Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M.
Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time. PMID:29057794
Singleton, Chelsea R; Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M
Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.
Chelsea R. Singleton
Full Text Available Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI. Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97% stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.
Harries, Caroline; Koprak, Julia; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie; Parker, Kathryn M.; Karpyn, Allison
Public health obesity prevention experts have recently emphasized a policy systems and environmental change approach. Absent, however, are studies describing how practitioners transition from policy adoption to implementation. In the realm of food policy, financing programs to incentivize healthy food retail development in communities classified as “underserved” are underway at the local, state, and national levels. Implementing these policies requires a clear definition of eligibility for program applicants and policy administrators. This article outlines a methodology to establish eligibility for healthy food financing programs by describing the work of The Food Trust to coadminister programs in 3 distinct regions. To determine program eligibility, qualitative assessments of community fit are needed and national data sources must be locally verified. Our findings have broad implications for programs that assess need to allocate limited public/private financing resources. PMID:24594793
... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...
Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...
Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.
Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie
The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved.
Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl
Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…
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Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.
Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213
Treviño, Roberto P; Pham, Trang; Mobley, Connie; Hartstein, Jill; El Ghormli, Laure; Songer, Thomas
Food service directors have a concern that federal reimbursement is not meeting the demands of increasing costs of healthier meals. The purpose of this article is to report the food option changes and the annual revenues and expenses of the school food service environment. The HEALTHY study was a 3-year (2006 to 2009) randomized, cluster-designed trial conducted in 42 middle schools at 7 field centers. The schools selected had at least 50% of students who were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch or who belonged to a minority group. A randomly assigned half of the HEALTHY schools received a school health intervention program consisting of 4 integrated components: nutrition, physical activity, behavioral knowledge and skills, and social marketing. The nutrition component consisted of changing the meal plans to meet 5 nutrition goals. Revenue and expense data were collected from income statements, federal meal records, à la carte sale sheets, school store sale sheets, donated money/food records, and vending machines. Although more intervention schools reached the nutritional goals than control schools, revenues and expenses were not significantly different between groups. The HEALTHY study showed no adverse effect of school food policies on food service finances. © 2012, American School Health Association.
... fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342605 . Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.
Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...... is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional...
between organic school food policies and indicators (proxies) for healthy eating among children when (school food coordinators') statements on indicators (proxies) for healthy eating are used as variable. This project continues to search for the above signs of associations but involving also a “bottom......The project is a part of the iPOPY research project funded through the European Research Area program Core Organic I. The poster presents a study of the following hypothesis: Organic food service praxis/policy (POP) is associated with praxis/policies for healthier eating in Danish school food...... service. In other words, we wanted to test if organic procurement policies and the resulting praxis in schools can help to establish healthier eating habits among pupils as compared to schools without organic policies/praxis. A former study in Danish primary schools has shown that there is an association...
Wang, W C; Worsley, A
Beliefs about what people think they ought to eat to be healthy ('healthy eating norms (HENs)') may be important influences on food consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive roles of normative expectations and demographics, personal values, substance use behaviours and body weight on reported food consumption among middle-aged Australians. A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' beliefs about what should they eat to be healthy, what actually they ate, their personal values, smoking and alcohol use, as well as self-reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Respondents' reported food consumption did not match their HENs. Demographics, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and personal values, and HENs were associated with reported consumption but the relationships differed among men and women. Generally, high energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) food consumption was negatively associated with age. Fruit and vegetable HEN and consumption was positively linked to universalist values but negatively related to smoking status among men. In contrast in women, fruit and vegetable HENs were positively related to income and education while EDNP HEN was negatively associated with age and income but positively linked to body weight and power values. Reported food consumption was associated with HEN, personal values, demographics, smoking and BMI through different pathways among men and women. The implications for nutrition promotion are discussed.
Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kok, Robert; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.
Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials (plants, insects, fish et.cet. la.), which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in spaceship or on Moon and Mars. And we need to get the storage method of the food without the problem of food poisoning. The consideration about the food allergy is necessary, too. Nutritional analysis on the basic vegetable menu consisting of rice, barley, soybean, sweet potato cassava, quinoa and green reveals a shortage of vitamins D and B12, cholesterol and sodium salt. Since vitamin D deficiency results in demineralization of bone. Vitamin B12 is essential to prevent pernicious anemia. Fish contains both vitamins D and B12. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. A law of nature shakes high quality oils and fats included in termite for cooking. I use the bee as food after having used it for the pollination of the plant. Of course the honey becomes the important food, too. The snail and mud snail become the food as protein. We decided to use the menu consisting of the basic vegetarian menu plus insect and loach for further conceptual design of space agriculture. We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essential to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources at choosing
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a Diet Quality Index proper for dietary intake studies of Brazilian adults. METHODS: A diet quality index to analyze the incorporation of healthy food choices was associated with a digital food guide. This index includes moderation components, destined to indicate foods that may represent a risk when in excess, and adequacy components that include sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds in order to help individuals meet their nutritional requirements. The diet quality index-digital food guide performance was measured by determining its psychometric properties, namely content and construct validity, as well as internal consistency. RESULTS: The moderation and adequacy components correlated weakly with dietary energy (-0.16 to 0.09. The strongest correlation (0.52 occurred between the component 'sugars and sweets' and the total score. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha for reliability was 0.36. CONCLUSION: Given that diet quality is a complex and multidimensional construct, the Diet Quality Index-Digital Food Guide, whose validity is comparable to those of other indices, is a useful resource for Brazilian dietary studies. However, new studies can provide additional information to improve its reliability.
Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola
Although seafood is considered to be a healthy food choice, the recommended consumption level of two servings per week is still not reached in most countries. Previous research has identified potential barriers of seafood consumption, including purchase and consumption convenience, but it is still...... participated in an online choice experiment with visual product stimuli to simulate their choice of oysters in a retail store. Considering preference heterogeneity respondents’ choices were analyzed with a scale adjusted latent class model and six different consumer segments differing in their preferences were...
Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin
Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective.
Voici la 17e édition du Rapport moral sur l’argent dans le monde, publié chaque année depuis 1994 par l’Association d’économie financière avec le soutien de la Caisse des Dépôts. Abordant une nouvelle fois les grands débats qui traversent actuellement le monde de la finance, il se consacre dans un premier temps à la lutte contre la criminalité et les délits financiers, et plus particulièrement à la lutte contre la corruption, la délinquance dans la finance et la fraude fiscale. Dans un second...
Ces deux ouvrages tirent les enseignements de l’impact de la crise de la finance mondiale sur l’économie réelle et se focalisent, dans ce contexte, sur le financement du Mittelstand. Le banquier JASCHINSKI, lorsqu’il passe en revue le système bancaire allemand, constate ainsi que si les moyennes entreprises trouvent les crédits nécessaires auprès de leurs solides partenaires de toujours que sont les Sparkassen, les grandes sociétés, internationales, que compte le Mittelstand n’ont pas de part...
Paul R. Ward; Fiona Verity; Patricia Carter; George Tsourtos; John Coveney; Kwan Chui Wong
Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy ...
Bisher veröffentlicht unter dem Titel: "Modern Finance" Das Buch beinhaltet ebenso einige Portraits: Die didaktische Erfahrung lehrt, dass man sich wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und Ansätze besser merken kann, wenn eine Assoziation zu jener Person bildlich konkret wird, der wir den betreffenden Denkansatz verdanken. Aus Fragen der Finanzierung und der Investitionsentscheidungen von Unternehmen ist in der Verschmelzung mit der Analyse von Kapitalmärkten ein grosses Gebiet entstanden, da...
In this podcast, Food Rules author Michael Pollan discusses American food culture and gives his thoughts on how food can impact human and environmental health. Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability. Date Released: 4/15/2010.
Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo
Investigations of the contribution of food costs to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality may have been limited by the use of estimated (vs. actual) food expenditures, not accounting for where individuals shop, and possible reverse mediation between food expenditures and healthiness of food choices. This study aimed to explore the extent to which food expenditure mediates socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of household food choices. Observational panel data on take-home food a...
Billich, Natassja; Adderley, Marijke; Ford, Laura; Keeton, Isabel; Palermo, Claire; Peeters, Anna; Woods, Julie; Backholer, Kathryn
School canteens have an important role in modelling a healthy food environment. Price is a strong predictor of food and beverage choice. This study compared the relative price of healthy and less healthy lunch and snack items sold within Australian school canteens. A convenience sample of online canteen menus from five Australian states were selected (100 primary and 100 secondary schools). State-specific canteen guidelines were used to classify menu items into 'green' (eat most), 'amber' (select carefully) and 'red' (not recommended in schools). The price of the cheapest 'healthy' lunch (vegetable-based 'green') and snack ('green' fruit) item was compared to the cheapest 'less healthy' ('amber/red') lunch and snack item, respectively, using an un-paired t-test. The relative price of the 'healthy' items and the 'less healthy' items was calculated to determine the proportion of schools that sold the 'less healthy' item cheaper. The mean cost of the 'healthy' lunch items was greater than the 'less healthy' lunch items for both primary (AUD $0.70 greater) and secondary schools ($0.50 greater; p snack was cheaper than the 'healthy' snack. These proportions were greatest for primary schools located in more, compared to less, disadvantaged areas. The relative price of foods sold within Australian school canteens appears to favour less healthy foods. School canteen healthy food policies should consider the price of foods sold.
Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B; Siegrist, Michael
The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake.
Rodríguez-Tadeo, Alejandra; Patiño Villena, Begoña; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Vidaña-Gaytán, María Elena; Periago Caston, María Jesús; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; González Martinez-Lacuesta, Eduardo
In children, food neophobia may affect food choices and limit the variety of the diet as well as affect the sensory acceptance of new foods. To identify the impact of food neophobia in food habits and preferences of healthy food in school canteens users in the city of Murcia. A total of 242 children in the second and third cycle of primary education (8-12 years), were included, stratified by sex and school year. A survey of habits and food preferences, food neophobia and acceptance of foods commonly consumed in the dining room was applied. In addition, a sensory test was conducted and the consumption of salads and fruits in the room was measured by the weighing method. The prevalence of neophobia was 16%, without difference by sex, academic year, time to use service, parental origin and being overweight or underweight. Food neophobia was associated with a detrimental effect on the consumption of vegetables and fruit, the taste for vegetables and lower consumption of cereals and cereal at breakfast and preferably less fruit and vegetables (pfoods like chicken and lentils (pFood neophobia did not affect the hedonic acceptance of fruit and salads consumed in the cafeteria. It is necessary to integrate this information to stakeholders to ensure an improvement in the consumption of healthy foods. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Régulièrement au cœur de l'actualité, les trois agences de notation (Standard & Poor's, Moody's et Fitch) règnent sur le monde de la finance internationale. Mais quelles sont-elles et à qui appartiennent-elles véritablement ? Détenues par de puissants fonds d'investissements, elles ont progressivement renforcé leurs rôles et pouvoirs. L'auteur interpelle le citoyen sur un système dans lequel les fonds d'investissements profitent des agences de notation (et de leur rôle de « gardien des marché...
Les investisseurs financiers et a fortiori les hedge fonds sont accusés de tous les maux. Ces « sauterelles » tomberaient sur les entreprises allemandes pour s’enrichir en les dépeçant. Un journaliste économique du quotidien des affaires Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung publie là un portrait objectif et factuel de ces « nouvelles stars » de la finance mondiale. Un portrait de branche, doublé d’une analyse de l’impact sur le « capitalisme rhénan » de la montée en puissance de ces nouveaux acteur...
Beesems, J.; Domingus, S.; Nieuwenhuizen, van de J.; Veer, van 't P.; Zondervan, C.
This brochure illustrates this range of research activities in the domain of food and nutrition, lifestyle and health. It does so by providing examples of collaboration of Wageningen UR with partners in the public and private sector.
& chocolate and suggests that their flavonoid-rich types are health beneficial and when consumed in moderation, along with other plant foods, can be part of a healthy diet. Keywords: Cacao, Cocoa, Chocolate, Antioxidants, Flavanols, Caffeine
Ward, P R; Coveney, J; Verity, F; Carter, P; Schilling, M
As in many other countries, Australian consumers have recently had to accommodate increases in costs of basic food, and during the financial year 2007-2008 overall food prices rose by nearly 4%. Food costs are mediating factors in food choice, especially for low-income groups, where food security is often tenuous. There are reports that rural populations may have higher levels of food insecurity, although the evidence is often contradictory. To assess cost and affordability of food in rural areas this study used the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) methodology, which has been applied in a number of settings. The HFBs were costed at supermarkets and stores in different locations with different degrees of rurality. Compared with metropolitan areas, healthy food is more expensive in rural areas; costs are even higher in more remote areas. The overall affordability of HFB in rural areas was not significantly different from metro areas. The main difference concerned low socio-economic status (SES) groups, where the proportion of household income spent on the HFB was three times that of higher SES groups. The unaffordability of healthy food, or 'food stress' in low SES groups is a concern, especially when this group carries the greatest burden of diet-related disease. Findings suggest that there is a need to consider both rurality and SES when developing policy responses to decrease the cost and increase the affordability of healthy foods in rural and remote areas.
It was concluded from the study that healthy food animals form a reservoir of multiple resistant E. coli which may be transmitted to humans through the food chain. Thus, continued surveillance of E. coli obtained from food production continuum is merited to identify emerging antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes. The Kenya ...
Fred Kuchler; Abebayehu Tegene; J. Michael Harris
This paper investigates consumers' likely response to a proposed tax on snack foods that addresses public health issues generated by rising U.S. obesity rates. We estimate demands for particular snack foods and show they are price inelastic after accounting for quality variation. We calculate impacts of a range of ad valorem taxes on the demand for salty snack food. The impacts on dietary quality are small, and negligible at the lower tax rates. If taxes were earmarked for funding information...
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
become one of the preferred organizational tools to frame these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between having a local food & nutrition policy and indicators of healthy eating at school. It is based results from a web survey among food service coordinators in 179......The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has resulted in more focus on the role that public settings such as school for children can play in promoting healthy lifestyle. As a consequence increasingly organizational efforts have been directed towards this issue and policy instruments have......, the attitude of school respondents regarding promoting organic food and healthy eating habits through school environment, the existing policies concerning healthy school food and the development of school food serving practice, were analyzed by using statistic tools. The results indicate a strong relationship...
Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E
To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.
Rentsch, N; Mühlemann, P; Baumgartner-Perren, S; Exl-Preysch, B M
Convenience foods stand for a culinary revolution that commenced just over 100 years ago. The food industry came into being parallel to industrialization and urbanization. Nicolas Appert invented the can at that time and Julius Maggi invented dehydrated soup. Today convenience foods--from powdered spices to ready-to-eat dishes--are prepared using state-of-the-art technology and offer a ubiquitous range of healthy, easy-to-serve foods.
Klein, Kendra C.
Within what can be called the healthy food in health care (HFHC) movement, a growing coalition of actors are leveraging scientific data on the environmental health impacts of the conventional, industrial food system to inspire and legitimize a range of health care initiatives aligned with alternative agrifood ideals. They are shifting the definition of food-related health from a nutritionism model, eating the right balance of nutrients and food groups, to what I call an ecological nutrition ...
Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.
Andreyeva, Tatiana; Middleton, Ann E; Long, Michael W; Luedicke, Joerg; Schwartz, Marlene B
Non-supermarket food retailers can be a promising channel for increasing the availability of healthy foods in underserved communities. The present paper reports on retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods before and after the introduction of new subsidies for healthy foods by the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in October 2009. We designed and conducted in-person standardized interviews with store owners and managers to assess perceptions of demand and profits for different foods, supply networks, barriers to stocking healthy foods and their changes following implementation of the new WIC packages. Non-supermarket retailers in five towns of Connecticut, USA (n 68 in 2009 and n 58 in 2010). Owners and managers of WIC-authorized and non-WIC convenience stores and non-chain grocery stores. Retailers identified customer demand as the primary factor in stocking decisions. They reported observing a significantly weaker demand for healthy foods compared with unhealthy foods, although it improved for certain foods with the new WIC subsidies. Less healthy foods were also perceived as more profitable. Supplier networks varied by product from convenient manufacturer delivery for salty snacks to self-supply for produce. WIC retailers were able to quickly adapt and supply healthy foods required under the new WIC programme guidelines. Retailers other than supermarkets currently perceive little demand for healthy foods, but new WIC subsidies have the power to change these perceptions. Supply barriers seem secondary in the limited offerings of healthy foods by stores and could be overcome when policy changes generate new demand for healthy foods.
van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk
We examined whether exposure to cues of attractive food reduces effortful behavior toward healthy foods for restrained eaters. After manipulating food pre-exposure, we recorded handgrip force while presenting participants with pictures of healthy food objects. Because participants were led to expect that they could obtain each object (not specified beforehand) by squeezing the handgrip as forcefully as possible while the object was displayed on the screen, the recorded handgrip force constitutes a measure of spontaneous effortful behavior. Results show that restrained eaters, but not unrestrained eaters, displayed less forceful action toward healthy food objects (i.e., lower exertion of force) when pre-exposed to tempting food cues. No effects were found on palatability perceptions of the healthy foods. The results provide further insight into why restrained eaters have difficulties in maintaining a low-calorie diet in food-rich environments. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Possible Cut away visible fat from meat and poultry. Roast food on a rack to let the ... plain yogurt and light mayonnaise if used in dressing, sauces and dips. Why? Fewer calories. Instead of ...
This would trigger changes in food production, retail, and marketing. ... assess and document the actual and potential impact of the social marketing campaign. ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ...
Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara
Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.
Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the af...
Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa
Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…
Paul R. Ward
Full Text Available Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week’s supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability. It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.
Ward, Paul R; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui
Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a "Healthy Food Basket" methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing "food stress." Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.
Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle
Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.
Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...
Kramskaia N. V.
Full Text Available this article briefly considered the problem of healthy food, culture of food and influence of design as a culture on the positive perception of useful products. The comparative analysis of the American fast food and the Japanese sushi (the most common forms of fast food in our country are carried out for identification of design means at the expense of which the attractive image of food is formed and the visual harmony is reached. Several versions of the approved design decisions for achievement of desirable taste perception are also offered.
Andersen, Stine; Burkal, Anna; Falster Olsen, Malene
strong connection between the healthy, organic meals offered at school and class room activities related to health and ecology. The pupils did not feel that they had been involved in the decision to establish organic and healthy food procurement. As a result they held that they did not feel very...... committed or engaged in the school provision initiative, and the organic and healthy food procurement was not highly sought after on the part of the pupils. This appears to justify a distinction between the perspective that front stage actors have, including pupils, and the perspective of politicians....... The main aim of the study was to shed light on primary and lower secondary school pupils´ everyday experience with food, nutrition, ecology and health in connection to public organic school food, using the municipality of Copenhagen as a case. We have examined how a procurement and provision strategy...
Nutritionists need to understand the willingness of restaurateurs to prepare and sell healthy foods, as Canadians frequently eat meals at food services. The lunch trade restaurants under the jurisdiction of a rural and semi-rural Alberta health unit were surveyed by telephone. Two thirds of the restaurants were family-style and had 100 seats or fewer. Five of 20 healthy foods were rated as difficult to serve, due to: lack of customer demand; lack of food availability; and the need to maintain the quality of fresh vegetables, fruits and milk products. Many restaurateurs are willing to change internally by training staff (88%) and by trying new recipes (84%). Staff education materials perceived to be helpful by 80% of restaurateurs included video/audio tapes, information sheets and posters. Restaurateurs were most willing to use menu inserts (76%), table tents (68%) and door decals (72%) to promote healthy foods. Nutrition services should focus on how restaurants can make changes to include healthy foods through food preparation and menu items.
ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods). Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukot...
Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Collins, Rebecca L
To provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among US urban food desert residents and their association with diet and BMI. Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n 1372) were collected. Audits of all neighbourhood food stores (n 24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighbourhood (n 16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and BMI were conducted. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Household food shoppers. Only one neighbourhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighbourhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2·6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6·0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately 2 h for the round trip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $US 37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often and spent less money per person. Those who travelled further when they shopped had higher BMI, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full-service supermarkets was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought, and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective.
Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David
Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Bortolin, Natalia; Priestly, Jaqueline; Sangster, Janice
Food insecurity affects 4-14% of Australians, and up to 82% of vulnerable groups. Food relief agencies commonly provide food parcels or food vouchers. Little research has been undertaken on food relief agencies within rural Australia. This study determined the type of food assistance provided by rural food relief agencies, and barriers and enablers to provide healthy food. Cross-sectional study, using telephone questionnaires with qualitative and quantitative aspects. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Rural New South Wales, Australia. Representatives of 10 food relief agencies. Types of food assistance and food provided, and the barriers and enablers to provide healthy food to clients. Most agencies provided food hampers and perishable and non-perishable food. Rural food relief agencies had a greater capacity to provide non-perishable compared to perishable food. Grains, breads and cereals, and canned fruit and vegetables were most popular. Nine key themes emerged including 'Ability to purchase and provide healthy food', 'Ability to regulate food purchased or chosen by clients', 'Financial constraints of the agency' and 'Lack of storage'. There are many variables to consider in order to understand the capacity of rural food relief agencies to provide healthy food. There are also opportunities for food relief agencies to appraise current practices and make changes. Initiatives to improve storage facilities and food availability are key and include networking with local businesses, community organisations and government. Rural food relief agency clients could benefit from accessing food literacy and health programs like FoodREDi, OzHarvest NEST and SecondBite Fresh NED. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Mihaela Teodora TARCZA
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a brief introspection in the literature review in an attempt to highlight the peculiarities of traditional foodstuffs that enable them to be promoted as the primary food for a healthy diet. The trend of healthy eating is gaining ground not only for experts and researchers, but also for consumers on a daily basis. Traditional foodstuffs are brought back into the consumers’ attention in a market full of highly-processed foodstuffs. Marketing specialists noticed the link between the two concepts and they elaborated promotional strategies for traditional foodstuffs, having the ‘healthy diet’ as insight. Throughout the paper we will present theoretical considerations such as the concept of ‘traditional food product’, ‘promotion’, and ‘healthy diet’ from a marketing perspective followed by several examples of traditional food products perceived as healthy, and lastly, we will highlight the benefits of promoting a healthy diet by consuming traditional food products.
Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo
Investigations of the contribution of food costs to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality may have been limited by the use of estimated (vs. actual) food expenditures, not accounting for where individuals shop, and possible reverse mediation between food expenditures and healthiness of food choices. This study aimed to explore the extent to which food expenditure mediates socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of household food choices. Observational panel data on take-home food and beverage purchases, including expenditure, throughout 2010 were obtained for 24,879 UK households stratified by occupational social class. Purchases of (1) fruit and vegetables and (2) less-healthy foods/beverages indicated healthiness of choices. Supermarket choice was determined by whether households ever visited market-defined high-price and/or low-price supermarkets. Results showed that higher occupational social class was significantly associated with greater food expenditure, which was in turn associated with healthier purchasing. In mediation analyses, 63% of the socioeconomic differences in choices of less-healthy foods/beverages were mediated by expenditure, and 36% for fruit and vegetables, but these figures were reduced to 53% and 31% respectively when controlling for supermarket choice. However, reverse mediation analyses were also significant, suggesting that 10% of socioeconomic inequalities in expenditure were mediated by healthiness of choices. Findings suggest that lower food expenditure is likely to be a key contributor to less-healthy food choices among lower socioeconomic groups. However, the potential influence of cost may have been overestimated previously if studies did not account for supermarket choice or explore possible reverse mediation between expenditure and healthiness of choices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zandvoort, M.M.J. van
Efficient risk assessment of food and feed has become a challenging task. Products and production processes are increasingly complex, and the task of determining allergy risks and toxicological and microbiological hazards correspondingly difficult. TNO has developed a range of innovative, integrated
Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L
This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product.
Helbich, M; Hagenauer, J
This data descriptor introduces data on healthy food supplied by supermarkets in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In addition to two neighborhood variables (i.e., share of autochthons and average housing values), the data comprises three street network-based accessibility measures derived
Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.
Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.
Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio
The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio
The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Dwivedi, Sangam L.; van Bueren, Edith T. Lammerts; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Grando, Stefania; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio
Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar di...
Cheval, Boris; Audrin, Catherine; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc
Hunger indirectly triggers unhealthy high-calorie food consumption through its positive effect on the incentive value (or "wanting") for food. Yet, not everyone consumes unhealthy food in excess, suggesting that some individuals react differently when they are exposed to unhealthy high-calorie food, even when they are hungry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in impulsive approach tendencies toward food may explain how, and for whom, hunger will influence unhealthy food consumption through its effect on food wanting. A complementary goal was to explore whether these individual differences also influence healthy food consumption. Students (N = 70) completed a questionnaire measuring their hunger and food wanting. Then, they performed a manikin task designed to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward unhealthy food (IAUF) and healthy food (IAHF). The main outcomes variables were the amount of sweets (i.e., unhealthy food) and raisins (i.e., healthy food) consumed during a product-testing task. A moderated mediation analysis revealed that the indirect effect of hunger on unhealthy consumption through food wanting was moderated by IAHF. Specifically, hunger positively predicted sweets consumption through wanting for food among individuals with a low or moderate, but not high IAHF. The moderated mediation pattern was, however, not confirmed for IAUF. Finally, results revealed a direct and positive effect of IAHF on raisins consumption. These findings showed that IAHF play a protective role by preventing hunger to indirectly increase unhealthy food consumption through wanting for food. It confirms the importance of considering how individuals may differ in their impulsive approach tendencies toward food to better understand why some individuals will increase their unhealthy food intake when they are hungry, whereas other will not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A; Evenson, Kelly R
There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase's essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitive Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes-a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Grando, Stefania; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ortiz, Rodomiro
Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived
McDermott, John; Wyatt, Amanda J
Improving nutrition is a development priority, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South Asia, in which there is a persistent burden of undernutrition and increasing obesity. Healthy food systems can play a necessary role, aligned with other multisectoral actions, in addressing this challenge. Contributing to improved nutrition and health outcomes through food-based solutions is complex. In considering the role that pulses can play in addressing this challenge, there are useful conceptual frameworks and emerging lessons. National food systems in LMICs provide limited diet quality. Foods for a healthy diet may be produced locally, but they increasingly rely on improved markets and trade. What might be done to transform food systems for healthier diets, and what role can pulses play? Food systems innovations will require a convergence of technical innovation with smarter institutional arrangements and more effective policies and regulations. In many countries in Africa and South Asia, pulses can make important contributions to healthier diets. Options for supporting pulses to make a greater contribution to healthier diets include increasing the efficiency of pulse supply chains, creating more effective public-private institutional arrangements for innovation, and establishing policies, regulations, and investments that are nutrition sensitive. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Friel, Sharon; Barosh, Laurel J; Lawrence, Mark
To articulate a healthy and sustainable (H&S) diet; outline key health and environmental sustainability principles that can be applied in the selection of foods for inclusion in such a diet; and describe a methodology with which to assess the availability and affordability of a H&S food basket. We synthesized publically available evidence on the environmental impact of different foods from academic, government, industry and non-government sources and constructed a hypothetical H&S equivalent of the typical Australian diet. Based on this, we constructed a weekly H&S food basket for a household of two adults and two children. Australia. Australian populations. The H&S diet is based on three overarching principles: (i) any food that is consumed above a person's energy requirement represents an avoidable environmental burden in the form of greenhouse gas emissions, use of natural resources and pressure on biodiversity; (ii) reducing the consumption of discretionary food choices, which are energy-dense and highly processed and packaged, reduces both the risk of dietary imbalances and the use of environmental resources; and (iii) a diet comprising less animal- and more plant-derived foods delivers both health and ecological benefits. We have focused on the articulation of a H&S diet not to facilitate 'policy drift' to focus on individual dietary choice, but rather to provide evidence to extend dietary guideline recommendations so as to integrate environmental considerations within the scope of food and health policy advice in Australia and elsewhere.
Weibel, Christian; Messner, Claude; Brügger, Adrian
Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers' food consumption behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; van der Horst, Klazine
We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30%). The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54?4 (SD 13?5) years. There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.
Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Tombrock, Merel C; Verpaalen, Iris A M; Schmitz, Laura I; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Holland, Rob W
Many people find it hard to change their dietary choices. Food choice often occurs impulsively, without deliberation, and it has been unclear whether impulsive food choice can be experimentally created. Across 3 exploratory and 2 confirmatory preregistered experiments we examined whether impulsive food choice can be trained. Participants were cued to make motor responses upon the presentation of, among others, healthy and sustainable food items. They subsequently selected these food items more often for actual consumption when they needed to make their choices impulsively as a result of time pressure. This effect disappeared when participants were asked to think about their choices, merely received more time to make their choices, or when choosing required attention to alternatives. Participants preferred high to low valued food items under time pressure and without time pressure, suggesting that the impulsive choices reflect valid preferences. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to train impulsive choices for food items while leaving deliberative choices for these items unaffected, and connect research on attention training to dual-process theories of decision making. The present research suggests that attention training may lead to behavioral change only when people behave impulsively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald
This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.
Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David
The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.
Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien
Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P < 0.01), and preprandial hunger was higher before breakfast (P < 0.001) and dinner (P < 0.05). No change in the perceived pleasantness of the foods or in the desire to eat the foods was observed. Physical activity from 1215 to 2015 was higher after sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P < 0.01), even though the sensation of sleepiness was more marked (P < 0.01). One night of reduced sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.
Full Text Available Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes.
Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000-2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes.
Nyilasy, Gergely; Lei, Jing; Nagpal, Anish; Tan, Joseph
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes in interaction with food category healthiness on consumers' perceptions of food healthiness. Three streams of colour theory (colour attention, colour association and colour approach-avoidance) in interaction with heuristic processing theory provide consonant predictions and explanations for the underlying psychological processes. A 2 (food category healthiness: healthy v. unhealthy)×3 (food label nutrient colouring schemes: healthy=green, unhealthy=red (HGUR) v. healthy=red, unhealthy=green (HRUG) v. no colour (control)) between-subjects design was used. The research setting was a randomised-controlled experiment using varying formats of food packages and nutritional information colouring. Respondents (n 196) sourced from a national consumer panel, USA. The findings suggest that, for healthy foods, the nutritional colouring schemes reduced perceived healthiness, irrespective of which nutrients were coloured red or green (healthinesscontrol=4·86; healthinessHGUR=4·10; healthinessHRUG=3·70). In contrast, for unhealthy foods, there was no significant difference in perceptions of food healthiness when comparing different colouring schemes against the control. The results make an important qualification to the common belief that colour coding can enhance the correct interpretation of nutrition information and suggest that this incentive may not necessarily support healthier food choices in all situations.
Freedman, Darcy A; Hunt, Alan R; Merritt, Katie; Shon, En-Jung; Pike, Stephanie N
Federal policy supports increased implementation of monetary incentive interventions for chronic disease prevention among low-income populations. This study describes how a Prevention Research Center, working with a dissemination partner, developed and distributed technology to support nationwide implementation and evaluation of healthy food incentive programming focused on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipients. FM Tracks, an iOS-based application and website, was developed to standardize evaluation methods for healthy food incentive program implementation at direct-to-consumer markets. This evaluation examined diffusion and adoption of the technology over 9 months (July 2015-March 2016). Data were analyzed in 2016. FM Tracks was disseminated to 273 markets affiliated with 37 regional networks in 18 states and Washington, DC. All markets adopted the sales transaction data collection feature, with nearly all recording at least one Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (99.3%) and healthy food incentive (97.1%) transaction. A total of 43,493 sales transactions were recorded. By the ninth month of technology dissemination, markets were entering individual sales transactions using the application (34.5%) and website (29.9%) and aggregated transactions via website (35.6%) at similar rates. Use of optional evaluation features like recording a customer ID with individual transactions increased successively with a low of 22.2% during the first month to a high of 69.2% in the ninth month. Systematic and widely used evaluation technology creates possibilities for pragmatic research embedded within ongoing, real-world implementation of food access interventions. Technology dissemination requires supportive technical assistance and continuous refinement that can be advanced through academic-practitioner partnerships. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dwivedi, Sangam L; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T; Ceccarelli, Salvatore; Grando, Stefania; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro
Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar diversity and nutritional quality are crucial. We call for better cooperation between food and medical scientists, food sector industries, breeders, and farmers to develop diversified and nutritious cultivars that reduce soil degradation and dependence on external inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and to increase adaptation to climate change and resistance to emerging pests. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dannefer, Rachel; Williams, Donya A; Baronberg, Sabrina; Silver, Lynn
We assessed the effectiveness of an initiative to increase the stock and promotion of healthy foods in 55 corner stores in underserved neighborhoods. We evaluated the intervention through in-store observations and preintervention and postintervention surveys of all 55 store owners as well as surveys with customers at a subset of stores. We observed an average of 4 changes on a 15-point criteria scale. The most common were placing refrigerated water at eye level, stocking canned fruit with no sugar added, offering a healthy sandwich, and identifying healthier items. Forty-six (84%) store owners completed both surveys. Owners reported increased sales of healthier items, but identified barriers including consumer demand and lack of space and refrigeration. The percentage of customers surveyed who purchased items for which we promoted a healthier option (low-sodium canned goods, low-fat milk, whole-grain bread, healthier snacks and sandwiches) increased from 5% to 16%. Corner stores are important vehicles for access to healthy foods. The approach described here achieved improvements in participating corner stores and in some consumer purchases and may be a useful model for other locales.
The demand of fast food is increasing in current food market worldwide. But fast food, as one of the unhealthy food types, cannot deny its impact as one of the causes of leading death in populations of most high income countries. Healthy fast food is called by governments, health organizations and societies, and desired by customers especially in Sweden because it is affordable, easy accessible, and most immortally, healthy. Companies are emerging based on the current fast food demand to prov...
