error (p = 0.295, and its variable error (p = 0.489; the FPS’s absolute error (p = 0.688, its relative error (p = 0.193, and its variable error (p = 0.123. The results indicate that local cooling does not affect proprioceptive acuity of the healthy knee joint. They also suggest that local limited cooling before physical activity at low velocity did not present health or injury risk in this particular study group.

  20. EFFECT OF POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS ON VITAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Hazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural drainage is used exclusively or in combination with other airway clearance techniques in the management of chronic pulmonary diseases. Postural drainage therapy helps to prevent accumulation of secretions in patients who are at high risk for pulmonary complications. It also helps to remove accumulated secretions from the lungs.The role of body positioning on lung function and the clinical implications of postural drainage has been identified in a variety of settings including intensive care units. There is dearth in literature on effects on postural drainage on vital parameters. Thus the objective of the study was to measure the vital parameters at different postural drainage positions in healthy asymptomatic adults. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. The instruments used in the current study included a Pulse oximeter, Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, Postural drainage table.The outcome measures of interest were heart rate, respiratoryrate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and Borg’s scale of rate of perceived exertion. The changes in the vital signs were recorded at different head down titling position of 0°, 15° & 30° in both supine and prone lying positions Results: Statistical significant difference was found for Systolic Blood Pressure in prone lying at different degrees of tilt (p=0.001 and Diastolic Blood Pressure in prone lying (p=0.000. Conclusion: Postural drainage positioning should be given with caution and under proper monitoring as there is a risk of change in the blood pressure even in asymptomatic elderly population. The monitoring of vital signs should be done during the therapy to decrease the risk of complications.

  1. The Effects of Cryotherapy on Knee Joint Position Sense and Force Production Sense in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanek, Mariusz P.; Słomka, Kajetan J.; Sobiesiak, Andrzej; Rzepko, Marian; Juras, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The proprioceptive information received from mechanoreceptors is potentially responsible for controlling the joint position and force differentiation. However, it is unknown whether cryotherapy influences this complex mechanism. Previously reported results are not universally conclusive and sometimes even contradictory. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of local cryotherapy on knee joint position sense (JPS) and force production sense (FPS). The study group consisted of 55 healthy participants (age: 21 ± 2 years, body height: 171.2 ± 9 cm, body mass: 63.3 ± 12 kg, BMI: 21.5 ± 2.6). Local cooling was achieved with the use of gel-packs cooled to -2 ± 2.5°C and applied simultaneously over the knee joint and the quadriceps femoris muscle for 20 minutes. JPS and FPS were evaluated using the Biodex System 4 Pro apparatus. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any statistically significant changes of the JPS and FPS under application of cryotherapy for all analyzed variables: the JPS’s absolute error (p = 0.976), its relative error (p = 0.295), and its variable error (p = 0.489); the FPS’s absolute error (p = 0.688), its relative error (p = 0.193), and its variable error (p = 0.123). The results indicate that local cooling does not affect proprioceptive acuity of the healthy knee joint. They also suggest that local limited cooling before physical activity at low velocity did not present health or injury risk in this particular study group. PMID:29599858

  2. Short-term respiratory effects of e-cigarettes in healthy individuals and smokers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Teloniatis, Stephanie I; Tzavara, Chara K; Gennimata, Sofia A; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the duration of immediate respiratory effects of e-cigarette smoking (ECS) and tested the hypothesis that ECS has more prominent effects in asthmatics compared with healthy smokers (HS). Fifty-four smokers, 27 healthy (HS group) and 27 with intermittent asthma (mild asthma (MA) group) underwent a control session (no liquid, no resistor coil inside e-cigarette cartridge) and an experimental session of ECS using standardized puffing settings. Impulse oscillometry impedance (Z), resistance (R), reactance (X) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured before and 0, 15 and 30 min after control and experimental sessions. Control session revealed no significant changes. In the experimental session, immediately post-ECS, both groups exhibited a significant increase in respiratory system total impedance at 5 Hz (Z5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 10 Hz (R10) (P < 0.001), respiratory system resistance at 20 Hz (R20) (P < 0.05), resonant frequency (P < 0.001) and reactance area (P < 0.05). MA exhibited higher baseline values and a more prominent effect immediately after ECS compared with HS for Z5 (P = 0.022), R5 (P = 0.010) and R10 (P = 0.013). FeNO decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.001); HS returned to baseline values in ≤15 min while the MA maintained significantly lower values for an additional 15 min (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline values at 30 min post-ECS. A single session of ECS had respiratory mechanical and inflammatory effects, which were more prominent in smokers with asthma. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Sustainability assessment in forest management based on individual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Susana; Martinez-Falero, Eugenio

    2018-01-15

    This paper presents a methodology to elicit the preferences of any individual in the assessment of sustainable forest management at the stand level. The elicitation procedure was based on the comparison of the sustainability of pairs of forest locations. A sustainability map of the whole territory was obtained according to the individual's preferences. Three forest sustainability indicators were pre-calculated for each point in a study area in a Scots pine forest in the National Park of Sierra de Guadarrama in the Madrid Region in Spain to obtain the best management plan with the sustainability map. We followed a participatory process involving fifty people to assess the sustainability of the forest management and the methodology. The results highlighted the demand for conservative forest management, the usefulness of the methodology for managers, and the importance and necessity of incorporating stakeholders into forestry decision-making processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Individuals With Schizophrenia and Healthy Aging: Testing the Accelerated Aging Hypothesis of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhana; Mulsant, Benoit H; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-07-01

    Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population. An overall decrease is observed in BDNF expression in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and in older individuals compared to a younger cohort. There is a marked decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal regions and in the periphery among older individuals and those with schizophrenia; however, data for BDNF expression in the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices and the hippocampus is inconclusive. Accelerated aging hypothesis is supported based on frontal regions and peripheral studies; however, further studies are needed in other brain regions.

  5. Salivary Gluten Degradation and Oral Microbial Profiles in Healthy Individuals and Celiac Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, N.; Faller, L.; Leffler, D.A.; Kelly, C.P.; Hansen, J.; Bosch, J.A.; Wei, G.; Paster, B.J.; Schuppan, D.; Helmerhorst, E.J.

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after the colon. We hypothesized that enzymes produced by oral bacteria may be involved

  6. Bilateral assessment of knee muscle relationships in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Regina Santos dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric performance of flexor and extensor muscles of the knee may be a risk factor for knee injuries, especially the anterior cruciate ligament. Additionally, asymmetries in power and work may have correlations with fatigue and performance during functional tasks. Among untrained individuals, such asymmetries may be of potential interest for training prescription. Here, we investigated the bilateral performance of knee flexors and extensors muscle groups of untrained individuals. We quantified the torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, as well as work, power and asymmetry indexes in 20 untrained male (25 ± 4 years old; height 1.74 ± 0.05 m; body mass 76 ± 9 kg. No significant asymmetry was observed for torque-angle and torque-velocity relationships, work and power output for knee flexor and extensor muscle groups (p < .05. Our results suggest that untrained male present symmetry in the knee flexion and extension bilateral performance. Changes in this behavior due to physical training must be monitored.

  7. Gulhane Military Medical Academy Training Hospital, the applicant Determination of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Individuals Diagnosed Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Kuru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD diagnosed with identification of individuals in specific behaviors to improve health, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. METHODS: This descriptive study of data types of the Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GATA Hospital cardiology clinic in December 2009 - February 2010 were collected. The study group, at least 6 months before the diagnosis of CAD area, between the ages of 20-65 individuals who accept and participate in the study (n = 300 formed. Sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors of the personal information form for the 33-item, 52-item scale of a healthy lifestyle behaviors and health status of the single-item scale working group of the detection technique applied to the face-to-face interview. The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD for the development of health behaviors in the case of individuals diagnosed with the identification, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. The statistical analysis techniques such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis were used for the comparison. RESULTS: Of the group 57,7% were males, 46,3% were 50-59 years of age and 56,3% were higher education graduates. As regard to total Health Promotion Life-Style Profile Scale scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, gender, education, disease period, occupation and chronic condition groups. As regard to the average PHSS scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, education, body mass index, disease period, occupation, chronic condition and CAD related course groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Healthy lifestyle behaviors before planning training programs, individual models of health behavior and the behavior of individuals using the analyzed factors affecting.. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 287-298

  8. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  9. Iron-related gene variants and brain iron in multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron homeostasis is known to be disturbed in multiple sclerosis (MS, yet little is known about the association of common gene variants linked to iron regulation and pathological tissue changes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the association of genetic determinants linked to iron regulation with deep gray matter (GM magnetic susceptibility in both healthy controls (HC and MS patients. Four hundred (400 patients with MS and 150 age- and sex-matched HCs were enrolled and obtained 3 T MRI examination. Three (3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with iron regulation were genotyped: two SNPs in the human hereditary hemochromatosis protein gene HFE: rs1800562 (C282Y mutation and rs1799945 (H63D mutation, as well as the rs1049296 SNP in the transferrin gene (C2 mutation. The effects of disease and genetic status were studied using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM voxel-based analysis (VBA and region-of-interest (ROI analysis of the deep GM. The general linear model framework was used to compare groups. Analyses were corrected for age and sex, and adjusted for false discovery rate. We found moderate increases in susceptibility in the right putamen of participants with the C282Y (+6.1 ppb and H63D (+6.9 ppb gene variants vs. non-carriers, as well as a decrease in thalamic susceptibility of progressive MS patients with the C282Y mutation (left: −5.3 ppb, right: −6.7 ppb, p < 0.05. Female MS patients had lower susceptibility in the caudate (−6.0 ppb and putamen (left: −3.9 ppb, right: −4.6 ppb than men, but only when they had a wild-type allele (p < 0.05. Iron-gene linked increases in putamen susceptibility (in HC and relapsing remitting MS and decreases in thalamus susceptibility (in progressive MS, coupled with apparent sex interactions, indicate that brain iron in healthy and disease states may be influenced by genetic factors.

  10. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done....... OBJECTIVE: To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis...... was used. RESULTS: Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise...

  11. Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation does not affect lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength...... training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions......). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm...

  13. Endogenous Pain Modulation Induced by Extrinsic and Intrinsic Psychological Threat in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William; Moss, Penny; Cheng, Tak Ho; Garnier, Alexandre; Wright, Anthony; Wand, Benedict M

    2018-03-01

    Many factors interact to influence threat perception and the subsequent experience of pain. This study investigated the effect of observing pain (extrinsic threat) and intrinsic threat of pain to oneself on pressure pain threshold (PPT). Forty socially connected pairs of healthy volunteers were threat-primed and randomly allocated to experimental or control roles. An experimental pain modulation paradigm was applied, with non-nociceptive threat cues used as conditioning stimuli. In substudy 1, the extrinsic threat to the experimental participant was observation of the control partner in pain. The control participant underwent hand immersion in noxious and non-noxious water baths in randomized order. Change in the observing participant's PPT from baseline to mid- and postimmersion was calculated. A significant interaction was found for PPT between conditions and test time (F 2,78  = 24.9, P Extrinsic and intrinsic threat of pain, in the absence of any afferent input therefore influences pain modulation. This may need to be considered in studies that use noxious afferent input with populations who show dysfunctional pain modulation. The effect on endogenous analgesia of observing another's pain and of threat of pain to oneself was investigated. Extrinsic as well as intrinsic threat cues, in the absence of any afferent input, increased pain thresholds, suggesting that mere threat of pain may initiate analgesic effects in traditional noxious experimental paradigms. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-12-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9-16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  16. MRI of the brain in neurologically healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, O.; Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Ylikoski, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document the MRI appearances of the brain in healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. T2- and proton density-weighted axial slices were obtained in 61 volunteers, 30-86 years of age. After visual inspection, signal intensities of brain structures were measured on T2-weighted images. Age-related changes became increasingly apparent after age 50. The main findings were that signal intensity of the white matter increased concomitantly with widening of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; that basal ganglia remained stable; that high-signal foci in white matter increased in number and size after the age of 50 years; that periventricular high-signal foci were constant after the age of 65 years. Our visual impression of a decrease in signal intensity of the central grey matter with age seems to be mistaken. Pathological processes should be suspected if periventricular foci are found in middle-aged or young subjects. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. V. Beetsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs, these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.

  18. Use of the Wii Gaming System for Balance Rehabilitation: Establishing Parameters for Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Melissa K; Andeway, Kathleen; Eppenstein, Paula; Ruroede, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to establish balance parameters for the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii Fit™" Balance Board system with three common games, in a sample of healthy adults, and to evaluate the balance measurement reproducibility with separation by age. This was a prospective, multivariate analysis of variance, cohort study design. Seventy-five participants who satisfied all inclusion criteria and completed an informed consent were enrolled. Participants were grouped into age ranges: 21-35 years (n=24), 36-50 years (n=24), and 51-65 years (n=27). Each participant completed the following games three consecutive times, in a randomized order, during one session: "Balance Bubble" (BB) for distance and duration, "Tight Rope" (TR) for distance and duration, and "Center of Balance" (COB) on the left and right sides. COB distributed weight was fairly symmetrical across all subjects and trials; therefore, no influence was assumed on or interaction with other "Wii Fit" measurements. Homogeneity of variance statistics indicated the assumption of distribution normality of the dependent variables (rates) were tenable. The multivariate analysis of variance included dependent variables BB and TR rates (distance divided by duration to complete) with age group and trials as the independent variables. The BB rate was statistically significant (F=4.725, PWii Fit" can discriminate among age groups across trials. The results show promise as a viable tool to measure balance and distance across time (speed) and center of balance distribution.

  19. Study of OH● Radicals in Human Serum Blood of Healthy Individuals and Those with Pathological Schizophrenia

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    Wolfgang Linert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is constantly under attack from free radicals that occur as part of normal cell metabolism, and by exposure to environmental factors such as UV light, cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants and gamma radiation. The resulting “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS circulate freely in the body with access to all organs and tissues, which can have serious repercussions throughout the body. The body possesses a number of mechanisms both to control the production of ROS and to cope with free radicals in order to limit or repair damage to tissues. Overproduction of ROS or insufficient defense mechanisms leads to a dangerous disbalance in the organism. Thereby several pathomechanisms implicated in over 100 human diseases, e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, physiological disease, aging, etc., can be induced. Thus, a detailed investigation on the quantity of oxygen radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH● in human serum blood, and its possible correlation with antioxidant therapy effects, is highly topical. The subject of this study was the influence of schizophrenia on the amount of OH● in human serum blood. The radicals were detected by fluorimetry, using terephthalic acid as a chemical trap. For all experiments the serum blood of healthy people was used as a control group.

  20. Comparison of Serum Leptin Levels in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with Acute Pneumonia Patients and Healthy Individuals

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    M. Naderi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Leptin is one of the most important fat-derived hormones. Several studies have shown that serum leptin levels in systemic inflammatory diseases are reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum leptin levels in three groups: patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, patients with non-pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia and normal people. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in 2010, 40 patients with active pulmonary TB (case group and 40 patients with non-pulmonary infections (positive control group admitted to Boo-Ali hospital in Zahedan and 40 healthy subjects (negative control group were selected using easy access and serum leptin levels were evaluated by ELISA. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software and one-way ANOVA. Findings: The mean of serum leptin levels in patients with non-pulmonary infections (p=0.030 and in patients with active pulmonary TB (p=0.004 were significantly lower than normal group, but the mean of serum leptin levels in patients with active pulmonary TB and patients with non-pulmonary infections were not significantly different (p=0.555. Conclusion: Serum leptin levels are lower in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and in patients with non-pulmonary infections than in normal people, but there is no difference between patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and patients with non-pulmonary infections. Therefore, serum leptin levels are not an appropriate marker for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculosis from pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia.

  1. Individual Test Point Fluctuations of Macular Sensitivity in Healthy Eyes and Eyes With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Measured With Microperimetry.

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    Barboni, Mirella Telles Salgueiro; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Ventura, Dora Fix; Németh, János

    2018-04-01

    To establish fluctuation limits, it was considered that not only overall macular sensitivity but also fluctuations of individual test points in the macula might have clinical value. Three repeated measurements of microperimetry were performed using the Standard Expert test of Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) in healthy subjects ( N = 12, age = 23.8 ± 1.5 years old) and in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ( N = 11, age = 68.5 ± 7.4 years old). A total of 37 macular points arranged in four concentric rings and in four quadrants were analyzed individually and in groups. The data show low fluctuation of macular sensitivity of individual test points in healthy subjects (average = 1.38 ± 0.28 dB) and AMD patients (average = 2.12 ± 0.60 dB). Lower sensitivity points are more related to higher fluctuation than to the distance from the central point. Fixation stability showed no effect on the sensitivity fluctuation. The 95th percentile of the standard deviations of healthy subjects was, on average, 2.7 dB, ranging from 1.2 to 4 dB, depending on the point tested. Point analysis and regional analysis might be considered prior to evaluating macular sensitivity fluctuation in order to distinguish between normal variation and a clinical change. S tatistical methods were used to compare repeated microperimetry measurements and to establish fluctuation limits of the macular sensitivity. This analysis could add information regarding the integrity of different macular areas and provide new insights into fixation points prior to the biofeedback fixation training.

