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Sample records for healthy fertile women

  1. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus species are the most often found inhabitants of vaginal ecosystem of fertile women. In postmenopausal women with low oestrogen levels, Lactobacillus flora is diminishing or absent. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between oestrogen levels and the lactobacilli in the gut. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation in healthy women between vaginal and rectal microbial flora as well as possible variations with hormone levels. Methods Vaginal and rectal smears were taken from 20 healthy fertile women, average 40 years (range 28-49 years), in two different phases of the menstrual cycle, and from 20 postmenopausal women, average 60 years (range 52-85 years). Serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Bacteria from the smears isolated on Rogosa Agar were grouped by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and identified by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Lactobacillus crispatus was more often found in the vaginal flora of fertile women than in that of postmenopausal (p = 0.036). Fifteen of 20 fertile women had lactobacilli in their rectal smears compared to 10 postmenopausal women (p = 0.071). There was no correlation between the number of bacteria in vagina and rectum, or between the number of bacteria and hormonal levels. Neither could any association between the presence of rectal lactobacilli and hormonal levels be found. Conclusion Lactobacillus crispatus was more prevalent in the vaginal flora of fertile women, whereas the Lactobacillus flora of rectum did not correlate to the vaginal flora nor to hormonal levels. PMID:21609500

  2. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy fertile and postmenopausal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Daroczy, Katalin; Xiao, Bingbing; Yu, Li; Chen, Rui; Liao, Qinping

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and quantity of Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy Chinese women. Vaginal samples from 92 fertile and 22 postmenopausal healthy Chinese women were analysed using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and species-specific PCR followed by sequencing and real-time PCR. A total of 13 different Lactobacillus species were detected. Species-specific PCR showed that 3% of the fertile women were colonized by one species of Lactobacillus and 97% were colonized by two or more species. Among the postmenopausal women, 91% were colonized by one species of Lactobacillus and 9% were colonized by two species. In the fertile women, L. iners (82.61%), L. crispatus (70.65%) and L. gasseri (67.39%) were more prevalent than L. jensenii (40.22%), L. acidophilus (39.13%), L. brevis (23.91%), L. plantarum (5.43%), L. johnsonii (3.26%), L. fermentum (2.17%), L. salivarius (2.17%), L. rhamnosus (1.09%), L. reuteri (1.09%) and L. paracasei (1.09%); L. delbrueckii was not detected. In the postmenopausal women, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii were not detected, and the other 10 species were detected in just a few samples. The prevalence of these species according to the clone library differed from the prevalence indicated by the species-specific PCR. According to the semiquantitative analysis, the total Lactobacillus DNA concentrations were higher in fertile women than in postmenopausal women. Sixty-one per cent of the fertile women were predominantly colonized by L. iners, 35% by L. crispatus, and 2% by L. gasseri. Associations between pairs of Lactobacillus species in fertile women were significant (Pvaginas of healthy Chinese fertile and postmenopausal women. The study also showed that the diversity of Lactobacillus species in fertile women was higher than in postmenopausal women. According to our study, different techniques, such as species-specific PCR and comparison against a 16S rRNA gene clone library

  3. Genetic predictors of skeletal outcomes in healthy fertile women: the Bonturno study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Francesco; Marini, Francesca; Bianchi, Gerolamo; Minisola, Salvatore; Luisetto, Giovanni; Pirazzoli, Antonella; Salvi, Sara; Micheli, Dino; Miccoli, Mario; Baggiani, Angelo; Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2013-07-01

    Skeletal traits as height (Ht) or bone mineral density (BMD) are strongly inherited. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and farnesyl diphosphonate synthase (FDPS) are candidate genes for bone phenotypes. From Bonturno study, we genotyped 570 healthy Caucasian women aged 20 to 50 years (yrs) for LRP5 rs4988321 (A/G) and rs3736228 (C/T) and FDPS rs2297480 (A/C) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) were measured in BMD-evaluated subjects at lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) sites. LRP5 rs4988321 locus correlated with FN-BMD (P = 0.0230), while LRP5 rs3736228 genotypes differed in LS-BMD (P = 0.0428). When clustered by age, lower FN-BMD was detected in LRP5 GG (P = 0.030) subjects of 41 to 50 years but not in younger. Both LRP5 GG and CC genotypes showed higher age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Increased CTX values were in LRP5 GGCC subjects than in those having at least one LRP5 A plus T alleles (P = 0.0190). LRP5 CC, GG or GGCC subjects with at least one FDPS C allele showed higher levels of CTX and OC in 31 to 40 yrs or older subjects. In conclusion, LRP5 and FDPS loci age-specifically affect skeletal traits in healthy fertile women. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comparison of selective oxidative stress parameters in the follicular fluid of infertile women and healthy fertile oocyte donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuška, V; Cedíková, M; Rajdl, D; Racek, J; Zech, N H; Trefil, L; Mocková, A; Ulčová-Gallová, Z; Novotný, Z; Králíčková, M

    2012-12-01

    Follicular fluid (FF) affects oocyte development and disruption of its homeostasis has a crucial effect on egg developmental potential. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the FF of women with impaired fertility and healthy fertile oocytes donors. A retrospective comparative study. Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague; Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Endocrinology, IVF Center Prof. Zech, Pilsen. Levels of homocysteine (Hcy), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant capacity (AOK) and total protein (CB) were analyzed in the FF. We have analysed FF of 146 women - 74 infertile patients (mean age 31 years, SD = 4.65) and 72 healthy fertile oocyte donors (mean age 26 years, SD = 4.44). Only blood free samples were studied after pooling of all FF samples each patient. The study showed a statistically significantly higher Hcy levels (p healthy fertile women compared with impaired fertility group both - comparing the two groups regardless the age and in groups of the same age range (for the age group between 20 to 29 years isp = 0.0002, for the age group between 30 to 39 years is p < 0.0001). When divided into above age ranges we found statistically significantly higher levels of MDA in the control group aged 20 to 29 years compared to same age infertile patients (p = 0.0374) and statistically significantly higher AOK in infertile women between 30 to 39 years of age compared to same age control group (p = 0.0458). The presence or on the contrary the absence of prooxidant parameters in the FF has an important role in the ability of conception and subsequent embryo development.