Hill, Sarah E; Baskett, Kaily; Bradshaw, Hannah K; Prokosch, Marjorie L; DelPriore, Danielle J; Rodeheffer, Christopher D
Many consumers report that healthy eating is more expensive than unhealthy eating (the affordability axiom). We hypothesize that endorsement of this belief may be driven by the motivation to eat unhealthy foods. We tested this hypothesis in three studies. Study 1 revealed that the affordability axiom is associated with poorer eating habits and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Study 2 found that the presence of a tasty food cue in the environment increased endorsement of affordability axiom. Study 3 found that these effects were moderated by one's food intake goals. Food cues led non-dieters to increase endorsement of the affordability axiom, but had the opposite effect among those seeking to restrict their calorie intake. The affordability axiom might persist as a means of validating unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika
The study aimed to modify approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and to determine its effect on subsequent food consumption. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of impulsivity in the effect of approach bias re-training on food consumption. Participants were 200 undergraduate women (17-26 years) who were randomly allocated to one of five conditions of an approach-avoidance task varying in the training of an approach bias for healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food cues in a single session of 10 min. Outcome variables were approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and the proportion of healthy relative to unhealthy snack food consumed. As predicted, approach bias for healthy food significantly increased in the 'avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food' condition. Importantly, the effect of training on snack consumption was moderated by trait impulsivity. Participants high in impulsivity consumed a greater proportion of healthy snack food following the 'avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food' training. This finding supports the suggestion that automatic processing of appetitive cues has a greater influence on consumption behaviour in individuals with poor self-regulatory control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diets are a leading cause of disease burden worldwide. In Australia, the Federal Government established the Food and Health Dialogue (the Dialogue in 2009 to address this issue, primarily through food reformulation. We evaluated the Dialogue’s performance over its 6 years of operation and used these findings to develop recommendations for the success of the new Healthy Food Partnership. Methods We used information from the Dialogue website, media releases, communiqués, e-newsletters, materials released under freedom-of-information, and Parliamentary Hansard to evaluate the Dialogue’s achievements from October 2013 to November 2015, using the RE-AIM (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance framework. We also engaged closely with two former Dialogue members. Our findings update a prior assessment done in October 2013. Results Little data is available to evaluate the Dialogue’s recent achievements, with no information about progress against milestones released since October 2013. In the last 2 years, only one additional set of sodium reduction targets (cheese was agreed and Quick Service Restaurant foods were added as an area for action. Some activity was identified in 12 of a possible 137 (9 % areas of action within the Dialogue’s mandate. Independent evaluation found targets were partially achieved in some food categories, with substantial variation in success between companies. No effects on the knowledge, behaviours or nutrient intake of the Australian population or evidence of impact on diet-related disease could be identified. Conclusions The new Healthy Food Partnership has similar goals to the Dialogue. While highly laudable and recognised globally as cost-effective, the mechanism for delivery in Australia has been woefully inadequate. Strong government leadership, adequate funding, clear targets and timelines, management of conflict of interest, comprehensive monitoring and evaluation
Jones, Alexandra; Magnusson, Roger; Swinburn, Boyd; Webster, Jacqui; Wood, Amanda; Sacks, Gary; Neal, Bruce
Poor diets are a leading cause of disease burden worldwide. In Australia, the Federal Government established the Food and Health Dialogue (the Dialogue) in 2009 to address this issue, primarily through food reformulation. We evaluated the Dialogue's performance over its 6 years of operation and used these findings to develop recommendations for the success of the new Healthy Food Partnership. We used information from the Dialogue website, media releases, communiqués, e-newsletters, materials released under freedom-of-information, and Parliamentary Hansard to evaluate the Dialogue's achievements from October 2013 to November 2015, using the RE-AIM (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework. We also engaged closely with two former Dialogue members. Our findings update a prior assessment done in October 2013. Little data is available to evaluate the Dialogue's recent achievements, with no information about progress against milestones released since October 2013. In the last 2 years, only one additional set of sodium reduction targets (cheese) was agreed and Quick Service Restaurant foods were added as an area for action. Some activity was identified in 12 of a possible 137 (9 %) areas of action within the Dialogue's mandate. Independent evaluation found targets were partially achieved in some food categories, with substantial variation in success between companies. No effects on the knowledge, behaviours or nutrient intake of the Australian population or evidence of impact on diet-related disease could be identified. The new Healthy Food Partnership has similar goals to the Dialogue. While highly laudable and recognised globally as cost-effective, the mechanism for delivery in Australia has been woefully inadequate. Strong government leadership, adequate funding, clear targets and timelines, management of conflict of interest, comprehensive monitoring and evaluation, and a plan for responsive regulation in the event of missed milestones
Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus
This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652
Bernhardt, Amy M; Wilking, Cara; Gottlieb, Mark; Emond, Jennifer; Sargent, James D
Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children. To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children's meals by McDonald's and Burger King (BK) restaurants. Descriptive qualitative study in a rural pediatric practice setting in Northern New England. A convenience sample of 99 children (age range, 3-7 years) was shown depictions of healthy foods in fast-food advertisements that aired from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The images from McDonald's and BK showed milk and apples. Children were asked what they saw and not prompted to respond specifically to any aspect of the images. Two still images drawn from advertisements for healthy meals at McDonald's and BK. Children's responses were independently content coded to food category by 2 researchers. Among the 99 children participating, only 51 (52%) and 69 (70%) correctly identified milk from the McDonald's and BK images, respectively, with a significantly greater percentage correct (P = .02 for both) among older children. The children's recall of apples was significantly different by restaurant, with 79 (80%) mentioning apples when describing the McDonald's image and only 10 (10%) for the BK image (P McDonald's was communicated adequately to the target audience. Representations of milk were inadequately communicated to preliterate children. Televised depictions of apple slices by BK misled the children in this study, although no action was taken by government or self-regulatory bodies.
Kim D. Raine
Full Text Available Introduction: Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. Methods: To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1 conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2 hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Results: Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Conclusion: Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians’ access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada.
Kim D., Raine; Kayla, Atkey; Dana Lee, Dana Lee; Alexa R., Ferdinands; Dominique, Beaulieu; Susan, Buhler; Norm, Campbell; Brian, Cook; Mary, L’Abbé; Ashley, Lederer; David, Mowat; Joshna, Maharaj; Candace, Nykiforuk; Jacob, Shelley; Jacqueline, Street
Abstract Introduction: Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. Methods: To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1) conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2) hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Results: Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Conclusion: Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians’ access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada. PMID:29323862
Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Chappell, Stacie; Davies, Christina; Roche, Dee; Shilton, Trevor; Ledger, Melissa; Slevin, Terry; Rosenberg, Michael
The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore the barriers and enablers to implementing healthy workplace initiatives in a sample of workplaces based in Perth, Western Australia. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives from 31 organizations representing small, medium and large businesses in the Perth metropolitan area which reported having healthy workplace initiatives. In total, 43 factors were mentioned as influencing the implementation of healthy workplace initiatives. Factors appearing to exert the most influence on the implementation of health promoting initiatives in this sample were culture; support from managers and staff; collaboration with industry providers; financial resources circumstances and the physical environment. These factors appeared to be mutually reinforcing and interconnected. Findings suggest there may be merit in applying an organizational development lens to the implementation of workplace health promotion initiatives as this could assist in leveraging enablers and minimizing barriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N
A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were partitioned into two groups, those below and those above the poverty line, and exposed to nutrient-content claimed advertisement treatments for healthy and unhealthy foods featuring the three appeals. The findings reaffirmed the interaction effects between perceivably healthy and unhealthy foods and different appeals reported in previous studies, and found interaction effects between consumer poverty level and response to the message appeals featured in the experimental food advertisements. Age, body mass index, current dieting status, education, and gender were examined as covariates.
... Protein 15g Total Amounts To make heart-healthy food choices, look at the totals and cut back on • ... Toolkit No. 8: Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices • Toolkit No. 9: Protect Your Heart: Choose Fats ...
Lewis, Meron; Lee, Amanda
To undertake a systematic review to determine similarities and differences in metrics and results between recently and/or currently used tools, protocols and methods for monitoring Australian healthy food prices and affordability. Electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and online grey literature were systematically searched using the PRISMA approach for articles and reports relating to healthy food and diet price assessment tools, protocols, methods and results that utilised retail pricing. National, state, regional and local areas of Australia from 1995 to 2015. Assessment tools, protocols and methods to measure the price of 'healthy' foods and diets. The search identified fifty-nine discrete surveys of 'healthy' food pricing incorporating six major food pricing tools (those used in multiple areas and time periods) and five minor food pricing tools (those used in a single survey area or time period). Analysis demonstrated methodological differences regarding: included foods; reference households; use of availability and/or quality measures; household income sources; store sampling methods; data collection protocols; analysis methods; and results. 'Healthy' food price assessment methods used in Australia lack comparability across all metrics and most do not fully align with a 'healthy' diet as recommended by the current Australian Dietary Guidelines. None have been applied nationally. Assessment of the price, price differential and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets would provide more robust and meaningful data to inform health and fiscal policy in Australia. The INFORMAS 'optimal' approach provides a potential framework for development of these methods.
Young, Kylie; Kennedy, Vanessa; Kingsland, Melanie; Sawyer, Amy; Rowland, Bosco; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke
Little is known of the extent to which senior sports clubs support the consumption of healthy food and beverages. This study of senior community football clubs aimed to describe: i) the food and beverages available in club canteens; ii) the perceived acceptability of club representatives (e.g. club president or secretary) to selling healthy food and beverages in club canteens; iii) the perceived barriers of club representatives to providing healthy food and beverage options in their club canteen; iv) the associations between the availability of healthy options in canteens, perceived barriers to healthy food and drink availability, and club characteristics; and (v) the food and beverages usually purchased from canteens by club members. The study involved 70 senior community football clubs (Australian Rules Football, Soccer, Rugby League and Rugby Union) across New South Wales, Australia. Club representatives and club members took part in cross-sectional telephone surveys. The most frequently available items at club canteens were regular soft drinks and potato chips or other salty snacks (available at 99% of clubs). Approximately two-thirds (66%) of club representatives agreed or strongly agreed that clubs should provide a greater variety of healthy food options. Perishability and lack of demand were the most frequently cited barriers to healthy food provision. Healthy food options were more available at AFL clubs compared with other football codes. Overall, 6% of club members reported purchasing a healthy food option. Senior community football clubs primarily stock and sell unhealthy food and beverage items. There is support within clubs for providing more healthy options; however, clubs face a number of barriers to the inclusion of healthy foods in club canteens.
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mackenzie, Tara; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni
Background In-store availability of healthy and unhealthy foods may influence consumer purchases. Methods used to measure food availability, however, vary widely. A simple, valid, and reliable indicator to collect comparable data on in-store food availability is needed. Methods Cumulative linear shelf length of and variety within 22 healthy and 28 unhealthy food groups, determined based on a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems, were measured in 15 New Zealand supermarkets. Inter-ra...
Objectives There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies.
Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R
The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily
Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:24038264
Sun, Yu-Hua Christine
This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Williams, Lauren K; Abbott, Gavin; Thornton, Lukar E; Worsley, Anthony; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David
Despite strong empirical support for the association between perceived food affordability and dietary intake amongst families with a lower socioeconomic position (SEP), there is limited evidence of the most effective strategies for promoting more positive perceptions of healthy food affordability among this group. This paper reports findings from a pilot intervention that aimed to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability amongst mothers. Participants were 66 mothers who were the parents of children recruited from primary schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs. Intervention group participants viewed a slideshow focussed on healthy snack food affordability that illustrated cheaper healthier alternatives to common snack foods as well as food budgeting tips and price comparison education. A mixed between-within ANCOVA was conducted to examine group differences in perceived affordability of healthy food across three time points. Results revealed no difference in perceived affordability of healthy food between the two groups at baseline whereas at post-intervention and follow-up, mothers in the intervention group perceived healthy food as more affordable than the control group. Focussing on education-based interventions to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability may be a promising approach that complements existing nutrition promotion strategies.
Van Gestel, L C; Kroese, F M; De Ridder, D T D
Objective The current study is a longitudinal conceptual replication and aimed to investigate the effect of a food repositioning nudge on healthy food choice in a kiosk. Design During eight weeks, sales data were collected. The former four weeks formed the baseline phase and the latter four weeks formed the nudge phase where healthy food products were repositioned at the checkout counter display, while unhealthy alternatives remained available elsewhere in the store. Main Outcome Measures The main variable of interest was the proportion of healthy food products (selected to be repositioned) sold per day. Also exit interviews were administered to gather individual level data about purchases, and awareness and opinions of the nudge. Results Results showed that the proportion of selected healthy food products in total food sales was higher in all four nudge weeks than in all four baseline weeks. Individual level data showed that more customers had bought a selected healthy food product in the nudge phase and that customers generally approved of the nudge. Conclusion The current study strengthened the empirical evidence base of repositioning healthy food products as an effective and well-accepted nudge.
I. A. Ivkova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the technology of new-generation canned milk, balanced by the composition of fatty acids and corresponding to the formula of healthy nutrition. This compliance is achieved by adjusting the fatty acid composition and replacing part of the animal fat with vegetable substitutes. Carrying out the analysis of dieticians recommendations on nutrition with the aim of preventing cardiovascular diseases, the main provisions were formulated, which are aimed at creating specialized milk products intended for feeding people under extreme conditions of existence. Based on the results obtained in the analysis of vegetable raw materials, energy value and organoleptic evaluation, as well as the economic feasibility of using plant components, optimal dosages of substituting animal fat for its substitutes were selected, and the areas of permissible values of the mass fractions of special products were determined. During the research, new specialized milk-based products were developed, which were conducted in the direction of creating scientifically sound formulas and technology of dry milk-containing canned food, as well as production inspection in industrial conditions and comparative studies aimed at studying the quality of products. The results confirmed that the developed products have high values of all the criteria studied in the work and can be recommended for diets of people who are in extreme conditions of existence as a full-fledged dairy-plant supplement, as well as prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases.
King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J
The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations.
Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana
The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.
Garcia, Mariana T; Ribeiro, Silvana M; Germani, Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves; Bógus, Cláudia M
To examine the impacts on food and nutrition-related outcomes resulting from participation in urban gardens, especially on healthy food practices, healthy food access, and healthy food beliefs, knowledge and attitudes. The systematic review identified studies by searching the PubMed, ERIC, LILACS, Web of Science and Embase databases. An assessment of quality and bias risk of the studies was carried out and a narrative summary was produced. Studies published as original articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals in English, Spanish or Portuguese between 2005 and 2015 were included. The studies included were based on data from adult participants in urban gardens. Twenty-four studies were initially selected based on the eligibility criteria, twelve of which were included. There was important heterogeneity of settings, population and assessment methods. Assessment of quality and bias risk of the studies revealed the need for greater methodological rigour. Most studies investigated community gardens and employed a qualitative approach. The following were reported: greater fruit and vegetable consumption, better access to healthy foods, greater valuing of cooking, harvest sharing with family and friends, enhanced importance of organic production, and valuing of adequate and healthy food. Thematic patterns related to adequate and healthy food associated with participation in urban gardens were identified, revealing a positive impact on practices of adequate and healthy food and mainly on food perceptions.
Kinard, Brian R
Each day, social networking sites become increasingly inundated with food imagery. Since many of these images are of fresh, vibrant, and healthy eats, photo sharing of food through social media should have a long-term positive effect on consumption habits. Yet, obesity rates in the United States continue to rise, suggesting that people are spending more time posting images of healthy foods and paying less attention to the actual foods they consume. This confounding relationship could be explained by consumer weight, in that overweight consumers desire to engage with social media maybe for the purpose of expressing, presenting, and identifying with a healthy lifestyle. In the context of food posts, individuals higher in body mass index may be more likely to engage in social media activity (e.g., likes, shares, comments) that validates healthy food choices to others in their online community. A between-subjects experimental design tested this proposed effect using a manipulated Instagram post of a healthy food item (i.e., black bean veggie burger). Results indicate that obese individuals are more likely to engage with healthy food posts compared with their normal weight and overweight counterparts. The effect is even more pronounced when posts are absent of prior social media activity. Based upon these results, obese individuals are encouraged to establish and maintain social network connections with others who routinely post images of healthy food in their social media feeds. Limitations and directions for future research are provided.
Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.
Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559
in initiatives which promote healthy foods and physical activity. Concurrently, municipalities and other public bodies increasingly recognize their responsibility to support sustainable food production methods, such as organic agriculture, by choosing this kind of foods in public institutions. The question...... therefore arises whether these two trends - healthier eating strategies for youth, and increased public consumption of organic food, interact. This paper investigates the interrelation between the two trends: healthy eating and organic consumption. In Denmark, public schools are utilised for public organic...... explored the attitudes, policies/intentions and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Results indicate that organic food intervention strategies can be supportive for strategies to increase the healthiness of school eating patterns....
Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N
Fast food restaurants have increasingly turned to healthier choices to counter criticisms of nutritionally poor menu offerings and to differentiate themselves from the competition. However, research has yet to specifically investigate how consumers respond to advertisements for these healthier foods. To address this knowledge gap, two experiments were conducted to examine how perceived brand healthiness, brand commitment, and health consciousness influence responses to nutrient-content claimed print advertisements for healthy foods. Findings indicate that consumer responsiveness varies across the three factors but is more positive for advertisements placed by perceivably healthy restaurant brands, and that brand commitment and health consciousness play significant roles in affecting how consumer respond to such advertising. Several theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
Achananuparp, Palakorn; Lim, Ee-Peng; Abhishek, Vibhanshu
Past research has shown the benefits of food journaling in promoting mindful eating and healthier food choices. However, the links between journaling and healthy eating have not been thoroughly examined. Beyond caloric restriction, do journalers consistently and sufficiently consume healthful diets? How different are their eating habits compared to those of average consumers who tend to be less conscious about health? In this study, we analyze the healthy eating behaviors of active food journ...
Bustos, Nelly; Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Vio, Fernando
In Chilean school there is a kiosk that sells a large number of high-calorie products. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers that children have for buying healthy food and evaluate changes in the pattern of food purchases during a school year at a school where a "Healthy Space" was created. We designed implemented and assessed changes in food purchases by developing a "Healthy Space" which included a kiosk that incorporated a range of healthy food at affordable prices. The staff in charge of the kiosk was trained and we generate communication and marketing strategies to promote the consumption of healthy food. A validated survey to determine food purchases was applied to 9-12 year-old children from both schools at baseline and follow up 8 months later. The total number of schoolchildren was 477 (291 from the intervention and 115 from the control school). There weren't significant differences in the amount of money available to buy food between children of both schools. There was a significant increase in the purchase of fruit, milk, yoghurt, soft drinks and light juices, dried seeds, healthy sandwiches and non-fat ice cream (p increase in the supply of affordable healthy food, including communication and marketing strategies, significantly increases the consumption of these products among school children.
Wahl, Deborah R; Villinger, Karoline; König, Laura M; Ziesemer, Katrin; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta
Research suggests that "healthy" food choices such as eating fruits and vegetables have not only physical but also mental health benefits and might be a long-term investment in future well-being. This view contrasts with the belief that high-caloric foods taste better, make us happy, and alleviate a negative mood. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of food choice and well-being, we investigated in-the-moment eating happiness by assessing complete, real life dietary behaviour across eight days using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment. Three main findings emerged: First, of 14 different main food categories, vegetables consumption contributed the largest share to eating happiness measured across eight days. Second, sweets on average provided comparable induced eating happiness to "healthy" food choices such as fruits or vegetables. Third, dinner elicited comparable eating happiness to snacking. These findings are discussed within the "food as health" and "food as well-being" perspectives on eating behaviour.
Trevino, Roberto P.; Pham, Trang; Mobley, Connie; Hartstein, Jill; El Ghormli, Laure; Songer, Thomas
Background: Food service directors have a concern that federal reimbursement is not meeting the demands of increasing costs of healthier meals. The purpose of this article is to report the food option changes and the annual revenues and expenses of the school food service environment.
Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre
The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…
Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D; Hanning, Rhona M
Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for "what works" with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region's public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: "strategic positioning", "partnerships" and "knowledge transfer" and related sub-themes ("aligned agendas", "issue framing", "visioning" and "legitimacy"). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food.
Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather
The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.
De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte
Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
van Gestel, L.C.; Kroese, F.M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.
Objective The current study is a longitudinal conceptual replication and aimed to investigate the effect of a food repositioning nudge on healthy food choice in a kiosk. Design During eight weeks, sales data were collected. The former four weeks formed the baseline phase and the latter four weeks
Von Essen, Elisabeth
The patterns of food consumption are changing among young people. It is expressed in their awareness of how food affects health in both positive and negative ways. The acts of buying, cooking and eating food are related to cultural values and the social and psychological life of the individual. References to identity formation and health are frequently made in consumer research. However there are also other perspectives to consider, which has not yet been looked upon. The aim of this study wa...
Kroese, Floor M; Marchiori, David R; de Ridder, Denise T D
Recognizing the mindless nature of many food decisions, it has been suggested that attempts to increase healthy eating should not focus on convincing people what is 'right' but rather aim to adjust the environment such that people are automatically directed toward healthy choices. This study investigated a nudge aiming to promote healthy food choices in train station snack shops. The nudge involved a repositioning of food products: healthy foods were placed at the cash register desk, while keeping unhealthy products available elsewhere in the shop. Three snack shops were included: a control condition; a nudge condition repositioning healthy products and a nudge + disclosure condition employing the same nudge together with an explanatory sign. Next to examining its effectiveness during 1 week, the study assessed customers' acceptance of the nudge. Controlling for a baseline week, more healthy (but not fewer unhealthy) products were sold in both nudge conditions, with no difference between the nudge and the nudge + disclosure condition. A majority of customers reported positive attitudes toward the nudge. Repositioning healthy foods is a simple, effective and well-accepted nudge to increase healthy purchases. Moreover, disclosing its purpose does not impact on effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Isabel Cristina BENTO
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.
can support the development of healthier eating patterns among pupils. Food strategies of “organic” schools were compared to those of “non organic” schools. The study was undertaken among school food coordinators through a web-based questionnaire in selected public primary schools. The questionnaire...... explored the attitudes, policies/intentions and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Results indicate that organic food intervention strategies can be supportive for strategies to increase the healthiness of school eating patterns....
Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew
Obesity and other adverse health outcomes are influenced by individual- and neighbourhood-scale risk factors, including the food environment. At the small-area scale, past research has analysed spatial patterns of food environments for one time period, overlooking how food environments change over time. Further, past research has infrequently analysed relative healthy food access (RHFA), a measure that is more representative of food purchasing and consumption behaviours than absolute outlet density. This research applies a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of RHFA in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, from 2011 to 2014 at the small-area level. RHFA is calculated as the proportion of healthy food outlets (healthy outlets/healthy + unhealthy outlets) within 4-km from each small-area. This model measures spatial autocorrelation of RHFA, temporal trend of RHFA for the study region, and spatio-temporal trends of RHFA for small-areas. For the study region, a significant decreasing trend in RHFA is observed (-0.024), suggesting that food swamps have become more prevalent during the study period. For small-areas, significant decreasing temporal trends in RHFA were observed for all small-areas. Specific small-areas located in south Waterloo, north Kitchener, and southeast Cambridge exhibited the steepest decreasing spatio-temporal trends and are classified as spatio-temporal food swamps. This research demonstrates a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach to analyse RHFA at the small-area scale. Results suggest that food swamps are more prevalent than food deserts in the Region of Waterloo. Analysing spatio-temporal trends of RHFA improves understanding of local food environment, highlighting specific small-areas where policies should be targeted to increase RHFA and reduce risk factors of adverse health outcomes such as obesity.
Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Tombrock, M.C.; Verpaalen, I.A.M.; Schmitz, L.I.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Holland, R.W.
Many people find it hard to change their dietary choices. Food choice often occurs impulsively, without deliberation, and it has been unclear whether impulsive food choice can be experimentally created. Across 3 exploratory and 2 confirmatory preregistered experiments we examined whether impulsive
Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S
Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets--many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit). The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa). Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (pselection of healthier foods was less common. Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner's plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of "first foods most" may be relevant in other contexts - such as when serving or passing food at family dinners.
Jones, Alexandra; Dunford, Elizabeth; Crossley, Rachel; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Rayner, Mike; Neal, Bruce
Availability of less-healthy packaged food and beverage products has been implicated as an important driver of obesity and diet-related disease. An increasing number of packaged foods and beverages are sold in India. Our objective was to evaluate the healthiness of packaged foods sold by India's largest manufacturers. Healthiness was assessed using the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system and the World Health Organization's European Regional Office (WHO Euro) Nutrient Profile Model. Sales-value-weighted mean healthiness and the proportions of "healthy" products (using a validated HSR cut-off of ≥3.5, and products meeting WHO Euro criteria as healthy enough to market to children) were calculated overall, by company and by food category. Nutrient information for 943 products sold by the 11 largest Indian manufacturers was obtained from nutrient labels, company websites or directly from the manufacturer. Healthiness was low overall (mean HSR 1.8 out of 5.0 stars) with a low proportion defined as "healthy" by both HSR (17%) and also by WHO Euro criteria (8%). There were marked differences in the healthiness of similar products within food categories. Substantial variation between companies (minimum sales-value-weighted mean HSR 0.5 for Company G, versus maximum HSR 3.0 for Company F) was a result of differences in the types of products sold and the nutritional composition of individual products. There are clear opportunities for India's largest food companies to improve both the nutritional quality of individual products and to improve their product mix to include a greater proportion of healthy products.
Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio
The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the pr...
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
Organic food strategies are increasingly developing within European school food services at the same time as these services are being involved in measures aiming at promoting healthy eating at school and counter acting obesity. Schools have an important role to play in teaching children fundamental...... as sustainable consumption strategies are contributing to shaping the future school food culture. It is therefore imperative to study how these changes in agendas influences each other and to study the associations between healthy eating and organic supply strategies at school....... life skills, including good food habits according to a number of authoritative policy papers from Council of Europe, the WHO and the EU platform. Although there are great national differences, European school food culture seems to be in a transitional state in which both healthy eating as well...
Full Text Available This study was conducted at the aim of determining development strategies for marketing healthy food products. The study data was collected by conducting field survey and compeleting a questionnaire. Using simple random sampling, about 400 Hamedan citizens were selected in 2013. The data analysis was conducted by ordinal Logit model with method of maximum Likelihood. According to the results, 32 percent of people do not tend to shopping healthy food products, 34.3 percent of people ignored shopping of healthy food products, 33.8 percent of them tend to shopping of healthy food products. The results of estimating the ordinal Logit model presented that strategies such as cognition indicators, environment lover, Advertising and Information, Education, Supportive and monitoring facilities, structural and Service facilities and economic indicator should be considered as marketing strategies to develop healthy food products. In order to develop the healthy food market, the long term programs in the three sectors of products, consumption and marketing should be considered from specific purposes.
Kroese, Floor M; Marchiori, David R; de Ridder, Denise T D
BACKGROUND: Recognizing the mindless nature of many food decisions, it has been suggested that attempts to increase healthy eating should not focus on convincing people what is 'right' but rather aim to adjust the environment such that people are automatically directed toward healthy choices. This
Ronteltap, A.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Haaster-de Winter, van M.A.
Although many studies consider health and food, little is known about consumers’ actual interpretation of healthy eating. This study aims to explore, operationalise, and test consumers’ interpretation of healthy eating by using insights from construal level theory. In this exploratory research three
Helldán, Anni; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero
Retirement is one of the major transitions in the life course. However, it is poorly understood how health behaviours, such as food habits, might change after retirement. This study aimed to examine whether healthy food habits change after the transition to old age retirement and whether socio-demographic or health-related factors explain the association between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-02 and the follow-up in 2007. We included only participants who were aged 55-60 years at baseline and entered old age retirement during the follow-up (n = 1156, 76% women) or remained continuously employed (n = 1269, 79% women). Food habits from a food frequency questionnaire included eight items formed according to the Finnish and Nordic dietary recommendations. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. Healthy food habits increased more among retired women than those continuously employed (P = 0.03). At follow-up retired women had healthier food habits than continuously employed women after adjusting for baseline food habits [OR = 1.36 (1.12-1.65)]. Among men, healthy food habits were unassociated with retirement. Transition to old age retirement is likely to have beneficial effects on food habits among women. This helps prevent major diseases and supports better public health among ageing people.
Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre
Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…
Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's…
Salmon, Stefanie J; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely
Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Fenko, Anna; Nicolaas, Iris; Galetzka, Mirjam
Visual attention to health labels can indicate a subsequent healthy food choice. This study looked into the relative effects of Choices logos and traffic light labels on consumers’ visual attention and food choice. A field experiment using mobile eye-tracking was conducted in a Dutch university
Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy
Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…
Dien, T. K.; de Vries, P. J.; Khanh, N. X.; Koopmans, R.; Binh, L. N.; Duc, D. D.; Kager, P. A.; van Boxtel, C. J.
The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each
Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and...
Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; de Vet, E.
Objective: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting
Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.
OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting
Keith, Jill F; Stastny, Sherri; Brunt, Ardith; Agnew, Wanda
American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals experience disproportionate levels of chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and overweight and obesity that are influenced by dietary patterns and food choices. Understanding factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students can enrich education and programs that target dietary intake. To build an understanding of factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students at increased risk for college attrition. A nonexperimental cohort design was used for qualitative descriptive analysis. Participants (N=20) were purposively sampled, newly enrolled, academically underprepared tribal college students enrolled in a culturally relevant life skills course at an upper Midwest tribal college between September 2013 and May 2015. Participant demographic characteristics included various tribal affiliations, ages, and number of dependents. Participant responses to qualitative research questions about dietary intake, food choices, self-efficacy for healthy food choices, psychosocial determinants, and barriers to healthy food choices during telephone interviews were used as measures. Qualitative analysis included prestudy identification of researcher bias/assumptions, audiorecording and transcription, initial analysis (coding), secondary analysis (sorting and identifying meaning), and verification (comparative pattern analysis). Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of themes and subthemes about healthy food choices. Main themes related to barriers included taste, food gathering and preparation, and difficulty clarifying healthy food choices. Main themes related to strategies included taste, cultural traditions and practices, and personal motivation factors. Qualitative analysis identified barrier and strategy themes that may assist nutrition and dietetics practitioners working with tribal/indigenous communities, tribal college educators and health specialists, and tribal
Matos, J; Cardoso, C; Bandarra, N M; Afonso, C
Microalgae are very interesting and valuable natural sources of highly valuable bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, enzymes and fibre. Due to their potential, microalgae have become some of the most promising and innovative sources of new food and functional products. Moreover, microalgae can be used as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foods and, thus, to favourably affect human health by improving the well-being and quality of life, but also by curtailing disease and illness risks. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health benefits associated with the consumption of microalgae, bioactive compounds, functional ingredients, and health foods.
Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju
Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the pricing studies we reviewed
Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju
Introduction Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. Methods We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Results Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the
Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P; Fourie, Jean; De Villiers, Anniza
We investigated the availability of healthier food choices and whether a healthier diet costs more than a diet commonly eaten by low-income families in South Africa. We visited 21 food stores in 14 rural towns of the Western Cape province of South Africa. We recorded the price and availability of 66 food items, including both commonly consumed foods as well as healthy options. Healthier food choices are available in supermarkets. However, many towns only have small food stores with a limited selection of healthy foods. We compared the prices of six commonly consumed foods with healthier versions of those foods (e.g., whole-wheat bread in place of white bread). Healthier foods typically cost between 10% and 60% more when compared on a weight basis (Rand per 100 g), and between 30% and 110% more when compared based on the cost of food energy (Rand per 100 kJ). Next, we compared the extra cost of a healthier diet compared to a typical South African menu. On average, for an adult male, the healthier diet costs Rand 10.2 (US$1.22) per day more (69% more). For a household with five occupants, the increased expenditure on food by eating a healthier diet is approximately Rand 1090 per month (US$140); this represents a high proportion (>30%) of the total household income for most of the population. Healthier food choices are, in general, considerably more expensive than commonly consumed foods. As a result, a healthy diet is unaffordable for the large majority of the population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adedokun, Omolola A; Plonski, Paula; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Cotterill, Debra B; Vail, Ann
To evaluate the impact of the University of Kentucky's Healthy Choices for Every Body (HCEB) adult nutrition education curriculum on participants' food resource management (FRM) skills and food safety practices. A quasi-experimental design was employed using propensity score matching to pair 8 intervention counties with 8 comparison counties. Independent-samples t tests and ANCOVA models compared gains in FRM skills and food safety practices between the intervention and comparison groups (n = 413 and 113, respectively). Propensity score matching analysis showed a statistical balance and similarities between the comparison and intervention groups. Food resource management and food safety gain scores were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group (P food safety practices of participants. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The need for more effective interventions to combat the obesity problem has been expressed by many public health experts. While consumer support is important for intervention effectiveness, little is known about why consumers accept or do not accept food choice interventions. The present thesis
Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio
Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Hofmann, Johannes; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Paulmichl, Katharina; Weghuber, Daniel; Blechert, Jens
Despite alarming prevalence rates, surprisingly little is known about neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior in juveniles with obesity. To simulate reactivity to modern food environments, event-related potentials (ERP) to appetizing food images (relative to control images) were recorded in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents with obesity (patients) and 24 matched healthy control adolescents watched and rated standardized food and object images during ERP recording. Personality (impulsivity) and eating styles (trait craving and dietary restraint) were assessed as potential moderators. Food relative to object images triggered larger early (P100) and late (P300) ERPs. More impulsive individuals had considerably larger food-specific P100 amplitudes in both groups. Controls with higher restraint scores showed reduced food-specific P300 amplitudes and subjective palatability ratings whereas patients with higher restraint scores showed increased P300 and palatability ratings. This first ERP study in adolescents with obesity and controls revealed impulsivity as a general risk factor in the current obesogenic environment by increasing food-cue salience. Dietary restraint showed paradoxical effects in patients, making them more vulnerable to visual food-cues. Salutogenic therapeutic approaches that deemphasize strict dietary restraint and foster healthy food choice might reduce such paradoxical effects. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; Schwartz, Brittany; Graham, John; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Mojica, Angelo; Marziale, Erin; Harris, Diane
In February and March 2017 we examined barriers and facilitators to financial sustainability of healthy food service guidelines and synthesized best practices for financial sustainability in retail operations. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 8 hospital food service directors to learn more about barriers and facilitators to financial sustainability of healthy food service guidelines in retail food service operations. Analysts organized themes around headers in the interview guide and also made note of emerging themes not in the original guide. They used the code occurrence and co-occurrence features in Dedoose version 7.0.23 (SocioCultural Research Consultants) independently to analyze patterns across the interviews and to pull illustrative quotes for analysis. Two overarching themes emerged, related to 1) the demand for and sales of healthy foods and beverages, and 2) the production and supply of healthy foods and beverages. Our study provides insights into how hospital food service directors can maximize revenue and remain financially viable while selling healthier options in on-site dining facilities.