  2. The comparison of Selective Attention Deficit in Dual Task Performance in Elderly Alzheimer Patients and Healthy Elderly Individuals

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    A. m. Azadian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare selective attention deficit in elderly Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly individuals using the dual task. Therefore, 23 subjects (11 females and 12 males age 62 to 81 years; 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 10 healthy elderly subjects (EHI with normal cognitive function participated in this study. people with Alzheimer's disease. healthy people was selected through some neurologist identified Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ. After obtaining the average number of correct counting of months of the year in both simple and difficult cognitive task the overall error (E or Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE, and variable error (VE were calculated for the tracking task. Then each person performed 10 tasks simultaneously (under Dual-task in both simple and difficult mode. Analysis of variance in cognitive tasks showed that there was a significant interaction between task difficulty and risk of AD (p0.05. In other words, at dual conditions of tracking task, accuracy and consistency of both groups was equally reduced, which was most prominent in difficult conditions. This decrease indicates increased interference at response level due to defects in the mechanisms of selective attention in dual cognitive and tracking tasks and both groups.

  3. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

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    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  4. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  5. Metabolic signatures of cultured human adipocytes from metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obese individuals.

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    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available Among obese subjects, metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity (MHO/MUHO can be differentiated: the latter is characterized by whole-body insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and subclinical inflammation. Aim of this study was, to identify adipocyte-specific metabolic signatures and functional biomarkers for MHO versus MUHO.10 insulin-resistant (IR vs. 10 insulin-sensitive (IS non-diabetic morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 Caucasians were matched for gender, age, BMI, and percentage of body fat. From subcutaneous fat biopsies, primary preadipocytes were isolated and differentiated to adipocytes in vitro. About 280 metabolites were investigated by a targeted metabolomic approach intracellularly, extracellularly, and in plasma.Among others, aspartate was reduced intracellularly to one third (p = 0.0039 in IR adipocytes, pointing to a relative depletion of citric acid cycle metabolites or reduced aspartate uptake in MUHO. Other amino acids, already known to correlate with diabetes and/or obesity, were identified to differ between MUHO's and MHO's adipocytes, namely glutamine, histidine, and spermidine. Most species of phosphatidylcholines (PCs were lower in MUHO's extracellular milieu, though simultaneously elevated intracellularly, e.g., PC aa C32∶3, pointing to increased PC synthesis and/or reduced PC release. Furthermore, altered arachidonic acid (AA metabolism was found: 15(S-HETE (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; 0 vs. 120pM; p = 0.0014, AA (1.5-fold; p = 0.0055 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22∶6; 2-fold; p = 0.0033 were higher in MUHO. This emphasizes a direct contribution of adipocytes to local adipose tissue inflammation. Elevated DHA, as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, might be a hint for counter-regulatory mechanisms in MUHO.We identified adipocyte-inherent metabolic alterations discriminating between MHO and MUHO.

  6. Acute ingestion of beetroot juice increases exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

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    Juliet L Kroll

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the airways' innate immune response, and the fraction of exhaled NO at a flow rate of 50mL per second (FENO50 has been utilized to capture NO. Deficits in NO are linked to loss of bronchoprotective effects in airway challenges and predict symptoms of respiratory infection. While beetroot juice supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance by increasing dietary nitrate consumption, few studies have examined the impact of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on airway NO in contexts beyond an exercise challenge, which we know influences FENO50.We therefore examined the influence of a beetroot juice supplement on FENO50 in healthy males and females (n = 38 during periods of rest and in normoxic conditions. FENO50, heart rate, blood pressure, and state affect were measured at baseline, 45 minutes, and 90 minutes following ingestion of 70ml beetroot juice (6.5 mmol nitrate. Identical procedures were followed with ingestion of 70ml of water on a control day.After beetroot consumption, average values of the natural log of FENO50 (lnFENO50 increased by 21.3% (Cohen's d = 1.54, p < .001 45 minutes after consumption and by 20.3% (Cohen's d = 1.45, p < .001 90 min after consumption. On the other hand, only very small increases in FENO50 were observed after consumption of the control liquid (less than 1% increase. A small subset (n = 4 of participants completed an extended protocol lasting over 3 hours, where elevated levels of FENO50 persisted. No significant changes in cardiovascular measures were observed with this small single dose of beetroot juice.As NO serves a key role in innate immunity, future research is needed to explore the potential clinical utility of beetroot and dietary nitrate to elevate FENO50 and prevent respiratory infection.

  7. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

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    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  8. Intramuscular temperature changes during and after 2 different cryotherapy interventions in healthy individuals.

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    Rupp, Kimberly A; Herman, Daniel C; Hertel, Jay; Saliba, Susan A

    2012-08-01

    Crossover. To compare the time required to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline temperature, and to compare intramuscular temperature 90 minutes posttreatment, between 2 cryotherapy modalities. Cryotherapy is used to treat pain from muscle injuries. Cooler intramuscular temperatures may reduce cellular metabolism and secondary hypoxic injury to attenuate acute injury response, specifically the rate of chemical mediator activity. Modalities that decrease intramuscular temperature quickly may be beneficial in the treatment of muscle injuries. Eighteen healthy subjects received 2 cryotherapy conditions, crushed-ice bag (CIB) and cold-water immersion (CWI), in a randomly allocated order, separated by 72 hours. Each condition was applied until intramuscular temperature decreased 8°C below baseline. Intramuscular temperature was monitored in the gastrocnemius, 1 cm below subcutaneous adipose tissue. The primary outcome was time to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline. A secondary outcome was intramuscular temperature at the end of a 90-minute rewarming period. Paired t tests were used to examine outcomes. Time to reach an 8°C reduction in intramuscular temperature was not significantly different between CIB and CWI (mean difference, 2.6 minutes; 95% confidence interval: -3.10, 8.30). Intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes post-CWI compared to CIB (mean difference, 2.8°C; 95% confidence interval: 2.07°C, 3.52°C). There was no difference in time required to reduce intramuscular temperature 8°C 1 cm below adipose tissue using CIB and CWI. However, intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes following CWI. These results provide clinicians with information that may guide treatment-modality decisions.

  9. Effects of task structure on category priming in patients with Parkinson's disease and in healthy individuals.

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    Brown, Gregory G; Brown, Sandra J; Christenson, Gina; Williams, Rebecca E; Kindermann, Sandra S; Loftis, Christopher; Olsen, Ryan; Siple, Patricia; Shults, Clifford; Gorell, Jay M

    2002-05-01

    Lexical decision tasks have been used to study both shifts of attention and semantic processing in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Whereas other laboratories have reported normal levels of semantic priming among PD patients, our laboratory has reported abnormally large levels. In this study, two experiments were performed to determine the influence of task structure on the extent of semantic priming during lexical decision-making and pronunciation tasks among PD patients and neurologically healthy controls. In Experiment 1, the effect of Prime Dominance (the ratio of category to neutral trials) on lexical decision-making was studied. Although equal numbers of word and nonword trials were presented, half of the PD patients and controls were studied under Category Prime Dominance (category : neutral prime ratio of 2:1) and half were studied under Neutral Prime Dominance (category : neutral prime ratio of 1:2). In Experiment 2, PD and control participants were studied on lexical decision-making and pronunciation tasks where twice as many words as nonword trials were presented, consistent with other studies from our laboratory. In Experiment 1, we found no group differences in the magnitude of priming and no effect of Prime Dominance. Moreover, the findings were similar in pattern and magnitude to results published by Neely (1977). In Experiment 2, we observed larger priming effects among PD patients than among controls, but only on the lexical decision (LD) task. These results support the hypothesis that abnormally large category-priming effects appear in LD studies of PD patients when the number of word trials exceeds the number of nonword trials. Furthermore, increased lexical priming in PD appears to be due to processes operating during the decision-making period that follows presentation of the lexical target.

  10. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  11. The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: an FMRI investigation.

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    Im Quah-Smith

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As laser acupuncture is being increasingly used to treat mental disorders, we sought to determine whether it has a biologically plausible effect by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the cerebral activation patterns from laser stimulation of relevant acupoints.Ten healthy subjects were randomly stimulated with a fibreoptic infrared laser on 4 acupoints (LR14, CV14, LR8 and HT7 used for depression following the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, and 1 control non-acupoint (sham point in a blocked design (alternating verum laser and placebo laser/rest blocks, while the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI response was recorded from the whole brain on a 3T scanner. Many of the acupoint laser stimulation conditions resulted in different patterns of neural activity. Regions with significantly increased activation included the limbic cortex (cingulate and the frontal lobe (middle and superior frontal gyrus. Laser acupuncture tended to be associated with ipsilateral brain activation and contralateral deactivation that therefore cannot be simply attributed to somatosensory stimulation.We found that laser stimulation of acupoints lead to activation of frontal-limbic-striatal brain regions, with the pattern of neural activity somewhat different for each acupuncture point. This is the first study to investigate laser acupuncture on a group of acupoints useful in the management of depression. Differing activity patterns depending on the acupoint site were demonstrated, suggesting that neurological effects vary with the site of stimulation. The mechanisms of activation and deactivation and their effects on depression warrant further investigation.

  12. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

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    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Lay beliefs on Polish oncology in the evaluation of healthy individuals

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    Małgorzata Synowiec-Piłat

    2017-12-01

    Negative assessment of Polish oncology perpetuates the fear of cancer in society. There is a need for constant improvement of the quality of medical oncology services, for building public trust in physicians, to fight inequalities in health, and to take into account the lay perspectives in developing strategies to combat cancer.

  14. Individual Differences in Spatial Pattern Separation Performance Associated with Healthy Aging in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Shauna M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Rodent studies have suggested that "pattern separation," the ability to distinguish among similar experiences, is diminished in a subset of aged rats. We extended these findings to the human using a task designed to assess spatial pattern separation behavior (determining at time of test whether pairs of pictures shown during the study were in the…

  15. Expression of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 in individuals with healthy gingiva and chronic periodontitis

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    Sivasankari Thilagar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protease-activated receptors (PAR-1 and PAR-2 are found to be immensely exhibited in the periodontal tissues. These receptors are involved in the inflammatory and repair processes. Activation of PARs is mainly by the bacterial and endogenous enzymes. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in initiating periodontal inflammation and to immunolocalize these receptors in the gingival tissues of healthy and chronic periodontitis individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients were selected for this study, of which 25 were healthy controls and 25 were chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival tissues were excised from the marginal gingiva and interdental papilla under local anesthesia (xylocaine with 2% adrenaline during crown lengthening procedure or during periodontal therapy depending on the respective groups. Immunohistochemical analyses of PARs were done by staining the samples with hematoxylin and eosin and with primary and secondary antibody for PAR-1 and PAR-2. Results: The Hematoxylin and Eosin staining showed more inflammatory changes in the periodontitis group compared to healthy gingiva. In chronic periodontitis, PAR-1-positive cells were seen in the basal layer with a weak expression and were showing negative expression in the superficial layer. In consideration of PAR-2, there was a very strong expression up to the superficial layer of the epithelium, compared to PAR-1. On comparing the intensity of staining in the connective tissue of chronic periodontitis sample, there was an increased expression of PAR-2 compared with PAR-1. A low positive expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2 was observed in the epithelium and connective tissue of the healthy tissues. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrated the role of PAR-1 and 2 in periodontal inflammation.

  16. Distribution and phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. subtypes isolated from IBD patients and healthy individuals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Abbasi, M R; Naderi, N; Hasani, Z; Mirsamadi, E S; Stensvold, C R; Balaii, H; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H; Zali, M R

    2017-12-01

    Blastocystis is a single-celled intestinal parasite commonly found in humans and a broad range of animals all over the world. In humans, its role in health and disease remains unsettled. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of Blastocystis and Blastocystis subtypes (ST) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and control subjects. A total of 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients, 69 and 2 of whom had ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD), respectively. Moreover, 166 stool samples from healthy subjects were included as control samples. All stool samples were cultivated, and 550-bp fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified from Blastocystis-positive cultures. All PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Blastocystis was observed in 9 (12.67%) and 35 (21.1%) IBD patients and healthy controls, respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between IBD and presence of Blastocystis (P = 0.147). There was a statistically significant correlation between age and Blastocystis colonization in the IBD group (P patients, respectively, while in the healthy control group, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 were found in 14 (40%), 12 (34.28%), and 9 (25.72%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed no variation in the distribution of subtypes nor intra-subtype genetic diversity between samples acquired from IBD patients and healthy controls. This study showed a trend towards a lower prevalence of Blastocystis in IBD patients than in control subjects. ST3 sequences isolated from IBD patients and control individuals did not appear to differ genetically.

  17. Measurement and validation of measures for impulsive food choice across obese and healthy-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena; Tabor, Ann; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-12-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done. To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis was used. Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise to perform during pregnancy. The intervention was experienced to have benefits on both their physical health and their mental well-being. Crowded swimming pools were perceived as the greatest barrier. It is feasible to perform a RCT using the described intervention. The intervention was accepted by the participants because it supported their desire to be physically active during pregnancy. The main barrier was crowded swimming pools and this issue must be addressed in a future RCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptation of postural recovery responses to a vestibular sensory illusion in individuals with Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark E; Cavanaugh, James T; Foreman, K Bo; Shaffer, Scott W; Marcus, Robin; Dibble, Leland E

    2017-10-01

    The ability to adapt postural responses to sensory illusions diminishes with age and is further impaired by Parkinson disease. However, limited information exists regarding training-related adaptions of sensory reweighting in these populations. This study sought to determine whether Parkinson disease or age would differentially affect acute postural recovery or adaptive postural responses to novel or repeated exposure to sensory illusions using galvanic vestibular stimulation during quiet stance. Acutely, individuals with Parkinson disease demonstrated larger center of pressure coefficient of variation compared to controls. Unlike individuals with Parkinson disease and asymptomatic older adults, healthy young adults acutely demonstrated a reduction in Sample Entropy to the sensory illusion. Following a period of consolidation Sample Entropy increased in the healthy young group, which coincided with a decreased center of pressure coefficient of variation. Similar changes were not observed in the Parkinson disease or older adult groups. Taken together, these results suggest that young adults learn to adapt to vestibular illusion in a more robust manner than older adults or those with Parkinson disease. Further investigation into the nature of this adaptive difference is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection among healthy individuals referred to the medical center laboratories in Tehran City, Capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Baghani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. Humans’ infection occurred by incidental ingestion of eggs shed in feces of dogs or cats. Studies on general population are rare in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated seroprevalence, and risk factors associated with toxocariasis among the healthy individuals in Tehran, capital if Iran.Materials and Methods: In total, 374 sera samples were investigated for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG. We applied ELISA as screening test using available commercial kit. In addition, demographic data were obtained from participant’s questionnaires. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16.Results: The overall seroprevalence of toxocariasis was found 5.6% (21/374. Regarding the socio-demographic variables, age (P<0.001 and eating unwashed vegetables (P=0.049 were significantly associated to toxocariasis in univariate analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, only age (P<0.001 was identified as potential risk factor associated with Toxocara infection.Conclusion: This study revealed that seroprevalence of toxocariasis is relatively low in the healthy individuals in Tehran. We suggest carrying out further studies in the different part of Iran and investigate on the prevalence of toxocariasis in high-risk groups such as asthma, hyper-eosinophilic, epilepsy, rheumatism and schizophrenia patients.

  1. Lay beliefs on Polish oncology in the evaluation of healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synowiec-Piłat, Małgorzata

    2017-12-23

    Poland is among the countries which reported the highest rates of mortality from cancer. The health behaviours of people are influenced, among other things, by their beliefs about cancer, but their evaluation of oncological institutions and specialists seems also to be of great importance. Objectives. 1. How the respondents evaluate Polish oncology: a) the conditions of treatment in oncology hospitals, b) access to oncological medical services, c) the competence of oncologists. 2. What are the socio-cultural factors of the assessment of Polish oncology? 3. What is the influence of the grade level of the assessment of Polish oncology on the degree of fear and the knowledge about cancer? The study was carried out with a sample of 910 adult residents of Wroclaw in south-west Poland. Quota sampling was used. An interview questionnaire was used as the method. Analysis of the data showed a negative image of Polish oncology, according to the study participants: dissatisfaction with both treatment conditions and with access to medical services. Assessment of Polish oncology depends primarily on education, age and economic situation, as well as 'family history of cancer', and attitude towards doctors. The lower the rating of Polish oncology, the lower the medical knowledge, and the higher the level of fear of cancer. Negative assessment of Polish oncology perpetuates the fear of cancer in society. There is a need for constant improvement of the quality of medical oncology services, for building public trust in physicians, to fight inequalities in health, and to take into account the lay perspectives in developing strategies to combat cancer.

  2. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals: cocoa instead of ambrosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2006-06-01

    Cocoa has been consumed for at least 2500 years, and for long time it has been regarded as a medicine. Arterial function is of paramount importance for the proper function and integrity of the cardiovascular system. Dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa have beneficial acute and short-term effects on endothelial function and wave reflections in normal individuals, in adults with cardiovascular risk factors, and in patients with coronary artery disease. Furthermore, dark chocolate and flavonoid-rich cocoa may have a blood pressure-lowering effect. These effects can be attributed to flavonoids and are mainly mediated through increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether these effects of chocolate on arterial function are translated into clinical benefit.

  3. Assessment of lower limbs edema in healthy workers who are exposed to long-term gravity

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    Mirko Tessari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish changes in leg volumes in healthy subjects (HS after prolonged standing and prolonged lying. The study was carried out on two HS groups: the group A (20 subjects included physicians and nurses who underwent a water plethysmography test, before and after eight hours of standing still in the operating room. The group B (20 subjects included volunteers who were assessed before and after 10 h of supine resting. Group A: baseline leg volume was 1857.5 mL±196.9 on the right and 1850 mL±194.7 on the left limb. After eight hours of hydrostatic pressure action the two lower limbs volume was significantly increased to 1945 mL±209.6, and to 1940 mL±216.2, respectively (P<0.0001. The increased volume is significantly correlated with time (R2=0.95, P<0.0001. Group B: baseline leg volume was 1875 mL±175.1 on the right, and 1862.5 mL±166.9 on the left limb. After ten hours of resting supine the volume was 1770 mL±195.6, and to 1757.5 mL±194.2, respectively (P<0.0001. The decreased volume is significantly but inverted correlated with time (R2=−0.98, P<0.0001. This study demonstrates how the hydrostatic pressure is a main determinant for fluid accumulation in the lower extremity. To counteract the gravitational gradient becomes the mandatory prophylactic approach for healthy individuals who are exposed to an increased chronic venous disease risk.

  4. Assessing visuospatial abilities in healthy aging: A novel visuomotor task

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    Natalie eDe Bruin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18-25 years and older adults (60-82 years to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualisation abilities were assessed. The results showed that the time taken to complete the tasks increased with increased mental rotation complexity. Patterns of hand use were also influenced by the complexity of the models being constructed with right hand use being greater for the less complex models. In addition, although older adults consistently performed the visuomotor tasks slower than the younger adults, their performance was comparable when expressed as the percent change in task demands. This is suggestive that spatial abilities are preserved in older adults. Given the ecologically validity, the described task is an excellent candidate for investigating (1 developmental, (2 sex-based and (3 pathology-based differences in spatial abilities in the visuomotor domain.

  5. Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.

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    Wurster, Sebastian; Weis, Philipp; Page, Lukas; Helm, Johanna; Lazariotou, Maria; Einsele, Hermann; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154 + A. fumigatus reactive T cells were evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers. All subjects completed a standardised questionnaire addressing their mould exposure. Subjects with intensive mould exposure in their professional or residential surrounding demonstrated considerably higher mean frequencies of A. fumigatus reactive T-helper and T-memory cells. Comparative evaluation of multiple measurements over time demonstrated relatively conserved reactive T-cell frequencies in the absence of major changes to the exposure profile, whereas those frequently exposed in professional environment or with changes to their risk score demonstrated a marked dependency of antigen reactive T-cell frequencies on recent mould exposure. This pilot study was the first to provide data on the intra-individual variability in A. fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies and its linkage to mould encounter. Fungus reactive T cells are to be considered a valued tool for the assessment of environmental mould exposure. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

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    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  7. Towards precision prevention: Technologies for identifying healthy individuals with high risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Zachary D; Engelward, Bevin P; Brenner, David J; Begley, Thomas J; Sobol, Robert W; Bielas, Jason H; Stambrook, Peter J; Wei, Qingyi; Hu, Jennifer J; Terry, Mary Beth; Dilworth, Caroline; McAllister, Kimberly A; Reinlib, Les; Worth, Leroy; Shaughnessy, Daniel T

    2017-08-01

    The rise of advanced technologies for characterizing human populations at the molecular level, from sequence to function, is shifting disease prevention paradigms toward personalized strategies. Because minimization of adverse outcomes is a key driver for treatment decisions for diseased populations, developing personalized therapy strategies represent an important dimension of both precision medicine and personalized prevention. In this commentary, we highlight recently developed enabling technologies in the field of DNA damage, DNA repair, and mutagenesis. We propose that omics approaches and functional assays can be integrated into population studies that fuse basic, translational and clinical research with commercial expertise in order to accelerate personalized prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases linked to aberrant responses to DNA damage. This collaborative approach is generally applicable to efforts to develop data-driven, individualized prevention and treatment strategies for other diseases. We also recommend strategies for maximizing the use of biological samples for epidemiological studies, and for applying emerging technologies to clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

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    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  9. Older Adults Co-Creating Meaningful Individualized Social Activities Online for Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusi, Madeleine; Nilsson, Ingeborg; Lindgren, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Social isolation and loneliness among older people is a growing problem with negative effects on physical and mental health. In co-creation with older adults individualized social activities were designed where older adults through computer mediated communication were able to participate in social activities without leaving their homes. Four types of activities were designed; outdoor activity, music event, visiting a friend and leisure activity. A participatory action research design was applied, where end users together with scientists from two research fields developed, tested and evaluated online participation in the activities. Usability and safety of the systems were major concerns among older adults. The evaluation pointed out that level of simplicity, usability and audio-video quality determined the level of satisfaction with the human interaction during the activity, thereby affecting the meaningfulness of the activity. The research presented in this paper constitutes the first step in a long-term research process aiming at developing a digital coaching system that gives older adults personalized support for increasing participation in meaningful social activities.

  10. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  11. Improving introspection to inform free will regarding the choice by healthy individuals to use or not use cognitive enhancing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, David S

    2009-06-16

    A commentary in Nature entitled "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy" (Greely et al 2008 Nature 456: 702-705) offers an opportunity to move toward a humane societal appreciation of mind-altering drugs. Using cognitive enhancing drugs as an exemplar, this article presents a series of hypotheses concerning how an individual might learn optimal use. The essence of the proposal is that individuals can cultivate sensitivity to the effects of ever-smaller amounts of psychoactive drugs thereby making harm less likely and benign effects more probable. Four interrelated hypotheses are presented and briefly discussed. 1. Humans can learn to discriminate ever-smaller doses of at least some mind-altering drugs; a learning program can be designed or discovered that will have this outcome. 2. The skill to discriminate drugs and dose can be generalized, i.e. if learned with one drug a second one is easier and so on. 3. Cultivating this skill/knack would be beneficial in leading to choices informed by a more accurate sense of mind-body interactions. 4. From a philosophical point of view learning the effects of ever-smaller doses of psychoactive agents offers a novel path into and to transcend the objective/subjective barrier and the mind/body problem.Whatever the fate of these specific hypotheses, discussion of cognitive enhancing drugs for healthy individuals has the potential to inspire innovative educational and public policy initiatives toward all types of mind-altering drugs and the people who use them.

  12. Improving introspection to inform free will regarding the choice by healthy individuals to use or not use cognitive enhancing drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A commentary in Nature entitled "Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy" (Greely et al 2008 Nature 456: 702–705 offers an opportunity to move toward a humane societal appreciation of mind-altering drugs. Using cognitive enhancing drugs as an exemplar, this article presents a series of hypotheses concerning how an individual might learn optimal use. The essence of the proposal is that individuals can cultivate sensitivity to the effects of ever-smaller amounts of psychoactive drugs thereby making harm less likely and benign effects more probable. Four interrelated hypotheses are presented and briefly discussed. 1. Humans can learn to discriminate ever-smaller doses of at least some mind-altering drugs; a learning program can be designed or discovered that will have this outcome. 2. The skill to discriminate drugs and dose can be generalized, i.e. if learned with one drug a second one is easier and so on. 3. Cultivating this skill/knack would be beneficial in leading to choices informed by a more accurate sense of mind-body interactions. 4. From a philosophical point of view learning the effects of ever-smaller doses of psychoactive agents offers a novel path into and to transcend the objective/subjective barrier and the mind/body problem. Whatever the fate of these specific hypotheses, discussion of cognitive enhancing drugs for healthy individuals has the potential to inspire innovative educational and public policy initiatives toward all types of mind-altering drugs and the people who use them.

  13. The comparison of mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiography between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeintaghavi, Amir; Hosseinizarch, Hossein; Tabassi, Sara Mohammadzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are two separate diseases with different origins and manifestations. It is believed that these diseases linked together, because they both lead to bone damage, some risk factors are similar, they both have the highest prevalence in middle-aged and older women. Some studies showed that the use of panoramic radiography and special indices could be reliable tools for osteoporosis screening. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and jaw osteoporotic indices. Eighty-two patients with chronic periodontitis and 80 healthy individuals were selected, they had been referred to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic to take a panoramic radiograph. Then panoramic indicators; including the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), and panoramic mandible index (PMI) in both groups were measured, recorded and analyzed. The mean age of investigated individuals was 39/8 ± 9/33. 58.6% of participants were females and 41.4% were males. MI and PMI levels in the periodontal group were more than the periodontally healthy group, but the differences between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.808 and p = 0.102 respectively). The MCI level was significantly different between two groups (p = 0.028). The results of this study showed that there is significant relationship between MCI in panoramic radiography and chronic periodontitis. It is suggested to perform more studies to confrm if this index could be used for screening and indicating of bone status in high risk individuals. This study did not show a strong evidence of a relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis. Since panoramic radiographs are routinely used for screening in dental practice, any association between radiomorphometric indices of mandible in periodontitis patients might be useful in prediction of osteoporosis in patients referring to dental clinics.

  14. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

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    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  15. Dietary sorbitol and mannitol: food content and distinct absorption patterns between healthy individuals and patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C K; Tan, H-L; van Langenberg, D R; Barrett, J S; Rose, R; Liels, K; Gibson, P R; Muir, J G

    2014-04-01

    Sorbitol and mannitol are naturally-occurring polyol isomers. Although poor absorption and induction of gastrointestinal symptoms by sorbitol are known, the properties of mannitol are poorly described. We aimed to expand data on food composition of these polyols, and to compare their absorptive capacities and symptom induction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy individuals. Food samples were analysed for sorbitol and mannitol content. The degree of absorption measured by breath hydrogen production and gastrointestinal symptoms (visual analogue scales) was evaluated in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 21 healthy and 20 IBS subjects after challenges with 10 g of sorbitol, mannitol or glucose. Certain fruits and sugar-free gum contained sorbitol, whereas mannitol content was higher in certain vegetables. Similar proportions of patients with IBS (40%) and healthy subjects (33%) completely absorbed sorbitol, although more so with IBS absorbed mannitol (80% versus 43%; P = 0.02). Breath hydrogen production was similar in both groups after lactulose but was reduced in patients with IBS after both polyols. No difference in mean (SEM) hydrogen production was found in healthy controls after sorbitol [area-under-the-curve: 2766 (591) ppm 4 h(-1) ] or mannitol [2062 (468) ppm 4 h(-1) ] but, in patients with IBS, this was greater after sorbitol [1136 (204) ppm 4 h(-1) ] than mannitol [404 (154) ppm 4 h(-1) ; P = 0.002]. Overall gastrointestinal symptoms increased significantly after both polyols in patients with IBS only, although they were independent of malabsorption of either of the polyols. Increased and discordant absorption of mannitol and sorbitol occurs in patients with IBS compared to that in healthy controls. Polyols induced gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS independently of their absorptive patterns, suggesting that the dietary restriction of polyols may be efficacious. © 2013 The

  16. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  17. A prospective study (SCOPE) comparing the cardiometabolic and respiratory effects of air pollution exposure on healthy and pre-diabetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwen; Han, Yiqun; Zhu, Tong; Li, Weiju; Zhang, Hongyin

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is known to be a major risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease, but this is unclear for cardiometabolic disease (e.g. diabetes). This is of considerable public health importance, given the nationwide epidemic of diabetes, accompanied by severe air pollution, in China. The evidence so far remained inadequate to answer questions of whether individuals with cardiometabolic dysfunctions are susceptible to air pollution and whether air pollution exacerbates diabetes development via certain biological pathways. In this manuscript, we summarize the results and limitations of studies exploring these two topics and elaborate our design of a prospective panel study (SCOPE) as a solution. We assessed and compared the health effect of air pollution among pre-diabetic individuals and matched healthy controls through four repeated clinical visits over 1 year. Comprehensive evaluation was made to both health endpoints and exposure. The primary biomarkers were assessed to reveal the impact on multiple biological pathways, including glycolipid metabolism and insulin resistance, endothelial function, and inflammation. Detailed chemical and size fractional components of particulate matter were measured in this study, along with the application of personal monitors. The work should increase our understanding of how air pollution affects individuals with cardiometabolic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms.

  18. Changes in self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being in healthy individuals following a Taiji beginner course - Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schitter, Agnes Maria; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Taiji is a mind-body practice being increasingly investigated for its therapeutic benefits in a broad range of mental and physical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential preventive effects of Taiji practice in healthy individuals with regard to their depressive symptomatology and physical well-being. Seventy healthy Taiji novices were randomly assigned to a Taiji intervention group, that is, Taiji beginner course (Yang-Style Taiji, 2 h per week, 12 weeks) or a control group comprised of the waiting list for the course. Self-reported symptoms of depression (CES-D) and physical well-being (FEW-16) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, as well as 2 months later. The included participants had a mean age of 35.5 years. Physical well-being in the Taiji group significantly increased when comparing baseline to follow-up (FEW-16 sum score T(27) = 3.94, P = 0.001, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.55). Pearson's correlation coefficients displayed a strong negative relationship between self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being (P's healthy individuals, with improvements pronouncing over time. Physical well-being was shown to have a strong relationship with depressive symptoms. Based on these results, the consideration of Taiji as one therapeutic option in the development of multimodal approaches in the prevention of depression seems justifiable.

  19. Adaptive metabolic response to 4 weeks of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in healthy, lightly active individuals and chronic high glucose availability in primary human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Jackson, Matthew J; Squillace, Cesare; Shepherd, Anthony; Moore, Jonathan P; Ayer, Donald E; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-01

    Chronic sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycaemia contributes to metabolic alterations observed in T2DM, such as reduced oxidative capacity and elevated glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme expressions in skeletal muscle tissue. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alterations induced by SSB supplementation in healthy individuals and to compare these with the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on primary muscle cell cultures. Lightly active, healthy, lean subjects (n = 11) with sporadic soft drink consumption underwent a 4-week SSB supplementation (140 ± 15 g/day, ~2 g glucose/kg body weight/day, glucose syrup). Before and after the intervention, body composition, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), insulin sensitivity, muscle metabolic gene and protein expression were assessed. Adaptive responses to hyperglycaemia (7 days, 15 mM) were tested in primary human myotubes. SSB supplementation increased fat mass (+1.0 kg, P < 0.05), fasting RER (+0.12, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (+0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and muscle GAPDH mRNA expressions (+0.94 AU, P < 0.05). PGC1α mRNA was reduced (-0.20 AU, P < 0.05). Trends were found for insulin resistance (+0.16 mU/L, P = 0.09), and MondoA protein levels (+1.58 AU, P = 0.08). Primary myotubes showed elevations in GAPDH, ACC, MondoA and TXNIP protein expressions (P < 0.05). Four weeks of SSB supplementation in healthy individuals shifted substrate metabolism towards carbohydrates, increasing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression and reducing mitochondrial markers. Glucose-sensing protein MondoA might contribute to this shift, although further in vivo evidence is needed to corroborate this.

  20. Sunlight exposure behaviour and vitamin D status in photosensitive patients: longitudinal comparative study with healthy individuals at U.K. latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, L E; Webb, A R; Berry, J L; Felton, S J; Marjanovic, E J; Wilkinson, J D; Vail, A; Kift, R

    2014-12-01

    Low vitamin D status is prevalent in wintertime in populations at northerly latitudes. Photosensitive patients are advised to practise sun avoidance, but their sunlight exposure levels, photoprotective measures and resulting vitamin D status are unknown. To examine seasonal vitamin D status in photosensitive patients relative to healthy individuals and to assess quantitatively behavioural and demographic contributors. This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study (53·5°N) examining year-round 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, sun-exposure behaviour and oral vitamin D intake in photosensitive patients diagnosed at a photoinvestigation unit (n = 53), compared with concurrently assessed healthy adults (n = 109). Photosensitive patients achieved seasonal 25(OH)D variation, but insufficient (vitamin D intake was low in both groups (photosensitive: 2·94 μg per day). Supplementation and summer surface area exposure predicted summer peak and winter trough 25(OH)D levels. A 1 μg per day increment in supplementary vitamin D raised summer and winter 25(OH)D by 5% (95% CI 3-7) and 9% (95% CI 5-12), respectively (both P vitamin D status. Guidance on oral measures should target this patient group and their physicians. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Communication Skills assessed at OSCE are not affected by Participation in the Adolescent Healthy Sexuality Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Penava

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed that first year medical students who voluntarily participated in the Healthy Sexuality adolescent program would perform better than their peers on an adolescent counseling station at the year-end OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In addition we compared medical students’ communication skills at the time of the program as assessed by self, peers and participating adolescents. Methods: Nineteen first year medical students voluntarily participated in the ongoing Healthy Sexuality program. Adolescent participants, medical student peer participants and medical students assessed communication components on a 7-point Likert scale at the end of the program. At the year-end OSCE, all first year medical students at the University of Western Ontario were assessed at an adolescent counseling station by a standardized patient (SP and a physician examiner. Statistical analysis examined differences between the two groups. Results: Students who participated in the Healthy Sexuality program did not perform better than their colleagues on the year-end OSCE. A statistically significant correlation between physician examiner and SP evaluations was found (r = 0.62. Adolescent participants communication skills assessments in the Healthy Sexuality Program demonstrated no significant correlation with medical student assessments (self or peer. Conclusions:Voluntary intervention with adolescents did not result in improved communication skills at the structured year-end examination. Further investigation will be directed towards delineating differences between SP and physician examiner assessments.