Full Text Available Food deserts—areas with a significant low-income population experiencing low accessibility to healthy food sources—have been well studied in terms of their connection to obesity and its related health outcomes. Measuring food accessibility is the key component in food desert research. However, previous studies often measured food accessibility based on large geographic units (e.g. census tract, zip code with few transportation modes (e.g. driving or taking public transit and limited vulnerable population measures. This paper aims to demonstrate a new method to measure food access for different vulnerable population groups at a smaller geographic scale with different transportation modes. In detail, this paper improves on previous studies from the following three perspectives: (1 Measuring food accessibility with a smaller geographic scale: block group vs. census track which on average includes 1000 people vs. 4000 people; (2 Measuring food accessibility with different transportation modes: walking, biking, transit, and driving vs. driving only; and (3 Measuring food accessibility for different vulnerable population groups. The proposed method was tested in the city of Austin, which is the capital of Texas and the 11th largest city in the US, and measured people’s accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food sources within the city. The methods can be applied to address food accessibility issues in other cities or regions.
Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne
Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods.
Sheats, Jylana L; Winter, Sandra J; Romero, Priscilla Padilla; King, Abby C
Creating environments that support healthy eating is important for successful aging, particularly in light of the growing population of older adults in the United States. There is an urgent need to identify innovative upstream solutions to barriers experienced by older adults in accessing and buying healthy food. FEAST (Food Environment Assessment STudy) is an effort that is part of the global Our Voice initiative, which utilizes a combination of technology and community-engaged methods to empower citizen scientists (i.e., community residents) to: (1) use the Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool (Discovery Tool) mobile application to collect data (geocoded photos, audio narratives) about aspects of their environment that facilitate or hinder healthy living; and (2) use findings to advocate for change in partnership with local decision and policy makers. In FEAST, 23 racially/ethnically diverse, low-income, and food-insecure older adults residing in urban, North San Mateo County, CA, were recruited to use the Discovery Tool to examine factors that facilitated or hindered their access to food as well as their food-related behaviors. Participants collectively reviewed data retrieved from the Discovery Tool and identified and prioritized important, yet feasible, issues to address. Access to affordable healthy food and transportation were identified as the major barriers to eating healthfully and navigating their neighborhood food environments. Subsequently, participants were trained in advocacy skills and shared their findings with relevant decision and policymakers, who in turn dispelled myths and discussed and shared resources to address relevant community needs. Proximal and distal effects of the community-engaged process at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were documented and revealed individual-, community-, and policy-level impacts. Finally, FEAST contributes to the evidence on multi-level challenges that low-income, racially/ethnically diverse older adults experience
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets--many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. METHOD: The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit. The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa. Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. RESULTS: With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (p<0.001. Indeed, diners in this line more frequently chose less healthy foods in combinations, such as cheesy eggs and bacon (r = 0.47; p<0.001 or cheesy eggs and fried potatoes (r= 0.37; p<0.001. This co-selection of healthier foods was less common. CONCLUSIONS: Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner's plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of "first foods most" may be relevant in other contexts - such as when serving or passing food at family dinners.
Randall, Jill; And Others
This package consists of two sets of bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn prenatal care and nutrition skills. Included in the package are Vietnamese, Laotian, and English translations of an instructional booklet dealing with how to have a healthy pregnancy. The second item in the package is a set of…
Full Text Available This paper is a literature review about the presence of bioactive compounds in tomato and tomato based food, and these compounds function to promote health in the human organism. Several scientific studies show that tomato and tomato based products have several molecules, some of them with antioxidant activity, that protect lipids, lipoproteins, DNA, etc. against free radicals. This function could be one of the causes of the apparent link between consumption and protection of degenerative and chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. More recent studies have proposed different biochemical mechanisms in which tomato components can exert this beneficial role on health. In addition, several studies seem to show that the greatest benefit of this food is due to the synergistic effect between all its compounds. Some epidemiological studies associate that regular intake has several beneficial effects on health. Due to the association between bioactive compounds, daily tomato consumption and its effect on human health, the aim of the current literature review is summarize the compounds in this food and its possible actions on health.
Moran, Alyssa; Krepp, Erica M; Johnson Curtis, Christine; Lederer, Ashley
Hospitals serve millions of meals and snacks each year; however, hospital food is often unhealthy. Hospitals are ideal settings for modeling healthy eating, but few programs have sought to improve nutrition in all venues where food is served. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene created the Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) to improve the healthfulness of food served in hospitals. The HHFI built on prior work implementing mandatory nutrition standards for patient meals and vending in public hospitals. Public hospitals joined the HHFI by voluntarily adopting standards for cafeterias and cafés. Private hospitals joined by implementing nutrition standards for patient meals, food and beverage vending machines, and cafeterias and cafés. Hospitals were recruited from 2010 through 2014 and provided technical assistance from health department staff. Implementation in each of the 4 areas was monitored through on-site assessments and menu review. Twenty-eight hospital cafeterias and cafés were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the HHFI to assess changes. Sixteen public hospitals and 24 private hospitals joined the HHFI. Most (n = 18) private hospitals implemented standards in at least 2 areas. In cafeterias, most hospitals introduced a healthy value meal (n = 19), removed unhealthy items from the entrance and checkout (n = 18), increased whole grains to at least half of all grains served (n = 17), and reduced calories in pastries and desserts (n = 15). Most New York City hospitals joined the HHFI and voluntarily adopted rigorous nutrition standards. Partnerships between hospitals and local government are feasible and can lead to significant improvements in hospital food environments.
Krepp, Erica M.; Johnson Curtis, Christine; Lederer, Ashley
Background Hospitals serve millions of meals and snacks each year; however, hospital food is often unhealthy. Hospitals are ideal settings for modeling healthy eating, but few programs have sought to improve nutrition in all venues where food is served. Community Context The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene created the Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) to improve the healthfulness of food served in hospitals. The HHFI built on prior work implementing mandatory nutrition standards for patient meals and vending in public hospitals. Public hospitals joined the HHFI by voluntarily adopting standards for cafeterias and cafés. Private hospitals joined by implementing nutrition standards for patient meals, food and beverage vending machines, and cafeterias and cafés. Methods Hospitals were recruited from 2010 through 2014 and provided technical assistance from health department staff. Implementation in each of the 4 areas was monitored through on-site assessments and menu review. Twenty-eight hospital cafeterias and cafés were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the HHFI to assess changes. Outcome Sixteen public hospitals and 24 private hospitals joined the HHFI. Most (n = 18) private hospitals implemented standards in at least 2 areas. In cafeterias, most hospitals introduced a healthy value meal (n = 19), removed unhealthy items from the entrance and checkout (n = 18), increased whole grains to at least half of all grains served (n = 17), and reduced calories in pastries and desserts (n = 15). Interpretation Most New York City hospitals joined the HHFI and voluntarily adopted rigorous nutrition standards. Partnerships between hospitals and local government are feasible and can lead to significant improvements in hospital food environments. PMID:27281392
Pope, Lizzy; Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian
How do the holidays--and the possible New Year's resolutions that follow--influence a household's purchase patterns of healthier foods versus less healthy foods? This has important implications for both holiday food shopping and post-holiday shopping. 207 households were recruited to participate in a randomized-controlled trial conducted at two regional-grocery chain locations in upstate New York. Item-level transaction records were tracked over a seven-month period (July 2010 to March 2011). The cooperating grocer's proprietary nutrient-rating system was used to designate "healthy," and "less healthy" items. Calorie data were extracted from online nutritional databases. Expenditures and calories purchased for the holiday period (Thanksgiving-New Year's), and the post-holiday period (New Year's-March), were compared to baseline (July-Thanksgiving) amounts. During the holiday season, household food expenditures increased 15% compared to baseline ($105.74 to $121.83; p<0.001), with 75% of additional expenditures accounted for by less-healthy items. Consistent with what one would expect from New Year's resolutions, sales of healthy foods increased 29.4% ($13.24/week) after the holiday season compared to baseline, and 18.9% ($9.26/week) compared to the holiday period. Unfortunately, sales of less-healthy foods remained at holiday levels ($72.85/week holiday period vs. $72.52/week post-holiday). Calories purchased each week increased 9.3% (450 calories per serving/week) after the New Year compared to the holiday period, and increased 20.2% (890 calories per serving/week) compared to baseline. Despite resolutions to eat more healthfully after New Year's, consumers may adjust to a new "status quo" of increased less-healthy food purchasing during the holidays, and dubiously fulfill their New Year's resolutions by spending more on healthy foods. Encouraging consumers to substitute healthy items for less-healthy items may be one way for practitioners and public health
Wahl, Deborah R.; Villinger, Karoline; König, Laura M.; Ziesemer, Katrin; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta
Research suggests that "healthy" food choices such as eating fruits and vegetables have not only physical but also mental health benefits and might be a long-term investment in future well-being. This view contrasts with the belief that high-caloric foods taste better, make us happy, and alleviate a negative mood. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of food choice and well-being, we investigated in-the-moment eating happiness by assessing complete, real life dietary behaviour across ei...
Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D
Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Dominick, Clare; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd
To assess government actions to improve the healthiness of food environments in New Zealand, based on the healthy food environment policy index. A panel of 52 public health experts rated the extent of government implementation against international best practice for 42 indicators of food environment policy and infrastructure support. Their ratings were informed by documented evidence, validated by government officials and international benchmarks. There was a high level of implementation for some indicators: providing ingredient lists and nutrient declarations and regulating health claims on packaged foods; transparency in policy development; monitoring prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and monitoring risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. There was very little, if any implementation of the following indicators: restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children; fiscal and food retail policies and protection of national food environments within trade agreements. Interrater reliability was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76-0.79). Based on the implementation gaps, the experts recommended 34 actions, and prioritized seven of these. The healthy food environment policy index provides a useful set of indicators that can focus attention on where government action is needed. It is anticipated that this policy index will increase accountability of governments, stimulate government action and support civil society advocacy efforts.
Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Verhoeven, Maxime; Dewitte, Siegfried
This study investigated how a combination of tangible and non-tangible rewards can alter health-related decisions made by children. Children chose between an unhealthy food option (a bowl of potato crisps) and a healthy food option (a bowl of grapes) on two occasions. In the first round, we manipulated the expected tangible reward and praise. The tangible reward was manipulated by means of a game that the child received upon choosing the healthy product, and the praise was manipulated by means of the teacher's applause and smiles if the child selected the healthy option. The second trial occurred three days after the first trial using the same food item options. Neither tangible rewards nor praise influenced the children's choices by themselves, but combining the two substantially increased the children's likelihood of selecting the healthy food choice. The data were consistent with a reattribution process akin to social labelling. Although initially externally motivated to select the healthy option, the children who received praise appeared to interpret their choice as internally motivated and therefore continued to select the healthy option even in the absence of reward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K
Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status-metabolic health phenotypes. Men (n = 4855) aged ≥ 45 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P food intake in all models. Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary patterns, which may better inform the holistic effect of diet on healthy obesity, in prospective analyses. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Smith, Diane L
To determine if disability is a significant factor in increasing the likelihood of experiencing stress regarding the ability to pay for housing and healthy food. 24.6% (n=16206) of 65,960 adults who responded to the social context optional module of 2009-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System identified themselves as having a disability. Adults with disabilities reported that they experienced significantly more stress about having money to pay for housing and healthy food than adults without disabilities. This research was a quantitative study using a publicly available dataset. A series of logistic regressions were performed to determine the extent that disability affected the likelihood of stress about having enough money for housing and healthy food. Employed persons with a disability are 1.6 times and 1.9 times as likely as persons without a disability to experience stress about not having enough money to pay for housing and healthy food, respectively. Persons not employed with a disability are 1.56 times and 1.83 times as likely to experience stress about not having enough money to pay for housing and healthy food, respectively. For persons with a disability, being female, in poor health, without a health plan and having a lower income were also significant. Education and employment were not significant predictors of experiencing stress regarding money for food or housing. Having a disability is more predictive of experiencing stress about having enough money for housing and healthy food than employment, though variables such as low income and having a health plan, dependent on employment are significant. Therefore, strategies and policy recommendations to reduce stress by increasing employment and income for persons with disabilities were presented.
Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice
Naderer, B.; Matthes, J.; Binder, A.; Marquart, F.; Mayrhofer, M.; Obereder, A.; Spielvogel, I.
Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such
Lewis, LaVonna Blair; Sloane, David C.; Nascimento, Lori Miller; Diamant, Allison L.; Guinyard, Joyce Jones; Yancey, Antronette K.; Flynn, Gwendolyn
Objectives. We examined availability and food options at restaurants in less affluent (target area) and more affluent (comparison area) areas of Los Angeles County to compare residents’ access to healthy meals prepared and purchased away from home. We also considered environmental prompts that encourage the purchase of various foods. Methods. We designed an instrument to assess the availability, quality, and preparation of food in restaurants. We also assessed advertisements and promotions, cleanliness, and service for each restaurant. We assessed 659 restaurants: 348 in the target area and 311 in the comparison area. Results. The nutritional resource environment in our target area makes it challenging for residents to eat healthy away from home. Poorer neighborhoods with a higher proportion of African American residents have fewer healthy options available, both in food selections and in food preparation; restaurants in these neighborhoods heavily promote unhealthy food options to residents. Conclusions. Environment is important in understanding health status: support for the healthy lifestyle associated with lower risks for disease is difficult in poorer communities with a higher proportion of African American residents. PMID:15798128
Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M
To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vega, R. S. A.; Manalo, D. D.; Garcia, J. N. M.
The aim of this paper is to present a paradigm shift from meat demand to health driven understanding of the effects of livestock production and meat consumption in human. Included are comments on animal nutrition research with the purpose of getting more relevant health information. The growth and metabolism research covers the principles from feed intake regulation, nutrient digestion, absorption and growth. Meat preservation provides enough food for the urban population, and its major ingredient includes the combination of salt, sugar and fats, suspected to cause food addiction in man. The reported effect of processed red meat causing systemic inflammation is a major consideration in food preparation, diet selection and reasonable control for meat consumption. In livestock “Pharming” the danger of heavy metal contamination of commercial feed poses threat to human health aside from drug residues. It is proposed that the 50% of global greenhouse gas is due to the lifestyle of the rich and epidemic of obesity-related diseases are the effect of livestock “Pharming” and addiction to fast food and or processed meat.
Bingham Clarissa ML
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.
Landrigan, Timothy J; Kerr, Deborah A; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Savage, Victoria; Pollard, Christina M
To assess the impact of changing the Australian Goods and Services Tax (GST) on household food stress, which occurs when >25% of disposable income needs to be spent on food. Weekly healthy meal plan costs for average-income (AI), low-income (LI) and welfare-dependent (WDI) families were calculated using the 2013 Western Australian (WA) Food Access and Costs Survey. Four GST scenarios were compared: 1) status quo; 2) increasing GST to 15%; 3) expanding base to include exempt foods at 10% GST; and 4) expanding base to include exempt foods and increasing the tax to 15%. Single-parent families risk food stress regardless of their income or the GST scenario (requiring 24-42% of disposable income). The probability of food stress in Scenario 1 is 100% for WDI two-parent families and 36% for LI earners. In Scenarios 3 and 4, food stress probability is 60-72% for two-parent LI families and AI single-parent families, increasing to 88-94% if residing in very remote areas. There is food stress risk among single-parent, LI and WDI families, particularly those residing in very remote areas. Implications for public health: Expanding GST places an additional burden on people who are already vulnerable to poor nutrition and chronic disease due to their socioeconomic circumstances. © 2017 The Authors.
In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.
Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias
Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hall, Jean A; Vondran, Jodi C; Vanchina, Melissa A; Jewell, Dennis E
Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients. By choosing any combination of foods, dogs and cats could individually set their macronutrient intake. Plasma metabolomic profiles were determined at baseline and after animals had consumed their food intake of choice for 28 days. Based on food intake calculations over 28 days, dogs on average chose to consume most of their calories from fat (41.1±4.3%) and then carbohydrate (35.8±3.7%), whereas cats on average chose to consume most of their calories from carbohydrate (43.1±4.0%) and then protein (30.3±3.9%; all P foods with similar palatability, dogs and cats consume different macronutrient compositions, and concentrations of circulating metabolites in cats reflect food choices. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Bowling, April B; Moretti, Mikayla; Ringelheim, Kayla; Tran, Alvin; Davison, Kirsten
Healthy Foods, Healthy Families (HFHF) is a fruit and vegetable (F&V) exposure/incentive program implemented at farmers' markets in low-income neighborhoods, targeting families receiving US federal food assistance. We examined program effects on participants' diet and associations between attendance, demographics and dietary change. Exposure activities included F&V tastings and cooking demonstrations. Incentives included 40% F&V bonus for electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card users and $20 for use purchasing F&V at every third market visit. Self-report surveys measuring nutritional behaviors/literacy were administered to participants upon enrollment (n = 425, 46.2% Hispanic, 94.8%female). Participants were sampled for follow-up at markets during mid-season (n = 186) and at season end (n = 146). Attendance was tracked over 16 weeks. Participants post-intervention reported significantly higher vegetable consumption(P = 0.005) and lower soda consumption (P = 0.005). Participants reporting largest F&V increases attended the market 6-8 times and received $40 in incentives. No change in food assistance spent on F&V (P = 0.94); 70% reported significant increases in family consumption of F&V,indicating subsidies increased overall F&V purchasing. Participants reported exposure activities and incentives similarly affected program attendance. Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers' markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance.
Full Text Available Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24 in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42, to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15 in the healthy supplier network (HSN and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41 in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN. Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001, and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001. Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001 fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.
Ravensbergen, E.A.H.; Waterlander, W.E.; Kroeze, W.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.
Background: It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was
Vakili, Mahdis; Abedi, Parvin; Afshari, Poorandokht; Kaboli, Nayereh Esmael
Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups). Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc.,) were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week). The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.
Full Text Available Introduction: Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups. Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc., were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week. The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. Results: The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. More women in the intervention group consumed fish after intervention (P = 0.02. The consumption of green leafy vegetables showed a nonsignificant increase in the intervention group. Conclusion: Using mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.
Full Text Available The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer’s knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes.
The thesis of this work is to map current trends on the Czech food market with focus on a healthy lifestyle. In particular, it focuses on foodstuff labelling and GDA labels. The paper begins by surveying the development of the healthy lifestyle trend, as well as the activities of the Federation of the Food and Drink Industries of the Czech Republic involved in a healthy lifestyle; furthermore, the work elaborates on segmentation of the consumer and evaluation of a healthy lifestyle, obesity a...
Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.
In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value.
Food marketing can be used as a means to combat the current obesity epidemic by increasing the healthiness of a consumer’s diet. The negative and positive influence of marketing practices on food intake has been investigated for advertisement via traditional (media) and modern (online, in-store, events, etc.) channels, branding campaigns, or product placement. Another increasingly applied, yet underresearched marketing tool to communicate with consumers is product packaging. Therefore, this c...
MICALI,Flávia Gonçalves; DIEZ-GARCIA,Rosa Wanda
ABSTRACT To trace the course of building a pictorial instrument that explores semiotic resources about food and nutrition education. The instrument is directed at the treatment and prevention of obesity, considering the food and nutrition problems of the Brazilian population. The criteria for photo production were: images that could cause visual impact and transmit applied nutrition information, insinuating positive and negative eating practices for promoting healthy eating, and preventing an...
Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert
Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castonguay, Jessica; Kunkel, Dale; Wright, Paul; Duff, Caroline
To determine the nutritional quality of foods advertised with familiar children's characters and health-related messages. Children's programming aired on the most popular broadcast and cable channels during 2011 was sampled to form a composite weekday and weekend day. All food advertisements (ads) included in this programming were content analyzed. Five hundred seventy-seven food ads. Familiar characters promoting products were either trade or licensed characters. A product's nutritional quality was determined using the United States Department of Health and Human Services' categorizations, based on the frequency foods should be consumed. Health cues were present when a food was claimed to be healthy, physical activity was depicted, or the product was associated with fruit. Frequencies and chi square analyses were conducted; P targeting children use a familiar character. The majority of these ads (72%) promote foods of low nutritional quality, yet 53% employ a health-related message. Familiar characters proliferate in food advertising to children, yet marketers do not adhere to recommendations that characters promote strictly healthy foods. Future research is needed to investigate effects and inform policy decisions in this realm. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dias, Cintia Botelho; Moughan, Paul J; Wood, Lisa G; Singh, Harjinder; Garg, Manohar L
One of the limitations for ranking foods and meals for healthiness on the basis of the glycaemic index (GI) is that the GI is subject to manipulation by addition of fat. Postprandial lipemia, defined as a rise in circulating triglyceride containing lipoproteins following consumption of a meal, has been recognised as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Many non-modifiable factors (pathological conditions, genetic background, age, sex and menopausal status) and life-style factors (physical activity, smoking, alcohol and medication use, dietary choices) may modulate postprandial lipemia. The structure and the composition of a food or a meal consumed also plays an important role in the rate of postprandial appearance and clearance of triglycerides in the blood. However, a major difficulty in grading foods, meals and diets according to their potential to elevate postprandial triglyceride levels has been the lack of a standardised marker that takes into consideration both the general characteristics of the food and the food's fat composition and quantity. The release rate of lipids from the food matrix during digestion also has an important role in determining the postprandial lipemic effects of a food product. This article reviews the factors that have been shown to influence postprandial lipemia with a view to develop a novel index for ranking foods according to their healthiness. This index should take into consideration not only the glycaemic but also lipemic responses.
Johnson, Donna B; Quinn, Emilee L; Podrabsky, Mary; Beckwith-Stanley, Nadia; Chan, Nadine; Ellings, Amy; Kovacs, Tricia; Lane, Claire
The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of each policy on a five-point scale using online surveys. Washington State policy process. Forty-nine content experts (national researchers and subject experts), forty policy experts (state elected officials or their staff, gubernatorial or legislative policy analysts) and forty-five other stakeholders (state-level advocates, programme administrators, food producers). In aggregate, respondents rated policy impact and implementation feasibility higher than political feasibility. Policy experts rated policy strategies as less politically feasible compared with content experts (P political and implementation feasibility. These included policies related to nutrition standards in schools and child-care facilities, food distribution systems, urban planning projects, water availability, joint use agreements and breast-feeding supports. Although they may be perceived as potentially impactful, some policies will be more difficult to enact than others. Information about the potential feasibility of policies to improve access to healthy foods can be used to focus limited policy process resources on strategies with the highest potential for enactment, implementation and impact.
Harding, I H; Andrews, Z B; Mata, F; Orlandea, S; Martínez-Zalacaín, I; Soriano-Mas, C; Stice, E; Verdejo-Garcia, A
Unhealthy dietary choices are a major contributor to harmful weight gain and obesity. This study interrogated the brain substrates of unhealthy versus healthy food choices in vivo, and evaluated the influence of hunger state and body mass index (BMI) on brain activation and connectivity. Thirty adults (BMI: 18-38 kg m -2 ) performed a food-choice task involving preference-based selection between beverage pairs consisting of high-calorie (unhealthy) or low-calorie (healthy) options, concurrent with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Selected food stimuli were delivered to participants using an MRI-compatible gustometer. fMRI scans were performed both after 10-h fasting and when sated. Brain activation and hypothalamic functional connectivity were assessed when selecting between unhealthy-healthy beverage pairings, relative to unhealthy-unhealthy and healthy-healthy options. Results were considered significant at cluster-based family-wise error corrected Pfoods elicited significant activation in the hypothalamus, the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, the anterior insula and the posterior cingulate. Hunger was associated with higher activation within the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, as well as lower connectivity between the hypothalamus and both the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Critically, people with higher BMI showed lower activation of the hypothalamus-regardless of hunger state-and higher activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex when hungry. People who are overweight and obese have weaker activation of brain regions involved in energy regulation and greater activation of reward valuation regions while making choices between unhealthy and healthy foods. These results provide evidence for a shift towards hedonic-based, and away from energy-based, food selection in obesity.
Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Levy, Douglas E.
Population-level strategies to improve healthy food choices are needed for obesity prevention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2,672 employees at Massachusetts General Hospital who were regular customers of the hospital cafeteria with all items labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy), or red (unhealthy) to determine if social norm (peer-comparison) feedback with or without financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices. Participants were randomized in 2012 to three arms: 1) monthly letter with social norm feedback about healthy food purchases, comparing employee to “all” and to “healthiest” customers (feedback-only); 2) monthly letter with social norm feedback plus small financial incentive for increasing green purchases (feedback-incentive); or 3) no contact (control). The main outcome was change in proportion of green-labeled purchases at end of 3-month intervention. Post-hoc analyses examined linear trends. At baseline, the proportion of green-labeled purchases (50%) did not differ between arms. At end of the 3-month intervention, the percentage increase in green-labeled purchases was larger in the feedback-incentive arm compared to control (2.2% vs. 0.1%, P=0.03), but the two intervention arms were not different. The rate of increase in green-labeled purchases was higher in both feedback-only (P=0.04) and feedback-incentive arms (P=0.004) compared to control. At end of a 3-month wash-out, there were no differences between control and intervention arms. Social norms plus small financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices over the short-term. Future research will be needed to assess the impact of this relatively low-cost intervention on employees’ food choices and weight over the long-term. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT01604499 PMID:26827617
Neter, Judith E; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A
Nutritional intakes of food bank recipients and consequently their health status largely rely on the availability and quality of donated food in provided food parcels. In this cross-sectional study, the nutritional quality of ninety-six individual food parcels was assessed and compared with the Dutch nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet. Furthermore, we assessed how food bank recipients use the contents of the food parcel. Therefore, 251 Dutch food bank recipients from eleven food banks throughout the Netherlands filled out a general questionnaire. The provided amounts of energy (19 849 (sd 162 615) kJ (4744 (sd 38 866) kcal)), protein (14·6 energy percentages (en%)) and SFA (12·9 en%) in a single-person food parcel for one single day were higher than the nutritional guidelines, whereas the provided amounts of fruits (97 (sd 1441) g) and fish (23 (sd 640) g) were lower. The number of days for which macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and fish were provided for a single-person food parcel ranged from 1·2 (fruits) to 11·3 (protein) d. Of the participants, only 9·5 % bought fruits and 4·6 % bought fish to supplement the food parcel, 39·4 % used all foods provided and 75·7 % were (very) satisfied with the contents of the food parcel. Our study shows that the nutritional content of food parcels provided by Dutch food banks is not in line with the nutritional guidelines. Improving the quality of the parcels is likely to positively impact the dietary intake of this vulnerable population subgroup.
Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Bosire, Claire
The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a tool designed to evaluate concordance with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, has been used to monitor the quality of foods consumed by Americans. Because the HEI-2005 is not tied to individual requirements and is scored on a per 1000 kcal basis, it can be used to assess the overall quality of any mix of foods. The goal of this paper is to examine whether the HEI-2005 can be applied to the food environment. Two examples were selected to examine the application of the HEI-2005 to the food environment: the dollar menu displayed at a fast-food restaurant (coded and linked to the MyPyramid Equivalents Database and the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies) to represent the community level and the 2005 U.S. Food Supply (measured with food availability data, loss-adjusted food availability data, nutrient availability data, and Salt Institute data) to represent the macro level. The dollar menu and the 2005 U.S. Food Supply received 43.4 and 54.9 points, respectively (100 possible points). According to the HEI-2005, for the offerings at a local fast-food restaurant and the U.S. Food Supply to align with national dietary guidance, substantial shifts would be necessary: a concomitant addition of fruit, dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, legumes, and nonfat milk; replacement of refined grains with whole grains; and reduction in foods and food products containing sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. Because the HEI-2005 can be applied to both environmental- and individual-level data, it provides a useful metric for studies linking data across various levels of the socioecologic framework of dietary behavior. The present findings suggest that new dietary guidance could target not only individuals but also the architects of our food environment. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wise, Nancy J
Healthy eating among pregnant adolescents is essential for the well-being of developing adolescent females and their fetuses, as well as for the prevention of adult chronic illness. Understanding factors that influence and prohibit healthy eating, along with preferences for nutrition education in the pregnant adolescent population, is critical when designing and implementing appropriate nutrition education programs. The purpose of this study was to collect individual viewpoints of pregnant adolescents to facilitate the development of a nutrition intervention. This qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted among pregnant adolescents. Participants (N = 14) were recruited through and teen parenting programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Focus groups were guided by 6 open-ended questions that were developed based on implications from a previous study that surveyed eating habits of pregnant adolescents. Data were analyzed and coded using verbatim transcripts. Transcripts were read carefully for overall content and identification of major categories and then compared for similar and contrasting data. Four recurring themes emerged that described beliefs about healthy eating, influences on food choices, and nutrition education preferences: 1) pregnant adolescents demonstrate overall knowledge of healthy foods but are unwilling to give up unhealthy foods; 2) parents, offspring, and pregnancy influence healthy eating habits; 3) pregnant adolescents choose foods based on appearance and taste, cravings, convenience, and cost; and 4) pregnancy alters eating habits. Nutrition education in this population should be peer- and adolescent-focused and incorporate preferred methods of learning and favored incentives. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to attend educational programs that are population-specific and peer-focused, and include incentives that make cooking easier, more convenient, and affordable. Program content should be available to potential
Annunziata, Azzurra; Pascale, Paola
Over the last decade consumers’ health consciousness is becoming an important factor driving the agrofood market. Healthier food products have entered the global markets with force in the past years and rapidly gained market share. Consequently, the food industry has reacted to this trend by developing a growing variety of new products with health-related claims and images, including organic and functional foods that are selected by consumers for their health-promoting properties. Currently, ...
Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N
Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.
Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B
Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Thorndike, Anne N; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M; Levy, Douglas E
Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Longitudinal pre-post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Large hospital cafeteria with a mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) a longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. After a 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy); yellow (less healthy); or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (pchoice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting that food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.
Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.
Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…
Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together
Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together
Full Text Available The paper provides findings about how packaging of healthy foods is perceived by consumers. The primary data were collected by eye-tracking using the SMI RED 250. This investigation analyzed 12 healthy products and it was completed by 50 respondents. This method was supplemented with in-depth interviews with the same respondents who participated in the eye-tracking research. A questionnaire survey (n = 261 was also a part of the research. Based on these two methods, real and declared consumer behavior can be recognized and the differences between these behaviors can be identified. The main interest was to determine which package attributes of healthy foods are the most interesting according to consumers. The research shows that the most attention in terms of information is devoted to nutritional value, food composition and also country of origin. Furthermore, the attention was focused on the most suitable packaging materials for various kinds of products as well as colors used on the packaging of these foods. The results provide valuable information to create an attractive and effective packaging of healthy products.
Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas
This paper examines the importance of taste and health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our findings imply...
Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
changes. Another contributing factor reducing the recovery potential is that protected zones are not completely closed to all forms of fishing. Certainly, it is necessary to include additional effort, in terms of human and/or financial resources, in the future management actions if we want to achieve visible conservation effectiveness within this protected area. Further, it is necessary to establish the valuation and branding of fish caught in this protected area in order to make further action more visible and comprehensible to the wider community, as well as cost-effective for local inhabitants. Promoting a healthy product from a protected area on the Croatian and European fish markets is certainly one way of achieving this goal.
Prestwich, Andrew; Hurling, Robert; Baker, Stephen
Implicit attitudes, evaluations that can occur without effort, quickly and without conscious intent, have been shown to predict self-reported diets and objectively measured food choices within the laboratory. We present two studies which extend the literature by demonstrating that implicit attitudes predict objective purchasing of healthy and unhealthy foods. Both Study 1 (N=40) and Study 2 (N=36) utilised an online shopping paradigm and concerned purchasing of fruit and chocolate. In both studies, implicit attitudes predicted purchases. Explicit attitudes towards buying or eating fruit versus chocolate did not predict purchase behaviour. These studies represent an original test of whether implicit attitudes predict healthy consumer behaviour, which involves participants paying for products. This research provides the strongest evidence yet that implicit attitudes play a role in predicting health food purchases. A comprehensive model of health behaviour should take into account the role of implicit attitudes. © 2011 Taylor & Francis
Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc
This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.
Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane
This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.
Larrivee, Sandra; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D
Restaurant eating while optimizing nutrition and maintaining a healthy weight is challenging. Even when nutritional information is available, consumers often consider only calories. A quick and easy method to rate both caloric density and nutrition is an unmet need. A food rating system created to address that need is assessed in this study. The food rating system categorizes food items into 3 color-coded categories: most healthy (green), medium healthy (yellow), or least healthy (red) based on calorie density and general nutritional quality from national guidelines. Nutritional information was downloaded from 20 popular fast-food chains. Nutritional assessments and the 3 color coded categories were compared using the Wilcoxon and Median tests to demonstrate the significance of nutrition differences. Green foods were significantly lower than yellow foods, which in turn were significantly lower than red foods, for calories and calories from fat, in addition to content of total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates per 100 g serving weight (all P < .02). The green foods had significantly lower cholesterol than the yellow (P = .0006) and red (P < .0001) foods. Yellow foods had less sugar than red foods (P < .0001). Yellow foods were significantly higher in dietary fiber than red foods (P = .001). The food rating color-coded system identifies food items with superior nutrition, and lower caloric density. The smartphone app, incorporating the system, has the potential to improve nutrition; reduce the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke; and improve public health. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.
Thorndike, Anne N; Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E
We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. At baseline (977,793 items, including 199,513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention.
Nicholas R V Jones
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. METHODS: We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002-2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either "more healthy" or "less healthy" using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29 for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27 for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002-2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2002, more healthy foods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy.