  2. Brain control of volitional ankle tasks in people with chronic stroke and in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, L D; Massé-Alarie, H; Brouwer, B; Schneider, C

    2014-03-15

    This study explored the relationships between motor cortical control of ankle dorsiflexors and clinical impairments of volitional ankle dorsiflexion in people with chronic stroke. Eighteen persons with stroke and 14 controls were evaluated. Clinical tools were used to assess ankle dorsiflexion amplitude and isometric strength. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) tested the functional integrity of cortical circuits controlling the tibialis anterior (TA). All clinical scores and most TMS outcomes were impaired in people with chronic stroke. The lower clinical scores were related to the reduction of the strength of corticospinal projections onto spinal motoneurons. Concurrent TMS and clinical testing in chronic stroke provided original data demonstrating relationships between the integrity of cortical and corticospinal components of TA motor control and volitional ankle tasks. Our study proposes that volitional ankle mobilization in chronic stroke may be explained by the residual abnormal M1 circuits which may be responsive for rehabilitation intervention. This should be confirmed in longitudinal studies with larger samples to determine whether TMS outcomes associated with lower limb muscles are predictive of clinical changes or vice versa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of Curcumin and THC in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated from Healthy Individuals and Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Gordon T; Licollari, Albert; Tan, Aimin; Greil, Richard; Pleyer, Lisa; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammad; Sordillo, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim: Curcumin is being widely investigated for its anticancer properties and studies in the literature suggest that curcumin distributes to a higher degree in tumor versus non-tumor cells. In the current study, we report on investigation of the distribution of curcumin and metabolism to THC in PBMC from healthy individuals and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients following exposure to Lipocurc™ (liposomal curcumin). Materials and Methods: The time and temperature-dependent distribution of liposomal curcumin and metabolism to tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) were measured in vitro in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy individuals, PBMC HI (cryopreserved and freshly isolated PBMC) and CLL patients (cryopreserved PBMC) with lymphocyte counts ranging from 17-58×10 6 cells/ml (PBMC CLL,Grp 1 ) and >150×10 6 cells/ml (PBMC CLL,Grp 2 ). PBMC were incubated in plasma protein supplemented media with Lipocurc™ for 2-16 min at 37°C and 4°C and the cell and medium levels of curcumin determined by LC-MS/MS. Results: PBMC from CLL patients displayed a 2.2-2.6-fold higher distribution of curcumin compared to PBMC HI Curcumin distribution into PBMCCLL, Grp 1/Grp 2 ranged from 384.75 - 574.50 ng/g w.w. of cell pellet and was greater compared to PBMC HI that ranged from 122.27-220.59 ng/g w.w. of cell pellet following incubation for up to 15-16 min at 37°C. The distribution of curcumin into PBMC CLL,Grp 2 was time-dependent in comparison to PBMC HI which did not display a time-dependence and there was no temperature-dependence for curcumin distribution in either cell type. Curcumin was metabolized to THC in PBMC. The metabolism of curcumin to THC was not markedly different between PBMC HI (range=23.94-42.04 ng/g w.w. cell pellet) and PBMC CLL,Grp 1/Grp 2 (range=23.08-48.22 ng/g. w.w. cell pellet). However, a significantly greater time and temperature-dependence was noted for THC in PBMC CLL,Grp 2 compared to PBMC HI Conclusion

  4. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Susan; Benson-Davies, Sue; Earthman, Carrie P; Frankenfield, David C; Gradwell, Erica; Lee, Peggy S P; Piemonte, Tami; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the

  5. Six-day stability of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in-vitro: a comparison of blood samples from healthy, iron-deficient, and thalassemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmann-Day, Åshild A; Piehler, Armin; Klingenberg, Olav; Urdal, Petter

    2015-05-01

    Stability for up to 6 days' storage of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in samples from iron-deficient and thalassemic individuals has not yet been reported. This lack of knowledge challenges evaluation of the full blood count in referral samples for hemoglobinopathy evaluation. We therefore hereby present such sample stability data. We included fresh (less than 4 hours old) blood samples from eight healthy, eight iron-deficient, and 11 thalassemic individuals. A full blood count, including reticulocyte parameters, was performed on a Sysmex XE-2100 once daily during a 6-day storage period at room temperature. For healthy individuals, we also studied stability of refrigerated samples and investigated analytical and biological variation. Hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were stable for 6 days in all diagnostic groups. Mean corpuscular volume increased less in samples from iron-deficient individuals while the number of reticulocytes increased more in samples from thalassemic, as compared to healthy individuals. Ret-He stability depended on its baseline value. Within-person biological variation in samples from healthy individuals was low both for erythrocyte parameters and for reticulocyte hemoglobin, while higher for reticulocyte counts. Results for hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin are reliable in hemoglobinopathy investigation of referred samples for up to 6 days. Storage time-dependent changes of other erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in blood samples from iron-deficient and thalassemic individuals differ from those of healthy individuals.

  6. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Goorhuis, A.; Jonker, E. F. F.; de Bree, G. J.; de Visser, A. W.; van Genderen, P. J. J.; Remmerswaal, E. B. M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Visser, L. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; van Leeuwen, E. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen

  7. The impact of the Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants' capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group.

  8. The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Methods: Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants’ capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). Results: The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group. PMID:25780470

  9. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  10. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Fabiane L F Z; Nitsch, Taís M; Vilela, Maria Marluce S; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C

    2015-01-01

    To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with healthy children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values<0.05. Serum albumin levels were higher (p<0.0001) in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p<0.0001). For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p=0.002) only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p<0.0001) in AML patients. It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were higher (p < 0.0001 in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p < 0.0001. For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p = 0.002 only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p < 0.0001 in AML patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  12. AN INVESTIGATION OF A REFERENCE POSTURE USED IN DETERMINING REARFOOT KINEMATICS FOR BOTH HEALTHY AND PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazit Levinger

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a reference posture is important when investigating rearfoot motion in clinical populations. The reference posture used may affect the magnitude of the peak angles and therefore may not enable comparison of the rearfoot kinematics across different populations. This study examined the relationship between the rearfoot frontal plane pattern of motion and three reference postures during the stance phase of walking in healthy and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS subjects. The three reference postures investigated were: Relaxed Standing posture, subtalar joint neutral position (STJN and when the calcaneus and the lower leg were vertically aligned (Vertical Alignment. The rearfoot inversion/eversion during the stance phase was measured in 14 healthy subjects and 13 subjects with diagnosed PFPS using three dimensional motion analysis with the three different reference postures. The graphs of rearfoot inversion/eversion motion were overlaid with the angle at the rearfoot in the static posture and any intersection between the static angle and rearfoot motion was noted. An ANOVA showed significant differences in static posture between the groups for Relaxed Standing (p = 0.01, and STJN (p = 0.02. For both groups, with Relaxed Standing as a reference posture, the mean rearfoot pattern of motion did not intersect the Relaxed Standing static angle during the stance phase. The use of Vertical Alignment reference posture, however, showed an intersection of this reference posture through the rearfoot pattern of motion. The use of the Vertical Alignment reference posture also generated a typical rearfoot motion pattern for both groups and therefore it may be an appropriate reference posture for both healthy and PFPS individuals

  13. Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, T.; Abbassi, A.; Khan, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Early detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted from January 2015 to July 2015 at Dow University Hospital, Ojha campus. Methodology: A screening method was designed for apparently healthy individuals including attendants of patients, hospital staff, faculty and students, belonging to age group 18-60 years after excluding severe obesity and already diagnosed respiratory and cardiovascular diseases by means of history. Each participant performed pulmonary function tests via spirometer after filling a questionnaire based on various risk factors and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data was entered and analysed by SPSS-20. Results: Out of the 517 participants, 122 (23.6%) were found to have COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry. Out of these, 23 (4.4%) had COPD stage I, 42 (8.1%) had COPD II, 34 (6.6%) had COPD III, and 23 (4.4%) had COPD IV. Exposure to smoking, wooden stoves, pesticides, biomass fuel, aerosol sprays, gas grill and vehicle exhaust were found to be statistically significant factors in relation to development of COPD. Conclusion: Apparently healthy individuals may have underlying COPD and active screening by means of spirometry plays vital role in early detection of COPD. Smoking and exposure to certain hazardous environmental pollutants are responsible for the development and progression of COPD. (author)

  14. Measurement of portal blood flow in healthy individuals: a comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Juliana Dantas da; Sebastiane, Patricia Moreno; Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao; Moulin, Danilo Sales; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inter-observer agreement between Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the quantification of portal blood flow in healthy individuals, as well as evaluating the reproducibility of both methods. Materials and methods: A prospective, transverse, observational and self-paired study was developed evaluating 20 healthy volunteers whose portal blood flow was measured by means of Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging performed by two independent observers. Interobserver and inter method agreements were calculated using the intra class and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results: The agreement between Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging was low (intra class coefficient: 1.9%-18.2%; Pearson's coefficient: 0.1%-13.7%; p=0.565). Mean values for the portal blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging were respectively 0.768 l/min and 0.742 l/min. Interobserver agreement for quantification of the portal blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging was respectively reasonable (intra class coefficient: 43.3%; Pearson's coefficient: 43.0%) and excellent (intra class coefficient: 91.4%; Pearson's coefficient: 93.4%). Conclusion: In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated to be a reliable method for quantifying the portal blood flow, with a higher interobserver agreement than Doppler ultrasonography. The inter method agreement was low. (author)

  15. Smoking reduces circulating CD26hi CD161hi MAIT cells in healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Börnsen, Lars; Romme Christensen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Upon chronic cigarette smoke exposure, inhaled antigens and irritants cause altered lung immune homeostasis. Circulating immune cells are affected, and smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing various disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was conducted......-induced proliferation and cytokine secretion in smokers and nonsmokers in a cohort of 100 healthy individuals (HI). In addition, we analyzed immune cell subsets associated with smoking in 2 independent cohorts of patients with MS. In HI smokers compared with nonsmokers, we found increased blood cell counts...... to determine the impact of smoking on circulating immune cell subsets. Furthermore, we determined whether any smoking-associated changes were related to MS. With the use of flow cytometry, CFSE assays, and ELISpot assays, we analyzed circulating immune cell phenotypes and quantified antigen...

  16. Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on neural activation during the n-back in healthy individuals: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goozee, Rhianna; Reinders, Antje A T S; Handley, Rowena; Marques, Tiago; Taylor, Heather; O'Daly, Owen; McQueen, Grant; Hubbard, Kathryn; Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Antipsychotic drugs target neurotransmitter systems that play key roles in working memory. Therefore, they may be expected to modulate this cognitive function via their actions at receptors for these neurotransmitters. However, the precise effects of antipsychotic drugs on working memory function remain unclear. Most studies have been carried out in clinical populations, making it difficult to disentangle pharmacological effects from pathology-related brain activation. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of two antipsychotic compounds on brain activation during working memory in healthy individuals. This would allow elucidation of the effects of current antipsychotic treatments on brain function, independently of either previous antipsychotic use or disease-related pathology. We carried out a fully counterbalanced, randomised within-subject, double-blinded and placebo-controlled, cross-over study of the effects of two antipsychotic drugs on working memory function in 17 healthy individuals, using the n-back task. Participants completed the functional MRI task on three separate occasions (in randomised order): following placebo, haloperidol, and aripiprazole. For each condition, working memory ability was investigated, and maps of neural activation were entered into a random effects general linear regression model to investigate main working memory function and linear load. Voxel-wise and region of interest analyses were conducted to attain regions of altered brain activation for each intervention. Aripiprazole did not lead to any changes in neural activation compared with placebo. However, reaction time to a correct response was significantly increased following aripiprazole compared to both placebo (p=0.046) and haloperidol (p=0.02). In contrast, compared to placebo, haloperidol dampened activation in parietal (BA 7/40; left: FWE-corr. p=0.005; FWE-corr. right: p=0.007) and frontal (including prefrontal; BA 9/44/46; left: FWE-corr. p=0.009; right: FWE

  17. A comparative analysis of the postural and diurnal ocular perfusion pressure of young healthy individuals of different ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin J. Munsamy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP regulates the flow of blood to the optic nerve and is determined by the interaction between intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure (BP. Low OPP increases the incidence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. The aim is to compare the diurnal (i.e. morning vs. afternoon and postural (i.e. seated vs. supine OPP in healthy individuals from different ethnicities aged between 18 and 30 years. Methodology: Averaged IOP and BP measurements were obtained with an ICare rebound tonometer and an automated sphygmomanometer, respectively. Measurements were taken in the morning and afternoon, in the supine and seated positions in healthy young adults: Africans (n = 10, white people (n = 10, mixed-race people (n = 10 and Indians (n = 10. Results: The whole sample (N = 40 displayed a statistically significant reduction in postural and diurnal OPP both in the supine position and in the morning, respectively. A comparative analysis revealed that Africans displayed statistically significant reduction in OPP when compared to other ethnicities. Discussion: A change in posture to the supine position has a greater impact on the reduction of OPP when compared to diurnal changes. Africans displayed clinically significant reduction in OPP which may increase the incidence of POAG in this ethnicity at an early age. Conclusion: Our findings question whether OPP should be considered as a biomarker in the dark-skinned individuals. An evaluation of BP and IOP in the supine position is recommended for all patients to obtain more conclusive readings.

  18. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual Performance: From Common Source Bias to Institutionalized Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Heinesen, Eskil; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    theory and the sociology of professions. Empirically, we ask whether different measures of individual performance produce different results. The investigated performance measures vary with regard to risk of common data source bias, standardization of assessment criteria, and external verification...... dimension for the same teachers: the teachers' self-reported contributions to students' academic skills, the students' marks for the year's work given by the teacher, marks in oral exams with one external examiner and the teacher, and marks in written exams with at least one external examiner....... The associations are systematically stronger when the performance measure comes from the same data source as the explanatory variables, but when separate data sources are used and the measurement scale is institutionalized, the level of external verification does not matter much. Based on institutional theory...

  20. X-rays individual dose assessment using TLD dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in Embalse NPP for measuring individual X-ray dose in dentists and radiologists, who work in areas near the plant. Personnel is provided with TLD personal dosimeters for thoracic use, as well as TLD ring dosimeters. This individual X-ray dosimetry is fundamental in order to know the effective energy coming from the radiation field, since the dosimetry factors depend on it. On the other hand, the response of the TLD crystals also depends of the effective energy; this accentuates the problem when assessing the individual dose. The X-ray dosimeter must simultaneously determine the value of the effective energy and the corresponding dose value. The basic principle for determining effective energy is by using at least two different TLD materials covered by filters of different thickness. The TLD materials used have totally energy responses. Therefore, different readouts from each of the crystals are obtained. The ratio between both readouts provides a factor that depends of the effective energy but that is 'independent' from the exposure values irradiated to the dosimeter. The Personal TLD dosimeter currently in use is Bicron-Harshaw. It comprises a carrier model 8807. This carrier contains a card model 2211 which groups two TLD 200 crystals and two TLD 100 crystals. It has internal filters at each side of the TLD 200 crystals. The periodical calibration of these dosimeters consists in the irradiation of some dosimeters with different X-ray energy beams in the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). This dosimeter was used, by the National Regulatory Authority (ARN) in several comparisons, always getting satisfactory results. (author)

  1. Assessing Precision in Conventional Field Measurements of Individual Tree Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Luoma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest resource information has a hierarchical structure: individual tree attributes are summed at the plot level and then in turn, plot-level estimates are used to derive stand or large-area estimates of forest resources. Due to this hierarchy, it is imperative that individual tree attributes are measured with accuracy and precision. With the widespread use of different measurement tools, it is also important to understand the expected degree of precision associated with these measurements. The most prevalent tree attributes measured in the field are tree species, stem diameter-at-breast-height (dbh, and tree height. For dbh and height, the most commonly used measuring devices are calipers and clinometers, respectively. The aim of our study was to characterize the precision of individual tree dbh and height measurements in boreal forest conditions when using calipers and clinometers. The data consisted of 319 sample trees at a study area in Evo, southern Finland. The sample trees were measured independently by four trained mensurationists. The standard deviation in tree dbh and height measurements was 0.3 cm (1.5% and 0.5 m (2.9%, respectively. Precision was also assessed by tree species and tree size classes; however, there were no statistically significant differences between the mensurationists for dbh or height measurements. Our study offers insights into the expected precision of tree dbh and height as measured with the most commonly used devices. These results are important when using sample plot data in forest inventory applications, especially now, at a time when new tree attribute measurement techniques based on remote sensing are being developed and compared to the conventional caliper and clinometer measurements.

  2. New and Improved T-wave Morphology Parameters to Differentiate Healthy Individuals from those with Cardiomyopathy and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, E. C.; Schlegel, T. T.; Arenare, B.; DePalma, J. L.; Starc, V.; Rahman, M. A.; Delgado, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the ability of several known as well as new ECG repolarization parameters to differentiate healthy individuals from patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CM). Advanced high-fidelity 12-lead ECG tests (approx. 5-min supine) were first performed on a "training set" of 99 individuals: 33 with ischemic or dilated CM and low ejection fraction (EF less than 40%); 33 with catheterization-proven obstructive CAD but normal EF; and 33 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. The following multiple parameters of T-wave morphology (TWM) were derived via signal averaging and singular value decomposition (SVD, which yields 8 eigenvalues, rho(sub 1) greater than rho(sub 2)...greater than rho(sub 8) and studied for their retrospective accuracy in detecting underlying disease: 1) Principal component analysis ratio of the T wave (T-PCA) = 100*rho(sub 2)/rho(sub 1); 2) Relative T-wave residuum (rTWR) = 100* SIGMA (rho(sub 4)(sup 2) +...+ rho(sub 8)(sup 2)); 3) Modified complexity ratio of the T wave (T-mCR) = 100*SIGMA(rho(sub 3)(sup 2) +...+rho(sb 8) (sup 2)); and 4) Normalized 3-dimensional volume of the T wave (nTV) = 100*(rho(sub 2)*rho(sub 3)/rho(sub 1)(sup 2). All TWM parameters significantly differentiated CAD from controls (p less than 0.0001), and also CM from controls (p less than 0.0001). Retrospective areas under the ROC curve were 0.77, 0.81, 0.82, and 0.83 (CAD vs. controls) and 0.93, 0.89, 0.95 and 0.96 (CM vs. controls) for T-PCA, rTWR, T-mCR and nTV respectively. The newer TWM parameters (T-mCR and nTV) thus outperformed the more established parameters (T-PCA and rTWR), presumably by putting a greater emphasis on the third T-wave eigenvalue, which in most healthy subjects has little energy compared to the first two eigenvalues. Subsequent prospective analyses have also yielded similar results, such that we conclude that diagnostic differentiation of pathology from non-pathology may be especially aided by detecting

  3. Assessing facial attractiveness: individual decisions and evolutionary constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsor, Ferenc; Feldmann, Adam; Bereczkei, Tamas; Kállai, János

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that facial attractiveness, as a highly salient social cue, influences behavioral responses. It has also been found that attractive faces evoke distinctive neural activation compared to unattractive or neutral faces. Objectives Our aim was to design a face recognition task where individual preferences for facial cues are controlled for, and to create conditions that are more similar to natural circumstances in terms of decision making. Design In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, subjects were shown attractive and unattractive faces, categorized on the basis of their own individual ratings. Results Statistical analysis of all subjects showed elevated brain activation for attractive opposite-sex faces in contrast to less attractive ones in regions that previously have been reported to show enhanced activation with increasing attractiveness level (e.g. the medial and superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, and anterior cingular cortex). Besides these, females showed additional brain activation in areas thought to be involved in basic emotions and desires (insula), detection of facial emotions (superior temporal gyrus), and memory retrieval (hippocampus). Conclusions From these data, we speculate that because of the risks involving mate choice faced by women during evolutionary times, selection might have preferred the development of an elaborated neural system in females to assess the attractiveness and social value of male faces. PMID:24693356

  4. Assessing facial attractiveness: individual decisions and evolutionary constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kocsor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies showed that facial attractiveness, as a highly salient social cue, influences behavioral responses. It has also been found that attractive faces evoke distinctive neural activation compared to unattractive or neutral faces. Objectives: Our aim was to design a face recognition task where individual preferences for facial cues are controlled for, and to create conditions that are more similar to natural circumstances in terms of decision making. Design: In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, subjects were shown attractive and unattractive faces, categorized on the basis of their own individual ratings. Results: Statistical analysis of all subjects showed elevated brain activation for attractive opposite-sex faces in contrast to less attractive ones in regions that previously have been reported to show enhanced activation with increasing attractiveness level (e.g. the medial and superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, and anterior cingular cortex. Besides these, females showed additional brain activation in areas thought to be involved in basic emotions and desires (insula, detection of facial emotions (superior temporal gyrus, and memory retrieval (hippocampus. Conclusions: From these data, we speculate that because of the risks involving mate choice faced by women during evolutionary times, selection might have preferred the development of an elaborated neural system in females to assess the attractiveness and social value of male faces.

  5. Combined oral contraception and obesity are strong predictors of low-grade inflammation in healthy individuals: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie J Sørensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI, is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0% participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC (29.9% than in men (6.1% and women not using OC (7.9%. Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio = 8.98, p<0.001. Additionally, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. CONCLUSION: High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment.

  6. Comparison of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in Individual Change Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabrayilov, Ruslan; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Clinical psychologists are advised to assess clinical and statistical significance when assessing change in individual patients. Individual change assessment can be conducted using either the methodologies of classical test theory (CTT) or item response theory (IRT). Researchers have been optimistic

  7. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Oyake

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including sixteen individuals with hemiparetic stroke (mean ± SD age, 56.4±7.5 years and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants performed the unilateral arm crank and leg cycle exercise tests to measure oxygen consumption (V˙O2 and heart rate at peak exercise. The V˙O2 at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test was significantly lower in the stroke group than in the control group (p<0.001. In the stroke group, the heart rate at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test did not significantly correlate with the Brunnstrom recovery stages of the lower extremity (p=0.137, whereas there was a significant correlation during the leg cycle exercise test (rho = 0.775, p<0.001. The unilateral arm crank exercise test can detect the deterioration of cardiorespiratory fitness independently of lower extremity motor impairment severity in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study is registered with UMIN000014733.

  8. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  9. Comparison of three methods to assess individual skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciuti, Enzo; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Milani, Silvano; Farronato, Giampietro

    2013-09-01

    The knowledge of facial growth and development is fundamental to determine the optimal timing for different treatment procedures in the growing patient. To analyze the reproducibility of three methods in assessing individual skeletal maturity, and to evaluate any degree of concordance among them. In all, 100 growing subjects were enrolled to test three methods: the hand-wrist, cervical vertebral maturation (CVM), and medial phalanges of the third finger method (MP3). Four operators determined the skeletal maturity of the subjects to evaluate the reproducibility of each method. After 30 days the operators repeated the analysis to assess the repeatability of each method. Finally, one operator examined all subjects' radiographs to detect any concordance among the three methods. The weighted kappa values for inter-operator variability were 0.94, 0.91, and 0.90, for the WRI, CVM, and MP3 methods, respectively. The weighted kappa values for intra-operator variability were 0.92, 0.91, and 0.92, for the WRI, CVM, and MP3 methods, respectively. The three methods revealed a high degree of repeatability and reproducibility. Complete agreement among the three methods was observed in 70% of the analyzed samples. The CVM method has the advantage of not necessitating an additional radiograph. The MP3 method is a simple and practical alternative as it requires only a standard dental x-ray device.

  10. Sleep quality predicts positive and negative affect but not vice versa. An electronic diary study in depressed and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hoenders, H J Rogier; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The exact nature of the complex relationship between sleep and affect has remained unclear. This study investigated the temporal order of change in sleep and affect in participants with and without depression. 27 depressed patients and 27 pair-matched healthy controls assessed their sleep in the morning and their affect 3 times a day for 30 consecutive days in their natural environment. Daily sleep quality and average positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were used to examine whether changes in sleep quality preceded or followed changes in PA and NA, and whether this was different for patients and healthy controls. Second, presumptive mediating factors were investigated. We hypothesized that fatigue mediated the effect of changes in sleep quality on subsequent PA/NA, and that rumination mediated the effect of changes in PA/NA on subsequent sleep quality. Multilevel models showed that changes in sleep quality predicted changes in PA (B=0.08, paffect the following day, partly mediated by fatigue. Treatment of sleep symptoms would benefit affect in clinical care and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-3PRGD2 in healthy individuals: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guanghui; Gao Shi; JI Tiefeng; Ma Qingjie; Wang Qing; Jia Bing; Chen Zuowei

    2012-01-01

    99m Tc-3PRGD 2 is a new SPECT radiotracer for several tumor imaging with high uptake where integrin α v β 3 is highly expressed. This pilot study was to assess the safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 in healthy volunteers. The 10 healthy male volunteers were injected with 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 (786.7±55.8 MBq, 19.1-24.2 mCi). Baseline measurements of vital signs, laboratory safety tests and 12-lead electrocardiogram were recorded before and after injection. Blood and urine samples were collected and radiation counts were obtained at various time points. Whole-body scans and ROIs of identified organs were used for visual analysis and estimating the radiation dosimetry. No adverse reactions were found during the study. 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 exhibited a rapid clearance from the blood with less than 45% of the initial dosage at 10 min after injection and gradual increasing radioactivity in urine with (52.9±6)% of original dose at 1440 min. The whole-body imaging showed high radioactive accumulation in bladder. And the highest 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 uptake was found in the kidneys (3.50×10 -2 mSv/MBq). The 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 exhibited good pharmacokinetic properties and little radiation burden. This study showed that 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 would be a safe and attractive SPECT agent in clinic applications. (authors)

  12. Perceptions on healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice: opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to individuals with low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukman, Andrea J; Teuscher, Dorit; Feskens, Edith J M; van Baak, Marleen A; Meershoek, Agnes; Renes, Reint Jan

    2014-10-04

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are generally less well reached through lifestyle interventions than individuals with higher SES. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way that they are more appealing for individuals with low SES. To this end, the study provides insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; triggers for lifestyle change; and ways to support lifestyle change. Data were gathered in semi-structured focus group interviews among low SES (four groups) and high SES (five groups) adults. The group size varied between four and nine participants. The main themes discussed were perceptions and experiences of healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic approach was used to analyse the data. In general, three key topics were identified, namely: current lifestyle is logical for participants given their personal situation; lifestyle change is prompted by feedback from their body; and support for lifestyle change should include individually tailored advice and could profit from involving others. The perceptions of the low SES participants were generally comparable to the perceptions shared by the high SES participants. Some perceptions were, however, especially shared in the low SES groups. Low SES participants indicated that their current eating behaviour was sometimes affected by cost concerns. They seemed to be especially motivated to change their lifestyle when they experienced health complaints, but were rather hesitant to change their lifestyle for preventive purposes. Regarding support for lifestyle change, low SES participants preferred to receive advice in a group rather than on their own. For physical activities, groups should preferably consist of persons of the same age, gender or physical condition. To motivate

  13. Highly Specific Detection of Myostatin Prodomain by an Immunoradiometric Sandwich Assay in Serum of Healthy Individuals and Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Christian; Gottlieb, Jens; Vogel, Arndt; Schmidt, Sebastian; Brandes, Gudrun; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker. Methods We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Results The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25th-75th percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25th-75th percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Conclusions We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly

  14. Implicit negative affect predicts attention to sad faces beyond self-reported depressive symptoms in healthy individuals: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Charlott Maria; Skopinceva, Marija; Kersting, Anette; Quirin, Markus; Suslow, Thomas

    2018-04-04

    Cognitive theories of depression assume biased attention towards mood-congruent information as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. Among other symptoms, depression is characterized by excessive negative affect (NA). Yet, little is known about the impact of naturally occurring NA on the allocation of attention to emotional information. The study investigates how implicit and explicit NA as well as self-reported depressive symptoms predict attentional biases in a sample of healthy individuals (N = 104). Attentional biases were assessed using eye-tracking during a free viewing task in which images of sad, angry, happy and neutral faces were shown simultaneously. Participants' implicit affectivity was measured indirectly using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Questionnaires were administered to assess actual and habitual explicit NA and presence of depressive symptoms. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with sustained attention to sad faces and reduced attention to happy faces. Implicit but not explicit NA significantly predicted gaze behavior towards sad faces independently from depressive symptoms. The present study supports the idea that naturally occurring implicit NA is associated with attention allocation to dysphoric facial expression. The findings demonstrate the utility of implicit affectivity measures in studying individual differences in depression-relevant attentional biases and cognitive vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coronary artery calcification and ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy or strain identify different healthy individuals at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Gerke, Oke; Olsen, Michael Hecht

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To improve risk stratification for development of ischaemic heart disease, several markers have been proposed. Both the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy/strain have been shown to provide independent prognostic information....... In this study, we investigated the association between established risk factors, ECG measurements and the presence of coronary artery calcification. METHOD:: A random sample of healthy men and women aged 50 or 60 years were invited to the screening study. Established risk factors were measured. A noncontrast...... computed tomographic (CT) scan was performed to assess the CAC score. ECG analysis included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) using the Sokolow-Lyon criteria and the Cornell voltage × QRS duration product, and strain pattern based on ST segment depression and T-wave abnormalities. The association between...

  16. Clinical and cognitive trajectories in cognitively healthy elderly individuals with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) or Alzheimer's disease pathology: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Samantha C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Doré, Vincent; Savage, Greg; Brown, Belinda; Laws, Simon; Maruff, Paul; Salvado, Olivier; Ames, David; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2016-09-01

    Brain amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration have been documented in about 50-60% of cognitively healthy elderly individuals (aged 60 years or older). The long-term cognitive consequences of the presence of Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration, and whether they have an independent or synergistic effect on cognition, are unclear. We aimed to characterise the long-term clinical and cognitive trajectories of healthy elderly individuals using a two-marker (Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration) imaging construct. Between Nov 3, 2006, and Nov 25, 2014, 573 cognitively healthy individuals in Melbourne and Perth, Australia, (mean age 73·1 years [SD 6·2]; 58% women) were enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. Alzheimer's disease pathology (A) was determined by measuring Aβ deposition by PET, and neurodegeneration (N) was established by measuring hippocampal volume using MRI. Individuals were categorised as A(-)N(-), A(+)N(-), A(+)N(+), or suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (A(-)N(+), SNAP). Clinical progression, hippocampal volume, standard neuropsychological tests, and domain-specific and global cognitive composite scores were assessed over 6 years of follow-up. Linear mixed effect models and a Cox proportional hazards model of survival were used to evaluate, compare, and contrast the clinical, cognitive, and volumetric trajectories of patients in the four AN categories. 50 (9%) healthy individuals were classified as A(+)N(+), 87 (15%) as A(+)N(-), 310 (54%) as A(-)N(-), and 126 (22%) as SNAP. APOE ε4 was more frequent in participants in the A(+)N(+) (27; 54%) and A(+)N(-) (42; 48%) groups than in the A(-)N(-) (66; 21%) and SNAP groups (23; 18%). The A(+)N(-) and A(+)N(+) groups had significantly faster cognitive decline than the A(-)N(-) group (0·08 SD per year for AIBL-Preclinical AD Cognitive Composite [PACC]; p<0·0001; and 0·25; p<0·0001; respectively). The A (+)N

  17. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy volunteers assessed with questionnaires and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Matias; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five healthy men were assigned randomly to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a cross-over design. The analgesic effect was assessed with muscle pressure algometry and adverse effects were measured using questionnaires including the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale....../ascending colon by 41% (P =0.005) and in the transverse colon by 20% (P= 0.005). No associations were detected between questionnaire scores and colorectal volumes. Conclusion Experimental OIBD in healthy volunteers was induced during oxycodone treatment. This model has potential for future interventional studies...

  18. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on neural activation during a simple motor task in healthy individuals: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goozee, Rhianna; O'Daly, Owen; Handley, Rowena; Reis Marques, Tiago; Taylor, Heather; McQueen, Grant; Hubbard, Kathryn; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Reinders, Antje A T S; Dazzan, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The dopaminergic system plays a key role in motor function and motor abnormalities have been shown to be a specific feature of psychosis. Due to their dopaminergic action, antipsychotic drugs may be expected to modulate motor function, but the precise effects of these drugs on motor function remain unclear. We carried out a within-subject, double-blind, randomized study of the effects of aripiprazole, haloperidol and placebo on motor function in 20 healthy men. For each condition, motor performance on an auditory-paced task was investigated. We entered maps of neural activation into a random effects general linear regression model to investigate motor function main effects. Whole-brain imaging revealed a significant treatment effect in a distributed network encompassing posterior orbitofrontal/anterior insula cortices, and the inferior temporal and postcentral gyri. Post-hoc comparison of treatments showed neural activation after aripiprazole did not differ significantly from placebo in either voxel-wise or region of interest analyses, with the results above driven primarily by haloperidol. We also observed a simple main effect of haloperidol compared with placebo, with increased task-related recruitment of posterior cingulate and precentral gyri. Furthermore, region of interest analyses revealed greater activation following haloperidol compared with placebo in the precentral and post-central gyri, and the putamen. These diverse modifications in cortical motor activation may relate to the different pharmacological profiles of haloperidol and aripiprazole, although the specific mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. Evaluating healthy individuals can allow investigation of the effects of different antipsychotics on cortical activation, independently of either disease-related pathology or previous treatment. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1833-1845, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  1. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sartor

    Full Text Available Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9, 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30. The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI, which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40, but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91. The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93. It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42 than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29. In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  2. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). Objective: To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. Methods: The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. Results: In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients.

  3. Students attitude of physical education and healthy lifestyle and their self-assessment of physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Grinko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify students' attitudes toward physical education and healthy lifestyle, their own assessment of the level of physical fitness and physical qualities of priority. Material and Methods: conducted a questionnaire survey of students of Kharkiv National Economic University and Peter Vasilenko Kharkiv National Technical University of Agriculture. The study involved 166 first-year students (77 boys and 89 girls. Results: it was found that a positive attitude towards a healthy lifestyle and stick to it – 69,35% of the respondents; to physical education and are aware of the usefulness of employment – 84,8%; satisfied with their level of physical development – 40,65%. Conclusions: these results confirm the data that is currently experiencing a significant decline in the level of interest and motivation of students to a healthy lifestyle and physical education.