Fish, Caitlin A; Brown, Jonisha R; Quandt, Sara A
Minority families often reside in neighborhoods with few supermarkets or alternative healthy food options (e.g., farmers markets, community gardens), making fresh produce difficult to obtain. This qualitative study identified factors influencing fruit and vegetable shopping and use of alternative healthy food options. Forty-eight minority women with children completed interviews regarding food shopping habits and use of and attitudes toward alternative healthy food options. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Produce shopping was motivated by costs and family preferences. For African American women, poor cooking skills restricted the variety of fruits and vegetables purchased. Latinas were receptive to alternative healthy food options, but did not use them because these sources were inconvenient. African American women were not receptive to them. Improving cooking skills and perceptions of acceptable foods may be as important as increased access to promote greater consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean
Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment. PMID:26380298
Full Text Available Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment.
Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Clarke, Philippa; Hill, Alex B; Romero, Daniel M; Goodspeed, Robert; Berrocal, Veronica J; Vinod Vydiswaran, V G; Veinot, Tiffany C
An established body of research has used secondary data sources (such as proprietary business databases) to demonstrate the importance of the neighborhood food environment for multiple health outcomes. However, documenting food availability using secondary sources in low-income urban neighborhoods can be particularly challenging since small businesses play a crucial role in food availability. These small businesses are typically underrepresented in national databases, which rely on secondary sources to develop data for marketing purposes. Using social media and other crowdsourced data to account for these smaller businesses holds promise, but the quality of these data remains unknown. This paper compares the quality of full-line grocery store information from Yelp, a crowdsourced content service, to a "ground truth" data set (Detroit Food Map) and a commercially-available dataset (Reference USA) for the greater Detroit area. Results suggest that Yelp is more accurate than Reference USA in identifying healthy food stores in urban areas. Researchers investigating the relationship between the nutrition environment and health may consider Yelp as a reliable and valid source for identifying sources of healthy food in urban environments.
Eyles, Helen; Gorton, Delvina; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona
To determine whether a modified version of the Heart Foundation Tick (MHFT) nutrient profiling model appropriately classifies supermarket foods to endorse its use for identifying 'healthier' products eligible for promotion in a supermarket intervention trial. Top-selling products (n=550) were selected from an existing supermarket nutrient composition database. Percentage of products classified as 'healthier' by the MHFT and a modified comparator model (Food Standards Australia New Zealand; MFSANZ) were calculated. Percentage agreement, consistency (kappa statistic), and average nutrient values were assessed overall, and across seven food groups. The MHFT model categorised 16% fewer products as 'healthier' than the MFSANZ model. Agreement and consistency between models were 72% and kappa=0.46 (P=0.00), respectively. For both models, 'healthier' products were on average lower in energy, protein, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium than their 'less healthy' counterparts. The MHFT nutrient profiling model categorised regularly purchased supermarket foods similarly to the MFSANZ model, and both appear to distinguish appropriately between 'healthier' and 'less healthy' options. Therefore, both models have the potential to appropriately identify 'healthier' foods for promotion and positively influence food choices.
Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean
Smartphone "apps" are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called "SmartAPPetite," which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to "nudge" users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the "triple bottom line" of health, economy, and environment.
Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B
Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa
We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.
Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi
During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their
Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J
Providing a variety of food generally increases consumption and enjoyment. This effect is typically associated with unhealthy behavior (e.g., overindulgence at a buffet) and studied during a single meal. Two studies tested whether this effect can be leveraged in a subtle, simple manipulation to promote healthy food choices over the course of a day. In Studies 1 and 2, 188 and 187 participants, respectively, chose between a sweet and a piece of fruit in the afternoon. The fruit was either the same as or different from fruit that was selected in the morning; choice was not given in the morning. Study 1 tested this effect in the domain of expressed preferences and Study 2 examined actual choice. In both studies, a second piece of fruit was more likely to be selected in the afternoon if it was different from fruit that was selected in the morning. These results illustrate how a robust effect that is typically associated with unhealthy outcomes can be harnessed to promote healthy food choices and underscore the importance of conceptualizing eating as a series of interrelated behavioral decisions. This work has implications for applied settings, such as cafeterias, and is distinguished from other simple structural manipulations by its focus on sustaining healthy food choice over the course of the day. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wansink, Brian; Cao, Ying; Saini, Prerna; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Just, David R
Snacks, stress and parties all contribute to the weight gain – the elusive ‘Freshman 15’ – that some college-goers unfortunately experience. The present study examines how a` la carte snack choice changes on a university campus during each progressing week of the academic calendar. How a` la carte snack choices change on a university campus with each progressing week of the academic calendar was examined. The data were collected from three large cafeterias (or dining halls) on Cornell University’s campus during four semesters (Fall 2006, Spring 2007, Fall 2007 and Spring 2008), for 18 weeks in each semester. After the a` la carte snack items were divided into healthy snacks and unhealthy snacks, the percentage share for each food category was calculated. Within each semester, the unhealthy snack food choices increased consistently by 0?4% per week (b50?00418, P,0?01). Furthermore, a sharp (8 %) increase occurred in the final two weeks of the semester. In contrast, healthy snack food choices decreased by almost 4% (b520?0408, P,0?01) in the final two weeks during the fall semester. These results demonstrate an increased demand for hedonic, or unhealthy, snack foods as the college semester progresses and in particular at the very end of the semester. To counter this tendency towards unhealthy snacking, cafeterias and stores should make extra effort to promote healthy alternatives during the later weeks of the semester.
Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A
Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674
The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.
Rush, Elaine; Puniani, Naita; Snowling, Neil; Paterson, Janis
When an infant is brought home to the family, it is often a time of emotional, economic and physical stress due to the extra demands placed on parents. Household food security means "access at all times to enough and nutritionally appropriate food to provide the energy and nutrients needed to maintain an active and healthy life". Questions about food security were asked of 1376 Pacific Island mothers (as part of the Pacific Island Family Study) approximately six weeks after the birth of their baby. Due to lack of money food sometimes ran out in 39.8% of households and in a further 3.8% food often ran out. Variety of foods was limited by lack of money in 39.3%. Foods that were still bought when money was limited included bread (97%), milk (95%), meat and chicken (91%), vegetables and fruit (83%), rice or pasta (82%), breakfast cereals (69%), fish or shellfish (50%) and biscuits or chips (44%). Alcohol (1%), soft drinks (11%), ice cream (12%) and fruit juice (21%) were the least often bought. Energy density (MJ/kg) and nutrient-density of typical foods limited by lack of money were analysed. Rice, bread and fatty meats provided the most calories per dollar and fruit and vegetables the least. The best protein-value for money was from minced beef, chicken and tinned tuna and the most fibre-rich foods included baked beans and mixed vegetables. Food security is a major problem for Pacific families. The environment of food availability, choice and cost requires attention to help close the health gap.
Full Text Available (1 Background: Our aim was to conduct objective, baseline food environment audits of two major western Sydney public hospitals and compare them to recently revised state nutritional guidelines. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted (June–July2017 across 14 fixed food outlets and 70 vending machines in two hospitals using an audit tool designed to assess the guideline’s key food environment parameters of availability, placement, and promotion of ‘Everyday’ (healthy and ‘Occasional’ (less healthy products. (3 Results: Availability: Overall, Everyday products made up 51% and 44% of all products available at the two hospitals. Only 1/14 (7% fixed outlets and 16/70 (23% vending machines met the guideline’s availability benchmarks of ≥75% Everyday food and beverages. Proportion of Everyday products differed among different types of food outlets (café, cafeteria, convenience stores. Placement: On average, food outlets did not meet recommendations of limiting Occasional products in prominent positions, with checkout areas and countertops displaying over 60% Occasional items. Promotion: Over two-thirds of meal deals at both hospitals included Occasional products. (4 Conclusion: Baseline audit results show that substantial improvements in availability, placement, and promotion can be made at these public hospitals to meet the nutrition guidelines. Audits of other NSW hospitals using the developed tool are needed to investigate similarities and differences in food environment between sites. These findings highlight the need for ongoing tracking to inform whether the revised guidelines are leading to improved food environments in health facilities.
Willems Van Dijk, Julie A; Catlin, Bridget; Cofsky, Abbey; Carroll, Carrie
Communities across the United States are increasingly tackling the complex task of changing their local environments and cultures to improve access to and consumption of healthy food. Communities that have received the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Prize have deployed numerous evidence-informed strategies to enhance their local food environments. Their experiences can provide lessons for other communities working to improve health. In this article we examine how the prize-winning communities worked in a multidisciplinary collective manner to implement evidence-based strategies, deployed suites of strategies to expand the reach of food-related work, balanced evidence against innovation, and measured their own progress. Most of the communities also faced challenges in using evidence effectively to implement strategies to promote healthy food environments. Policy makers can accelerate the adoption of evidence-informed approaches related to food and health by embedding them in program standards and funding requirements. Establishing opportunities for ongoing training to enhance community practitioners' evaluation skills and collaborative leadership would also improve the effectiveness of community implementation of these strategies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Neuman, Nicklas; Persson Osowski, Christine; Mattsson Sydner, Ylva; Fjellström, Christina
This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an "inauthenticity discourse" where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wyse, Rebecca; Wiggers, John; Delaney, Tessa; Ooi, Jia Ying; Marshall, Josephine; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Wolfenden, Luke
To describe the price of Australian school canteen foods according to their nutritional value. Primary school canteen menus were collected as part of a policy compliance randomised trial. For each menu item, dietitians classified its nutritional value; 'green' ('good sources of nutrients'), 'amber' ('some nutritional value'), 'red' ('lack adequate nutritional value') and assigned a food category (e.g. 'Drinks', 'Snacks'). Pricing information was extracted. Within each food category, ANOVAs assessed differences between the mean price of 'green', 'amber' and 'red' items, and post-hoc tests were conducted. Seventy of the 124 invited schools participated. There were significant differences in the mean price of 'green', 'amber' and 'red foods' across categories, with 'green' items more expensive than 'amber' items in main-meal categories ('Sandwiches' +$0.43, 'Hot Foods' +$0.71), and the reverse true for non-meal categories ('Drinks' -$0.13, 'Snacks' -$0.18, 'Frozen Snacks' -$0.25^). Current pricing may not encourage the purchasing of healthy main-meal items by and for students. Further investigation of pricing strategies that enhance the public health benefit of existing school canteen policies and practices are warranted. Implications for Public Health: Providing support to canteen managers regarding healthy canteen policies may have a positive impact on public health nutrition. © 2016 The Authors.
SURANART KHAMANARONG; KIMAPORN KHAMANARONG; NAPAT KHAMANARONG
For decades, Thailand was known as a source of agricultural products and exporter of transformation. The product served people all around the world. The processing-food and healthy-beverage industry provides a variety of forms, such as frozen finished food and preserved fruit-juice. The advancement of new technology has pushed the industry to grow quickly over the past few decades. Thailand has upgraded to be a world class exporter. This study aims to understand changes in industry and the fu...
Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Central Hospital Randers; Municipal Hospital Aarhus
In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value. (orig.) [de
Jones, Nicholas R V; Conklin, Annalijn I; Suhrcke, Marc; Monsivais, Pablo
The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002-2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either "more healthy" or "less healthy" using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. The mean (standard deviation) 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29) for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27) for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002-2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (pfoods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy.
Moreira, Caroline Camila; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck
To identify healthy food (HF) purchase habits and intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) in parents responsible for grocery shopping for their families. Survey with mothers and fathers (n = 216) of children aged 7-10 years in Brazil. Grocery purchases occurred mostly at supermarkets. Purchase of HF was considered to be frequent by 80% of parents, who cited FV as main examples of HF. The more frequent the reported purchase was of HF, the higher was the prevalence of regular consumption of FV (P = .002). Only 34% of respondents reported weekly intakes that could be classified as regular. Perceived frequent shopping for healthy foods was positively associated with regular consumption of FV but a gap between perception and behavior was identified. Nutrition education strategies need to go beyond a merely informative role and take consumers' opinions and points of view into consideration to become truly effective. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Etow, Alexis M
The newest approach to discouraging children's unhealthy eating habits, amidst increasing rates of childhood obesity and other diet-related diseases, seeks to ban something that is not even edible. In 2010, San Francisco enacted the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance, which prohibits toys in kids' meals if the meals do not meet certain nutritional requirements. Notwithstanding the Ordinance's impact on interstate commerce or potential infringement on companies' commercial speech rights and on parents' rights to determine what their children eat, this Comment argues that the Ordinance does not violate the dormant Commerce Clause, the First Amendment, or substantive due process. The irony is that although the Ordinance likely avoids the constitutional hurdles that hindered earlier measures aimed at childhood obesity, it intrudes on civil liberties more than its predecessors. This Comment analyzes the legality of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance to understand its implications on subsequent legislation aimed at combating childhood obesity and on the progression of public health law.
Full Text Available Background: A healthy Nordic diet (ND, a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective: To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP and the recommended intake (RI and average requirement (AR, as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR. Design: The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3, representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results: The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups. Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3. The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions: When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.
Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Levy, Douglas E.
Background Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Purpose Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Design Longitudinal pre–post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants Large hospital cafeteria with mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for: (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. Intervention After 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy) or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. Results The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (p<0.001), and green sales increased from 41% to 46% (p<0.001). Red beverages decreased from 26% of beverage sales at baseline to 17% at 24 months (p<0.001); green beverages increased from 52% to 60% (p<0.001). Similar patterns were observed for the cohort of employees, with largest change for red beverages (23% to 14%, p<0.001). Conclusions A traffic-light and choice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. PMID:24439347
Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise
This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equatio...... it to be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....
Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro
To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.
Kern, David M; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Stehr, Mark F; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve
This paper evaluates variation in food prices within and between neighborhoods to improve our understanding of access to healthy foods in urbanized areas and potential economic incentives and barriers to consuming a higher-quality diet. Prices of a selection of healthier foods (dairy, fruit juice, and frozen vegetables) and unhealthy foods (soda, sweets, and salty snacks) were obtained from 1953 supermarkets across the USA during 2009-2012 and were linked to census block group socio-demographics. Analyses evaluated associations between neighborhood SES and proportion Black/Hispanic and the prices of healthier and unhealthy foods, and the relative price of healthier foods compared with unhealthy foods (healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio). Linear hierarchical regression models were used to explore geospatial variation and adjust for confounders. Overall, the price of healthier foods was nearly twice as high as the price of unhealthy foods ($0.590 vs $0.298 per serving; healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio of 1.99). This trend was consistent across all neighborhood characteristics. After adjusting for covariates, no association was found between food prices (healthy, unhealthy, or the healthy-to-unhealthy ratio) and neighborhood SES. Similarly, there was no association between the proportion Black/Hispanic and healthier food price, a very small positive association with unhealthy price, and a modest negative association with the healthy-to-unhealthy ratio. No major differences were seen in food prices across levels of neighborhood SES and proportion Black/Hispanic; however, the price of healthier food was twice as expensive as unhealthy food per serving on average.
Primavesi, Laura; Caccavelli, Giovanna; Ciliberto, Alessandra; Pauze, Emmanuel
Promotion of healthy eating can no longer be postponed as a priority, given the alarming growth rate of chronic degenerative diseases in Western countries. We elaborated a nutrieconomic model to assess and identify the most nutritious and affordable food choices. Seventy-one food items representing the main food categories were included and their nationally representative prices monitored. Food composition was determined using CRA-NUT (Centro di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione) and IEO (Istituto Europeo di Oncologia) databases. To define food nutritional quality, the mean adequacy ratio and mean excess ratio were combined. Both prices and nutritional quality were normalised for the edible food content and for the recommended serving sizes for the Italian adult population. Stores located in different provinces throughout Italy. Not applicable. Cereals and legumes presented very similar nutritional qualities and prices per serving. Seasonal fruits and vegetables presented differentiated nutritional qualities and almost equal prices. Products of animal origin showed similar nutritional qualities and varied prices: the best nutrieconomic choices were milk, oily fish and poultry for the dairy products, fish and meat groups, respectively. Analysing two balanced weekly menus, our nutrieconomic model was able to note a significant decrease in cost of approximately 30 % by varying animal-protein sources without affecting nutritional quality. Healthy eating does not necessarily imply spending large amounts of money but rather being able to make nutritionally optimal choices. The nutrieconomic model is an innovative and practical way to help consumers make correct food choices and nutritionists increase the compliance of their patients.
Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.
There exists a complex relationship between food and health in our society that is intrinsically linked to our obesity epidemic. The food and beverage industry recognizes that it can influence and modify the eating behavior of Americans. The American Council for Fitness and Nutrition was formed in January 2003 as a partnership of food and beverage companies, trade associations, and nutrition advocates that work together to create long-lasting remedies for the obesity epidemic. The American Council for Fitness and Nutrition recognizes that the current American lifestyle contributes to an energy imbalance and, therefore, supports approaches that aim to correct that imbalance. The American Council for Fitness and Nutrition also supports the underrepresented populations that are disproportionately affected by obesity, specifically, the African American and Hispanic American communities. Cooperation between industry, government, and academia will be key in establishing long-term strategies to help consumers make healthy lifestyle choices.
Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J
The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues.
Dailey, Amy B; Hess, Audrey; Horton, Camille; Constantian, Emily; Monani, Salma; Wargo, Betsy; Davidson, Kim; Gaskin, Kathy
The objectives of this study are to better understand the lived experience of food insecurity in our community and to examine the impact of a community-based program developed to increase access to local, healthy foods. Participants were given monthly vouchers to spend at local farmers' markets and invited to engage in a variety of community activities. Using a community-based participatory research framework, mixed methods were employed. Survey results suggest that most respondents were satisfied with the program and many increased their fruit and vegetable consumption. However, over 40% of respondents reported a higher level of stress over having enough money to buy nutritious meals at the end of the program. Photovoice results suggest that the program fostered cross-cultural exchanges, and offered opportunities for social networking. Building on the many positive outcomes of the program, community partners are committed to using this research to further develop policy-level solutions to food insecurity.
Caltabiano, M L; Shellshear, J
Past research on adults has found that the sensory appeal or taste of foods is a primary determiner of food consumption and how people think about food. The nomothetic nature of this research may have underestimated the impact of health considerations on food choice. This study compared 'nomothetic' and 'idiographic' modes of analysis in 1) determining the relative influence of palatability and perceived healthiness of foods, on preference for the food, and 2) assessing the relationship between palatability and evaluations of healthiness. Additionally, gender differences were examined in relation to within-person correlations between the concepts of preference, palatability and healthiness. Subjects (n = 139) rated 81 foods on preference, palatability and healthiness. Findings from both the idiographic and nomothetic analyses indicated that palatability rather than health considerations determined preferences in young adults. The within-person correlational analysis indicated a large number of persons, mostly female, who preferred unhealthy food. The sample was equally split in their evaluations of healthy food as palatable or not.
Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald; Collins, Rebecca L; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Beckman, Robin; Nugroho, Alvin K; Sloan, Jennifer C; Wagner, La'Vette; Dubowitz, Tamara
Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket. We found positive and negative changes in food availability, and an even greater influence on food prices in neighborhood stores. The supermarket opening in a 'food desert' caused little improvement in net availability of healthy foods, challenging the underpinnings of policies such as the Healthy Food Financing Initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bédard, Alexandra; Goulet, Julie; Riverin, Mélissa; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone
It is expected that a dietary intervention based on the traditional Mediterranean food pattern should be associated with a reduction in fast-food consumption but this has never been tested before. We assessed the impact of a 12-week dietary intervention, promoting the adoption of a Mediterranean food pattern, on fast-food consumption among seventy-one healthy women aged between 30 and 65 years. The dietary intervention consisted of two group sessions and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. To determine the Mediterranean dietary score (MedScore) and fast-food consumption, an FFQ was administered. During the 12-week intervention, the MedScore significantly increased (from 21.1 (SD 3.6) units at baseline to 28.6 (SD 4.4) units at week 12, P food consumption significantly decreased (from 51.7 (SD 46.4) g/d at baseline to 20.5 (SD 18.2) g/d at week 12, P food at baseline decreased their fast-food consumption to the most (r - 0.50, P food consumption changes, it was found that only the subgroup of women which increased the most their MedScore and decreased the most their fast-food consumption experienced a significant decrease in BMI (P food pattern led to a decrease in fast-food consumption among healthy women even if it was not a specific target of the intervention. Dietary strategies for increasing intake of healthy foods may be a useful approach for decreasing intake of less healthy foods.
Hanni, Krista D; Garcia, Elan; Ellemberg, Cheryl; Winkleby, Marilyn
As part of a 5-year community-based intervention in Salinas, California, the Steps to a Healthier Salinas team developed a taqueria intervention addressing obesity and diabetes among Mexican Americans. The authors present: (a) a comparison of service/entrée options for Salinas taquerias (n = 35) and fast-food restaurants ( n = 38) at baseline, (b) a case study of one taqueria, (c) a description of a healthy nutrition tool kit tailored to taquerias, and (d) an evaluation of the intervention at Year 3. It was found that traditional Mexican American-style menu offerings at taquerias tended to be healthier than American-style fast-food restaurant offerings. In addition, the initial response to the intervention has shown positive changes, which include the taqueria owners promoting available healthy menu items and modifying other menu offerings to reduce fats and increase fruit and vegetable availability. This, in turn, has led to a transition of the owners' perceptions of themselves as gatekeepers for a healthy community.
Hoek, A C; Pearson, D; James, S W; Lawrence, M A; Friel, S
Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the importance of multilevel policies and actions that address healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours. However it is not yet clear which actions are most suitable to support consumers to adopt both behaviours concurrently. To this end, we undertook a qualitative study to assess consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly foods and four target behaviours: reducing overconsumption of food beyond energy needs, reducing consumption of low-nutrient energy dense foods, eating less animal- and more plant-derived foods, and reducing food waste. Online in-depth interviews were held with 29 Australian food shoppers representing different levels of involvement with health and environment in daily food choices. The results indicate that compared to health, the relationship between food and the environment is rarely considered by consumers. The four target food behaviours were primarily associated and motivated by an impact on health, except for not wasting foods. Participants had the most positive attitude and highest motivation for eating less processed and packaged foods, mostly to avoid excessive packaging and 'chemicals' in foods. This was followed by the behaviours reducing food waste and overconsumption. Conversely, there was a predominantly negative attitude towards, and low motivation for, eating less animal-derived products and more plant based foods. Overall, consumers found a joined concept of healthy and environmentally friendly foods an acceptable idea. We recommend that health should remain the overarching principle for policies and actions concerned with shifting consumer behaviours, as this personal benefit appears to have a greater potential to support behaviour change. Future consumer focused work could pay attention to framing behavioural messages, providing intermediate behavioural goals, and a multiple target approach to change habitual
Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto
In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute.JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11.
Jung, F U C E; Luck-Sikorski, C; Krüger, M; Wiacek, C; Braun, P G; Engeli, S; Riedel-Heller, S G
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is likely to increase in incidence. Foods with cardioprotective functions, e.g. specific functional food, could reduce CVD risk factors and hence CVD incidence. Little is known about industrially modified foods with cardioprotective functions. In a large German sample (n = 1007), attitudes of consumers in Germany towards industrially produced cardioprotective food were assessed using Cluster analyses. Consumers were contacted via telephone and interviewed using questionnaires. Overall, about 25% knew about industrially produced food with cardioprotective function. Our analysis revealed a small but determined group of consumers who think very skeptical about cardioprotective products, but we also identified a favorable group. These two groups only differed in age, with the skeptical group being ten years older. The rising number of industrially modified products with potential cardioprotective benefit is met by skepticism and a lack of knowledge by German costumers. If large scale studies show health benefits of these products, these will need to be better communicated to German customers in order to address possible doubts or concerns and to encourage healthy eating habits in consumer eating behavior. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bos, Colin; Van der Lans, Ivo A; Van Rijnsoever, Frank J; Van Trijp, Hans C M
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified.
George, Sophie A; Khan, Samir; Briggs, Hedieh; Abelson, James L
There is considerable anecdotal and some scientific evidence that stress triggers eating behavior, but underlying physiological mechanisms remain uncertain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key mediator of physiological stress responses and may play a role in the link between stress and food intake. Cortisol responses to laboratory stressors predict consumption but it is unclear whether such responses mark a vulnerability to stress-related eating or whether cortisol directly stimulates eating in humans. We infused healthy adults with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at a dose that is subjectively undetectable but elicits a robust endogenous cortisol response, and measured subsequent intake of snack foods, allowing analysis of HPA reactivity effects on food intake without the complex psychological effects of a stress paradigm. CRH elevated cortisol levels relative to placebo but did not impact subjective anxious distress. Subjects ate more following CRH than following placebo and peak cortisol response to CRH was strongly related to both caloric intake and total consumption. These data show that HPA axis reactivity to pharmacological stimulation predicts subsequent food intake and suggest that cortisol itself may directly stimulate food consumption in humans. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie stress-related eating may prove useful in efforts to attack the public health crises created by obesity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034
Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson
Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.
Benedini, S; Codella, R; Caumo, A; Marangoni, F; Luzi, L
The last decade has seen much debate on ghrelin as a potential target for treating obesity. Despite a close connection between snack food intake and obesity, snacking is controversially reviewed as a good habit in a healthy nutritional regimen. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a different nutrient composition influences postprandial ghrelin levels and glucose increments induced by 6 isoglucidic snack food. 20 healthy individuals (10 M/10 F; BMI 23.1 ± 0.5; age 33 ± 0.67 years, mean and SE) from H San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Milan University were enrolled. The subjects underwent OGTT (50 g) and 6 isoglucidic test-meal loads to assess the ghrelin circulating levels and the area under glycemic curves induced by 6 commercial snacks. 3 h after hazelnut chocolate intake, ghrelin was significantly lower than with wafer chocolate intake (psnacks, the glycemic curves were not different even though hazelnut chocolate showed the lowest glycemic curve. Moreover, snack fat content was found to be inversely correlated to 3-h plasma ghrelin levels (psnack food administered in equivalent glucidic loads elicits postprandial ghrelin suppression and satiety ratings in different ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of ghrelin as hunger-hormone in the regulation of energy balance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more health conscious. Increasingly, products that are labeled “healthy” are being marketed as new retailers and new brands vie for the consumers’ share of wallet. This research identifies the self-image factors that constitute a health conscious image of the self and examines how self-image impacts consumer buying of foods that are labeled healthy. It also makes an effort to find out whether specific self-image factors are significantly associated with demographics. This study employs a scale consisting of 15 statements that included four statements from the Health Consciousness scale developed by Gould. The psychometric properties of the scale used in the study are reported. The study uses factor analysis to identify five factors of consumer self-image as they relate to health consciousness. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between demographics such as age, gender, education, and relationship status with the self-image factors and reports results for consumer preferences for choosing healthy foods when hungry. This research has important implications for marketers in the health food industry and for such other companies that might use consumer health consciousness as a basis for market segmentation and strategy design.
Volpe, Roberto; Stefano, Predieri; Massimiliano, Magli; Francesca, Martelli; Gianluca, Sotis; Federica, Rossi
An educational activity, aimed at highlighting the benefits of Mediterranean Diet, compared to less healthy eating patterns, can encourage the adoption and maintenance of a mindful approach to food choice. This is especially important when a progressive shift towards a non-Mediterranean dietary pattern can be observed, even in Mediterranean countries. To test a protocol aimed at increasing knowledge and motivation to embrace healthy eating habits and, engendering conscientious food choices, improve the prevention of non-communicable diseases. Employees were involved in educational activities focusing on a healthy Mediterranean diet and on the role played by extra-virgin olive oil, one of its key components. Food questionnaires were completed both before and after the educational and information activities, in order to assess changes in personal knowledge of and attitudes towards fat consumption. Answers on dietary guidelines and fat properties were more accurate after the seminars. The results showed increased understanding of the properties of extra-virgin olive oil versus seed oil and a stronger tendency towards healthy food choices. Implementing preventive information and training strategies and tools in the workplace, can motivate a more mindful approach to food choice with the long-term goal of contribute to reducing non-communicable diseases.
Ravensbergen, Eva A H; Waterlander, Wilma E; Kroeze, Willemieke; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M
It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the proportions of healthy and unhealthy foods on promotion in Dutch supermarket flyers. Supermarket food promotions were assessed using the weekly promotional flyers of four major Dutch supermarkets over a period of eight weeks. All promotions were evaluated for healthiness, price discount, minimum purchase amount, product category and promotion type. The level of healthiness consists of a 'healthy' group; products which have a positive effect on preventing chronic diseases and can be eaten every day. The 'unhealthy' group contain products which have adverse effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. Data were analysed using ANOVA, independent t-tests and chi-square tests. A total of 1,495 promotions were included in this study. There were more promotions in the unhealthy category; 70% of promotions were categorised as unhealthy. The price discount was greater for the healthy promotions (mean 29.5%, SD 12.1) than for the two categories of unhealthy promotions (23.7%, SD 10.8; 25.4%, SD 10.5, respectively), a tendency which was mainly due to discounts in the fruit and vegetables category. To obtain the advertised discount, a significantly higher number of products had to be purchased in the unhealthy category than in the healthier categories. Promotions in the category meat, poultry and fish category occurred frequently. Compared to traditional supermarkets, discounter supermarkets had higher percentages of unhealthy food discounts, lower discount levels and lower minimum purchase amounts. This research confirmed that unhealthy foods are more frequently advertised than healthier foods in Dutch supermarket flyers. Moreover, consumers had to buy more products to
Mason, Kate E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M
Evidence of a relationship between residential retail food environments and diet-related outcomes is inconsistent. One reason for this may be that food environments are typically defined in terms of the absolute number of particular store types in an area, whereas a measure of the relative number of healthy and unhealthy stores may be more appropriate. Using cross-sectional data from the VicLANES study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent associations between absolute measures (numbers of healthy and unhealthy stores) and a relative measure (relative density of healthy stores) of the food environment, and self-reported variety of fruit and vegetable purchasing in local households. Purchasing behaviour was measured as the odds of purchasing above the median level of fruit and vegetables. Compared to households in areas where healthy food stores made up no more than 10% of all healthy and unhealthy stores, households in areas with 10.1-15.0% healthy food stores and >15% healthy stores had increased odds of healthier purchasing (OR=1.48 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.96) and OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91), respectively). There was less evidence of an association between absolute numbers of healthy or unhealthy stores and fruit and vegetable purchasing. We found strong evidence of healthier fruit and vegetable purchasing in households located in areas where the proportion of food stores that were healthy was greater. Policies aimed at improving the balance between healthy and unhealthy stores within areas may therefore be effective in promoting greater consumption of fruit and vegetables.
Du Toit, Wilna Cornelia
Healthy food and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Consumers are increasingly taking charge of their health and manipulate food choices or use dietary supplement regimes. By analysing usage across segments, marketers can determine the optimum audience for any specific health and wellness product. Marketers can develop marketing plans to the common motives, beliefs and behaviours of the opt...
Field lab in marketing: Children consumer behaviour This study aims to explore and evaluate the impact of sports marketing on children’s food choices, more specifically, how different sports marketing strategies on healthy cereals targeted to children can have an impact on their attitudes towards the product and the brand, and on the way they perceive the importance of healthy food consumption and physical activity. For that purpose, two different strategies were tested: a customized pa...
Kim D. Raine
Full Text Available Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada as a case study for “what works” with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b barriers to food system planning; and (c the role and motivation of the Region’s public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: “strategic positioning”, “partnerships” and “knowledge transfer” and related sub-themes (“aligned agendas”, “issue framing”, “visioning” and “legitimacy”. A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food.
Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.
Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for “what works” with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region’s public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: “strategic positioning”, “partnerships” and “knowledge transfer” and related sub-themes (“aligned agendas”, “issue framing”, “visioning” and “legitimacy”). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food. PMID:23202834
Fernandes, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Mello; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; da Costa Proença, Rossana Pacheco
This study investigated Brazilian university students' perceptions of the concept of calories, how it relates to food healthiness, and the role of calorie information on menus in influencing food choices in different restaurant settings. Focus groups were conducted with 21 undergraduate students from various universities. Transcriptions were analysed for qualitative content, by coding and grouping words and phrases into similar themes. Two categories were obtained: Calorie concept and connection to healthiness; and Calorie information and food choices in restaurants. Calories were understood as energy units, and their excessive intake was associated with weight gain or fat gain. However, food healthiness was not associated to calorie content, but rather to food composition as a whole. Calorie information on restaurant menus was not considered enough to influence food choices, with preferences, dietary restrictions, food composition, and even restaurant type mentioned as equally or more important. Only a few participants mentioned using calorie information on menus to control food intake or body weight. Students' discussions were suggestive of an understanding of healthy eating as a more complex issue than calorie-counting. Discussions also suggested the need for more nutrition information, besides calorie content, to influence food choices in restaurants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E.
Objectives. We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Methods. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. Results. At baseline (977 793 items, including 199 513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P beverages. Red beverages decreased 16.5% during phase 1 (P beverages increased 9.6% in phase 1 (P < .001) and further increased 4.0% in phase 2 (P < .001). Bottled water increased 25.8% during phase 2 (P < .001) but did not increase at 2 on-site comparison cafeterias (P < .001). Conclusions. A color-coded labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention. PMID:22390518
van Buul, Vincent J; Bolman, Catherine A W; Brouns, Fred J P H; Lechner, Lilian
People are increasingly aware of the positive effects of a healthy diet. Concurrently, daily food consumption decisions - choices about both the quality and quantity of food that is ingested - are steered more by what consumers consider healthy. Despite the increased aim to eat healthier, however, consumers often do not read or incorrectly interpret on-pack nutrition information, resulting in suboptimal food choices in terms of health. This study aims to unravel the determinants of such inadvertent food choices from these consumers. In an online process-tracking study, we measured the actual usage of available back-of-pack nutrition information during substitutive food choices made by 240 participants who had the intention to eat healthy. Using mouse-tracking software in a computerized task in which participants had to make dichotomous food choices (e.g., coconut oil or olive oil for baking), we measured the frequency and time of nutritional information considered. Combined with demographic and psychosocial data, including information on the level of intention, action planning, self-efficacy, and nutrition literacy, we were able to model the determinants of inadvertent unhealthy substitutive food choices in a sequential multiple regression (R 2 = 0.40). In these consumers who intended to eat healthy, the quantity of obtained nutrition information significantly contributed as an associative factor of the percentage of healthy food choices made. Moreover, the level of correct answers in a nutrition literacy test, as well as taste preferences, significantly predicted the percentage of healthier choices. We discuss that common psychosocial determinants of healthy behavior, such as intention, action planning, and self-efficacy, need to be augmented with a person's actual reading and understanding of nutrition information to better explain the variance in healthy food choice behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract: Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.
Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana
Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.
Bardenhagen, Chris J; Pinard, Courtney A; Pirog, Rich; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus
Residents of rural areas may have limited access to healthy foods, leading to higher incidence of diet related health issues. Smaller grocers in rural areas experience challenges in maintaining fresh produce and other healthy foods available for customers. This study assessed the rural food environment in northeast Lower Michigan in order to inform healthy food financing projects such as the Michigan Good Food Fund. The area's retail food businesses were categorized using secondary licensing, business, and nutrition program databases. Twenty of these stores were visited in person to verify the validity of the categories created, and to assess the availability of healthy foods in their aisles. In-depth interviews with key informants were carried out with store owners, economic development personnel, and other food system stakeholders having knowledge about food access, in order to learn more about the specific challenges that the area faces. Out-shopping, seasonality, and economic challenges were found to affect healthy food availability. Mid-sized independent stores were generally found to have a larger selection of healthy foods, but smaller rural groceries also have potential to provide fresh produce and increase food access. Potential healthy food financing projects are described and areas in need of further research are identified.
Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Kelly, Colette; Nixon, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark
Adolescence, with its change in dietary habits, is likely to be a vulnerable period in the onset of obesity. It is considered that peers have an important role to play on adolescents' diet, however, limited research has examined the role of peers in this context. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy for healthy eating, parent and peer support for healthy and unhealthy eating and food intake patterns. Participants were 264 boys and 219 girls (N=483), aged 13-18years, recruited from post-primary schools in Ireland. Self-report measures assessed self-efficacy, parent and peer support for healthy eating, and for unhealthy eating. Dietary pattern analysis, a popular alternative to traditional methods used in nutritional research, was conducted on a FFQ to derive food intake patterns. Two patterns were identified labelled 'healthy food intake' and 'unhealthy food intake'. Multi-group modelling was used to evaluate whether the hypothesized model of factors related to dietary patterns differed by gender. The multi-group model fit the data well, with only one path shown to differ by gender. Lower self-efficacy for healthy eating and higher peer support for unhealthy eating were associated with 'unhealthy food intake'. Higher self-efficacy was associated with 'healthy food intake'. Prevention programs that target self-efficacy for eating and peer support for unhealthy eating may be beneficial in improving dietary choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pulz, Isadora Santos; Martins, Paula Andréa; Feldman, Charles; Veiros, Marcela Boro
The purpose of this novel study was to evaluate the food environment at a Brazilian university, encompassing 6 restaurants and 13 snack bars. The investigation uniquely analyses the food environment (barriers, facilitators, type of foods and prices). This was a food-based analysis of the nutritional quality of the products sold on campus. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, applying the classic Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Restaurants (NEMS-R) adapted for Brazil and an original methodology to evaluate and classify qualitatively the nutritional quality and characteristics of the food. A census of all campus food environments was applied. The main results show most food and beverage products were made with processed ingredients and had a lower nutritional quality and price when compared with similar products made on premises, that is, processed iced tea compared with fresh tea ( p flour salgados compared with baked wholegrain flour salgados ( p flour biscuits compared with those made with whole grains ( p = .028). Only 16% of the outlets provided food ingredients or nutritional information of products available. The overall options for healthy food choices and good nutritional quality on campus were mostly limited by the availability and higher prices of products. These findings could be used to develop new policy perspectives for the offering of healthy food items and to facilitate better food choices among students in a healthier food environment.
Both one of the most iconic cookbooks of all time and one of the strangest, the "Kniga o vkusnoi i zdorovoi pishche" became the culinary bible of the Soviet household during the mid-twentieth century. The logical culmination of a decade of Soviet culinary evolution under the leadership of Anastas Mikoian, the original "Book about Delicious and Healthy Food" is a microcosm of Stalinist civilization that exemplifies the contradictory trends making up Soviet politics and culture in the late 1930s. Drawing on previously unexamined documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation, Anastas Mikoian's personal papers retained in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as published primary sources, this article seeks to contextualize the complex tale of the cookbook's origins in a broader narrative of the construction of the Soviet Union's official food culture under Mikoian's leadership during the 1930s.
de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Breheny, Tara; Jones, Laura; Lacy, Kathleen; Kremer, Peter; Carpenter, Lauren; Bolton, Kristy; Prosser, Lauren; Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Swinburn, Boyd
In 2006, the Victorian Government adopted the School Canteens and other school Food Services (SCFS) Policy that bans the sale of sweet drinks and confectionary and recommends the proportions of menu items based on a traffic light system of food classification. This study aims to determine whether compliance with the policy improves the nutritional profile of the menus. Items from food service menus were assessed for compliance with the SCFS policy and categorised as 'everyday' ('green'), 'select carefully' ('amber') or 'occasionally' ('red') (n=106). Profile analysis assessed differences in the nutritional profile of the menus between sub-groups. Overall, 37% of menus contained items banned under the policy. The largest proportion of items on the assessed menus were from the 'amber' category (mean: 51.0%), followed by 'red' (29.3%) and 'green' (20.3%). No menus met the traffic light-based recommendations and there was no relationship between policy compliance and the proportion of items in each of the three categories. To increase the healthiness of the school food service we recommend a greater investment in resources and infrastructure to implement existing policies, and establishing stronger monitoring and support systems. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
Waterlander, Wilma E; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; de Vet, Emely; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C
Pricing strategies are an important component in the marketing mix and may also be useful in stimulating healthier food choices. However, due to competing interests and feasibility problems, the introduction of pricing strategies is complicated. For successfully introducing food pricing strategies, it is essential to explore incentives that are not only promising but also realizable and being approved by different sectors. We aimed to assemble a list of pricing strategies by exploring expert views using the Delphi method. Subjects included experts from academia, industry, retail, agriculture, policymakers, consumers and non-governmental organizations. Data were collected in three rounds. In round one, experts designed promising pricing strategies. Based on a time-budget model incorporating Sleep, Leisure, Occupation, Transportation and Home-based activities, these strategies were in the subsequent rounds judged on several criteria. Results were analysed using median and interquartile deviations scores. We found fair consensus levels among experts and a varied list of promising pricing strategies. The panel agreed on the potential success of offering small presents, providing price-cuts on healthy foods and discounting healthier foods more frequently. Also, it was found that experts gave higher rates to pricing strategies for which the implementation responsibilities could be placed elsewhere. The resulted list of promising monetary incentives is an essential first step for the future design of pricing strategies. Following this study, it is important to determine how to make solid agreements on responsibility and implementation issues. Also, consumer perceptions regarding the proposed pricing strategies should be studied.
Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia; Golembiewski, Elizabeth
Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHKA) required schools to make changes to meals provided to children. Rural school districts have limited resources, with increased obesity rates and local food insecurity. In this study we sought to understand the perceptions of rural food service directors and the barriers to implementing…
Omari, Rose; Ruivenkamp, Guido T.P.; Tetteh, Emmanuel K.
Consumers often depend on public institutions to provide safe and healthy food. Thus, trust in these institutions becomes an important consideration for food consumption. The objective was to examine the relationship between consumer trust in relevant government institutions and consumer perception
Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E
Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p healthy eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.
Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the first part of the article, the authors analyze the term healthy life style. Information sources focusing on health and factors influencing it and having the final impact on it are mostly of medicine character. Together with the development of medicinal diagnostic and curing procedures, the importance of health conditions influenced by infectious diseases is decreasing. On the other hand, the importance of factors related to the life style (eating habits in particular is growing.In the second part of the article, the authors analyze and interpret the data of the Czech Statistical Office about the consumption of selected foods in the form of secondary analysis. The effort was to take into account the assessment of the trends as well as to deduce their possible impact on the health condition of the individual. From the analyses mentioned it is obvious that in the selected statistical data of the development of food and beverages consumption in the Czech Republic the tendencies towards healthy life style have not been unambiguous or significant within the last eight years.In certain areas such as consumption of alcoholic beverages, milk and diary products and meat there have been noted changes for better. In most of the areas analyzed (alcoholic beverages, fruit and vegetable, oil, fish these tendencies are not obvious or significant. Alarming is the growing consumption of cigarettes.
Hansel, Boris; Roussel, Ronan; Diguet, Vincent; Deplaude, Amandine; Chapman, M John; Bruckert, Eric
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Related dietary habits and lifestyle may bias assessment of the relationship between alcohol intake and health status. We examined the relationship between key features relating to the consumption of alcoholic beverages and individual profiles of objective food purchases. Data were collected on regular clients of a large supermarket chain implanted across France (n = 196,604). Food items purchased were classified into three categories: (1) healthy foods; (2) unhealthy foods; and (3) others. Wine consumers favoured purchase of healthy foods more often than others, whereas the lowest level of healthy food purchasers was associated with consumption of beer and aniseed-based beverages. Bordeaux wine purchasers spent less in their average budget than the whole population for nine out of the 11 unhealthy food categories. Conversely, the budget was markedly higher in non-alcohol purchasers as compared to the whole population for seven out of the 11 unhealthy foods. The ratio of the budget for healthy to that for unhealthy foods was also distinct between the groups, being highest for wine and lowest for beer. In the subgroup of non-alcohol consumers, this ratio was intermediate but significantly lower relative to values in the five subcategories of wine purchasers. Marked differences in the profile of the purchase of healthy versus unhealthy food products as a function of the subcategory of alcoholic beverage consumed were documented, revealing a critical unidentified confounding feature in analyses of the potential relationship between alcohol consumption and protection against cardiovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Lenk, Kathleen M; Caspi, Caitlin E; Harnack, Lisa; Laska, Melissa N
Small and non-traditional food stores (e.g., corner stores) are often the most accessible source of food for residents of lower income urban neighborhoods in the U.S. Although healthy options are often limited at these stores, little is known about customers who purchase healthy, versus less healthy, foods/beverages in these venues. We conducted 661 customer intercept interviews at 105 stores (corner stores, gas marts, pharmacies, dollar stores) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, assessing all food and beverage items purchased. We defined three categories of "healthy" and four categories of "unhealthy" purchases. Interviews assessed customer characteristics [e.g., demographics, body-mass index (BMI)]. We examined associations between healthy versus unhealthy purchases categories and customer characteristics. Overall, 11% of customers purchased ≥1 serving of healthy foods/beverages in one or more of the three categories: 8% purchased fruits/vegetables, 2% whole grains, and 1% non-/low-fat dairy. Seventy-one percent of customers purchased ≥1 serving of unhealthy foods/beverages in one or more of four categories: 46% purchased sugar-sweetened beverages, 17% savory snacks, 15% candy, and 13% sweet baked goods. Male (vs. female) customers, those with a lower education levels, and those who reported shopping at the store for convenience (vs. other reasons) were less likely to purchase fruits/vegetables. Unhealthy purchases were more common among customers with a BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 (vs. lower BMI). Results suggest intervention opportunities to increase healthy purchases at small and non-traditional food stores, particularly interventions aimed at male residents, those with lower education levels and residents living close to the store.
Snel, Marieke; Wijngaarden, Marjolein A; Bizino, Maurice B; van der Grond, Jeroen; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; van Buchem, Mark A; Jazet, Ingrid M; Pijl, Hanno
Dietary restriction benefits health and increases lifespan in several species. Food odorants restrain the beneficial effects of dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesized that the presence of visual and odorous food stimuli during a prolonged fast modifies the neuroendocrine and metabolic response to fasting in humans. In this randomized, crossover intervention study, healthy young men (n = 12) fasted twice for 60 h; once in the presence and once in the absence of food-related visual and odorous stimuli. At baseline and on the last morning of each intervention, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. During the OGTT, blood was sampled and a functional MRI scan was made. The main effects of prolonged fasting were: (1) decreased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine levels; (2) downregulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis; (3) reduced plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, but increased glucose and insulin responses to glucose ingestion; (4) altered hypothalamic blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to the glucose load (particularly during the first 20 min after ingestion); (5) increased resting energy expenditure. Exposure to food cues did not affect these parameters. This study shows that 60 h of fasting in young men (1) decreases the hypothalamic BOLD signal in response to glucose ingestion; (2) induces glucose intolerance; (3) increases resting energy expenditure, and (4) downregulates the pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal axes. Exposure to visual and odorous food cues did not alter these metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to nutrient deprivation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M
To examine the impact of presenting images of foods paired with images of positive and negative health consequences of their consumption on food choice and attitudes. Participants (N = 711) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design (Food Type × Affective Valence) to 1 of 6 conditioning procedures that paired images of either energy-dense snack foods or fruit, with (a) images of negative health outcomes, (b) images of positive health outcomes, or (c) a no image control. The primary outcome was food choice assessed postintervention with a behavioral choice task. Secondary outcomes were implicit attitudes (assessed pre- and postintervention) and explicit attitudes (assessed postintervention). Presenting images of negative health outcomes led to more healthy food choices relative to control and positive image conditions, irrespective of whether they were paired with images of energy-dense snack foods or fruit. This relationship was partially mediated by changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. Images of positive health outcomes did not alter food choices. This study replicates and extends previous research showing that presenting images of negative health consequences increases healthy food choices. Because effects were elicited by manipulating affective valence irrespective of paired food type, these results appear more consistent with an explanation based on priming than on evaluative conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A
Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.
Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…
Bolving, L.; Noer, I.; Soegaard, P.; Christensen, T.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Kommunehospital, Aarhus
In ten healthy subjects final gastric emptying of solid food was measured by a new scintigraphic mehtod, employing 99m Tc labelled pellets, and compared to a radiologic method, employing food with incorporated barium suspension. Final gastric emptying of solid food, measured by the scintigraphic technique, was 5.2 hours and with the radiographic technique 5.5 hours, with no significant difference. It is concluded that significant information concerning gastric emptying of solid food can be obtained by the radiological method. (orig.) [de
Goto, Keiko; Ominami, Chihiro; Song, Chunyan; Murayama, Nobuko; Wolff, Cindy
The current study examined parental perceptions of sociocultural factors associated with healthy child feeding practices among parents of preschool-age children in rural Japan. Fifteen Japanese mothers of preschool-age children participated in this qualitative study. These participants were aged 22-39 years and resided in a rural town in western Japan. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess parental perceptions of healthy child feeding practices and their relationships with globalization and localization. These interviews were transcribed, translated into English and coded, based on the principles of grounded theory. A codebook was developed and pre-identified, and the newly-identified themes from this codebook were examined and compared. Overall, local and seasonal foods, along with traditional Japanese foods and simple foods (soshoku), were considered to be beneficial for children. Participants also noted that children were expected to be mindful and exhibit good table manners that reflect cultural values related to meal-time socializing or family bonding, and food appreciation. On the other hand, the majority of the participants stated that foods containing food additives and imported foods were unsuitable for children. Participants noted that strong social capital, especially social support from their mothers or mothers-in-law, as well as social networks for obtaining fresh local foods, contributed to healthy child feeding practices. Cultural capital (including the preservation of traditional Japanese dietary habits, eating rules and inter-generational commensality), was also identified as being key to healthy feeding practices. Identifying and promoting the social and cultural capital that positively support healthy child feeding practices may be an important component of nutrition education programs.
Evaluating the Influence of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Allocation Package on Healthy Food Availability, Accessibility, and Affordability in Texas.
Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Dowdy, Diane; Evans, Alexandra; Ory, Marcia; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Wang, Suojin; Miao, Jingang
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was implemented to improve the health of pregnant women and children of low socioeconomic status. In 2009, the program was revised to provide a wider variety of healthy food choices (eg, fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain items). The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the revised WIC Nutrition Program's food allocation package on the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthy foods in WIC-authorized grocery stores in Texas; and (2) how the impact of the policy change differed by store types and between rural and urban regions. WIC-approved stores (n=105) across Texas were assessed using a validated instrument (88 items). Pre- (June-September 2009) and post-new WIC package implementation (June-September 2012) audits were conducted. Paired-sample t tests were conducted to compare the differences between pre- and post-implementation audits on shelf width and number of varieties (ie, availability), visibility (ie, accessibility), and inflation-adjusted price (ie, affordability). Across the 105 stores, post-implementation audits showed increased availability in terms of shelf space for most key healthy food options, including fruit (PFood visibility increased for fresh juices (Pfoods such as fruits (Pbread (Pbread (Pfood availability and visibility were observed in stores of different types and in different locations, although smaller or fewer effects were noted in small stores and stores in rural regions. Implementation of the revised WIC food package has generally improved availability and accessibility, but not affordability, of healthy foods in WIC-authorized stores in Texas. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of the revised program on healthy food option purchases and consumption patterns among Texas WIC participants. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J
In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p soup.
Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G
Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (SD 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies.
At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Emilien, Christine H; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at 10 time points after meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten was recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary, and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (P = 0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (P 0.05). These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-h period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A
The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.
Amelia J. Harray
Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.
Mabachi, Natabhona M; Kimminau, Kim S
Americans can combat overweight (OW) and obesity by eating unprocessed, fresh foods. However, all Americans do not have equal access to these recommended foods. Low-income, minority, urban neighborhoods in particular often have limited access to healthy resources, although they are vulnerable to higher levels of OW and obesity. This project used community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to investigate the food needs of residents and develop a business plan to improve access to healthy food options in an urban, Kansas City, Kansas, neighborhood. Partner community organizations were mobilized to conduct a Community Food Assessment survey. The surveys were accompanied by flyers that were part of the communication engagement strategy. Statistical analysis of the surveys was conducted. We engaged low-income, minority population (40% Latino, 30% African American) urban communities at the household level. Survey results provided in-depth information about residents' food needs and thoughts on how to improve food access. Results were reported to community members at a town hall style meeting. Developing a strategic plan to engage a community and develop trust is crucial to sustaining a partnership particularly when working with underserved communities. This project demonstrates that, if well managed, the benefits of academic and community partnerships outweigh the challenges thus such relationships should be encouraged and supported by communities, academic institutions, local and national government, and funders. A CBPR approach to understanding an urban community's food needs and opinions is important for comprehensive food access planning.
Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M
Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.
Aldrovandi, Silvio; Brown, Gordon D A; Wood, Alex M
People's evaluations in the domain of healthy eating are at least partly determined by the choice context. We systematically test reference level and rank-based models of relative comparisons against each other and explore their application to social norms nudging, an intervention that aims at influencing consumers' behavior by addressing their inaccurate beliefs about their consumption relative to the consumption of others. Study 1 finds that the rank of a product or behavior among others in the immediate comparison context, rather than its objective attributes, influences its evaluation. Study 2 finds that when a comparator is presented in isolation the same rank-based process occurs based on information retrieved from memory. Study 3 finds that telling people how their consumption ranks within a normative comparison sample increases willingness to pay for a healthy food by over 30% relative to the normal social norms intervention that tells them how they compare to the average. We conclude that social norms interventions should present rank information (e.g., "you are in the most unhealthy 10% of eaters") rather than information relative to the average (e.g., "you consume 500 calories more than the average person"). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco
Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Giese, Helge; König, Laura M; Tăut, Diana; Ollila, Hanna; Băban, Adriana; Absetz, Pilvikki; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta
Building upon previous results, the present study explored the relationship between exposure to unhealthy and healthy food TV commercials, trait self-control, and food intake. In total, 825 Finns (53% female), 1,055 Germans (55% female), and 971 Romanians (55% female) aged 8-21 reported advertisement exposure, self-control, and food intake. Altogether, participants indicated higher exposure to unhealthy compared to healthy food advertisements (F(1, 2848) = 354.73, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with unhealthy food intake (all β ≥ .16, p advertisement exposure was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (β = .10, p advertising and self-control were mainly independent (interactions: β ≤ |.07|, p ≥ .002). Even though the results suggest that healthy advertisement exposure and self-control might be beneficial for children's and adolescents' diet, self-control might be insufficient to alleviate the positive relationship between unhealthy food advertising and unhealthy eating. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Jonsson, Linus; Larsson, Christel; Berg, Christina; Korp, Peter; Lindgren, Eva-Carin
This study aimed to illuminate factors that undermine the healthy habits of adolescents from a multicultural community with low socioeconomic status (S.E.S.) in Sweden with regard to physical activity (P.A.) and food, as stated in their own voices. Adolescents (n = 53, 12-13 y/o) were recruited from one school situated in a multicultural community characterized by low S.E.S. Embracing an interpretive approach, 10 focus-group interviews were conducted to produce data for the study. The focus-group interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in two major themes: (1) the availability of temptations is large, and support from the surroundings is limited; and (2) norms and demands set the agenda. The adolescents' voices illuminate a profound awareness and the magnitude of tempting screen-based activities as undermining their P.A. and healthy food habits. Moreover, several gender boundaries were highlighted as undermining girls' P.A. and healthy food habits. The adolescents' stories illuminated that it is difficult for them, within their environment, to establish healthy habits with regard to P.A. and food. To facilitate the adolescents' healthy habits, we suggest that support from family, friends, the school, and society at large is essential.
Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.
Gillebaart, Marleen; Schneider, Iris K; De Ridder, Denise T D
Self-control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, self-control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self-control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self-control success. Trait self-control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; M age = 33.03; 59 females, 83 males, 4 unknown). The response conflict process was assessed in Study 2 (N = 118; M age = 21.45; 68 females, 41 males, 9 unknown). Outcomes showed that self-reported evaluative response conflict about food items was smaller for people high in trait self-control. Study 2 revealed that higher trait self-control predicted faster resolution of self-control conflict, and an earlier peak of the response conflict. Taken together, these results provide insight into what makes people with high trait self-control successful, namely, how they handle response conflict. Implications for self-control theories and future directions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carrad, Amy M; Louie, Jimmy Chun-Yu; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Kelly, Bridget; Flood, Victoria M
To investigate the feasibility of introducing vending machines for healthier food into public places, and to examine the effectiveness of two front-of-pack labelling systems in the vending machine context. A survey was conducted with 120 students from a university and 120 employees, patients and visitors of a hospital in regional NSW, Australia. Questions explored vending machine use, attitudes towards healthier snack products and price, and the performance of front-of-pack labelling formats for vending machine products. Most participants viewed the current range of snacks and drinks as "too unhealthy" (snacks 87.5%; drinks 56.7%). Nuts and muesli bars were the most liked healthier vending machine snack. Higher proportions of participants were able to identify the healthier snack in three of the five product comparisons when products were accompanied with any type of front-of-pack label (all pvending machines. Front-of-pack label formats on vending machines may assist consumers to identify healthier products. Public settings, such as universities and hospitals, should support consumers to make healthy dietary choices by improving food environments. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete
Background Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29–49 years at baseline (1991–1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303
Wang, Jing; Williams, Margaret; Rush, Elaine; Crook, Nic; Forouhi, Nita G; Simmons, David
Uptake of advice for lifestyle change for obesity and diabetes prevention requires access to affordable 'healthy' foods (high in fibre/low in sugar and fat). The present study aimed to examine the availability and accessibility of 'healthy' foods in rural and urban New Zealand. We identified and visited ('mapped') 1230 food outlets (473 urban, 757 rural) across the Waikato/Lakes areas (162 census areas within twelve regions) in New Zealand, where the Te Wai O Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy was underway. At each site, we assessed the availability of 'healthy' foods (e.g. wholemeal bread) and compared their cost with those of comparable 'regular' foods (e.g. white bread). Healthy foods were generally more available in urban than rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, 'healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' foods after adjusting for the population and income level of each area. For instance, there was an increasing price difference across bread, meat, poultry, with the highest difference for sugar substitutes. The weekly family cost of a 'healthy' food basket (without sugar) was 29.1% more expensive than the 'regular' basket ($NZ 176.72 v. $NZ 136.84). The difference between the 'healthy' and 'regular' basket was greater in urban ($NZ 49.18) than rural areas ($NZ 36.27) in adjusted analysis. 'Healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' choices in both urban and rural areas. Although urban areas had higher availability of 'healthy' foods, the cost of changing to a healthy diet in urban areas was also greater. Improvement in the food environment is needed to support people in adopting healthy food choices.
Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing
P. Quiry; Y. Le Fur; A. Salvi; M. Dallocchio; P. Vernimmen
Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition, the website www.vernimmen.com and the Vernimmen.com newsletter are all written and created by an author team who are both investment bankers/corporate financiers and academics. This book covers the theory and practice of Corporate Finance from a truly European perspective. It shows how to use financial theory to solve practical problems and is written for students of corporate finance and financial analysis and practising corporate financie...
Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...
Full Text Available Universally, there has been an increased awareness about the harmful effects of chemical inputs used for production of food on soil composition, environment and human health. This has triggered the consumption level of organic food products. India has witnessed a tremendous growth in domestic as well as export market. The demand is mainly driven by consumer perceptions that organic farming is more sustainable, produces healthy food, pesticide-free and safeguards the environment & biodiversity. Organic food producers also manifests the quality and safety of food. These claims which are perceived and professed as beneficial can only be accepted if they are tested and validated. Therefore, the foremost objective of this review paper is to provide an update on set of studies related to scientific evidence for nutritional composition marking the quality of organic foods vis-à-vis conventional foods and its impact on human health. Secondly, the paper examines the comparison of the sensory quality of the organic food, and thirdly the food safety aspect of organically as compared with conventionally grown foods. Past few controlled studies have proved that there is no such evidence of differences in concentration of various nutrients amongst organic and conventional foods. Furthermore, there are certain issues related to the impact and assessment of these nutrients in organic food which requires some future directives. Owing to the heterogeneity in results observed related to nutritional quality and safety of organic foods, technological aspects together with sensory parameters are the best for future comparative studies. To safeguard the public health and to avoid the difference in sampling and sample results, testing laboratories should also be adhering to uniform standards. Organic food business in India lack standard guidelines for quality, policy framework for domestic and export market. Also, traceability is another factor which should be given
This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project
Rao, Mayuree; Afshin, Ashkan; Singh, Gitanjali; Mozaffarian, Dariush
Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prices of healthier versus less healthy foods/diet patterns while accounting for key sources of heterogeneity. Data sources MEDLINE (2000–2011), supplemented with expert consultations and hand reviews of reference lists and related citations. Design Studies reviewed independently and in duplicate were included if reporting mean retail price of foods or diet patterns stratified by healthfulness. We extracted, in duplicate, mean prices and their uncertainties of healthier and less healthy foods/diet patterns and rated the intensity of health differences for each comparison (range 1–10). Prices were adjusted for inflation and the World Bank purchasing power parity, and standardised to the international dollar (defined as US$1) in 2011. Using random effects models, we quantified price differences of healthier versus less healthy options for specific food types, diet patterns and units of price (serving, day and calorie). Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistics. Results 27 studies from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Among food groups, meats/protein had largest price differences: healthier options cost $0.29/serving (95% CI $0.19 to $0.40) and $0.47/200 kcal ($0.42 to $0.53) more than less healthy options. Price differences per serving for healthier versus less healthy foods were smaller among grains ($0.03), dairy (−$0.004), snacks/sweets ($0.12) and fats/oils ($0.02; p<0.05 each) and not significant for soda/juice ($0.11, p=0.64). Comparing extremes (top vs bottom quantile) of food-based diet patterns, healthier diets cost $1.48/day ($1.01 to $1.95) and $1.54/2000 kcal ($1.15 to $1.94) more. Comparing nutrient-based patterns, price per day was not significantly different (top vs bottom quantile: $0.04; p=0.916), whereas price per 2000 kcal was $1.56 ($0.61 to $2.51) more. Adjustment for intensity of differences in healthfulness yielded similar results. Conclusions
Basso, Frédéric; Petit, Olivia; Le Bellu, Sophie; Lahlou, Saadi; Cancel, Aïda; Anton, Jean-Luc
Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating. Last, it remains to be investigated if visual perspective could be used to promote healthy foods. The present work manipulated camera angles and tested whether visual perspective modulates activity in brain regions associated with taste and reward processing while participants watch videos featuring a hand grasping (unhealthy or healthy) foods from a plate during functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI). The plate was filmed from the perspective of the participant (first-person perspective; 1PP), or from a frontal view as if watching someone else eating (third-person perspective; 3PP). Our findings reveal that merely viewing unhealthy food cues from a 1PP (vs. 3PP) increases activity in brain regions that underlie representations of rewarding (appetitive) experiences (amygdala) and food intake (superior parietal gyrus). Additionally, our results show that ventral striatal activity is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during exposure to unhealthy foods from a 1PP (vs. 3PP). These findings suggest that unhealthy foods should be promoted through third-person (video) images to weaken the reward associated with their simulated consumption, especially amongst overweight people. It appears however that, as such, manipulating visual perspective fails to enhance the perception of healthy foods. Their promotion thus requires complementary solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac
Full Text Available Recreation and sport settings (RSS typically promote health in the form of physical activity, but the healthfulness of their food environment is often neglected. We explored stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy food provision in RSS through telephone interviews with ten representatives from RSS across Nova Scotia. Three key barriers were identified: 1 cultural norms associated with food in RSS and the broader environment, 2 the persisting notion of personal choice and responsibility, and 3 financial implications of healthy food provision. These barriers challenge healthy food provision in RSS and require multi-faceted strategies to overcome social norms that undermine health behaviours.
Le Ha ND
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the
Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R
Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…
Winkler, Lise L; Christensen, Ulla; Glümer, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy...... short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews). Findings were presented to food retailers and informed the decision to test a healthy checkout intervention. Sugar confectionery at one checkout counter was substituted with fruit and healthy snacking items...... intervention awareness was modest. Most participants believed that the intervention could help other consumers make healthier choices, while fewer expected to be influenced by the intervention themselves. Statistical analyses suggested an intervention effect on sales of carrot snack packs when compared...
Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D
Community sports settings are often sources of unhealthy foods for children. Many managers in these settings are reluctant to increase availability of healthy food options because they perceive that healthy foods are not profitable. This study assessed the independent contribution of increased availability of healthy foods to their sales in a community sport, commercial context. Change in revenues per patron was also examined. The availability of healthy items was increased from 9.1% at baseline (35 days) to 25.0% during the intervention period (40 days), returning to 9.1% postintervention (6 days). Purchases of all patrons who bought foods/beverages (n=17,262 items sold) from two concessions at an outdoor community pool were assessed from baseline to postintervention. Chi-square analyses assessed differences in the proportion of healthy and unhealthy items sold, as well as in the proportion of total revenues per patron across periods. A trained observer also recorded qualitative observations pertaining to a subset of patrons' (n=221) dietary behaviors and activities. Healthy items represented 7.7%, 22.7%, and 9.8% of sales during the preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods, respectively (ppatron did not differ by period. Food availability was an important environmental determinant of food purchasing behaviors in this community commercial context, given that sales of healthy foods closely mirrored their availability. Increased availability of healthy foods in community and commercial settings is important because concurrent changes within multiple environments will be required to improve children's dietary behaviors.
Tibuhwa, Donatha D
This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually. This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.
Kovarik, John M; Schmouder, Robert; Barilla, Denise; Wang, Yibin; Kraus, Gerolf
Aims FTY720 is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist that redirects lymphocytes from the circulation to lymph nodes without impairing lymphocyte function. It is being developed as an immunomodulator for the prevention of acute rejection after organ transplantation. This study was performed to provide guidance on administration with respect to meals and to measure pharmacologic responses in healthy subjects. Methods In this randomized, two-period, crossover study, 14 healthy subjects received placebo on day −1 of each period with baseline circadian measurements of lymphocyte count and heart rate. Subjects subsequently received a single 1 mg oral dose of FTY720 on day 1 under fasting conditions and after a high fat meal. Blood FTY720 concentrations, lymphocyte count, and supine heart rate were assessed over an 8 day period after each FTY720 dose. The effect of food on FTY720 pharmacokinetics was assessed by standard bioequivalence testing. Results Both the peak concentration (0.65 ± 0.17 vs 0.64 ± 0.18 ng ml−1) and total exposure (AUC 149 ± 65 vs 139 ± 43 ng ml−1 h) did not differ significantly between fasting and fed states, respectively. The corresponding fed/fasting ratios and 90% confidence intervals were 1.00 (0.86, 1.17) for Cmax and 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) for AUC. Under both treatment conditions peripheral blood lymphocyte count decreased from baseline by 38 ± 9% over the first 2 days postdose and then increased towards predose values over the subsequent week. Whereas a circadian rhythm in supine heart rate was preserved in the presence of FTY720, the heart rate vs time curve was shifted downwards by 10% over the first day postdose and then recovered to prestudy values by days 3–5 postdose. These changes were asymptomatic. Conclusions Single 1 mg doses of FTY720 were well tolerated in healthy subjects and elicited a moderate decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte count and a transient decrease in heart rate consistent with its pharmacological
Kolahdooz, Fariba; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Mead, Erin; Beck, Lindsay; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita
The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (≥19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Validated quantitative food frequency and adult impact questionnaires were used. Four communities received the intervention and two communities served as delayed intervention controls. Pre- and post-intervention changes in frequency of/total intake of de-promoted food groups and healthiness of cooking methods were determined. The impact of the intervention was assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Post-intervention data were analysed in the intervention (n = 221) and control (n = 111) communities, with participant retention rates of 91% for Nunavut and 83% for the Northwest Territories. There was a significant decrease in de-promoted foods, such as high fat meats (-27.9 g) and high fat dairy products (-19.8 g) among intervention communities (all p ≤ 0.05). The use of healthier preparation methods significantly increased (14.7%) in intervention communities relative to control communities. This study highlights the importance of using a community-based, multi-institutional nutrition intervention program to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods and the use of unhealthy food preparation methods.
Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.
Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to
Izmari Jasel Alvarez Gaona
Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of coronary disease, atherosclerosis, and platelet aggregation. Wine is very rich in antioxidant compounds because of their phenolic components. However, many people for ethnic, social or religious reasons do not consume wine. Drying/encapsulation of red wine in the presence of adequate carbohydrates leads to water and more than 99% of alcohol removal; a glassy amorphous microstructure is obtained in which the wine’s phenolic compounds are entrapped. The resulting product is a free flowing powder which could be used for the polyphenol enrichment of healthy foods and/or drink powders, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The wine industry may take advantage of the dried/encapsulated red wine using as a raw material red wines which have little commercial value for different reasons; i.e. poor quality due to raw material, unfavourable climatic conditions, or wines that suffered some alteration during the wine making process. Dry encapsulated wine may be a new alternative to red wines that cannot be sold as such for different reasons, and open new opportunities to diversify wine products.
West, Gale E.; Larue, Bruno
The agri-food industry faces new challenges as consumer demand for new, healthier foods increases. Media headlines frequently mention health benefits from certain foods and food components, and consumers are more health conscious because they are aging. They realize their food choices can reduce their risk of developing chronic illnesses such as cancer and heart disease. The competitive advantages for firms who are the first to bring their food innovations to market will depend in part on the...
Luesse, Hiershenee B; Paul, Rachel; Gray, Heewon L; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel; Marsick, Victoria
Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and families play an important role. Improving strategies to reach parents and directing tailored nutrition education to them is needed. Purpose To investigate the challenges and facilitators to promoting a healthy environment at home and to identify communication preferences to inform intervention strategies for effectively reaching low-income urban minority families. Procedure Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with four groups involving 16 low-income urban parents (94% female; 88% Hispanic/Latino, 12% African American) of elementary school children. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed applying Social Cognitive Theory and using in-vivo coding. Main Findings The most common barriers to parents providing healthy foods to their children were accommodating child preferences and familial opposition. Parents showed intentionality to engage in healthy behaviors, and often shared procedural knowledge for reaching health goals. The analyses of desired communication channels yielded major preferences: tailored information, information provided through multiple mediums, appropriate duration/frequency of messages, and presented from a voice of authority. Conclusion and Implication While parents expressed desires to be healthy, the home food environment presented substantial challenges. Multi-media supports such as workshops, flyers, and text messaging may be useful to facilitate the sharing of information to minimize the tensions between intentionality and reaching desired goals to be healthy. Some parents thought that information received through text messaging could be easily shared and would act as a voice of authority to support child behavior change.
Spielvogel, Ines; Matthes, Jörg; Naderer, Brigitte; Karsay, Kathrin
Based on cue reactivity theory, food cues embedded in media content can lead to physiological and psychological responses in children. Research suggests that unhealthy food cues are represented more extensively and interactively in children's media environments than healthy ones. However, it is not clear to this date whether children react differently to unhealthy compared to healthy food cues. In an experimental study with 56 children (55.4% girls; M age = 8.00, SD = 1.58), we used eye-tracking to determine children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues embedded in a narrative cartoon movie. Besides varying the food type (i.e., healthy vs. unhealthy), we also manipulated the integration levels of food cues with characters (i.e., level of food integration; no interaction vs. handling vs. consumption), and we assessed children's individual susceptibility factors by measuring the impact of their hunger level. Our results indicated that unhealthy food cues attract children's visual attention to a larger extent than healthy cues. However, their initial visual interest did not differ between unhealthy and healthy food cues. Furthermore, an increase in the level of food integration led to an increase in visual attention. Our findings showed no moderating impact of hunger. We conclude that especially unhealthy food cues with an interactive connection trigger cue reactivity in children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dupont, S; De Spiegeleer, A; Liu, D J X; Lefère, L; van Doorn, D A; Hesta, M
Commercial immunoglobulin E (IgE)-based tests are available for diagnosis of food allergies and are commonly used in equine practice. However, these tests have been proven unreliable as a screening method in man and other species, but not critically evaluated in equids. Therefore, a commercially available IgE-based test for horses was evaluated. To evaluate the consistency of the results obtained with a commercially available IgE-based test for food allergy diagnosis in ponies (Phase I) and to subject ponies to a provocation trial with the presumed allergens (Phase II). Allergen screening followed by experimental food provocation trials in healthy ponies. Blood samples of 17 healthy Shetland ponies were taken at 2 different time points, sent blinded to a commercial laboratory for screening of common food allergens and the results were evaluated for consistency (Phase I). Ponies that were positive for food allergens were consecutively challenged orally with each allergen separately for 14 days (Phase II). A washout period of one week was applied in ponies with multiple positive results. Clinical parameters and serum amyloid A were monitored during the provocation trial. Only 7/17 ponies were negative on the IgE-based test at the 2 time points, 3 had positive results twice but only one tested positive twice for the same food allergen. No abnormalities were noted during the provocation trials. This study demonstrated that this IgE-based test is not a reliable screening tool for food allergy in healthy equids. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huy
This study uses the subscales of Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) to explore the effects of future (CFC-future) and immediate (CFC-immediate) on convenience food consumption among teenagers in Vietnam. Furthermore, we investigate the mediating and dual role of hedonic and healthy eating values in the relationships between CFCs and convenience food consumption. Survey data from 451 teenagers in Central Vietnam and structural equation modelling were used to test the relationships in a proposed theoretical model. The results indicate that while CFC-immediate and hedonic eating value has a positive direct effect, CFC-future and healthy eating value has a negative direct effect on convenience food consumption. The findings also reveal that both CFC-immediate and CFC-future have positive effects on hedonic and healthy eating values. However, this study argues and tests the relative importance of the direct (asymmetric) effects of time perspectives on eating values, and finds that while CFC-future dominate in explaining healthy eating values, CFC-immediate dominate in explaining hedonic eating values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis
Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...
Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne
Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus palatability mindsets influenced attention bias for food, and whether restrained eating moderated this relation. After manipulating mindset (health vs. palatability) experimentally, food-related attention bias was measured by eye-movements (EM) and response latencies (RL) during a visual probe task depicting high-calorie food and non-food. Restrained eating was assessed afterwards. A significant interaction of mindset and restrained eating on RL bias emerged, β = 0.36, t(58) = 2.05, p = 0.045: A health mindset - as compared to a palatability mindset - attenuated attention bias for high-caloric food only in participants with higher eating restraint. No effects were observed on EM biases. The current results demonstrate that state differences in health versus palatability mindsets can cause attenuated attention bias for high-calorie food cues in participants with higher eating restraint. Our findings add to emerging evidence that state differences in mindsets can bias attention for food, above the influence of trait differences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker
This documentation describes the development of a survey tool designed to: 1) measure how different levels of constraints on food budgets are associated to outcomes of healthy eating, environmental sustainability and life quality for individuals in Denmark, and 2) explore how these different...... outcomes are related to strategies people employ to cope with restricted food budgets. The resulting survey consists of a total of 63 question items. The paper lays out the various steps involved in the process of developing the survey tool, presents the final survey items included in the tool...
Neter, Judith E; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A
Nutritional intakes of food bank recipients and consequently their health status largely rely on the availability and quality of donated food in provided food parcels. In this cross-sectional study, the nutritional quality of ninety-six individual food parcels was assessed and compared with the
Roswall, N; Sandin, S; Scragg, R; Löf, M; Skeie, G; Olsen, A; Adami, H-O; Weiderpass, E
In several intervention trials, a healthy Nordic diet showed beneficial effects on markers of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association between a healthy Nordic diet and clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was first to examine the association between a healthy Nordic food index (wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish) and the incidence of overall cardiovascular disease (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, thrombosis and hypertensive disease), and secondly to test for possible effect modification by smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and age. We conducted an analysis of data from the prospective Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 43 310 women who completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1991-1992, and followed up until 31 December 2012 through Swedish registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 8383 women developed cardiovascular disease. We found no association between the healthy Nordic food index and overall cardiovascular disease risk or any of the subgroups investigated. There was a statistically significant interaction with smoking status (P = 0.02), with a beneficial effect only amongst former smokers (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 1-point increment). The present results do not support an association between a healthy Nordic food index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Swedish women. There was also no effect modification by alcohol intake, BMI or age. Our finding of an interaction with smoking status requires reproduction. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Lee, Pui Yee; Lusk, Karen; Mirosa, Miranda; Oey, Indrawati
Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors' knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n=6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz's 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz's personal values influencing Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist
Sproesser, Gudrun; Kohlbrenner, Verena; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta
The present study investigated self-other biases in actual eating behavior based on the observation of three different eating situations. To capture the complexity of real life food choices within a well-controlled setting, an ecologically valid fake food buffet with 72 different foods was employed. Sixty participants chose a healthy, a typical, and an unhealthy meal for themselves and for an average peer. We found that the typical meal for the self was more similar to the healthy than to the unhealthy meal in terms of energy content: The mean difference between the typical and healthy meals was MΔ = 1368 kJ (327 kcal) as compared to a mean difference between the typical and unhealthy meals of MΔ = 3075 kJ (735 kcal). Moreover, there was evidence that people apply asymmetrical standards for themselves and others: Participants chose more energy for a peer than for themselves (M = 4983 kJ or 1191 kcal on average for the peers' meals vs. M = 3929 kJ or 939 kcal on average for the own meals) and more high-caloric food items for a typical meal, indicating a self-other bias. This comparatively positive self-view is in stark contrast to epidemiological data indicating overall unhealthy eating habits and demands further examination of its consequences for behavior change.
Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice.
Naderer, Brigitte; Matthes, Jörg; Binder, Alice; Marquart, Franziska; Mayrhofer, Mira; Obereder, Agnes; Spielvogel, Ines
Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such as parental food-related mediation or BMI. The current study combines data from an experiment involving children with a survey of their parents. We exposed children to a cartoon either containing no food placements, placements of mandarins (i.e., snack high in nutritional value), or placements of fruit gums (i.e., snack low in nutritional value). Afterwards, food consumption was measured by giving children the option to choose between fruit gums or mandarins. Children in both snack placement conditions showed stronger preference for the snack low in nutritional value (i.e., fruit gum) compared to the control group. Interestingly, neither restrictive nor active food-related mediation prevented the effects of the placements on children's choice of snacks low in nutritional value. Compared to children with a low BMI, children with high BMI levels had a stronger disposition to choose the fruit gums if a snack high in nutritional value (i.e., mandarin) was presented. Thus, making snacks high in nutritional attractive for children through media presentation might need stronger persuasive cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kubik, Martha Y; Farbakhsh, Kian; Lytle, Leslie A
To assess change in the 4-year prevalence (2006-2009) of the use of food in school fundraising and as rewards and incentives for students, following implementation of federal legislation in the USA in 2006. Serial cross-sectional design using trend analysis to assess school-level data collected over four consecutive years from 2006/2007 to 2009/2010. Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Convenience sample of middle and high schools participating in two longitudinal, aetiological studies that examined youth, their environment and obesity-related factors. A significant and sustained decrease was demonstrated in the use of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods in school fundraising activities and the use of food and food coupons as rewards and incentives by teachers and school staff. Results support the utility of policy and legislative action as a tool for creating healthy, sustainable environmental change.
Cacaci, Margherita; Lelli, Rossella Colomba
The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security. The Italian Veterinary Medicine School curricula, reflected this "model" of veterinarian as well. In the majority of countries in the world, Veterinary Services are organized within the Agriculture Administration with the main function to assure animal health and wellbeing. After the so-called "Mad-cow crisis" the awareness of the direct and essential role of veterinary services in the prevention of human illness has been officially recognized and in the third millennium the old concept of "one health" and "human-animal interface" has gained popularity worldwide.The concept of Veterinary Public Health, has evolved at International level and has incorporated the more than a century old vision of the Italian Veterinary medicine and it is defined as "the sum of the contributions to the physical, mental and social development of people through the knowledge and application of veterinary science" (WHO, Future trends in veterinary public health. Gruppo di lavoro OMS: TE, Italy, 1999, Available from: http://www.who.int/zoonoses/vph/en/ . Last visited 16 Feb 2016, 1999).On the subject of Cooperation, Sustainability and Public Health, the EXPO 2015 event and the activities of international organizations WHO, FAO and World Organization for Animal Health are refocusing at present their worldwide mandate to protect human health and the economy of both the poorest Countries and the developed countries, according to the "new
Narasimhan, N I; Dorer, D J; Niland, K; Haluska, F; Sonnichsen, Daryl
Ponatinib is a potent oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against BCR-ABL, the primary driver of chronic myeloid leukaemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This single-centre, single-dose, randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of a single oral dose of ponatinib (45-mg tablet) under fasting conditions and following consumption of high- and low-fat meals by healthy subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the six possible treatment sequences, each evaluating three ponatinib 45-mg treatments: administered under fasting conditions; administered after a high-fat meal; or administered after a standardized low-fat meal. The high-fat meal derived approximately 50% of its total caloric content from fat, with approximately 150, 250 and 500-600 calories derived from protein, carbohydrates and fat, respectively (total of approximately 900-1000 calories). The standardized low-fat meal derived no more than 20% of total caloric content from fat, with approximately 56, 428 and 63 calories derived from protein, carbohydrates and fat, respectively (total of approximately 547 calories). During each of the three treatment periods, blood samples were collected predose and at 13 time points over the 96-h post-dose interval. Plasma concentrations of ponatinib were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed-model analyses of variance (anova) were performed on natural log-transformed PK parameters Cmax and AUC0-∞. Geometric mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values for the fasted, low-fat and high-fat regimens were 54·7, 51·6 and 51·5 ng/mL, respectively. Geometric mean area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) values for the fasted, low-fat and high-fat regimens were 1273, 1244 and 1392 h × ng/mL, respectively. All limits of the 90% CIs of the estimated geometric mean ratios for Cmax and all AUC
William R. Kerr; Ramana Nanda
We review the recent literature on the financing of innovation, inclusive of large companies and new startups. This research strand has been very active over the past five years, generating important new findings, questioning some long-held beliefs, and creating its own puzzles. Our review outlines the growing body of work that documents a role for debt financing related to innovation. We highlight the new literature on learning and experimentation across multi-stage innovation projects and h...
Margetts, B M; Martinez, J A; Saba, A; Holm, L; Kearney, M; Moles, A
To describe the perceptions of a healthy diet across Europe and to explore the socio-cultural factors that influence these perceptions. A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. 14331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Responses were grouped into broad categories; overall 80% (specific country rates varied from 67-91%) of respondents mentioned either more fruit and vegetables or less fat, fatty foods, or a low fat diet, or balance and variety. The effects of age, gender and level of education were also explored: educational level appeared to have the strongest influence on perceptions of a healthy diet. Respondents who mentioned the family as a key influence on food choice, were more likely to mention eating more fruit and vegetables as part of a healthy diet. Respondents who stated that they did not have any source of information about diet were less likely to mention balance and variety or less fat or more vegetables. The results of the present study suggest that many people defined healthy eating in a way which would suggest that the healthy dietary guidelines are having some impact. The results also show, however, that there may be specific groups who are missed by current national campaigns, and that any European wide campaigns to change attitudes about healthy eating need to consider the baseline perception of healthy eating reported here.
Saunier, K; Doré, J
Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly.
Chrisinger, Benjamin W; Kallan, Michael J; Whiteman, Eliza D; Hillier, Amy
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores. We examined HEI component scores for conventional supermarkets and discount/limited assortment retailers with descriptive statistics. Overall, 4962 shoppers made 11,472 shopping trips over one-week periods, 2012-2013. Trips to conventional supermarkets were the most common (53.6%), followed by supercenters (18.6%). Compared to conventional supermarkets, purchases at natural/gourmet stores had significantly higher HEI scores (β = 6.48, 95% CI = [4.45, 8.51], while those from "other" retailers (including corner and convenience stores) were significantly lower (-3.89, [-5.87, -1.92]). Older participants (versus younger) and women (versus men) made significantly healthier purchases (1.19, [0.29, 2.10]). Shoppers with less than some college education made significantly less-healthy purchases, versus shoppers with more education, as did households participating in SNAP, versus those with incomes above 185% of the Federal Poverty Level. Individual, trip, and store characteristics influenced the healthfulness of foods purchased. Interventions to encourage healthy purchasing should reflect these dynamics in terms of how, where, and for whom they are implemented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally......, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D....... a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal...
Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Sharpe, Patricia A; Rafferty, Ann P; Elbel, Brian; Ammerman, Alice S; Payne, Collin R; Hopping, Beth N; McGuirt, Jared T; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D
To examine how food store environments can promote healthful eating, including (1) preferences for a variety of behavioral economics strategies to promote healthful food purchases, and (2) the cross-sectional association between the primary food store where participants reported shopping, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Intercept survey participants (n = 342) from 2 midsized eastern North Carolina communities completed questionnaires regarding preferred behavioral economics strategies, the primary food store at which they shopped, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages. Frequently selected behavioral economic strategies included: (1) a token and reward system for fruit and vegetable purchases; and (2) price discounts on healthful foods and beverages. There was a significant association between the primary food store and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P = .005) and sugary beverages (P = .02). Future studies should examine associations between elements of the in-store food environment, purchases, and consumption. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gereffi, Gary; Lee, Joonkoo; Christian, Michelle
This article examines the structure and health implications of two industries, chicken and tomatoes, that play prominent roles in US food and agricultural competitiveness. Both industries have become more concentrated over time, with powerful "lead firms" driving geographical, technological, and marketing changes. Overall, a processed food revolution has taken place in agricultural products that transforms the types of food and dietary options available to consumers. The nature of contemporary food and agricultural value chains affects the strategies and policies that can be effectively employed to address major health goals such as improved nutrition, food safety, and food security.
M. Mufizur Rahman
Full Text Available Since veterinary medicine plays an important role in assuring a nation's food safety, therefore the present status of our food safety, where large numbers of consumers in Bangladesh have become victims of consuming adulterated foods, needs to be enhanced and governed by the guideline of veterinary and public health educators. This article highlights the need of an integrated collaborative approach between academicians and government officials for the creation and dissemination of food-safety teaching driving force to mitigate food borne diseases, ensure food safety, control mischievous and fraudulent adulteration – all destined to a harmonious national health strategic action plan. Veterinary education is very effective for cor- rect implementation of the stable to table concept and best serves the public when it is updated on current market needs of food products and measures protecting animal health. Universities in Europe and USA have adjusted their veterinary medicine curricula during the past few years. Experts predicted determinant changes by 2020 that would influence the work of the veterinarians. All of them are in favor of placing food quality and food safety and public health as the highest priorities in future veterinary education. In Bangladesh, Universities and Veterinary Colleges are producing qualified Veterinary Food Hygienists to deal with matters of health and demands for consumers’ food protection. The veterinary education blends veterinarians with strong capacity to advocate the assurance of food quality and safety from farm to fork. Government in collaboration with veterinary food hygienist should advocate academic and field covered sciencebased food safety system. It is hoped that in the near future Bangladesh will come forward with veterinary public health responsibilities incorporated in national food safety program. The concerned authorities in collaboration with international public health authority like WHO should
El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G
The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P food (mL/kcal) increased (P Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P food (r = 0.16; P food intake (r = 0.23; Pfood intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roselle, René; Connery, Chelsea
Describing how food insecurity is a threat to our country's democratic health and student success, the authors bring the issue of food justice into focus using the inequities in Hartford, Connecticut, and the ways one organization is working toward solutions.
Kocken, P.L.; Kesteren, N.M.C. van; Buijs, G.; Snel, J.; Dusseldorp, E.
Objective To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents’ self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods,
Liu, Dongyang; Jiang, Ji; Zhang, Li; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yingxiang; Zhang, Don; Hu, Pei
Icotinib, an oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has proved effectiveness in xenografted nude mice. Purpose of the present studies was to investigate tolerability and pharmacokinetics of Icotinib in healthy subjects for the first time, including dose proportionality, food effect, and tolerability. Two studies were conducted in total of 22 healthy subjects: a randomized, two-Latin-square crossover, dose proportional study (n = 12) and a randomized two-way crossover food-effect study (n = 10). Plasma concentration of Icotinib reached peak at a median Tmax of 0.75-3.5 h after single dose and then declined with a mean t1/2β of 6.02-7.83 h. Over the dose range of 100-600 mg, AUC values were proportional to dose and Cmax showed a slight saturation when dose increases. Only 0.2 % of the dose was excreted through kidney in unchanged Icotinib. After dosing 400 mg of Icotinib with high-fat and high-calorie meal, mean Cmax and AUC were significantly increased by 59 and 79 %, respectively. Three subjects experienced four adverse events (rash, increase in AST and ALT, and external injury). Rash and increased levels of AST and ALT were considered as drug-related. No serious adverse events were reported. The current work demonstrated that Icotinib was well tolerated in healthy male subjects (n = 22) over the dose range of 100-600 mg with or without food. Icotinib exposure, expressed in AUC, was proportionally increased with dose over the above dose range. Food intake significantly increased the absorption and exposure of Icotinib in healthy subjects.
Full Text Available The study inquires about the means by which corporate discourse formulates, invokes and challenges scientific research by examining three case studies of organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry. Critical discourse analysis carried out on corporate sections dedicated to healthy lifestyles reveals all three explored discursive streams acknowledge customers’ changing needs and consumption patterns. They introduce healthy lifestyles up on the corporate agenda, as cornerstone for their identity and governance strategy of fast-food and soft drinks producers. As overall discursive pattern, corporate public relations jargon constantly employs disclaimers and generic terms such as “evolution”, “development”, “strategy”, “partnership”, “transparency”, without providing specific assessment criteria to map down the intended intervention. The article provides rhetoric illustrations enacted through omission, disclaimers, backgrounding and reframing effects. The overriding discursive rationale implies that healthy diets are still low-priority for leading food and drinks producers. The documented companies indicate in their PR communication two strategies of fighting against the scientifically proven negative impact of their traded products: the individual choice paradigm and the social compensation strategy or health-washing. The article highlights some of the inconsistencies of discourses on healthy food that apparently are counter-intuitive enough to undermine corporate interests, while such discourses peddle on the idea of sincerity, transparency and ethical conduct. All three case studied corporations strive to safeguard their threatened reputation across discursive practices by acknowledging their weaknesses as sign of honesty. Further reflection on critical discourse analysts’ mandate and implications for practice are explored.
Leia M. Minaker; Meghan Lynch; Brian E. Cook; Catherine L. Mah
Introduction: Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy ...
Full Text Available Background: Low-carbohydrate (LC diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. Objective: The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601, covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Results: Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Conclusions: Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population.
Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina
Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers. The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey collected in spring 2012 (n=2,601), covering 15- to 64-year-old Finns. Seven per cent of the respondents identified themselves as followers of the LC diet. Gender and education were not associated with following an LC diet. The youngest respondents were the least likely to follow such a diet. The LC diet group preferred butter but also vegetables more commonly than the other respondents and were less likely to use vegetable bread spreads. The followers of the LC diet and the other respondents agreed about the healthiness of whole grain, vegetable oils, vegetables, and fruits and berries, and of the harmfulness of white wheat. Compared to the other respondents, the LC diet group was less likely to regard eating vegetable/low-fat products as important, more likely to regard eating healthy carbohydrates, and the health and weight-managing aspects of foods, as important and placed less value on sociability and pleasures connected to food. The results showed varying food choices among the followers of the LC diet: some even reported that they were not avoiding carbohydrates, sugars, and white wheat in their diet. Planners of nutrition policies should follow-up on new diets as they emerge and explore the food choices and motives of their followers and how these diets affect the food choices of the whole population.
de Jong, Jan; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Skee, Donna; Murphy, Joe; O'Brien, Susan; Byrd, John C; James, Danelle; Hellemans, Peter; Loury, David J; Jiao, Juhui; Chauhan, Vijay; Mannaert, Erik
To assess ibrutinib pharmacokinetics under fasted and fed conditions, impact of food-intake timing, and the safety and tolerability. Three studies were analyzed. Study 1 was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, four-way crossover study in 44 healthy participants. Study 2 was a randomized, repeat-dose crossover study in 16 patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Ibrutinib dose was 420 mg in both studies. Study 3 was an open-label, sequential study to assess the effect of a standard breakfast on ibrutinib 560 mg in eight healthy participants. Administration of single-dose ibrutinib under fasting conditions (study 1) resulted in approximately 60 % of exposure compared with drug intake either 30 min before, 30 min after (fed), or 2 h after a high-fat meal. Similar food effect was observed (study 3) when ibrutinib was given 30 min before meal. In CLL patients (study 2), the C max and AUC under fasting conditions were 43 and 61 %, respectively, relative to fed conditions. When administered once-daily in uncontrolled food-intake conditions (≥30 min before or 2 h after), exposures were slightly (≈30 %) lower than in fed condition. When corrected for repeated dosing, pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy participants and patients were comparable. Ibrutinib was generally well tolerated in all settings studied. Ibrutinib administered in fasted condition reduces exposure to approximately 60 % as compared with dosing in proximity to food-intake, regardless of timing/type of meal. Because repeated drug intake in fasted condition is unlikely, no food restrictions may be needed to administer ibrutinib.
Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam
The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R
The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crawford, Belinda; Byun, Roy; Mitchell, Emily; Thompson, Susan; Jalaludin, Bin; Torvaldsen, Siranda
To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables. Two major supermarket retailers, a discount supermarket chain and independent grocery stores were surveyed. The food basket was significantly cheaper in low compared to high socioeconomic suburbs ($177 vs $189, ptype and socioeconomic status of suburb. Implications for public health: A nationwide food and nutrition surveillance system is required to inform public health policy and practice initiatives. In addition to the food retail environment, these initiatives must address the underlying contributors to inequity and food insecurity for disadvantaged groups. © 2017 The Authors.
Pontes Torrado, Yolanda; García-Villaraco Velasco, Ana; Hernández Galiot, Ana; Goñi Cambrodón, Isabel
A sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are major causes of a negative energy balance and excess body weight. The lifestyle of the Mediterranean diet eating pattern significantly reduces risk factors for non communicable diseases. Moreover, emotions have a powerful effect on feeding behavior. There is a direct relationship between food choices (type and amount), emotions and increased energy intake. To know the emotional behavior of individuals as a function of the relation between food intake and emotions to facilitate the establishment of personalized dietary guidelines based on healthy eating habits and increase the patient fidelity until the desired weight. 99 overweight adult people (81 women and 18 men) were subjected to a weight-reduction program based on the establishment of lifestyle and healthy eating habits. The adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and the effect of emotions on the choice of food and eating habits were determined using Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) and Emotional- Eater Questionnaire (EEQ) respectively. The studied population was sedentary, consumed an unhealthy diet and eating behavior was highly affected by emotions. The majority of participants, (66% of women and 71% of men) were classified as emotional eater. During the treatment program eating habits and lifestyle subjects were modified and reduced at least 10% of their body weight. Know the relation between food intake and emotions allows to personalize the dietary strategy for weight loss in overweight and obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.
Choi, Stephanie K Y; Fielden, Sarah; Globerman, Jason; Koornstra, J J Jay; Hambly, Keith; Walker, Glen; Sobota, Michael; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Watson, James; Bekele, Tsegaye; Greene, Saara; Tucker, Ruthann; Hwang, Stephen W; Rourke, Sean B; Healthy Places Team, The Positive Spaces
Studies of people living with HIV who are homeless or unstably housed show a high prevalence of food insufficiency (>50%) and associated poor health outcomes; however, most evidence is in the form of cross-sectional studies. To better understand this issue, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the impact of food insufficiency and housing instability on overall physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV in Ontario. Six hundred and two adults living with HIV were enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study and followed from 2006 to 2009. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, and generalized linear mixed-effects models constructed to examine longitudinal associations between food insufficiency, housing instability and physical and mental HRQoL. At baseline, 57% of participants were classified as food insufficient. After adjusting for potential confounders, longitudinal analyses revealed a significant, negative association between food insufficiency and physical and mental HRQoL outcomes, respectively [effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (CI): (ES = -2.1, CI = -3.9,-0.3); (ES = -3.5, CI = -6.1,-1.5)]. Furthermore, difficulties meeting housing costs were shown to have additional negative impacts on mental HRQoL. Food insufficiency is highly prevalent among people living with HIV in Ontario, particularly for those with unstable housing. This vulnerable group of individuals is in urgent need of changes to current housing programmes, services and policies, as well as careful consideration of their unmet nutritional needs.
Dacinia Crina Petrescu
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scientific evidence on the perceptions of organic food is based on a probabilistic survey. The results indicate an environmental consciousness of organic food consumers in North-Western Region of Romania in terms of organic food: a high percentage of consumers believe that organic food is healthier than conventional food (87% and that it contributes to environmental protection more than conventional food (75%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed between people with higher education and those without higher education concerning the following beliefs: belief that most people consume organic products because they are in fashion, and belief that organic food contributes to environmental protection.
A Holistic Approach to Healthy School Meals: "How Hopkins High School Looked Beyond its Cafeteria when it Changed Meal Service from Fast Food to Nutritional Food. IssueTrak": A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues
Dufault, Timothy; Parsons, Meg
The new cafeteria at Hopkins High School in Minnetonka, Minnesota is part restaurant, part study hall, part lounge area and part health-food store. From the beginning, the superintendent and food service leaders planned the facility to ensure that balanced diets with quickly prepared, but healthy, foods are offered to students to help them…
Chrysostomou, Stavri; Andreou, Sofia
The aim of the present study was to assess the cost, acceptability and affordability of the healthy food basket (HFB) among low-income families in Cyprus. HFBs were constructed based on the National Guidelines for Nutrition and Exercise for six different types of households. Acceptability was tested through focus groups. Affordability was defined as the cost of the HFB as a percentage of the guaranteed minimum income (GMI). The value of the GMI is set to be equal to €480 for a single individual and increases with the size of the recipient unit in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development equivalence scales. The Ministry of Labour estimates that, on average, nearly 50% of the GMI is required for food. The total monthly budget for HFB is 0.80, 1.11, 1.27, 1.28, 1.44 and 1.48 times higher than the GMI budget for food among different types of households in Cyprus (a single woman, a single man, a couple, a single woman with two children, a single man with two children and a couple with two children, respectively). In particular, a family with two children on GMI would need to spend a large proportion of their income on the HFB (71.68%). The GMI scheme appears not to consider the cost of healthy food, and thus, families on welfare payments in Cyprus are at a high risk of experiencing food stress. Therefore, additional research is required to measure the cost of the six HFBs in various settings. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Junk-food consumption, health and productivity are analysed within an expectedlifetime- utility-maximising framework in which longevity and productivity rise with health, and health deteriorates with the consumption of junk food. As long as the junk food’s relative taste-price differential is positive, rational diets deviate from the physiologically optimal ones and generate lower than maximal levels of health and productivity. Taxing junk food can eliminate this discrepancy, but the outcome ...
Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ruxandra Malina Petrescu-Mag
The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scien...
Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Buijzen, Moniek
Previous studies have focused on the acute effects of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children; however, the long-term effects of this food cue reactivity on weight gain have not been examined. The main aim of this study was to explore if reactivity to food cues in an advertisement was associated with weight status two years later. Children wo had previously taken part in an experiment investigating the impact of advergames on food intake had their height and weight re-measured two years later, for assessment of body mass index (BMI). A within-subject design was used to test the associations between food choices and BMI over time. In the previous experiment, children played an advergame that promoted energy-dense snacks, fruit, or nonfood products, or did not play an advergame (control condition). After playing the game, the free intake of energy-dense snacks and fruits was measured. Children who ate more apple after playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks had a lower BMI two years later. Consumption of energy-dense snacks after playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks was not associated with BMI two years later. In other condition, no association was found between food intake and BMI after two years . The findings suggest that coping with environmental cues that trigger unhealthy eating behavior is associated with the body mass index of young children two years later. This might imply that learning to respond to food cues by choosing healthy options might prevent children from excessive weight gain. This trial was registered at as ISRCTN17013832 .
Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.
Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence
This article examines the innovative techniques the participants in the Vidalia, Mississippi hydropower project used to overcome the numerous obstacles to the financing of the project. The topics of the article are early obstacles, funding and permitting, hydrology questions, matching income to debt, unorthodox provisions and a tough closing
HEALTH & FINANCE. Patrick Thokwa Masobe. Patrick Thokwa Masobe completed his undergraduate studies at Grinnel/. University in the USA, and a Master. Degreefrom the University of London in. 1995. He is wrrently employed by the national Department of Health, where he led the task team charged with making.
One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...
Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Hillier, Amy; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen
To respond to the high prevalence of obesity and its associated health consequences, recent food research and policy have focused on neighborhood food environments, especially the links between health and retail mix, proximity of food outlets, and types of foods available. In addition, the social environment exerts important influences on food-related behaviors, through mechanisms like role-modeling, social support, and social norms. This study examined the social dynamics of residents' health-related food-shopping behaviors in 2010-11 in urban Philadelphia, where we conducted 25 semi-structured resident interviews-the foundation for this paper-in addition to 514 structured interviews and a food environment audit. In interviews, participants demonstrated adaptability and resourcefulness in their food shopping; they chose to shop at stores that met a range of social needs. Those needs ranged from practical financial considerations, to fundamental issues of safety, to mundane concerns about convenience, and juggling multiple work and family responsibilities. The majority of participants were highly motivated to adapt their shopping patterns to accommodate personal financial constraints. In addition, they selectively shopped at stores frequented by people who shared their race/ethnicity, income and education, and they sought stores where they had positive interactions with personnel and proprietors. In deciding where to shop in this urban context, participants adapted their routines to avoid unsafe places and the threat of violence. Participants also discussed the importance of convenient stores that allowed for easy parking, accommodation of physical disabilities or special needs, and integration of food shopping into other daily activities like meeting children at school. Food research and policies should explicitly attend to the social dynamics that influence food-shopping behavior. In our social relationships, interactions, and responsibilities, there are
Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B
This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.
Junghans, Astrid F.; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D
Objective: Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting
Kreijl CF van; Knaap AGAC; VTV
Food in the Netherlands is safer than ever before, but the Dutch eat too much and the wrong types of food. This causes a substantial health loss and shortens life-expectancy by an average 2 years. These are some important conclusions from a report that was originally written in Dutch, entitled "Ons
Sonnenberg, Lillian; Gelsomin, Emily; Levy, Douglas E; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Thorndike, Anne N
We surveyed customers in a hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts before and after implementation of traffic light food labeling to determine the effect of labels on customers' awareness and purchase of healthy foods. Cafeteria items were identified as red (unhealthy), yellow (less healthy), or green (healthy). Customers were interviewed before (N=166) and after (N=223) labeling was implemented. Each respondent was linked to cash register data to determine the proportion of red, yellow, and green items purchased. Data were collected from February-April 2010. We compared responses to survey questions and mean proportion of red, yellow, and green items per transaction between customers interviewed during baseline and customers interviewed during the intervention. Survey response rate was 60%. Comparing responses during labeling intervention to baseline, more respondents identified health/nutrition as an important factor in their purchase (61% vs. 46%, p=0.004) and reported looking at nutrition information (33% vs. 15%, ppurchases were more likely to purchase healthier items than respondents who did not notice labels (ppoint-of-purchase. © 2013.
Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects....... effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects......·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective...
Brunkwall, Louise; Ericson, Ulrika; Hellstrand, Sophie; Gullberg, Bo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily
Background Earlier studies have indicated that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is not only associated with BMI and weight but also with appetite and dietary intake. Objectives We investigated if the FTO rs9939609 associates with food preferences in healthy adults with no cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. Additionally, we challenged the question if the associations are modified by obesity status (BMI ≤25 or >25 kg/m2). Design The analyses are made with 22,799 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study, who were born between 1923 and 1945. To investigate food preference, 27 food groups conducted from a modified diet history method including a 7-day registration of cooked meals and cold beverages were used in the analyses. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing, resulting in a cut-off value for significance level of ppastry but lower consumption of soft drinks (P for trend <0.0001 for both) as compared to TT genotype carriers. In contrast to our hypothesis, the results did not significantly differ depending on obesity status except for consumption of juice, where only the overweight individuals with A-allele had a higher consumption as compared to TT carriers (P for interaction=0.04). Conclusion Our results indicate that the FTO A-allele may associate with certain food preference and in particular with certain energy-dense foods. PMID:23589710
Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen
This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008).
Full Text Available In the last decades, nutrition labels have provided an increasing amount of information about the nutritional value of a foodstuff, in a variety of patterns, having the main goal to help consumers in making healthier food choices. Now, many questions appeared related to the effectiveness of nutrition information in guiding the consumer purchasing behaviour, by encouraging the healthy foods choice. It becomes increasingly clear that many consumers have difficulties in understanding the nutritional information, preferring a simpler way in providing this information, helping them in the rapid evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a foodstuff. In response to the obvious need to develop a more effective presentation of nutritional information, which convey this information in a simplified and systematic manner, manufacturers and retailers from different countries have created some systems for signalling the nutritional profile. For the nutritional information of greatest interest to be easily perceived by consumers, they have used various forms of graphical representation, that were marked on the front of individual packages (generically called "front of package" - FOP. Although created in order to facilitate healthy food choices, the effect of these FOP systems on consumers is now controversial. Following a literature review, the paper highlights the main benefits and limitations of the widely used FOP systems in the European Union ("Traffic Light" and "Guideline Daily Amounts". The paper presents also some suggestions for developing an optimal FOP system, standardized and adapted to consumers` needs.
Skouroliakou, Maria; Kastanidou, Olympia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Vourli, Georgia
Sideritis euboea is a Greek plant that is traditionally consumed as a beverage (mountain tea). From in vitro studies, its extract has shown antioxidant and estrogenic activities. In our study we used S. euboea as an enriching food factor in order to produce a new functional food, a jelly dessert, in order to explore its antioxidant effects if consumed on a daily basis by healthy subjects. In this placebo-controlled clinical trial, 63 subjects were recruited for a 1-month nutritional intervention. Twelve subjects were excluded. The remaining 51 subjects were randomly classified in the intervention group (daily consumption of the jelly containing 0.3 g of S. euboea extract) or the placebo group (daily consumption of the same jelly without the enrichment). Vitamins C, A, and E, glutathione, coenzyme Q10, total nitrites, nitrates, total nitrogen oxide, nitrites/nitrates ratio, and total antioxidant status were measured in blood samples before and after the intervention. After the intervention, free glutathione and coenzyme Q10 increased, and nitrites decreased significantly in both groups. The other antioxidant markers were not altered. No statistical significant differences were observed between the two groups. The daily consumption of the functional food, for 30 days, had no effects on the antioxidant status of healthy volunteers.
Maina, E; Pelst, M; Hesta, M; Cox, E
Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs. Eight experimental healthy beagle dogs, never orally exposed to peanut, were randomized in two groups to receive SLIT with peanut or placebo for 4 months. Subjects were monitored daily for local and systemic adverse effects. Blood samples for complete blood count and serum biochemistry, and urine for urinalysis were collected and the dogs' body weight was recorded at day 0, 35 and 119 of the SLIT treatment. Sera for the determination of peanut-specific IgG and IgE were collected at day 0, 35, 49, 70, 91, 105 and 119. Intradermal tests were performed before (day 0) and after (day 119) the experiment. The content of each dispenser used to administer treatment or placebo was tested for sterility after usage. In order to assess the presence or absence of sensitization, dogs were challenged 6 months after the end of the study with 2000 μg of peanut extract daily for 7 to 14 days. All dogs completed the study. The treatment did not provoke either local or systemic side-effects. Peanut-specific IgG significantly increased in treatment group. Even though a significant increase in peanut-specific IgE was also seen, intradermal tests were negative in all dogs before and after the experiment, and the challenge test did not trigger any adverse reactions in the treated dogs, which shows the protocol did not cause sensitization to peanut, but nevertheless primed the immune system as indicated by the humoral immune response. All dispenser solutions
Helle, Christine; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Omholt, Mona Linge; Øverby, Nina Cecilie
Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health challenge. Primary prevention initiatives targeting parents have been called for to encourage a positive feeding environment and healthy eating habits that may lay a good foundation for future health. At the same time, there is a need for interventions which combine accessibility and scalability with cost effectiveness. Today's parents are extensive Internet-users, but only a few randomized controlled trials have investigated the use of Internet to promote healthy eating habits in early childhood. In Early Food for Future Health we have developed and will evaluate an Internet-based tool for parents of children between 6 and 12 months, aiming to increase knowledge about infant nutrition and foster protective feeding behavior. During springtime 2016, parents of children aged between 3 and 5 months were recruited through Norwegian child health centres and announcements on Facebook. After completing the baseline questionnaire, 718 parents were individually randomized to intervention- or control group. The intervention group received monthly emails with links to an age-appropriate web-site when their child was between 6 and 12 months. The control group received ordinary care from the child health centres. The data-collection is ongoing. All participants will be followed up at ages 12 and possibly 24 and 48 months, with questionnaires relating to eating behaviour and feeding practices, food variety and diet quality. Providing guidance and counseling to parents of infants is an important task for health authorities and the public child health services. Early Food for Future health is an intervention focusing on promoting early healthy food-habits which may prevent childhood overweight and obesity. If proven to be effective, Early Food for Future Health can be used by parents and public health nurses for supplementary guidance on feeding practices and diet. This study has the potential to provide greater
Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S.
With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, th...
Wen, Li Ming; Simpson, Judy M; Rissel, Chris; Baur, Louise A
A high infant birthweight is associated with future risk of a range of adverse health consequences. This study sought to determine whether maternal "junk food" diet (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) predicts high birthweight in first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted with a total of 368 first-time mothers and their newborns. Information about maternal "junk food" diet, including high consumption of soft drink, fast food, and/or processed meat and chips, and self-reported prepregnant weight and height of first-time mothers was collected by a face-to-face interview with mothers between 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Birthweight was measured in hospital and reported by the mother, together with gestational age, when the baby was 6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the factors predicting birthweight greater than 4.0 kg. Eleven percent of newborns weighed more than 4.0 kg (12% boys, 9% girls). Compared with mothers who had a "junk food" diet, mothers who had not consumed "junk food" during pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a newborn weighing more than 4.0 kg, with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.36, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.91, p = 0.03, after adjusting for maternal weight status and gestational age. Compared with healthy and underweight mothers, overweight or obese mothers were more likely to have a newborn weighing more than 4.0 kg (AOR overweight 3.03, 95% CI 1.35-6.80; obese 3.79, 95% CI 1.41-10.25) after allowing for "junk food" diet and gestational age. Maternal "junk food" diet during pregnancy and prepregnant overweight and obesity were independent predictors of high infant birthweight. Early childhood obesity interventions should consider addressing these factors. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...
Gunge, V B; Andersen, I; Kyrø, C
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: For decades, the Mediterranean diet has been in focus regarding healthy eating as it has been associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. Less interest has been given to health benefits of other regional diets. The aim of the present study was to assess whether...... adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among middle-aged Danes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study of 57 053 men and women aged 50 − 64 years recruited between 1993 and 1997. The healthy.......55, 95% CI = 0.37, 0.82) relative to those scoring 0 points in the index (lowest score). A significantly lower MI risk was found per 1-point increment in the index in both men (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92, 0.99) and women (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: A healthy Nordic diet is associated...
Bugel, Susanne; Damsgaard, C. T.; Larsen, T. M.
foods from the wild countryside and 3) more foods from sea and lakes. In many ways, the New NND is very similar to a Mediterranean diet but relies on rapeseed (canola) oil instead of olive oil and ramson instead of garlic. The diets differ in their types of produce due to regional differences in climate......://foodoflife.ku.dk/opus/english/nyheder/publikationer/) in which the NND was compared to the Average Danish Diet (ADD). The use of mostly local products and reduction of the meat intake were of both socioeconomic and environmental advantage. Including organic produce increased environmental impact of the NND.Conclusion: In line with the Mediterranean diet......Introduction: The New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in 2004 by chefs and food professionals from the five Nordic countries. The goal for the NND was that it should be based on traditional regional food products but healthier than the traditional eating habits. The NND builds on four key...
Allès, B; Péneau, S; Kesse-Guyot, E; Baudry, J; Hercberg, S; Méjean, C
Sustainability has become a greater concern among consumers that may influence their dietary intake. Only a few studies investigated the relationship between sustainable food choice motives and diet and they focused on specific food groups. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between food choice motives during purchasing, with a focus on sustainability, and dietary patterns in a large sample of French adults. Food choice motives were collected in 31,842 adults from the NutriNet-Santé study, using a validated 63 items questionnaire gathered into 9 dimension scores: ethics and environment, traditional and local production, taste, price, environmental limitation (i.e. not buying a food for environmental concerns), health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. Dietary intake was assessed using at least three web-based 24-h food records. Three dietary patterns were obtained through factor analysis using principal component analysis. The associations between food choice motive dimension scores and dietary patterns were assessed using linear regression models, stratifying by sex. Individuals were more likely to have a "healthy diet" when they were more concerned by not buying a food for environmental concerns (only for 3 rd tertile versus 1 st tertile β women =0.18, 95% CI=0.15-0.20, β men =0.20 95% CI=(0.15-0.25)), ethics and environment (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.02-0.08), absence of contaminants (women only, β=0.05, 95% CI=0.01-0.07), local production (women only, β=0.08, 95% CI=0.04-0.11), health (women only) and innovation (men only), and when they were less concerned by price. Individuals were also less likely to have traditional or western diets when they gave importance to food choice motive dimensions related to sustainability. Individuals, especially women, having higher concerns about food sustainability dimensions such as ethics and environment and local production, appear to have a healthier diet. Further
Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean
While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. Quasi-experimental study. Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community.
The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...
DeFosset, Amelia R; Kwan, Allison; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Gutierrez, Luis; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony
Increasing access to fresh produce in small retail venues could improve the diet of people in underserved communities. However, small retailers face barriers to stocking fresh produce. In 2014, an innovative distribution program, Community Markets Purchasing Real and Affordable Foods (COMPRA), was launched in Los Angeles with the aim of making it more convenient and profitable for small retailers to stock fresh produce. Our case study describes the key processes and lessons learned in the first 2 years of implementing COMPRA. Considerable investments in staff capacity and infrastructure were needed to launch COMPRA. Early successes included significant week-to-week increases in the volume of produce distributed. Leveraging partnerships, maintaining a flexible operational and funding structure, and broadly addressing store owners' needs contributed to initial gains. We describe key challenges and next steps to scaling the program. Lessons learned from implementing COMPRA could inform other jurisdictions considering supply-side approaches to increase access to healthy food.
Polloni, Laura; Baldi, Ileana; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella
The study investigated self-concept in food-allergic youths and matched healthy controls. Global and domain-specific self-concepts were assessed in 154 participants (9-19 years) using the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale. Statistical analysis assessed differences between the two samples and effects of asthma, dermatitis, age, and gender among patients. Significant differences were found for Total Scale score and for Competence and Physical scores. Patients showed clinically problematic self-concepts in Global, Competence, and Family domains. Age was found to be associated with the Total score. Health professionals should consider food-allergic patients' personality development. Further studies could examine disease-specific consequences and interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wojciak, Rafal W
The idea that iron deficiency anemia can be recognized in depressive patients has been around for a few years, as well as negative association between ferritin levels and depression. Iron deficiency anemia, associated with low iron intake, has been observed in women using restriction diets, for example in vegetarians or anorexics. There are no data on the influence of the short-term food restrictions, observed for example in slimming women, on iron management and its connection with behavior expressed via changes in the subject's emotional state. This study describes the effect of one- and two-day food restrictions (every 8 days for a period of 48 days) on selected iron management parameters in the serum and blood of 46 healthy volunteer women (23 in each group), aged 25.5 ± 3.0 years, in association with the subjects' self-described emotional status and depression symptoms. The association between iron parameters and depression was also analyzed. Results show that short-term (2 days) fasting significantly decreases iron concentrations in serum and hair, as well as levels of ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, and total iron binding capacity, but the short-term fasting did not influence the other iron management parameters. Each model of food restrictions also increased negative feelings towards depression. A significant negative correlation between serum ferritin levels and depression was found in women who starved for 2 days. The study shows that, through an impact on mineral levels, even short-term food restrictions, as observed in many slimming women and girls, can be a reason for iron deficiency and also can alter the emotional status of healthy women. Maybe depression symptoms in anorexia or other eating disorders patients can be associated with iron deficiencies.
Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Tuohong; Byles, Julie; Martin, Sean; Avery, Jodie C; Taylor, Anne W
There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years) using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat) was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs): 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.77-0.92), and 0.74 (0.66-0.83) for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively). There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality). Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death.
Full Text Available There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS. In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs: 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval 0.77–0.92, and 0.74 (0.66–0.83 for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively. There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality. Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death.
de Droog, S.M.
Worldwide the number of overweight children rises dramatically. One way to prevent overweight is by creating healthy eating habits from a very young age. This dissertation explores whether and how 4- to 6-year-olds’ fruit and vegetable choices can be stimulated by using an immensely popular
Droog, S.M. de
Worldwide the number of overweight children rises dramatically. One way to prevent overweight is by creating healthy eating habits from a very young age. This dissertation explores whether and how 4- to 6-year-olds’ fruit and vegetable choices can be stimulated by using an immensely popular
Tarro, Lucia; Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Tiñena, Yolanda; Parisi, Joan Lluís; Blasi, Xavier; Giralt, Montse; Llauradó, Elisabet; Solà, Rosa
Restaurant-based interventions can be an enjoyable way to encourage healthier eating choices by all members of a family. Thus, the principal aims of this study were a) to promote healthy diets by increasing healthy food offerings and b) to increase the number of foods offered specifically as gluten-free and lactose-free and to inform patrons by including nutritional and allergen information that complies with Regulation 1169/2011 regarding the food served in restaurants, takeaways and snack bars. A restaurant-based intervention was implemented at 16 food establishments at 2 resorts (the Cambrils Park Resort and Camping Sangulí, Spain, from 2014 to 2015) based on the following 4 components: 1) providing nutritional and allergen analyses of the offered dishes, 2) increasing the number of healthy food choices, 3) identifying menu items associated with allergies and intolerance, and 4) training staff on healthy eating and allergens. Customer satisfaction regarding food aspects was assessed using surveys (10-point scale). Both resorts significantly increased their offerings of healthy dishes (28.6% to 44.7%; P = 0.003) and desserts with fruit (20% to 51.3%; P = 0.013), thus obtaining the Spanish Government's Mediterranean Diet certification. Additionally, both resorts obtained Catalan Celiac Association certification. Moreover, both resorts significantly increased their percentages of gluten-free dishes (2.1% to 50.5%; P restaurant-based intervention expanded the number of healthy and allergen-free foods offered in a family-oriented holiday resort environment to encourage healthy food choices, resulting in increased customer satisfaction.
... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...
Pollard, T M; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J
The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), which measures the reported importance to a given individual of nine factors underlying food choice, and a food frequency questionnaire, were administered to 241 participants, who were also required to classify their diet as either 'standard', 'low in red meat' or 'vegetarian'. Respondents describing their diet as low in red meat attributed greater importance to health, natural content, weight control and ethical concern in their food choice than did those who described their diets as standard, whereas vegetarians differed significantly from those with a standard diet only on the score for ethical concern. Differences between men and women and between students and non-students in the frequency of consumption of a number of foods were shown to be mediated by differences in the importance attached to FCQ factors. Thus the generally healthier diets of women compared to men appeared to be accounted for by the greater importance attributed by women to weight control, natural content and ethical concerns.
Ziauddeen, Nida; Penney, Tarra L.; Nicholson, Sonja; Page, Polly
Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1–6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme (RP) (2008–2014) were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”. Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet) and non-core (all other foods). Out of 97,748 eating occasions reported, the most common was home (67–90% of eating occasions). Leisure places, food outlets and “on the go” combined contributed more energy from non-core (30%) than from core food (18%). Analyses of modulating factors revealed that sex, income, frequency of eating out and frequency of drinking were significant factors affecting consumption patterns (p diet quality vary by location. Public health interventions should focus on availability and access to healthy foods, promotion of healthy food choices and behaviours across multiple locations, environments and contexts for food consumption. PMID:29207469
Full Text Available Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1–6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS Rolling Programme (RP (2008–2014 were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”. Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet and non-core (all other foods. Out of 97,748 eating occasions reported, the most common was home (67–90% of eating occasions. Leisure places, food outlets and “on the go” combined contributed more energy from non-core (30% than from core food (18%. Analyses of modulating factors revealed that sex, income, frequency of eating out and frequency of drinking were significant factors affecting consumption patterns (p < 0.01. Our study provides evidence that eating patterns, behaviours and resulting diet quality vary by location. Public health interventions should focus on availability and access to healthy foods, promotion of healthy food choices and behaviours across multiple locations, environments and contexts for food consumption.
Ziauddeen, Nida; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Penney, Tarra L; Nicholson, Sonja; Kirk, Sara F L; Page, Polly
Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1-6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme (RP) (2008-2014) were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and "on the go". Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet) and non-core (all other foods). Out of 97,748 eating occasions reported, the most common was home (67-90% of eating occasions). Leisure places, food outlets and "on the go" combined contributed more energy from non-core (30%) than from core food (18%). Analyses of modulating factors revealed that sex, income, frequency of eating out and frequency of drinking were significant factors affecting consumption patterns ( p eating patterns, behaviours and resulting diet quality vary by location. Public health interventions should focus on availability and access to healthy foods, promotion of healthy food choices and behaviours across multiple locations, environments and contexts for food consumption.
Hanaka, Minako; Yoshii, Chiharu; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ito, Chiyo; Chojin, Yasuo; Nagata, Shuya; Yamasaki, Kei; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kawanami, Toshinori; Kawanami, Yukiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi
An 82-year-old man visited our hospital when he developed a fever of over 38 degrees C after having consumed 5 types of health foods. He had previously been treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Blood examination on admission revealed renal dysfunction, marked elevation of C-reactive protein, and an elevated level of serum creatine kinase. According to the laboratory data and his clinical history, rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure was suspected, but his condition improved and his fever was reduced with fluid infusion. As a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for only saw palmetto in the 5 health foods, we diagnosed the case as rhabdomyolysis induced by saw palmetto. We believe that this is the first case of a health food being the cause of rhabdomyolysis.
Colby, J J; Elder, J P; Peterson, G; Knisley, P M; Carleton, R A
We describe an attempt to influence the selection of menu items in a family-style restaurant. Three different messages, varying in content and emphasis, were used to promote one food special each intervention day. One message emphasized that the specials were particularly healthful, being relatively low in fat, sodium, and cholesterol. A second message stressed flavor and added that the choice was healthful. A third, nonspecific message made no mention of taste or health factors, but simply noted that there was a daily special. Results indicated that restaurant patrons selected healthful specials when the message noted that the choice was healthful but emphasized flavor. Patrons were apparently more open to information about the palatability of the food than its healthfulness per se. These results have implications for point-of-purchase health promotion efforts in general, especially those involving food-labeling programs in restaurants and grocery stores.
Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between the functional health literacy of Unified Heath System users and the understanding of food servings in the pocket version of the Brazilian Food Guide. Methods: Functional health literacy was assessed by the Brief Test of functional health literacy. Two dialogue rounds were conducted with patients with adequate functional health literacy (Group 1 and inadequate functional health literacy (Group 2. The dialogues were recorded and analyzed according to the discourse of the collective subject. Results: Most (58.0% users had inadequate functional health literacy. Five core areas were identified: understands serving sizes; does not understand serving sizes; serving sizes are confusing; unfamiliar/uncommon foods; small letters. Group 2 had more trouble understanding. Conclusion: Difficulty understanding hinders health promotion. Individuals need to have access to educational materials that are easier to understand and developed taking their functional health literacy into account.
To systematically review evidence from field interventions on the effectiveness of monetary subsidies in promoting healthier food purchases and consumption. Keyword and reference searches were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane Library, EconLit, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (i) intervention: field experiments; (ii) population: adolescents 12–17 years old or adults 18 years and older; (iii) design: randomized controlled trials, cohort studies or pre–post studies; (iv) subsidy: price discounts or vouchers for healthier foods; (v) outcome: food purchases or consumption; (vi) period: 1990–2012; and (vii) language: English. Twenty-four articles on twenty distinct experiments were included with study quality assessed using predefined methodological criteria. Interventions were conducted in seven countries: the USA (n 14), Canada (n 1), France (n 1), Germany (n 1), Netherlands (n 1), South Africa (n 1) and the UK (n 1). Subsidies applied to different types of foods such as fruits, vegetables and low-fat snacks sold in supermarkets, cafeterias, vending machines, farmers’ markets or restaurants. Interventions enrolled various population subgroups such as school/ university students, metropolitan transit workers and low-income women. All but one study found subsidies on healthier foods to significantly increase the purchase and consumption of promoted products. Study limitations include small and convenience samples, short intervention and follow-up duration, and lack of cost-effectiveness and overall diet assessment. Subsidizing healthier foods tends to be effective in modifying dietary behaviour. Future studies should examine its long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at the population level and its impact on overall diet intake.
Phulkerd, Sirinya; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lawrence, Mark; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sacks, Gary
To determine and compare the level of implementation of policies for healthy food environments in Thailand with reference to international best practice by state and non-state actors. Data on the current level of implementation of food environment policies were assessed independently using the adapted Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) by two groups of actors. Concrete actions were proposed for Thai Government. A joint meeting between both groups was subsequently held to reach consensus on priority actions. Thailand. Thirty state actors and twenty-seven non-state actors. Level of policy implementation varied across different domains and actor groups. State actors rated implementation levels higher than non-state actors. Both state and non-state actors rated level of implementation of monitoring of BMI highest. Level of implementation of policies promoting in-store availability of healthy foods and policies increasing tax on unhealthy foods were rated lowest by state and non-state actors, respectively. Both groups reached consensus on eleven priority actions for implementation, focusing on food provision in public-sector settings, food composition, food promotion, leadership, monitoring and intelligence, and food trade. Although the implementation gaps identified and priority actions proposed varied between state and non-state actors, both groups achieved consensus on a comprehensive food policy package to be implemented by the Thai Government to improve the healthiness of food environments. This consensus is a platform for continued policy dialogue towards cross-sectoral policy coherence and effective actions to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases and obesity in Thailand.
Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster
Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…
McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.
Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…
Glanz, Karen; Johnson, Lauren; Yaroch, Amy L; Phillips, Matthew; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Davis, Erica L
This review describes available measures of retail food store environments, including data collection methods, characteristics of measures, the dimensions most commonly captured across methods, and their strengths and limitations. Articles were included if they were published between 1990 and 2015 in an English-language peer-reviewed journal and presented original research findings on the development and/or use of a measure or method to assess retail food store environments. Four sources were used, including literature databases, backward searching of identified articles, published reviews, and measurement registries. From 3,013 citations identified, 125 observational studies and 5 studies that used sales records were reviewed in-depth. Most studies were cross-sectional and based in the US. The most common tools used were the US Department of Agriculture's Thrifty Food Plan and the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores. The most common attribute captured was availability of healthful options, followed by price. Measurement quality indicators were minimal and focused mainly on assessments of reliability. Two widely used tools to measure retail food store environments are available and can be refined and adapted. Standardization of measurement across studies and reports of measurement quality (eg, reliability, validity) may better inform practice and policy changes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juhl, Hans Jørn; Jensen, Morten Berg
The increased prevalence of lifestyle-related illnesses particularly in western countries calls for public action. A poor diet is a key explanatory factor to this development. Previous research has addressed the problem of unhealthy food consumption behavior by looking at how taxes may function...
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.
One in a series, this consumer education learning activity package teaches secondary students about food additives. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource booklet of background readings, and answer keys. Content taught…
Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.
Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory
Yao, C K; Tan, H-L; van Langenberg, D R; Barrett, J S; Rose, R; Liels, K; Gibson, P R; Muir, J G
Sorbitol and mannitol are naturally-occurring polyol isomers. Although poor absorption and induction of gastrointestinal symptoms by sorbitol are known, the properties of mannitol are poorly described. We aimed to expand data on food composition of these polyols, and to compare their absorptive capacities and symptom induction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy individuals. Food samples were analysed for sorbitol and mannitol content. The degree of absorption measured by breath hydrogen production and gastrointestinal symptoms (visual analogue scales) was evaluated in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 21 healthy and 20 IBS subjects after challenges with 10 g of sorbitol, mannitol or glucose. Certain fruits and sugar-free gum contained sorbitol, whereas mannitol content was higher in certain vegetables. Similar proportions of patients with IBS (40%) and healthy subjects (33%) completely absorbed sorbitol, although more so with IBS absorbed mannitol (80% versus 43%; P = 0.02). Breath hydrogen production was similar in both groups after lactulose but was reduced in patients with IBS after both polyols. No difference in mean (SEM) hydrogen production was found in healthy controls after sorbitol [area-under-the-curve: 2766 (591) ppm 4 h(-1) ] or mannitol [2062 (468) ppm 4 h(-1) ] but, in patients with IBS, this was greater after sorbitol [1136 (204) ppm 4 h(-1) ] than mannitol [404 (154) ppm 4 h(-1) ; P = 0.002]. Overall gastrointestinal symptoms increased significantly after both polyols in patients with IBS only, although they were independent of malabsorption of either of the polyols. Increased and discordant absorption of mannitol and sorbitol occurs in patients with IBS compared to that in healthy controls. Polyols induced gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS independently of their absorptive patterns, suggesting that the dietary restriction of polyols may be efficacious. © 2013 The
Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu
Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.
Full Text Available Background: Earlier studies have indicated that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO is not only associated with BMI and weight but also with appetite and dietary intake. Objectives: We investigated if the FTO rs9939609 associates with food preferences in healthy adults with no cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. Additionally, we challenged the question if the associations are modified by obesity status (BMI ≤25 or >25 kg/m2. Design: The analyses are made with 22,799 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study, who were born between 1923 and 1945. To investigate food preference, 27 food groups conducted from a modified diet history method including a 7-day registration of cooked meals and cold beverages were used in the analyses. Bonferroni correction was used to correct for multiple testing, resulting in a cut-off value for significance level of p<0.002. Results: We observed that the obesity susceptible A-allele carriers reported a higher consumption of biscuits and pastry but lower consumption of soft drinks (P for trend <0.0001 for both as compared to TT genotype carriers. In contrast to our hypothesis, the results did not significantly differ depending on obesity status except for consumption of juice, where only the overweight individuals with A-allele had a higher consumption as compared to TT carriers (P for interaction=0.04. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the FTO A-allele may associate with certain food preference and in particular with certain energy-dense foods.
Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Dakanalis, Antonios; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sánchez, Isabel; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José
Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weight-related (overweight/obesity) conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between eating behavior style and psychophysiological responses (self-reported food craving and anxiety) to food-related virtual reality (VR) environments in outpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and to compare them with healthy participants. Fifty-eight outpatients and 135 healthy participants were exposed to palatable foods in four experimental everyday real-life VR environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom and café). During exposure, cue-elicited food craving and anxiety were assessed. Participants also completed standardized instruments for the study purposes. ED patients reported significantly higher levels of craving and anxiety when exposed to the virtual food than healthy controls. Eating behavior styles showed strong associations with cue-elicited food craving and anxiety. In the healthy group, external eating was the only predictor of cue-elicited craving and anxiety. In participants with BN and BED, external and emotional eating were the best predictors of cue-elicited craving and anxiety, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
López-Olmedo, Nancy; Popkin, Barry M; Taillie, Lindsey Smith
To our knowledge, the association between diet and socioeconomic status (SES), using both purchase and intake data, in the Mexican population has not been examined, which is particularly important given the high prevalence of diet-related diseases in Mexico. Our objective was to examine the SES-diet relation using household food purchases and individual food intake data. We analyzed purchases of packaged food and beverages of 5240 households with the use of the 2012-2014 Nielsen Mexico Consumer Panel Service Dataset, representative of urban areas. Likewise, we examined 9672 individuals over 2 y with food and beverage intake information collected using a single 24-h recall as part of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to predict per capita daily purchases and intakes of food and beverages classified as healthy and less healthy by SES, and adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Per capita daily purchases of healthy and less-healthy foods were, on average, 142% and 55% higher in high- than in low-SES households, respectively, from 2012 to 2014 (P foods in urban areas were, on average, 7% and 136% higher in high- than in low-SES groups (P beverages were, on average, 56% higher in high- than in low-SES households from 2012 to 2014 (P beverages were 27% and 17% higher in low- than in high-SES households in 2012 and 2014, respectively (P beverages was 33% higher in high- than in low-SES groups (P foods and healthy beverages. Lower-SES households had greater purchases of less-healthy beverages, but also had the largest reduction in these purchases from 2012 to 2014, which could be associated with the beverage tax implemented in Mexico in 2014. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Kechagias, S; Ernersson, A; Dahlqvist, O; Lundberg, P; Lindström, T; Nystrom, F H
To study the effect of fast-food-based hyper-alimentation on liver enzymes and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). Prospective interventional study with parallel control group. University Hospital of Linköping, Sweden. 12 healthy men and six healthy women with a mean (SD) age of 26 (6.6) years and a matched control group. Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5-15% by eating at least two fast-food-based meals a day with the goal to double the regular caloric intake in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. Weekly changes of serum aminotransferases and HTGC measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline and after the intervention. Subjects in the intervention group increased from 67.6 (9.1) kg to 74.0 (11) kg in weight (p19 U/l, men >30 U/l) during the intervention. Sugar (mono- and disaccharides) intake during week 3 correlated with the maximal ALT/baseline ALT ratio (r = 0.62, p = 0.006). HTGC increased from 1.1 (1.9)% to 2.8 (4.8)%, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. ALT levels were unchanged in controls. Hyper-alimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. Our study clearly shows that in the evaluation of subjects with elevated ALT the medical history should include not only questions about alcohol intake but also explore whether recent excessive food intake has occurred.
Biden, Catherine R; Matthews, June I; Laframboise, Natalie A; Zok, Anne; Dworatzek, Paula D N; Seabrook, Jamie A
To compare sales of Food Resources and Education for Student Health (FRESH) Approved versus non-FRESH Approved menu cycle items pre- and postimplementation of the FRESH program. Sales data from 2011-2015 of FRESH Approved versus non-FRESH Approved menu items were analyzed. Fruit and milk items sold, net sales, and the cost of free fruit and milk redeemed through the FRESH Reward Card (FRC) program, were also analyzed. FRESH Approved items sold more often than non-FRESH Approved items in the latter 2 years (P = 0.01). Prices of FRESH Approved menu items were significantly lower than non-FRESH Approved items for all years (e.g., $1.52 ± $0.94 vs $2.21 ± $1.02 per serving in 2014-2015; P < 0.001). Across all FRESH implementation years, FRESH Approved menu items were found more often on the 6-week menu (P < 0.05). The number of fruit items sold increased from a baseline of 143 052 to 170 954, and net sales increased from $135 450 to $154 248 after 3 years of the FRC implementation. FRESH Approved items were less expensive, available more often, and had higher sales. The FRC increased net fruit sales despite the cost of free fruit. Highlighting and reducing the cost of healthy foods are promising practices to improve campus food environments.
Minaker, Leia M; Lynch, Meghan; Cook, Brian E; Mah, Catherine L
Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy corner store intervention in a lowincome neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario. Sales data (from August 2014 to April 2015) were aggregated by product category and by day. We used Microsoft Excel pivot tables to summarize and visually present sales data. We conducted t-tests to examine differences in product category sales by "peak" versus "nonpeak" sales days. Overall store sales peaked on the days at the end of each month, aligned with the issuing of social assistance payments. Revenue spikes on peak sales days were driven predominantly by transit pass sales. On peak sales days, mean sales of nonnutritious snacks and cigarettes were marginally higher than on other days of the month. Finally, creative strategies to increase sales of fresh vegetables and fruits seemed to substantially increase revenue from these product categories. Store sales data is an important store-level metric of food environment intervention success. Furthermore, data-driven decision making by retailers can be important for tailoring interventions. Future interventions and research should consider partnerships and additional success metrics for retail food environment interventions in diverse Canadian contexts.
Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Boeker, Anita; Schultebraucks, Katharina; Ritter, Kristin; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Spitzer, Carsten
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity or metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In addition, ACE may be associated with an exaggerated endocrine response to stress, which, in turn, may lead to enhanced food intake resulting in obesity and metabolic problems. We systematically examined the stress response and consecutive food intake in 32 women with MDD and ACE as determined by a clinical interview (Early Trauma Inventory), 52 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD and 37 healthy women without either MDD or ACE. All participants underwent a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and a control condition (Placebo-TSST) before they were offered a buffet of snacks. Participants were not aware that the primary outcome variable was the amount of consumed kilocalories (kcal). The four groups did not differ in demographic variables. Stress resulted in higher cortisol release and higher blood pressure compared to the control condition. Patients with MDD without ACE had a significantly lower cortisol response to stress compared to controls. Across groups, we found higher kcal intake after stress compared to the control condition. Comparing high and low cortisol responders to stress, higher kcal intake after stress was only seen in those with low cortisol release. This study provides evidence that blunted rather than enhanced cortisol release to stress might lead to increased food intake, independent from MDD and ACE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mansfield, Jennifer L; Savaiano, Dennis A
Federal regulation mandates that the US National School Lunch Program nutrition standards align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. As students consume a substantial proportion of their nutrition during school lunch, increasing access to healthy foods is proposed to improve student dietary outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess whether policy changes impacted food-consumption behaviors of students during periods when (1) school wellness policies were implemented (2006-2007); (2) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was passed (2010-2012); and (3) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was implemented (2012-present). PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched for primary research studies. Policy evaluations and interventions implemented from 2006 to 2016 were included. A total of 31 studies evaluating plate waste, dietary intake, food selection, and/or purchasing patterns were identified and reviewed. Fourteen of 19 intervention and longitudinal observation studies reported improved food-consumption behaviors (increased selection, intake, and sales of healthy foods, and decreased plate waste). Only 2 of 12 one-time observation studies reported food-consumption behaviors meeting target nutrition standards. The majority of studies indicated that increasing access to healthy foods during school lunch improved students' dietary intakes. Challenges related to study design, adaptation period, quality of foods, and policy implementation likely affect a school lunch program's ability to impact students' food-consumption behaviors. Ongoing evaluation of these programs is warranted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cohen, Deborah A; Colaiaco, Ben; Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Montes, Monica; Han, Bing; Berry, Sandy H
To conduct a pilot study to assess the feasibility of modifying food truck meals to meet the My Plate guidelines as well as the acceptability of healthier meals among consumers. We recruited the owners of Latino food trucks (loncheras) in 2013-2014 and offered an incentive for participation, assistance with marketing and training by a bilingual dietitian. We surveyed customers and we audited purchases to estimate sales of the modified meals. City of Los Angeles, CA, USA. Owners or operators of Latino food trucks (loncheras) and their customers. We enrolled twenty-two lonchera owners and eleven completed the intervention, offering more than fifty new menu items meeting meal guidelines. Sales of the meals comprised 2 % of audited orders. Customers rated the meals highly; 97 % said they would recommend and buy them again and 75 % of participants who completed the intervention intended to continue offering the healthier meals. However, adherence to guidelines drifted after several months of operation and participant burden was cited as a reason for dropout among three of eleven lonchera owners who dropped out. Lonchera owners/operators who participated reported minimal difficulty in modifying menu items. Given the difficulty in enrolment, expanding this programme and ensuring adherence would likely need to be accomplished through regulatory requirements, monitoring and feedback, similar to the methods used to achieve compliance with sanitary standards. A companion marketing campaign would be helpful to increase consumer demand.
Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kiesel, Kristin; Lewis Miller, Markell; Boyle, Maria; Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Crawford, Patricia
Despite the resurgence of interest in scratch-cooking as a way to increase the quality and appeal of school meals, many school districts are concerned about the cost implications of switching to scratch-cooking. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foods are the single largest source of ingredients for school meals, and about half of USDA Foods are diverted for processing before being sent to the school district. We aimed to determine whether school lunch entrées made in a district from basic or raw USDA Foods ingredients can be healthier and less expensive to prepare than those sent to external processors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the extent of scratch-cooking and the nutritional content and cost to prepare entrées. Information was gathered by interview with school foodservice personnel and from school foodservice records from a convenience sample of 10 school districts in California that employed varying degrees of scratch-cooking and is diverse in terms of geographic location and the sociodemographics of the student body. The sample included all elementary school lunch entrées that contain USDA Foods offered during October 2010 for a total sample of 146 entrées. Ordinary least squares regressions were used to test for statistically significant differences in cost and nutrient content of entrées according to the level of scratch-cooking. There was no significant relationship between total costs and level of scratch-cooking. Entrées with the highest scratch-cooking scores had significantly lower food costs, higher labor costs, and not significantly different total costs compared with entrées with no scratch-cooking. Nutrient content was not consistently associated with scratch-cooking, but scratch-cooked entrées did include a larger variety of non-fast-food-type entrées. The findings suggest that scratch-cooking can be a cost-effective way to expand the variety of healthy school lunches prepared with USDA Foods
Vargas, Lilian; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat
Food from lunch packs (LP) or food available inside and outside of school can play an important role in the development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LP of elementary school (ES) and preschool children (PS) in Tijuana, and the foods available to them inside and outside of school. Eight public schools participated in the study. A random sample of all the groups from a school district was conducted. A questionnaire was administered to children in first through sixth grade (ES) and to the parents of PS. LP and food available inside and outside of the school were classified as healthy, unhealthy, and adequate according to the guidelines set forth by the Secretariat of Health. A total of 2,716 questionnaires were administered and the content of 648 LP was assessed. It was observed that 99% of PS had LP prepared at home, a higher percentage than ES. None of the LP of the ES was classified as healthy, and 1% was classified as adequate. Among PS, 21% of the LP were classified as healthy and 6% as adequate. More than half of the children recognized the brand name of foods high in fat, salt, and added sugar available inside and outside of school grounds. Most of the LP of ES and PS and the foods available inside and outside of school were unhealthy and inadequate. A strategy to prevent the availability of unhealthy and inadequate food in LP and foods available inside and outside schools is recommended.
van Amsterdam, Noortje; Knoppers, Annelies
In this article, we use the notion of "biopedagogical practices" to explore how Dutch youth respond to health messages that focus on body weight. Previous studies suggest that such health messages encourage body dissatisfaction in youth. Few studies, however, focus on the local/cultural specificity of youth's responses to these biopedagogical practices. In this article, we address questions about the re-interpretation of and resistance to health messages that Dutch youth engage in and how these can be understood in their local context. The data were drawn from two previously conducted studies in which a total of 64 Dutch teenagers (aged 12-18 years) took part. We employed a variety of qualitative data collection methods and a feminist poststructuralist perspective to analyze how Dutch youth negotiate biopedagogical practices about health. The results show that our participants constructed health in terms of appearance and reproduced negative constructions regarding fat embodiment. Yet they also often circumvented "healthy" lifestyle behaviors prescribed by biopedagogies of health. They did so first by avoiding physical activities because they were afraid of displaying fat embodiment in the settings of sport and physical education where surveillance is omnipresent. Second, they disregarded advice about healthy eating by drawing on having fun as an alternative discursive resource. We argue that having fun is both part of youth culture and characteristic of the discourse about sociability ( gezelligheid) that is a central element of Dutch culture.
Full Text Available Obesity has become a severe worldwide problem. Compared to healthy-weight individuals, obese individuals seem to show an increased sensitivity to tempting food. In the present study, we test the pre-exposure effect, which implies that consumption of tempting food is decreased after exposure to tempting food cues in a context of a task that discourages food consumption. Healthy-weight and obese-weight participants were recruited via social media and university channels. Participants took part in a scrabble task with either candy letters or foam letters and subsequently engaged in a taste test. Results showed that in healthy-weight participants, consumption was reduced after solving the scrabble task with candy letters in comparison to foam letters. In obese-weight participants, consumption was reduced in the condition using foam letters (in comparison with healthy-weight participants. The pre-exposure effect was replicated in healthy-weight participants, but could not be observed in participants with obesity, since consumption was reduced in general in this group. Our results suggest that more work should be done to understand how food nudges work in the context of obesity.
Shimazaki, Takashi; Bao, Hugejiletu; Deli, Geer; Uechi, Hiroaki; Lee, Ying-Hua; Miura, Kayo; Takenaka, Koji
Unhealthy eating behavior is a serious health concern among secondary school students in Inner Mongolia. To predict their healthy food choices and devise methods of correcting unhealthy choices, we sought to confirm the cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior among Inner Mongolian students. A cross-sectional study, conducted between November and December 2014. Overall, 3047 students were enrolled. We devised a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior to measure its components (intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in relation to healthy food choices; we also assessed their current engagement in healthy food choices. A principal component analysis revealed high contribution rates for the components (69.32%-88.77%). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the components of the questionnaire had adequate model fit (goodness of fit index=0.997, adjusted goodness of fit index=0.984, comparative fit index=0.998, and root mean square error of approximation=0.049). Notably, data from participants within the suburbs did not support the theory of planned behavior construction. Several paths did not predict the hypothesis variables. However, attitudes toward healthy food choices strongly predicted behavioral intention (path coefficients 0.49-0.77, ptheory of planned behavior can apply to secondary school students in urban areas. Furthermore, attitudes towards healthy food choices were the best predictor of behavioral intentions to engage in such choices in Inner Mongolian students. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela C; Poirier, Lisa; Ross, Alexandra; Ruggiero, Cara; Schwendler, Teresa; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth
The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment) multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level) community intervention. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) intervention worked at the wholesaler ( n = 3), corner store ( n = 50), carryout ( n = 30), recreation center ( n = 28), household ( n = 365) levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat) in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA), ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript). For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.
Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne
Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating.
Full Text Available The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level community intervention. The B’more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK intervention worked at the wholesaler (n = 3, corner store (n = 50, carryout (n = 30, recreation center (n = 28, household (n = 365 levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA, ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript. For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.
Στην εισαγωγή της παρούσας εργασίας δίνεται ο ορισμός του project financing, τα ιστορικά στοιχεία και οι τάσεις αγοράς του. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο αναφέρεται γιατί οι εταιρείες προτιμούν την χρηματοδότηση με project financing. Γίνεται λόγος για τα πλεονεκτήματά του έναντι της άμεσης χρηματοδότησης, καθώς και για τα μειονεκτήματα του project financing. Στο δεύτερο κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζονται τα χρηματοοικονομικά στοιχεία και ο ρόλος του χρηματοοικονομικού συμβούλου. Στην τρίτη ενότητα γίνεται η αναγνώ...
Rushakoff, Joshua A; Zoughbie, Daniel E; Bui, Nancy; DeVito, Katerina; Makarechi, Leila; Kubo, Hitomi
Rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Kentucky's Cumberland Valley region are among the highest in the United States and limited access to healthy food contributes to these epidemics. The aim of Healthy2Go (H2G), a country store transformation project launched by Spread the Health Appalachia (STHA), was to improve awareness and availability of healthy options in small, rural stores. Ten country stores participated in H2G and received training and technical assistance to increase availability and awareness of healthy foods. Stores made inventory changes; installed point-of-purchase educational and in-store marketing materials directing shoppers to healthier options; provided nutrition education such as healthy recipes; and altered the display and location of healthy items. To measure changes within stores and the potential impact on resident eating and purchasing habits, STHA used four instruments: a modified version of the Nutrition Environs Measures Survey - Corner Stores at baseline and follow-up, a bimonthly store inventory assessment, a final store owner survey, and a Community Nutrition Survey at baseline (n = 287) and follow-up (n = 281). The stores in the H2G program (n = 10) had a 40% increase in stocking fresh produce, a 20% increase in produce variety, and trends towards increasing healthy inventory. During the same period, surveyed residents reported a statistically significant increase in the frequency of healthy food consumption. Small store transformation programs can improve availability of and access to healthy food in rural settings and influence local purchasing patterns.
Joshua A. Rushakoff
Full Text Available Rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Kentucky's Cumberland Valley region are among the highest in the United States and limited access to healthy food contributes to these epidemics. The aim of Healthy2Go (H2G, a country store transformation project launched by Spread the Health Appalachia (STHA, was to improve awareness and availability of healthy options in small, rural stores. Ten country stores participated in H2G and received training and technical assistance to increase availability and awareness of healthy foods. Stores made inventory changes; installed point-of-purchase educational and in-store marketing materials directing shoppers to healthier options; provided nutrition education such as healthy recipes; and altered the display and location of healthy items. To measure changes within stores and the potential impact on resident eating and purchasing habits, STHA used four instruments: a modified version of the Nutrition Environs Measures Survey – Corner Stores at baseline and follow-up, a bimonthly store inventory assessment, a final store owner survey, and a Community Nutrition Survey at baseline (n = 287 and follow-up (n = 281. The stores in the H2G program (n = 10 had a 40% increase in stocking fresh produce, a 20% increase in produce variety, and trends towards increasing healthy inventory. During the same period, surveyed residents reported a statistically significant increase in the frequency of healthy food consumption. Small store transformation programs can improve availability of and access to healthy food in rural settings and influence local purchasing patterns.
Morin, Pascale; Demers, Karine; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Mongeau, Lyne
A school environment that encourages students to opt for food with sound nutritional value is both essential and formative in ensuring that young people adopt healthy eating habits. The aim of this paper is to describe the food offered for lunch in the cafeteria service lines in Quebec schools on regular school days. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2008 and June 2009 with a representative sample of 207 French-speaking schools in the province of Quebec. The response rate was 71%. The cafeteria food available from the service line was observed directly and systematically by research assistants trained in observational procedures. Bivariate and descriptive analyses were performed. While most schools offered a vegetable side dish, only 71% of primary schools, 71% of public secondary schools, and 54% of private secondary schools did not offer cold-cut dishes, stuffed pastry, or a fried food on their daily menus. The sandwiches available were rarely made with whole-grain bread. Public secondary schools had more cookies, biscuits, muffins, and chewing gum than private primary and secondary schools. Milk was available in 85% of the primary schools. Most of the schools had eliminated sodas but were still offering fruit cocktails instead of 100% fruit juice. The school eating environment changed significantly from 2002 to 2009, presumably as a result of the government action plan and the Framework Policy. Improvements must be made with respect to reducing added sugar in beverages and desserts and promoting baked rather than fried snacks. Vigilance is required since many new products are making their way into the market.
Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo
Despite the availability of novel strategies to prevent micronutrient malnutrition, such as biofortification, limited understanding of stakeholders often hampers their success. We build upon the existing literature on protection motivations (PMT) and technology acceptance (TAM) to develop an integrated PMTAM model for analyzing stakeholders' reactions, on both the supply and demand sides. Regarding the latter, the case of the iodine biofortified food chain is used to evaluate African households' interest. All model constructs, and threat appraisal in particular, are decisive in determining the uptake of biofortification, while also social demographics and own nutrition status play an important role.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to develop and validate a food-based diet quality index for measuring adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR in a pregnant population with high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM. Methods This study is a part of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL, a lifestyle intervention conducted between 2008 and 2014. The 443 pregnant participants (61 % of those invited, were either obese or had a history of GDM. Food frequency questionnaires collected at 1st trimester served for composing the HFII; a sum of 11 food groups (available score range 0–17 with higher scores reflecting higher adherence to the NNR. Results The average HFII of the participants was 10.2 (SD 2.8, range 2–17. Factor analysis for the HFII component matrix revealed three factors that explained most of the distribution (59 % of the HFII. As an evidence of the component relevance 9 out of 11 of the HFII components independently contributed to the total score (item-rest correlation coefficients <0.31. Saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sucrose, and fiber intakes (among other nutrients showed linearity across the HFII categories (P ≤ 0.030 for all nutrients tested; the higher the HFII, the closer the nutrient intake to the recommended intake level. Educational attainment (P = 0.0045, BMI (P = 0.0098, smoking (P = 0.007, and leisure time physical exercise (P = 0.038 showed linearity across the HFII categories. Intra-class correlation coefficient for the HFII was 0.85 (CI 0.79, 0.90. Conclusions The HFII components reflect the food guidelines of the NNR, intakes of relevant nutrients, and characteristics known to vary with diet quality. It largely ignores energy intake, its components have independent contribution to the HFII, and it exhibits reproducibility. The main shortcomings are absence of red and processed meat component, and the validation in a
Muzigaba, M; Puoane, T
There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in low to middle income countries particularly in Africa. This study explored health club member's experiences in buying healthier food options and compared their perceived cost of selected healthier and less healthy foods with actual market costs in a South African township. A cross-sectional study design using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study was conducted in Khayelitsha, a township in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Participants were 50 members of a health club, mostly female and above 50 years of age. The study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved interviews with all 50 health club members. During the second phase ten purposively selected members participated in in-depth interviews based on their unhealthy food-purchasing and consumption patterns identified in the first phase. The third phase involved food price audits from supermarkets as well as convenient stores located in the study setting. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Most of the members were illiterate and unemployed, largely dependent on government grants. Qualitative findings showed that low household incomes, their inability to read and interpret nutritional information and personal food preferences contributed to Health club members' unhealthy food-purchasing behaviour. When objectively measured in local stores, the healthier food options proved to be more expensive than their less healthy equivalents. This was consistent with subjects' perceptions about the relative cost
Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards You are here Administration / Finance Division of Finance Updates IRIS Expenditure Object Codes
Adams, Matthew C.
Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…
Hopkins, Allison L; Yeoman, Michelle; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Birth outcomes tend to be better among Hispanics than among other ethnic groups, even when matched for poverty and education, and foreign-born Latinas compared to their US-born counterparts. These patterns suggest that sociocultural factors exhibited by recent immigrants have the potential to protect birth outcomes against the instability of minority and low socioeconomic status. To discover potential sociocultural factors, a pilot qualitative study was carried out in Tucson, Arizona, with 18 Hispanic mothers. The two most prevalent factors reported were (1) a healthy diet prepared at home from minimally processed ingredients, and (2) constant and comprehensive social support. When comparing responses related to diet by interview language preference, a proxy for acculturation, there was very little difference between participants who interviewed in Spanish and those who interviewed in English. This result may be explained by greater maternal social support and higher education levels among those who interviewed in English.
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Fernandes, Meenakshi; Galloway, Rae; Gelli, Aulo; Mumuni, Daniel; Hamdani, Salha; Kiamba, Josephine; Quarshie, Kate; Bhatia, Rita; Aurino, Elisabetta; Peel, Francis; Drake, Lesley
Interventions that enhance linkages between healthy diets and local agriculture can promote sustainable food systems. Home-grown school feeding programs present a promising entry point for such interventions, through the delivery of nutritious menus and meals. To describe the adaptation of the School Meals Planner Package to the programmatic and environmental reality in Ghana during the 2014 to 2015 school year. Guided by a conceptual framework highlighting key considerations and trade-offs in menu design, an open-source software was developed that could be easily understood by program implementers. Readily available containers from markets were calibrated into "handy measures" to support the provision of adequate quantities of food indicated by menus. Schools and communities were sensitized to the benefits of locally sourced, nutrient-rich diets. A behavior change communication campaign including posters and songs promoting healthy diets was designed and disseminated in schools and communities. The School Meals Planner Package was introduced in 42 districts in Ghana, reaching more than 320 000 children. Monitoring reports and feedback on its use were positive, demonstrating how the tool can be used by planners and implementers alike to deliver nutritious, locally-sourced meals to schoolchildren. The value of the tool has been recognized at the highest levels by Ghana's government who have adopted it as official policy. The School Meals Planner Package supported the design of nutritious, locally sourced menus for the school feeding program in Ghana. The tool can be similarly adapted for other countries to meet context-specific needs. © The Author(s) 2016.
Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun; Li, Tingting; He, Lin; Xie, Huiru; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling
Desloratadine, the major active metabolite of loratadine, is a non-sedating long-acting antihistamine that is widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of desloratadine slow-metabolizer (DSM) phenotype and the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of desloratadine and its active metabolite 3-OH-desloratadine in healthy Chinese volunteers. A total of 46 healthy Chinese male volunteers were included in this investigation. All subjects received a single dose of a 5-mg desloratadine tablet under fasting or fed conditions and the plasma concentrations of desloratadine and 3-OH-desloratadine were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed using a non-compartmental method in the Phoenix WinNonlin program. The individuals with a 3-OH-desloratadine-to-desloratadine exposure ratio lower than 10 % or a desloratadine half-life (t 1/2) of ≥50 h were supposed to be DSM. There was only one DSM among the 46 volunteers, with a prevalence of 2.2 %. Moreover, administration in a fed state resulted in 34.07 and 32.06 % decreases in maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity for desloratadine and 47.26 and 48.46 % for 3-OH-desloratadine compared with those values under fasting conditions. Taken together, these results indicated that the incidence of the DSM phenotype in the Chinese population was low and that food intake could significantly decrease the absorption rate and extent of desloratadine.
Neal, Bruce; Crino, Michelle; Dunford, Elizabeth; Gao, Annie; Greenland, Rohan; Li, Nicole; Ngai, Judith; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pettigrew, Simone; Sacks, Gary; Webster, Jacqui; Wu, Jason HY
Front-of-pack nutrition labelling may support healthier packaged food purchases. Australia has adopted a novel Health Star Rating (HSR) system, but the legitimacy of this choice is unknown. To define the effects of different formats of front-of-pack labelling on the healthiness of food purchases and consumer perceptions. Individuals were assigned at random to access one of four different formats of nutrition labelling-HSR, multiple traffic light labels (MTL), daily intake guides (DIG), recommendations/warnings (WARN)-or control (the nutrition information panel, NIP). Participants accessed nutrition information by using a smartphone application to scan the bar-codes of packaged foods, while shopping. The primary outcome was healthiness defined by the mean transformed nutrient profile score of packaged foods that were purchased over four weeks. The 1578 participants, mean age 38 years, 84% female recorded purchases of 148,727 evaluable food items. The mean healthiness of the purchases in the HSR group was non-inferior to MTL, DIG, or WARN (all p 0.07), but WARN resulted in healthier packaged food purchases (mean difference 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 1.72; p = 0.04). HSR was perceived by participants as more useful than DIG, and easier to understand than MTL or DIG (all p food purchases.
Oliver T Mytton
Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency-Ofcom nutrient profiling model (FSA-Ofcom model is used to define less-healthy foods that cannot be advertised to children. However, there has been limited investigation of whether less-healthy foods defined by this model are associated with prospective health outcomes. The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of less-healthy food as defined by the FSA-Ofcom model is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD.We used data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk cohort study in adults (n = 25,639 aged 40-79 years who completed a 7-day diet diary between 1993 and 1997. Incident CVD (primary outcome, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality (secondary outcomes were identified using record linkage to hospital admissions data and death certificates up to 31 March 2015. Each food and beverage item reported was coded and given a continuous score, using the FSA-Ofcom model, based on the consumption of energy; saturated fat; total sugar; sodium; nonsoluble fibre; protein; and fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Items were classified as less-healthy using Ofcom regulation thresholds. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to test for an association between consumption of less-healthy food and incident CVD. Sensitivity analyses explored whether the results differed based on the definition of the exposure. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, behavioural risk factors, clinical risk factors, and socioeconomic status. Participants were followed up for a mean of 16.4 years. During follow-up, there were 4,965 incident cases of CVD (1,524 fatal within 30 days. In the unadjusted analyses, we observed an association between consumption of less-healthy food and incident CVD (test for linear trend over quintile groups, p < 0.01. After adjustment for covariates (sociodemographic, behavioural, and indices of cardiovascular risk, we found no association between
Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C
Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.
Nekitsing, Chandani; Hetherington, Marion M; Blundell-Birtill, Pam
The present review was undertaken in order to summarize and evaluate recent research investigating taste exposure, sensory learning, and nutrition education interventions for promoting vegetable intake in preschool children. Overall, taste exposure interventions yielded the best outcomes for increasing vegetable intake in early childhood. Evidence from sensory learning strategies such as visual exposure and experiential learning also show some success. While nutrition education remains the most common approach used in preschool settings, additional elements are needed to strengthen the educational program for increasing vegetable intake. There is a substantial gap in the evidence base to promote vegetable intake in food fussy children. The present review reveals the relative importance of different intervention strategies for promoting vegetable intake. To strengthen intervention effects for improving vegetable intake in preschool children, future research could consider integrating taste exposure and sensory learning strategies with nutrition education within the preschool curriculum.
Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)
Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile health care provider about vitamin D and the risks and benefits of supplementation. Finance and Management Services The Division of Finance and Management Services (FMS) provides financial, administrative
Full Text Available Background: Front-of-pack nutrition labelling may support healthier packaged food purchases. Australia has adopted a novel Health Star Rating (HSR system, but the legitimacy of this choice is unknown. Objective: To define the effects of different formats of front-of-pack labelling on the healthiness of food purchases and consumer perceptions. Design: Individuals were assigned at random to access one of four different formats of nutrition labelling—HSR, multiple traffic light labels (MTL, daily intake guides (DIG, recommendations/warnings (WARN—or control (the nutrition information panel, NIP. Participants accessed nutrition information by using a smartphone application to scan the bar-codes of packaged foods, while shopping. The primary outcome was healthiness defined by the mean transformed nutrient profile score of packaged foods that were purchased over four weeks. Results: The 1578 participants, mean age 38 years, 84% female recorded purchases of 148,727 evaluable food items. The mean healthiness of the purchases in the HSR group was non-inferior to MTL, DIG, or WARN (all p < 0.001 at 2% non-inferiority margin. When compared to the NIP control, there was no difference in the mean healthiness of purchases for HSR, MTL, or DIG (all p > 0.07, but WARN resulted in healthier packaged food purchases (mean difference 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 1.72; p = 0.04. HSR was perceived by participants as more useful than DIG, and easier to understand than MTL or DIG (all p < 0.05. Participants also reported the HSR to be easier to understand, and the HSR and MTL to be more useful, than NIP (all p < 0.03. Conclusions: These real-world data align with experimental findings and provide support for the policy choice of HSR. Recommendation/warning labels warrant further exploration, as they may be a stronger driver of healthy food purchases.
Tudoran, Ana Alina; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen
In this paper we apply the principle of Regulatory Focus Theory to investigate the interaction between self-efficacy and outcome expectations on individuals' intentions to adopt health behaviors. The participants, 959 individuals (Survey 1) and 2400 individuals (Survey 2), reported self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations with regard to the consumption of omega-3 supplements and omega-3-enriched food products. We found that the relationship prevention outcome expectations-intention was significantly attenuated at low levels of self-efficacy and strengthened at high levels of self-efficacy, respectively; whereas, the relationship promotion outcome expectations-intention was unaffected by the perceived levels of self-efficacy. The implications suggest that consumers' motivation to adopt healthy food products, such as omega-3 supplements and omega-3 enriched products, should be encouraged by stimulating promotion outcome expectations. However, when a prevention frame is used, the individuals' motivation should be significantly enhanced by self-efficacy beliefs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M
The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed.
Leia M., Minaker; Meghan, Lynch; Brian E., Cook; Catherine L., Mah
Abstract Introduction: Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy corner store intervention in a lowincome neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario. Methods: Sales data (from August 2014 to April 2015) were aggregated by product category and by day. We used Microsoft Excel pivot tables to summarize and visually present sales data. We conducted t-tests to examine differences in product category sales by “peak” versus “nonpeak” sales days. Results: Overall store sales peaked on the days at the end of each month, aligned with the issuing of social assistance payments. Revenue spikes on peak sales days were driven predominantly by transit pass sales. On peak sales days, mean sales of nonnutritious snacks and cigarettes were marginally higher than on other days of the month. Finally, creative strategies to increase sales of fresh vegetables and fruits seemed to substantially increase revenue from these product categories. Conclusion: Store sales data is an important store-level metric of food environment intervention success. Furthermore, data-driven decision making by retailers can be important for tailoring interventions. Future interventions and research should consider partnerships and additional success metrics for retail food environment interventions in diverse Canadian contexts. PMID:29043761
Hours, Marie Anne; Sagols, Emmanuelle; Junien-Castagna, Ariane; Feugier, Alexandre; Moniot, Delphine; Daniel, Ingrid; Biourge, Vincent; Samuel, Serisier; Queau, Yann; German, Alexander J
Obesity in dogs and cats is usually managed by dietary energy restriction using a purpose-formulated weight loss diet, but signs of hunger and begging commonly occur causing poor owner compliance. Altering diet characteristics so as to reduce voluntary food intake (VFI) can improve the likelihood of success, although this should not be at the expense of palatability. The aim of the current study was to compare the VFI and palatibility of novel commercially available canine and feline weight loss diets. The relative performance of two canine (C1 and C2) and two feline (F1 and F2) diets was assessed in groups of healthy adult dogs and cats, respectively. Diets varied in energy, protein, fibre, and fat content. To assess canine VFI, 12 (study 1) and 10 (study 2) dogs were offered food in 4 meals, for 15 min on each occasion, with hourly intervals between the meals. For feline VFI, 12 cats were offered food ad libitum for a period of 18 h per day over 5 consecutive days. The palatability studies used separate panels of 37 dogs and 30 cats, with the two diets being served, side-by-side, in identical bowls. In dogs, VFI was significantly less for diet C1 than diet C2 when assessed on energy intake (study 1, 42% less, P = 0.032; study 2, 28% less, P = 0.019), but there was no difference in gram weight intake (study 1: P = 0.964; study 2: P = 0.255). In cats, VFI was 17% less for diet F1 than diet F2 when assessed by energy intake (P canine diets (P = 0.490), whilst the panel of cats diet preferred F1 to F2 (P obese dogs and cats on controlled weight loss programmes.
Leia M. Minaker
Full Text Available Introduction: Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy corner store intervention in a lowincome neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario. Methods: Sales data (from August 2014 to April 2015 were aggregated by product category and by day. We used Microsoft Excel pivot tables to summarize and visually present sales data. We conducted t-tests to examine differences in product category sales by "peak" versus "nonpeak" sales days. Results: Overall store sales peaked on the days at the end of each month, aligned with the issuing of social assistance payments. Revenue spikes on peak sales days were driven predominantly by transit pass sales. On peak sales days, mean sales of nonnutritious snacks and cigarettes were marginally higher than on other days of the month. Finally, creative strategies to increase sales of fresh vegetables and fruits seemed to substantially increase revenue from these product categories. Conclusion: Store sales data is an important store-level metric of food environment intervention success. Furthermore, data-driven decision making by retailers can be important for tailoring interventions. Future interventions and research should consider partnerships and additional success metrics for retail food environment interventions in diverse Canadian contexts.
Yao, Hsuan-Ming; Hsu, Ann; Gupta, Suneel; Modi, Nishit B
IPX066 is an oral, extended-release capsule formulation of carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD) available in 4 strengths. The goals of this investigation were to assess the dose proportionality of IPX066 and to study the effects of a high-fat, high-calorie meal and of sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce on the pharmacokinetics of IPX066 in healthy volunteers. Three open-label studies were conducted. In the first study, subjects received 1 capsule of each IPX066 strength (23.75-95, 36.25-145, 48.75-195, and 61.25-245 mg of CD-LD). In the second study, subjects received 1 and 2 capsules of IPX066 245-mg LD under fasting conditions. In the third study, subjects received 2 capsules of IPX066 245-mg LD under 3 conditions: fasting; following a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast; and with the capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce under fasting conditions. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUCt, AUCinf) for LD and CD increased dose-proportionally over the range of the IPX066 capsule strengths. Comparison of 1 and 2 IPX066 245-mg LD capsules showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics for Cmax and AUCt. Sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce did not affect the pharmacokinetics. A high-fat, high-calorie meal delayed the initial increase in LD concentration by approximately 1 to 2 hours, reduced Cmax by 21%, and increased AUCinf by 13% compared with the fasted state. IPX066 shows dose-proportional pharmacokinetics. Sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce does not affect the pharmacokinetics; a high-fat, high-calorie meal delayed absorption by 1 to 2 hours, slightly reduced Cmax, and slightly increased extent of absorption.
Gustafson, Christopher R; Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A
Marketing techniques may improve children's vegetable consumption. However, student participation in the design of marketing materials may increase the material's salience, while also improving children's commitment and attitudes towards healthy eating. The impact of student-led design of vegetable promotional materials on choice and consumption was investigated using 1614 observations of students' vegetable choice and plate waste in four public elementary schools in Kearney, Nebraska. Data were collected on children's vegetable choice and consumption in four comparison groups: 1) control; 2) students designed materials only; 3) students were exposed to promotional materials only; and 4) students designed materials that were then posted in the lunchroom. Vegetable choice and consumption data were collected through a validated digital photography-based plate-waste method. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate average treatment effects of the conditions at various time periods. Dependent variables were vegetable choice and consumption, and independent variables included the condition, time period, and interaction terms, as well as controls for gender and grade. Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption ( p < 0.001) when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2-3 months later ( p < 0.05). Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected ( p < 0.05), but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption ( p < 0.01). Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.
Full Text Available Background: In responsible research and innovation (RRI, innovation is seen as a way in which humankind finds solutions for societal issues. However, studies on commercial innovation show that firms respond in a different manner and at a different speed to the same societal issue. This study investigates what role organizational motives play in the product innovation processes of firms when aiming for socially responsible outcomes. Methods: This multiple-case study investigates the motives of food firms for healthier product innovation by interviewing firms about the organizational motives behind product reformulation and innovation. Results: This study highlights the importance of having both instrumental and moral motives in the innovation process when aiming for socially responsible outcomes, and how both these motives interact and contribute to responsible innovation in industry. Furthermore, the study results question the nature of relational motives as a separate category from the other two categories of motives, as suggested by corporate social responsibility (CSR scholars. Conclusions: If commercial innovation needs to contribute to solutions for societal issues, the importance of moral motives has to be stressed without annihilating the instrumental objectives of firms. Both motives contribute to the success factors of responsible product innovation in industry.
Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M
There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier cat