  4. Individual-based model for radiation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    A mathematical model is developed which enables one to predict the life span probability for mammals exposed to radiation. It relates statistical biometric functions with statistical and dynamic characteristics of an organism's critical system. To calculate the dynamics of the latter, the respective mathematical model is used too. This approach is applied to describe the effects of low level chronic irradiation on mice when the hematopoietic system (namely, thrombocytopoiesis) is the critical one. For identification of the joint model, experimental data on hematopoiesis in nonirradiated and irradiated mice, as well as on mortality dynamics of those in the absence of radiation are utilized. The life span probability and life span shortening predicted by the model agree with corresponding experimental data. Modeling results show the significance of ac- counting the variability of the individual radiosensitivity of critical system cells when estimating the radiation risk. These findings are corroborated by clinical data on persons involved in the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe after- effects. All this makes it feasible to use the model for radiation risk assessments for cosmonauts and astronauts on long-term missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony. In this case the model coefficients have to be determined by making use of the available data for humans. Scenarios for the dynamics of dose accumulation during space flights should also be taken into account.

  5. Mycobacterium avium and purified protein derivative-specific cytotoxicity mediated by CD4+ lymphocytes from healthy HIV-seropositive and-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    mycobacteria. Our objective was to investigate the M.tuberculosis-and M. avium-specific cytotoxic capacity of T cells from healthy, bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated, HIV-seropositive individuals. Blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 healthy HIV-seropositive and 10 healthy seronegative persons...... with no history of previous or active mycobacterial infection. Antigen-specific killing of macrophages presenting mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative or M. avium culture filtrate) was conducted. The phenotype of the killer cells was determined by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter after antigen...

  6. An investigation on drug resistance of viridance group streptococci isolated from 3-12 years healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Borji

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, dental and oral infections are regarded as major threats to human health whose treatments are always prime concern of dental surgeons. Staphylococci, streptococci, actinomycetes and mycoplasma are the most common causative agents of such infections.The objective of this study was to investigate drug resistance of viridance group streptococci (VGS isolated from healthy children between 3-12 years old versus common antibiotics utilized in dentistry. The findings of this study can help dentists using the antibiotic of choice in remedial practices as well as assessment of sensitivity or resistance of VGS.Materials and Method: In this cross sectional study saliva samples from of 213 healthy children aged between 3-12 years from their buccal surface of posterior teeth were collected and after culture. species were isolated. Next, drug sensitivity test was carried out by disc diffusion technique to find out sensitivity or resistance of VGS to penicillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, cephotaxim and cephteriaxon.Result: Our findings revealed that resistance of VGS to antibiotics including: clindamycin, penicillin, cephteriaxon, erythromycin, vancomycin and cephotaxim was 59.6%, 52.6%, 30.5%, 12.2%, 10.8% and 1.5% and sensitivity of VGS to such antibiotics was 19.7%, 29.6%, 23%, 13.4%, 4.5% and 29.6% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed widespread resistance of VGS against chosen antibiotics, this indicates considerable use of antibiotics in this region.Controlled use and prescription of different antibiotics as well as increasing people knowledge about misuse of antibiotics in order to decrease the drug resistance is important

  7. Cognitive learning is associated with gray matter changes in healthy human individuals: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Antonia; Rocca, Maria Assunta; Pagani, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2009-11-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated morphological changes in cortical structures following motor and cognitive learning. In this study, we applied, for the first time, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess the short-term structural brain gray matter (GM) changes associated with cognitive learning in healthy subjects. Using a 3 T scanner, a 3D T1-weighted sequence was acquired from 32 students at baseline and after two weeks. Students were separated into two groups: 13 defined as "students in cognitive training", who underwent a two-week cognitive learning period, and 19 "students not in cognitive training", who were not involved in any teaching activity. GM changes were assessed using TBM and statistical parametric mapping. Baseline regional GM volume did not differ between the two groups. At follow up, compared to "students not in cognitive training", the "students in cognitive training" had a significant GM volume increase in the dorsomedial frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the precuneus (p<0.001). These results suggest that cognitive learning results in short-term structural GM changes of neuronal networks of the human brain, which are known to be involved in cognition. This may have important implications for the development of rehabilitation strategies in patients with neurological diseases.

  8. Instruments to assess self-care among healthy children: A systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpí-Fernández, Ana-María; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Roldán-Merino, Juan-Francisco; Lluch-Canut, María-Teresa

    2017-12-01

    To identify, critically appraise and summarize the measurement properties of instruments to assess self-care in healthy children. Assessing self-care is a proper consideration for nursing practice and nursing research. No systematic review summarizes instruments of measurement validated in healthy children. Psychometric review in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Open Grey were searched from their inception to December 2016. Validation studies with a healthy child population were included. Search was not restricted by language. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COSMIN checklist. Eleven studies were included in the review assessing the measurement properties of ten instruments. There was a maximum of two studies per instrument. None of the studies evaluated the properties of test-retest reliability, measurement error, criterion validity and responsiveness. Internal consistency and structural validity were rated as "excellent" or "good" in four studies. Four studies were rated as "excellent" in content validity. Cross-cultural validity was rated as "poor" in the two studies (three instruments) which cultural adaptation was carried out. The evidence available does not allow firm conclusions about the instruments identified in terms of reliability and validity. Future research should focus on generate evidence about a wider range of measurement properties of these instruments using a rigorous methodology, as well as instrument testing on different countries and child population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of human calcitonin in serum and tissue from healthy individuals and patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautvik, K.M.; Normann, T.; Teig, V.; Wille, S.Oe.; Brennhovd, I.O.; Christensen, I.

    1976-01-01

    A specific radioimmunological method for measurement of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human serum and tissue is described. Of healthy individuals of both sexes, 85 % had measurable iCT in serum (mean, 0.23 ng/ml). Of 29 patients who had received treatment for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), 19 had increased serum iCT (0-60 ng/ml to205 ng/ml). Elevated serum iCT was also found preoperatively in 2 MCT patients. Eleven of the patients with abnormal elevations of serum iCT were alive 4 to 13 years after the operation. Concentration of iCT in extracts from MCT varied from 0.5 to 540 ng/ml wet weight. The diagnostic value of this method and its importance for pre- and post-operative evaluation of these patients are improved by the use of selective venous catheterization in basal state and during stimulation of CT secretion. (Auth.)

  10. The NOS1 variant rs6490121 is associated with variation in prefrontal function and grey matter density in healthy individuals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rose, Emma J

    2012-03-01

    A common polymorphism within the nitric oxide sythanse-1 (NOS1) gene (rs6490121), initially identified as risk variant for schizophrenia, has been associated with variation in working memory and IQ. Here we investigated how this variation might be mediated at the level of brain structure and function. In healthy individuals (N=157), voxel based morphometry was used to compare grey matter (GM) volume between homozygous and heterozygous carriers of the \\'G\\' allele (i.e. the allele associated with impaired cognition and schizophrenia risk) and homozygous carriers of the non-risk \\'A\\' allele. Functional brain imaging data were also acquired from 48 participants during performance of a spatial working memory (SWM) task, and analysed to determine any effect of NOS1 risk status. An a priori region-of-interest analysis identified a significant reduction in ventromedial prefrontal GM volume in \\'G\\' allele carriers. Risk carriers also exhibited altered patterns of activation in the prefrontal cortex, caudate, and superior parietal lobe, which were characteristic of abnormal increases in activation in frontoparietal working memory networks and a failure to disengage regions of the default mode network. These functional changes suggest a NOS1-mediated processing inefficiency, which may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. While the mechanisms by which NOS1 may influence brain structure and\\/or function have not yet been well delineated, these data provide further evidence for a role of NOS1 in risk for schizophrenia via an impact upon cognitive function.

  11. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  12. Computerized assessment of the measurement of individual doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiibus, A.

    1981-06-01

    The department for the measurements of individual doses makes regular dose controls by means of film badges for approximately 14000 individuals. The operation is facilitated by a Honeywell Bull Mini 6 Mod 43 computer. The computer language is COBOL applied to registering of in-data such as delivery of badges, film development, calibration, invoices, recording of individual doses and customers. The print-out consists of customers, badge codes, dosimeter lists, development specifications, dose statements, addresses, bills, dose statistics and the register of individuals. As a consequence of charges the activity is financially self-supporting. (G.B.)

  13. Reciprocal associations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life: Network analyses in anhedonic individuals and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Heininga, Vera E; Vrijen, Charlotte; Snippe, Evelien; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2018-04-19

    Anhedonia reflects a dysfunction in the reward system, which can be manifested in an inability to enjoy pleasurable situations (i.e., lack of positive emotions), but also by a lack of motivation to engage in pleasurable activities (i.e., lack of motivation). Little is known about the interrelations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life, and whether these associations are altered in anhedonic individuals. In the present study, we used a network approach to explore the reciprocal, lagged associations between positive emotions and motivation in anhedonic individuals (N = 66) and controls (N = 68). Participants (aged between 18 and 24 years) filled out momentary assessments of affect 3 times per day for 30 consecutive days. Our results showed that (a) anhedonic individuals and controls had similar moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions; (b) in the anhedonic network feeling cheerful was the node with the highest outstrength, both within this group and compared with the control group; (c) feeling relaxed had the highest outstrength in the control network, and (d) anhedonic individuals had stronger pathways from positive emotions to motivation than controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that low levels of positive emotions lead to decreased motivation in the anhedonic group, which could instigate a negative spiral of low pleasure and low motivation. On a more positive note, we showed that cheerfulness had the highest outstrength in the network of anhedonic participants. Hence, interventions may focus on increasing cheerfulness in anhedonic individuals, as this will likely have the greatest impact on other positive emotions and motivations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Risk of myocardial infarction and death associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among healthy individuals: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, E L; Gislason, G H; Jacobsen, S

    2008-01-01

    Use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several patient groups, but whether this excess risk exists in apparently healthy individuals has not been clarified. Using a historical cohort design, we estimated the risk of death...... and myocardial infarction associated with the use of NSAIDs. Participants in the study were selected from the Danish population and were defined as healthy according to a history of no hospital admissions and no concomitant selected pharmacotherapy. The source population consisted of 4,614,807 individuals...

  15. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  16. Assessing Instructional Modalities: Individualized Treatment Effects for Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemer, Joshua; Spoon, Kelly; Fan, Juanjuan; Stronach, Jeanne; Frazee, James P.; Bohonak, Andrew J.; Levine, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Estimating the efficacy of different instructional modalities, techniques, and interventions is challenging because teaching style covaries with instructor, and the typical student only takes a course once. We introduce the individualized treatment effect (ITE) from analyses of personalized medicine as a means to quantify individual student…

  17. Assessing personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irbha Magotra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to explore personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption through the development of an index named as Technology Adoption Index. For developing the index, exploratory factor analysis approach has been employed on the sample of 1201 responses collected from the residents of 12 different cities in India. Accordingly, the results of the index have indicated significant role of seven personal traits, namely, optimism, innovativeness, self-efficacy, risk taking propensity, habit, social influence and psychological resilience while manifesting personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption, i.e., the technology adoption propensity of the individuals. Further, an attempt has also been made to explore the socio-economic characteristics of the individuals possessing distinct level of personal disposition towards technology adoption. Accordingly, the results have unveiled that the personal disposition of the individuals towards technology adoption increases with enhancement in their income and qualification but decreases with enhancement in their age. As a measurement tool, Technology Adoption Index can be used as ready-recknor by practitioners for the identification of technology adoption propensity of the individuals. This will facilitate organizations in developing and designing new products and services which can be readily accepted by the individuals.

  18. Individual Differences in Reasoning and Visuospatial Attention are Associated with Prefrontal and Parietal White Matter Tracts in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Zachary A.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Parasuraman, Raja; Strenziok, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although reasoning and attention are two cognitive processes necessary for ensuring the efficiency of many everyday activities in older adults, the role of white matter integrity in these processes has been little studied. This is an important question due to the role of white matter integrity as a neural substrate of cognitive aging. Here, we sought to examine the white matter tracts subserving reasoning and visuospatial attention in healthy older adults. Method Sixty-one adults aged 60 and older completed a battery of cognitive tests to assess reasoning and visuospatial attention. In addition, diffusion tensor images were collected to assess Fractional Anisotropy (FA) – a measure of white matter integrity. A principle component analysis of the test scores yielded two components: reasoning and visuospatial attention. Whole-brain correlations between FA and the cognitive components were submitted to probabilistic tractography analyses for visualization of cortical targets of tracts. Results For reasoning, bilateral thalamo-anterior prefrontal, anterior corpus callosum, and corpus callosum body tracts interconnecting the superior frontal cortices and right cingulum bundle were found. For visuospatial attention, a right inferior fronto-parietal tract, and bilateral parietal and temporal connections were found. Conclusions We conclude that in older adults, prefrontal cortex white matter tracts and interhemispheric communication are important in higher order cognitive functioning. On the other hand, right-sided fronto-parietal tracts appear to be critical for supporting control of cognitive processes, such as redirecting attention. Researchers may use our results to develop neuroscience-based interventions for older adults targeting brain mechanisms involved in cognitive plasticity. PMID:26986750

  19. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research ...

  20. Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

    2013-09-01

    Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: Lifetime Prevalence, Correlates and Mechanisms in Healthy and Clinical Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia ede Leede-Smith

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH has been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnaogogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s. This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example; the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the comparison of underlying

  2. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  3. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  4. CD45RC isoform expression identifies functionally distinct T cell subsets differentially distributed between healthy individuals and AAV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available In animal models of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, the proportion of CD45RC T cell subsets is important for disease susceptibility. Their human counterparts are, however, functionally ill defined. In this report, we studied their distribution in healthy controls (HC, AAV patients and in Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE patients as disease controls. We showed that CD45RC expression level on human CD4 and CD8 T cells identifies subsets that are highly variable among individuals. Interestingly, AAV patients exhibit an increased proportion of CD45RC(low CD4 T cells as compared to HC and SLE patients. This increase is stable over time and independent of AAV subtype, ANCA specificity, disease duration, or number of relapses. We also analyzed the cytokine profile of purified CD4 and CD8 CD45RC T cell subsets from HC, after stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs. The CD45RC subsets exhibit different cytokine profiles. Type-1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were produced by all CD45RC T cell subsets, while the production of IL-17, type-2 (IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory (IL-10 cytokines was restricted to the CD45RC(low subset. In conclusion, we have shown that CD45RC expression divides human T cells in functionally distinct subsets that are imbalanced in AAV. Since this imbalance is stable over time and independent of several disease parameters, we hypothesize that this is a pre-existing immune abnormality involved in the etiology of AAV.

  5. Acetone as biomarker for ketosis buildup capability--a study in healthy individuals under combined high fat and starvation diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Amlendu; Quach, Ashley; Zhang, Haojiong; Terrera, Mirna; Jackemeyer, David; Xian, Xiaojun; Tsow, Francis; Tao, Nongjian; Forzani, Erica S

    2015-04-22

    Ketogenic diets are high fat and low carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diets, which render high production of ketones upon consumption known as nutritional ketosis (NK). Ketosis is also produced during fasting periods, which is known as fasting ketosis (FK). Recently, the combinations of NK and FK, as well as NK alone, have been used as resources for weight loss management and treatment of epilepsy. A crossover study design was applied to 11 healthy individuals, who maintained moderately sedentary lifestyle, and consumed three types of diet randomly assigned over a three-week period. All participants completed the diets in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Each weekly diet protocol included three phases: Phase 1 - A mixed diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of 0.18 or the equivalence of 29% energy from fat from Day 1 to Day 5. Phase 2- A mixed or a high-fat diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of approximately 0.18, 1.63, or 3.80 on Day 6 or the equivalence of 29%, 79%, or 90% energy from fat, respectively. Phase 3 - A fasting diet with no calorie intake on Day 7. Caloric intake from diets on Day 1 to Day 6 was equal to each individual's energy expenditure. On Day 7, ketone buildup from FK was measured. A statistically significant effect of Phase 2 (Day 6) diet was found on FK of Day 7, as indicated by repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), F(2,20) = 6.73, p fat content and 90% fat content vs. 29% fat content (with p = 0.00159**, and 0.04435**, respectively), with no significant difference between diets with 79% fat content and 90% fat content. In addition, independent of the diet, a significantly higher ketone buildup capability of subjects with higher resting energy expenditure (R(2) = 0.92), and lower body mass index (R(2) = 0.71) was observed during FK.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex infection assessment in schizophrenia and bipolar patients compared to healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Asoode

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Some viruses (including herpes viruses due to  neurotropic properties and latency  are considered as a possible factor in many central nervous system disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to assess the level of IgG antibodies against Herpes Simplex virus (HSV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in these diseases. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total of 92 serum samples including those of 46  patients admitted to Iran Psychiatric Hospital and 46 samples of the healthy personnel of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, as a control group, were assessed. The level of IgG antibodies against HSV 1 & 2 and EBV were tested using ELISA kits and  the presence or absence of EBV genome (active infection was examined by Real-time PCR.  Finally, the obtained. Data were analyzed by means of IBM SPSS( V:22 software using Chi square test and T- test. Results: Prevalence of HSV 1 & 2 antibodies in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (case group. and healthy individuals (control group. were 80/4% and 82/6% ,respectively. The results showed no significant difference in HSV 1 & 2 antibody regarding P value (P= 0.79. Prevalence of EBV antibodies in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and healthy controls were 100% and 89/1%, respectively. The results showed significant differences between the two groups in terms of anti-EBV antibody titers with P value of  0.02. Besides,  in order to detect the genome of EBV virus, Real-time PCR was u sedon 87 samples with positive EBV antibodies in which no EBV genome was detected. Conclusion: The findings showed a significant association between EBV infection with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but there was no significant association between herpes simplex viruses with the mentioned diseases.

  7. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent......Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  8. Acute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupchak Brian R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whey protein is a potential source of bioactive peptides. Based on findings from in vitro experiments indicating a novel whey derived peptide (NOP-47 increased endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, we tested its effects on vascular function in humans. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study design was used. Healthy men (n = 10 and women (n = 10 (25 ± 5 y, BMI = 24.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2 participated in two vascular testing days each preceded by 2 wk of supplementation with a single dose of 5 g/day of a novel whey-derived peptide (NOP-47 or placebo. There was a 2 wk washout period between trials. After 2 wk of supplementation, vascular function in the forearm and circulating oxidative stress and inflammatory related biomarkers were measured serially for 2 h after ingestion of 5 g of NOP-47 or placebo. Macrovascular and microvascular function were assessed using brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD and venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. Results Baseline peak FMD was not different for Placebo (7.7% and NOP-47 (7.8%. Placebo had no effect on FMD at 30, 60, and 90 min post-ingestion (7.5%, 7.2%, and 7.6%, respectively whereas NOP-47 significantly improved FMD responses at these respective postprandial time points compared to baseline (8.9%, 9.9%, and 9.0%; P P = 0.008 for time × trial interaction. Plasma myeloperoxidase was increased transiently by both NOP-47 and placebo, but there were no changes in markers inflammation. Plasma total nitrites/nitrates significantly decreased over the 2 hr post-ingestion period and were lower at 120 min after placebo (-25% compared to NOP-47 (-18%. Conclusion These findings indicate that supplementation with a novel whey-derived peptide in healthy individuals improves vascular function.

  9. A single session of hatha yoga improves stress reactivity and recovery after an acute psychological stress task-A counterbalanced, randomized-crossover trial in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenutti, Mateus J; Alves, Eduardo da Sliva; Michael, Scott; Ding, Ding; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Edwards, Kate M

    2017-12-01

    Yoga is promoted as an anti-stress activity, however, little is known about the mechanisms through which it acts. The present study investigated the acute effects of a hatha yoga session, displayed on a video, on the response to and recovery from an acute psychological stressor. Twenty-four healthy young adults took part in a counterbalanced, randomized-crossover trial, with a yoga and a control condition (watching TV). Participants attended the laboratory in the afternoon on two days and each session comprised a baseline, control or yoga task, stress task and recovery. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and salivary cortisol responses were measured. State cognitive- and somatic-anxiety along with self-confidence were assessed before and after the stressor. Although no difference in the BP or HR responses to stress were found between conditions, systolic BP (p=0.047) and diastolic BP (p=0.018) recovery from stress were significantly accelerated and salivary cortisol reactivity was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the yoga condition. A yoga session also increased self-confidence (p=0.006) in preparation for the task and after completion. Moreover, self-confidence reported after the stress task was considered debilitative towards performance in the control condition, but remained facilitative in the yoga condition. Our results show that a single video-instructed session of hatha yoga was able to improve stress reactivity and recovery from an acute stress task in healthy individuals. These positive preliminary findings encourage further investigation in at-risk populations in which the magnitude of effects may be greater, and support the use of yoga for stress reactivity and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (HLP is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05 during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05 in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  11. No Evidence for the Association between a Polymorphism in the PCLO Depression Candidate Gene with Memory Bias in Remitted Depressed Patients and Healthy Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijsen, J.N.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Becker, E.S.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van

    2014-01-01

    The PCLO rs2522833 candidate polymorphism for depression has been associated to monoaminergic neurotransmission. In healthy and currently depressed individuals, the polymorphism has been found to affect activation of brain areas during memory processing, but no direct association of PCLO with memory

  12. Prevalence and correlation of cytokine-specific autoantibodies with epidemiological factors and C-reactive protein in 8,972 healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Thørner, Lise Wegner

    2017-01-01

    Natural cytokine-specific autoantibodies (c-aAb) have been measured in healthy and diseased individuals, and have been considered as both endogenous immune-regulators and pathogenic factors. Overall, the etiology and potential pathology of c-aAb are still undefined. To further characterize the sero...

  13. Carriage of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in Healthy Vietnamese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Mai Huong; Hirai, Itaru; Ueda, Shuhei; Bui, Thi Kim Ngan; Hamamoto, Kouta; Toyosato, Takehiko; Le, Danh Tuyen; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-10-01

    Healthy carriage of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was examined by thrice collecting fecal samples from the same 199 healthy Vietnamese subjects every 6 months. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), identical PFGE patterns throughout the three samplings were not observed, although prevalence of E. coli in the subjects was around 50% in the three samplings. Our results suggested a short carriage period of the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy Vietnamese subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Assessing Visibility of Individual Transmission Errors in Networked Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire

    2016-01-01

    could benefit from information about subjective visibility of individual packet losses; for example, computational resources could be directed more efficiently to unequal error protection and concealment by focusing in the visually most disturbing artifacts. In this paper, we present a novel subjective...... methodology for packet loss artifact detection by tapping a touchscreen where a defect is observed. To validate the proposed methodology, the results of a pilot study are presented and analyzed. According to the results, the proposed method can be used to derive qualitatively and statistically meaningful data...... on the subjective visibility of individual packet loss artifacts....

  15. Supporting Peer Assessment of Individual Contributions in Groupwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raban, Richard; Litchfield, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The ability to assess the work of others is a core attribute for most professionals. To develop this graduate attribute in our students requires the learning of self and peer evaluation, feedback, and review skills. This paper discusses the changing design of peer assessment and the impact of a new groupwork support tool within a capstone…

  16. Using Self-Assessment to Support Individualized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Self-assessment is frequently used to enable students to "reflect" on a learning experience. Often only the person involved in the "reflection" knows the criteria used to underpin the process. Here the author explains how, when the self-assessment is given some structure some tangible benefits can be observed. While the approach might not be a…

  17. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty. MNCH policy ... search, lack of actionable messages in research reports, and limited ... of research evidence is but one factor influencing all stag- es of what ... However, in order to design an effective capacity en-.

  18. Noninvasive assessment of extracellular and intracellular dehydration in healthy humans using the resistance-reactance-score graph method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Kristen R; Charkoudian, Nisha; O'Brien, Catherine; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2016-03-01

    Few dehydration assessment measures provide accurate information; most are based on reference change values and very few are diagnostically accurate from a single observation or measure. Bioelectrical impedance may lack the precision to detect common forms of dehydration in healthy individuals. Limitations in bioimpedance may be addressed by a unique resistance-reactance (RXc)-score graph method, which transforms vector components into z scores for use with any impedance analyzer in any population. We tested whether the RXc-score graph method provides accurate single or serial assessments of dehydration when compared with gold-standard measures of total body water by using stable isotope dilution (deuterium oxide) combined with body-weight changes. We retrospectively analyzed data from a previous study in which 9 healthy young men participated in 3 trials: euhydration (EUH), extracellular dehydration (ED; via a diuretic), and intracellular dehydration (ID; via exercise in the heat). Participants lost 4-5% of their body weight during the dehydration trials; volume loss was similar between trials (ID compared with ED group: 3.5 ± 0.8 compared with 3.0 ± 0.6 L; P > 0.05). Despite significant losses of body water, most RXc vector scores for ED and ID groups were classified as "normal" (within the 75% population tolerance ellipse). However, directional displacement of vectors was consistent with loss of volume in both ED and ID conditions compared with the EUH condition and tended to be longer in ED than in ID conditions (P = 0.054). We conclude that, whereas individual RXc-score graph values do not provide accurate detection of dehydration from single measurements, directional changes in vector values from serial measurements are consistent with fluid loss for both ED and ID conditions. The RXc-score graph method may therefore alert clinicians to changes in hydration state, which may bolster the interpretation of other recognized change measures of hydration. © 2016

  19. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  20. Left ventricular synchrony assessed by phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuetao; Wang Jianfeng; Yang Minfu; Niu Rong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of Cedars-Sinai quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) phase analysis for left ventricular synchrony assessment in healthy subjects. Methods: Seventy-four healthy subjects (41 males, 33 females,average age: (60±13) years) underwent both rest and exercise 99 Tc m -MIBI G-MPI. QGS software was used to analyze the reconstructed rest gated SPECT images automatically, and then the parameters of left ventricular synchrony including phase bandwidth (BW) and phase standard deviation (SD) were obtained. The influences of gender and age (age<60 years, n=36; age ≥ 60 years, n=38) on left ventricular systolic synchronicity were analyzed. The phase angle for original segmental contraction was measured to determine the onset of the ventricular contraction using 17-segment model. Forty healthy subjects were selected by simple random sampling method to evaluate the intra-observer and interobserver repeatability of QGS phase analysis software. Two-sample t test and linear correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The BW and SD of left ventricular in healthy subjects were (37.22 ±11.71)°, (11.84±5.39)° respectively. Comparisons between male and female for BW and SD yielded no statistical significance (BW: (36.00±9.70)°, (38.73±13.84)°; SD: (11.88±5.56)°, (11.79±5.26)°; t=0.96 and-0.07, both P>0.05); whereas the older subjects (age≥60 years) had larger BW than the others (age<60 years ; (39.95± 12.65)°, (34.33± 10.00)°; t=-2.11, P<0.05) and no statistical significance was shown for SD between the two age groups ((11.18±4.31)°, (12.54±6.33)°; t=1.08, P>0.05). Of the 74 subjects, the mechanical activation started from the ventricular base to apex in 54 subjects (73%), and from apex to base in only 20 subjects (27%). High repeatability of phase analysis was observed for both intra-observer and inter-observer (r=0.867-0.906, all P<0.001). Conclusions: Good left ventricular segmental synchrony is shown in healthy

  1. Assessing Soldier Individual Differences to Enable Tailored Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    upon effective and efficient training. However, there is ample evidence that learning-related individual differences exist ( Thorndike , 1985; Jensen...in both civilian and military settings (Schmidt, Hunter, & Outerbridge, 1986; Thorndike , 1985). Prior knowledge or knowledge of facts and...predictive power ( Thorndike , 1985; Jensen, 1998). Further, there is a good deal of evidence that general mental ability impacts performance largely

  2. Pre-exposure to Tempting Food Reduces Subsequent Snack Consumption in Healthy-Weight but Not in Obese-Weight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Stamos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a severe worldwide problem. Compared to healthy-weight individuals, obese individuals seem to show an increased sensitivity to tempting food. In the present study, we test the pre-exposure effect, which implies that consumption of tempting food is decreased after exposure to tempting food cues in a context of a task that discourages food consumption. Healthy-weight and obese-weight participants were recruited via social media and university channels. Participants took part in a scrabble task with either candy letters or foam letters and subsequently engaged in a taste test. Results showed that in healthy-weight participants, consumption was reduced after solving the scrabble task with candy letters in comparison to foam letters. In obese-weight participants, consumption was reduced in the condition using foam letters (in comparison with healthy-weight participants. The pre-exposure effect was replicated in healthy-weight participants, but could not be observed in participants with obesity, since consumption was reduced in general in this group. Our results suggest that more work should be done to understand how food nudges work in the context of obesity.

  3. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls - a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant's hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual's self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls.

  4. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...] Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR) AGENCY: Federal... Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). DATES: Comments must be received by November 14, 2011... of the draft Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR) on...

  5. Evaluation of intra-individual test–re-test variability of uroflowmetry in healthy women and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunacek, Libor; Gärtner, Marcel; Krhut, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to evaluate the intra-individual variability of uroflowmetry (UFM) in healthy control subjects and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence. Methods: A total of 35 healthy controls (group A) and 105 women suffering from urinary...... incontinence were enrolled in the study. Thirty-five women suffered from stress urinary incontinence (group B), 35 women suffered from mixed urinary incontinence (group C), and 35 women with overactive bladder both dry and wet (group D). All participants were asked to perform UFM measurement three times......-individual difference in any of the recorded parameters was identified among the three UFM recordings in groups A, C, and D. The intra-individual variability of the following parameters reached statistical significance in patients suffering from stress urinary incontinence (group B): Qmax (p = 0.0016), Qave (p = 0...

  6. Generating genius: how an Alzheimer’s drug became considered a ‘cognitive enhancer’ for healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly supported by the results of a small study published by Yesavage et al. in 2002 on non-demented pilots (30–70 years old). The factors contributing to this specific interpretation of this study’s results are unclear. Methods We examined print media and interdisciplinary bioethics coverage of this small study, aiming to provide insight into how evidence from research may be shaped within different discourses, potentially influencing important policy, ethics, and clinical decisions. Systematic qualitative content analysis was used to examine how this study was reported in 27 media and 22 bioethics articles. Articles were analyzed for content related to: (1) headlines and titles; (2) colloquialisms; and, (3) accuracy of reporting of the characteristics and results of the study. Results In media and bioethics articles referencing this small study, strong claims were made about donepezil as a CE drug. The majority of headlines, titles, and colloquialisms used enhancement language and the majority of these suggest that donepezil could be used to enhance intellectual ability. Further, both literatures moved between reporting the results of the primary study and magnifying the perceived connection between these results and the CE debate that was alluded to in the primary study. Specific descriptions of the results overwhelmingly reported an improvement in performance on a flight simulator, while more general statements claimed donepezil enhanced cognitive performance. Further, a high level of reporting accuracy was found regarding study characteristics of the original study, but variable levels of accuracy surrounded the presentation of complex

  7. Cocoa consumption dose-dependently improves flow-mediated dilation and arterial stiffness decreasing blood pressure in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Necozione, Stefano; di Giosia, Paolo; Barnabei, Remo; Allegaert, Leen; Bernaert, Herwig; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    Cocoa flavonoids exert beneficial vascular effects and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, the involved mechanisms have not been clarified and no study has yet focused on the dose-response effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of cocoa flavonoids on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), endothelin-1 (ET-1), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and SBP and DBP. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 20 healthy volunteers (1.5% improvement in FMD in 20 individuals: 0.99 at alpha = 0.05) were assigned to receive either five treatments with daily intake of 10 g cocoa (0, 80, 200, 500 and 800 mg cocoa flavonoids/day) in five periods lasting 1 week each. Cocoa dose-dependently increased FMD from 6.2% (control) to 7.3, 7.6, 8.1 and 8.2% after the different flavonoid doses, respectively (P cocoa flavonoids per day increased FMD (P Cocoa dose-dependently decreased PWV (P Cocoa intake decreased office blood pressure (BP) (SBP: -4.8 ± 1.03  mmHg, P cocoa ingestion decreased 24-h (P = 0.05) and daytime (P = 0.038) SBP, and 24-h (P = 0.0064), daytime (P = 0.0088) and night-time (P = 0.0352) pulse pressure. Compared with the control, cocoa dose-dependently decreased ET-1 levels [from 17.1 (control) to 15.2, 14.5, 14.2 and 14.1 pg/ml, after the different flavonoid doses, respectively (P for treatment cocoa dose-dependently improved FMD and decreased PWV and ET-1 also by ameliorating office and monitored BP. Our findings are clinically relevant, suggesting cocoa, with very low calorie intake, might be reasonably incorporated into a dietary approach, representing a consistent tool in cardiovascular prevention.

  8. Kinematic measures for assessing gait stability in elderly individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, D; Singh, N B; Van Dieën, J H; Heller, M O; Taylor, W R

    2011-12-07

    Falls not only present a considerable health threat, but the resulting treatment and loss of working days also place a heavy economic burden on society. Gait instability is a major fall risk factor, particularly in geriatric patients, and walking is one of the most frequent dynamic activities of daily living. To allow preventive strategies to become effective, it is therefore imperative to identify individuals with an unstable gait. Assessment of dynamic stability and gait variability via biomechanical measures of foot kinematics provides a viable option for quantitative evaluation of gait stability, but the ability of these methods to predict falls has generally not been assessed. Although various methods for assessing gait stability exist, their sensitivity and applicability in a clinical setting, as well as their cost-effectiveness, need verification. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to evaluate the sensitivity of biomechanical measures that quantify gait stability among elderly individuals and to evaluate the cost of measurement instrumentation required for application in a clinical setting. To assess gait stability, a comparative effect size (Cohen's d) analysis of variability and dynamic stability of foot trajectories during level walking was performed on 29 of an initial yield of 9889 articles from four electronic databases. The results of this survey demonstrate that linear variability of temporal measures of swing and stance was most capable of distinguishing between fallers and non-fallers, whereas step width and stride velocity prove more capable of discriminating between old versus young (OY) adults. In addition, while orbital stability measures (Floquet multipliers) applied to gait have been shown to distinguish between both elderly fallers and non-fallers as well as between young and old adults, local stability measures (λs) have been able to distinguish between young and old adults. Both linear and nonlinear measures of foot

  9. Circulating irisin in healthy, young individuals: day-night rhythm, effects of food intake and exercise, and associations with gender, physical activity, diet, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Polyzos, Stergios A; Saridakis, Zacharias G; Kynigopoulos, Georgios; Skouvaklidou, Elpida C; Molyvas, Dimitrios; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomai; Siopi, Aikaterina; Mougios, Vassilis; Chatzistavridis, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Grigorios; Filippaios, Andreas; Delaroudis, Sideris; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-09-01

    The myokine irisin may increase energy expenditure and affect metabolism. The objective of the study was to elucidate predictors of irisin and study whether circulating irisin may have day-night rhythm in humans. This was an observational, cross-sectional study with an additional 24-hour prospective observational arm (day-night rhythm substudy) and two prospective interventional arms (mixed meal substudy and exercise substudy). The study was conducted at the Hellenic Military School of Medicine (Thessaloniki, Greece). One hundred twenty-two healthy, young individuals were subjected to anthropometric and body composition measurements, and their eating and exercise behavior profiles were assessed with validated questionnaires. Subgroups were subjected to day-night rhythm, standardized meal ingestion, and 30-minute aerobic exercise studies. Circulating irisin levels were measured. Ιrisin levels were lower in males than females (P = .02) after adjustment for lean body mass, which was its major determinant. Irisin levels followed a day-night rhythm (P day-night rhythm, is correlated with lean body mass, and increases acutely after exercise.

  10. The Prevalence of Antibiotic and Toothpaste Sensitivity found in Oral Streptococcal Isolates in Healthy Individuals in the Okada Community of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen U Okwu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, antibiotic, and toothpaste sensitivity of oral streptococcal isolates in healthy individuals in the Okada community of Nigeria. Methods: Oral samples were collected from 230 volunteers and were subjected to standard microbiological tests. Antibacterial sensitivity tests were carried out on the streptococcal isolates that were obtained using a disk diffusion technique, and eight kinds of toothpaste (A-H were screened for their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Results: The prevalence of oral streptococci found in this study was 26.1% and the predominant species was S. salivarius (13.9%. S. salivarius was highly resistant to cloxacillin (100% and Augmentin (96.9%, whilst resistance to gentamicin and erythromycin was low at 21.9% and 3.1% respectively. S. mutans were completely sensitive to gentamicin whilst resistance to erythromycin was 33.3%. The entire Streptococcus species showed the lowest resistance to erythromycin (20.0%, followed by gentamicin (31.7%. At 100 mg/mL all toothpaste samples had antibacterial effects on S. mutans. At 50 mg/mL all samples except toothpastes G and H inhibited the bacterium. Toothpastes A and E had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of 25 mg/mL. Conclusions: Toothpastes A and E were the most effective toothpastes of the eight assessed in this study.

  11. Individualized assessment of post-arthroplasty recovery by actigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Peterson, Barry; Kehlet, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    time. The aim of this study was to describe a novel methodology using actigraphy data to describe specific activity-intensities potentially affected by surgery and patients with poor rehabilitation trajectories. Actigraphy data from 10 patients scheduled for primary unilateral TKA were recorded...... recovery trajectories were described by the gradient of the regression line of post- versus pre-operative physical activity over the study period. TKA had a negative impact on all activity intensities with gradual improvement towards preoperative values during the study period. The inter......-individual variation increased with intensified activity. Identification of individual patients with positive, neutral or negative activity trajectories was possible. The methodology should be considered in future interventional studies to improve rehabilitation strategies....

  12. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  13. Telemedical assessment of the level of energy expenditure in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Tomasz; Owoc, Jakub; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the energy expenditure above the elementary level of metabolism by undertaking regular physical activity causes body mass reduction and its maintenance at a healthy level. To remote assessment of the level of physical activity in a group of overweight and obese individuals. The research was conducted in the Department of Rehabilitation at the Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland, and included a group of 514 volunteers of both genders (38 ±12 years). The examined group was divided into three subgroups depending on the body mass index (BMI) level (I - normal, II - overweight, III - obese). The level of physical activity at home was assessed based of the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), conducted by means of a mobile application, and was compared with data registered by the accelerometer of a smartphone. The IPAQ-assessed level of the physical activity expressed in MET-min/week amounted to the following values: group I: 5190.38 ±6629.84, group II: 5099.53 ±6380.97, group III: 3939.31 ±4000.73; and the caloric cost (cal × week -1 ) amounted to: group I: 5825.47 ±7512.99, group II: 7204.09 ±9187.96), and group III: 7002.10 ±7296.22. Registered levels of physical activity (MET-min/week) were lower than IPAQ-assessed: in group I (3741.24 ±3958.29), in group II (2447.72 ±2156.44) and in group III (1927.42 ±1790.85) (p < 0.05). The average values of energy expenditure showed a declining tendency, together with an increase in the BMI. On the other hand, the total weekly caloric cost showed the lowest average values in the group with normal body mass.

  14. Parameterized hemodynamic response function data of healthy individuals obtained from resting-state functional MRI in a 7T MRI scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rangaprakash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, being an indirect measure of brain activity, is mathematically defined as a convolution of the unmeasured latent neural signal and the hemodynamic response function (HRF. The HRF is known to vary across the brain and across individuals, and it is modulated by neural as well as non-neural factors. Three parameters characterize the shape of the HRF, which is obtained by performing deconvolution on resting-state fMRI data: response height, time-to-peak and full-width at half-max. The data provided here, obtained from 47 healthy adults, contains these three HRF parameters at every voxel in the brain, as well as HRF parameters from the default-mode network (DMN. In addition, we have provided functional connectivity (FC data from the same DMN regions, obtained for two cases: data with deconvolution (HRF variability minimized and data with no deconvolution (HRF variability corrupted. This would enable researchers to compare regional changes in HRF with corresponding FC differences, to assess the impact of HRF variability on FC. Importantly, the data was obtained in a 7T MRI scanner. While most fMRI studies are conducted at lower field strengths, like 3T, ours is the first study to report HRF data obtained at 7T. FMRI data at ultra-high fields contains larger contributions from small vessels, consequently HRF variability is lower for small vessels at higher field strengths. This implies that findings made from this data would be more conservative than from data acquired at lower fields, such as 3T. Results obtained with this data and further interpretations are available in our recent research study (Rangaprakash et al., in press [1]. This is a valuable dataset for studying HRF variability in conjunction with FC, and for developing the HRF profile in healthy individuals, which would have direct implications for fMRI data analysis, especially resting-state connectivity modeling. This is the first public HRF

  15. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Methods Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. Results The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Conclusion Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  16. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guna; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-06-18

    Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB) with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years) with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  17. Cross-linking of sodium caseinate-structured emulsion with transglutaminase alters postprandial metabolic and appetite responses in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R; Macierzanka, Adam; Lille, Martina E; Laaksonen, David E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Niskanen, Leo K; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Mäkelä, Kari A; Mills, Clare E N; Mackie, Alan R; Malcolm, Paul; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Karhunen, Leila J

    2015-08-14

    The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26.5 (sem 6.9) years and BMI 21.9 (sem 2.0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0.05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0.05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.

  18. Effects of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met polymorphism and resting brain functional connectivity on individual differences in tactile cognitive performance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejuan; Xu, Ziliang; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Sun, Jinbo; Jin, Lingmin; Zhu, Yuanqiang; Fei, Ningbo; Qin, Wei

    2017-07-28

    Cognitive processes involve input from multiple sensory modalities and obvious differences in the level of cognitive function can be observed between individuals. Evidence to date understanding the biological basis of tactile cognitive variability, however, is limited compared with other forms of sensory cognition. Data from auditory and visual cognition research suggest that variations in both genetics and intrinsic brain function might contribute to individual differences in tactile cognitive performance. In the present study, by using the tactual performance test (TPT), a widely used neuropsychological assessment tool, we investigated the effects of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and resting-state brain functional connectivity (FC) on interindividual variability in TPT performance in healthy, young Chinese adults. Our results showed that the BDNF genotypes and resting-state FC had significant effects on the variability in TPT performance, together accounting for 32.5% and 19.1% of the variance on TPT total score and Memory subitem score respectively. Having fewer Met alleles, stronger anticorrelations between left posterior superior temporal gyrus and somatosensory areas (right postcentral gyrus and right parietal operculum cortex), and greater positive correlation between left parietal operculum cortex and left central opercular cortex, all correspond with better performance of TPT task. And FC between left parietal operculum cortex and left central opercular cortex might be a mediator of the relationship between BDNF genotypes and Memory subitem score. These data demonstrate a novel contribution of intrinsic brain function to tactile cognitive capacity, and further confirm the genetic basis of tactile cognition. Our findings might also explain the interindividual differences in cognitive ability observed in those who are blind and/or deaf from a new perspective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Quantitative assessment of optical properties in healthy cartilage and repair tissue by optical coherence tomography and histology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M. A.; Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van der Pol, Edwin; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D.; Strackee, Simon D.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of the OCT signal is an important step toward clinical implementation of a diagnostic tool in cartilage imaging. Discrimination of structural cartilage differences in patients with osteoarthritis is critical, yet challenging. This study assesses the variation in the optical attenuation coefficient (μOCT) between healthy cartilage, repair tissue, bone and layers within repair tissue in a controlled setting. OCT and histology was used to assess goat talus articular surfaces in which central osteochondral defects were created. Exact matches of OCT and histology were selected for research. μOCT measurements were taken from healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Measured μOCT in healthy cartilage was higher compared to both repair tissue and bone tissue. Two possible mechanisms for the difference in attenuation were investigated. We studied morphological parameters in terms of nucleus count, nucleus size and inter-nucleus distance. Collagen content in healthy cartilage and repair tissue was assessed using polarization microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the nuclei did not demonstrate a difference in nucleus size and count between healthy cartilage and repair tissue. In healthy cartilage, cells were spaced farther apart and had a lower variation in local nuclear density compared to repair tissue. Polarization microscopy suggested higher collagen content in healthy cartilage compared to repair tissue. μOCT measurements can distinguish between healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Results suggest that cartilage OCT attenuation measurements could be of great impact in clinical diagnostics of osteoarthritis.

  20. Individuals' stress assessment using human-smartphone interaction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciman, Matteo; Wac, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    costs and reducing user acceptance, or they use some of privacy-related information. This paper presents an approach for stress assessment that leverages data extracted from smartphone sensors, and that is not invasive concerning privacy. Two different approaches are presented. One, based on smartphone...

  1. Assessing Alternative Modifications to the Affordable Care Act: Impact on Individual Market Premiums and Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Saltzman, Evan

    2015-03-20

    The goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are to enable all legal U.S. residents to have access to affordable health insurance and to prevent sicker individuals (such as those with preexisting conditions) from being priced out of the market. The ACA also instituted several policies to stabilize premiums and to encourage enrollment among healthy individuals of all ages. The law's tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies offer a "carrot" that may encourage enrollment among some young and healthy individuals who would otherwise remain uninsured, while the individual mandate acts as a "stick" by imposing penalties on individuals who choose not to enroll. In this article, the authors use the COMPARE microsimulation model, an analytic tool that uses economic theory and data to predict the effects of health policy reforms, to estimate how eliminating the ACA's individual mandate, eliminating the law's tax credits, and combined scenarios that change these and other provisions of the act might affect 2015 individual market premiums and overall insurance coverage. Underlying these estimates is a COMPARE-based analysis of how premiums and insurance coverage outcomes depend on young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage. The authors find that eliminating the ACA's tax credits and eliminating the individual mandate both increase premiums and reduce enrollment on the individual market. They also find that these key features of the ACA help to protect against adverse selection and stabilize the market by encouraging healthy people to enroll and, in the case of the tax credit, shielding subsidized enrollees from premium increases. Further, they find that individual market premiums are only modestly sensitive to young adults' propensity to enroll in insurance coverage, and ensuring market stability does not require that young adults make up a particular share of enrollees.

  2. Increases of QT dispersion, corrected QT dispersion and QT interval in young healthy individuals during Ramadan fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradmand S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan fasting is one of the most important religious duties of Muslims, that its effect on the heart has not been determined yet. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on ventricular repolarization as assessed by QT interval, corrected QT interval, QT dispersion or corrected QT dispersion. Sixthy healthy subjects aged 20 to 35 years were dispersion included in this study. QT interval, corrected QT interval (QTc QT dispersion QTc dispersion, RR interval and QRS axis were measured in 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, once during fasting (10 to 11.5 hours of absolute fasting from food and liquid and another time, 15 tp 60 minutes after eating food at sunset, All of the subjects had been fasting 11 to 12 hours each day at least for 25 days during Ramadan. The study was performed at Amir Alam hospital in the year 2000. Maximal QT interval, mean QT interval and RR-interval, were longer during fasting (P<0.05, and both QT dispersion and QTc dispersion were increased (P<0.05. (QT dispersion: mean ±SD= 57.2±20.1 ms during fasting Vs 41.6±15.1 ms after meal, QTc dispersion=75.4±24.6 ms during fasting Vs 64.1±22.8 ms after meal. But mean QTc interval maximal QTc interval and QRS axis showed no significant difference. Prolongation of QT interval and RR interval during fasting, instead of no significant changes in corrected QT interval may primarily suggest that prolongation of RR-interval causes QTc interval not to have significant difference. But increases of QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion (QTc dispersion during fasting -that are more reliable indicators of ventricular repolarization-support the idea that ventricular repolarization may be changed during Ramadan fasting. QT dispersion in cardiac patients is showed to increase from normal values of 30-40 to 64-138 ms, but in our study their increases did not reach critical value.

  3. Pharmacy curriculum outcomes assessment for individual student assessment and curricular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Day M; Bennett, Lunawati L; Ferrill, Mary J; Brown, Daniel L

    2010-12-15

    The Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) is a standardized examination for assessing academic progress of pharmacy students. Although no other national benchmarking tool is available on a national level, the PCOA has not been adopted by all colleges and schools of pharmacy. Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBAU) compared 2008-2010 PCOA results of its P1, P2, and P3 students to their current grade point average (GPA) and to results of a national cohort. The reliability coefficient of PCOA was 0.91, 0.90, and 0.93 for the 3 years, respectively. PBAU results showed a positive correlation between GPA and PCOA scale score. A comparison of subtopic results helped to identify areas of strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum. PCOA provides useful comparative data that can facilitate individual student assessment as well as programmatic evaluation. There are no other standardized assessment tools available. Despite limitations, PCOA warrants consideration by colleges and schools of pharmacy. Expanded participation could enhance its utility as a meaningful benchmark.

  4. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: Resting distal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    pressure and DBPtoe - DBPankle) were found in the new reference data compared to the old. No significant difference between the mean values of the gradient (DBPankle - systolic arm blood pressure) was found between the old and new reference data, although the variation was significantly wider in the new......Objective. Most patients referred to our department for distal blood pressure (DBP) determination on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd) are more than 60 years of age, whereas the only available reference data for resting pressure are based on data from healthy individuals aged....... Material and methods. Group I comprised 31 healthy persons aged between 61 and 87 years and group II 14 healthy middle-aged hospital staff members aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results. For group I, significantly greater gradients (DBPtoe - systolic arm blood...

  5. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Ultrasonographic assessment of tendon thickness, Doppler activity and bony spurs of the elbow in patients with lateral epicondylitis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, T P; Fredberg, U; Christensen, Robin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tennis elbow, also known as lateral epicondylitis (LE), is a common disorder often assessed by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic outcomes and methods used in LE research and clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed as an intra......- and interobserver reliability and agreement study. Ultrasonographic examination of the common extensor tendon of the elbow was performed. The intraobserver study examined tendon thickness twice in 20 right elbows from 20 healthy individuals at an interval of 7 to 12 days. The interobserver study examined tendon...... thickness, color Doppler activity, and bony spurs in 18 right elbows in 9 healthy individuals and 9 patients with LE. Two trained rheumatologists performed the interobserver examinations with the same scanner on the same day. The main outcomes were intra- and interclass correlation (ICC) and agreement...

  7. Assessing the Bonding Properties of Individual Molecular Orbitals

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, PJ; Alexandrova, AN

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Molecular orbitals (MOs), while one of the most widely used representations of the electronic structure of a system, are often too complex to intuit properties. Aside from the simplest of cases, it is not necessarily possible to visually tell which orbitals are bonding or antibonding along particular directions, especially in cases of highly delocalized and nontrivial bonding like metal clusters or solids. We propose a method for easily assessing and comparin...

  8. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean François Le

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called "flip method" (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and "clustering" (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  9. The Baltic Sea Diet Score: a tool for assessing healthy eating in Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Kaartinen, Niina E; Schwab, Ursula; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Männistö, Satu

    2014-08-01

    The health-related effects of the Nordic diet remain mostly unidentified. We created a Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) for epidemiological research to indicate adherence to a healthy Nordic diet. We examined associations between the score and nutrient intakes that are considered important in promoting public health. We also examined the performance of the BSDS under two different cut-off strategies. The cross-sectional study included two phases of the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated using in-house software. Nine components were selected for the score. Each component was scored according to both sex-specific consumption quartiles (BSDS-Q) and medians (BSDS-M), and summed to give the final score values. A large representative sample of the Finnish population. Men (n 2217) and women (n 2493) aged 25 to 74 years. In the age- and energy-adjusted model, adherence to the diet was associated with a higher intake of carbohydrates (E%), and lower intakes of SFA (E%) and alcohol (E%, where E% is percentage of total energy intake; P diet (P healthy Nordic diet to assess