  5. Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirazzoli Antonella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht, bone mineral density (BMD or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and beta (ESR2 are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. Methods We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20–50 years (yrs participating into the BONTURNO study. Exclusion criteria were irregular cyclic menses, low trauma fracture, metabolic bone or chronic diseases. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX, osteocalcin (OC, and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP were measured in all enrolled subjects, who underwent to lumbar spine (LS, total hip (TH and femoral neck (FN BMD evaluation by DXA. Five hundred seventy Caucasian women were genotyped for ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms. Results Although no genotype differences were found in body parameters, subjects with combined ESR1 CCGG plus ESR2 AA-AG genotype were taller than those with opposite genotype (P = 0.044. Moreover, ESR1 rs2234693 genotypes correlated with family history of osteoporosis (FHO and hip fracture (FHF (P When clustered by age, 20–30 yrs old subjects, having at least one ESR1 rs2234693 C allele presented lower LS- (P = 0.008 and TH-BMD (P = 0.047 than TT genotypes. In 41–50 yrs age, lower FN-BMD was associated with ESR2 AA (P = 0.0180 subjects than in those with the opposite genotype. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms did not correlate with age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Conclusion These findings support the presence of age-specific effects of ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms on various skeletal traits in healthy fertile women.

  6. Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Francesco; Marini, Francesca; Bianchi, Gerolamo; Minisola, Salvatore; Luisetto, Giovanni; Pirazzoli, Antonella; Salvi, Sara; Micheli, Dino; Masi, Laura; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2009-04-22

    Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht), bone mineral density (BMD) or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20-50 years (yrs) participating into the BONTURNO study. Exclusion criteria were irregular cyclic menses, low trauma fracture, metabolic bone or chronic diseases. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) were measured in all enrolled subjects, who underwent to lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD evaluation by DXA. Five hundred seventy Caucasian women were genotyped for ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms. Although no genotype differences were found in body parameters, subjects with combined ESR1 CCGG plus ESR2 AA-AG genotype were taller than those with opposite genotype (P = 0.044). Moreover, ESR1 rs2234693 genotypes correlated with family history of osteoporosis (FHO) and hip fracture (FHF) (P < 0.01), while ESR2 AA-AC genotypes were strongly associated with FHF (OR 2.387, 95% CI 1.432-3.977; P < 0.001).When clustered by age, 20-30 yrs old subjects, having at least one ESR1 rs2234693 C allele presented lower LS- (P = 0.008) and TH-BMD (P = 0.047) than TT genotypes. In 41-50 yrs age, lower FN-BMD was associated with ESR2 AA (P = 0.0180) subjects than in those with the opposite genotype. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms did not correlate with age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. These findings support the presence of age-specific effects of ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms on various skeletal traits in healthy fertile women.

  7. Fertility treatment in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women

  8. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and what you can do to improve your fertility. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do your sperm pass ... understanding the various factors that can affect male fertility — then consider steps to help your sperm become ...

  9. Healthy Lifestyle: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and sleep disturbances. However, regular exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight, relieve stress and improve your quality of life. For most healthy women, the Department ...

  10. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  11. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fertilize an egg, sperm must move — wriggling and swimming through a woman's cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes. ... Biology. 2009;47:615. Swerdloff RS, et al. Evaluation of male infertility. http://www.uptodate.com/home. ...

  12. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  13. Endometriosis and fertility: women's accounts of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K; Fisher, J; Kirkman, M

    2016-03-01

    What do women with endometriosis recall being told about their fertility by their healthcare providers? Women recalled being given varied information and advice, and gave examples of empathic and individualized care from doctors but also reported opportunities for enhancing clinical practice. There is evidence of an association between endometriosis and infertility. However, the strength of this association and the mechanisms that underlie it are not yet known nor are the implications for optimum healthcare. This study used in-depth cross-sectional qualitative research methods. Women aged at least 18 years who lived in Victoria, Australia, and who had been surgically diagnosed with endometriosis were invited to participate in in-depth interviews about their experience of endometriosis. Twenty-six women of diverse backgrounds and experiences of endometriosis were interviewed from January to September 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a data-driven approach. All women encountered medical professionals who were aware of the association between endometriosis and infertility, and who were proactive in ensuring fertility was addressed within endometriosis care. Women recalled being given varied, often conflicting, information about the consequences for their fertility of an endometriosis diagnosis. While some recounted positive experiences with the way their doctor communicated with them about endometriosis and fertility, all women reported adverse experiences such as receiving insufficient or inappropriate information or having their doctor prioritize their fertility over other aspects of their care, including quality of life and symptom relief, without first consulting them. The perspectives of the women's doctors were not sought. The findings may not translate to settings that differ from a predominantly Anglo-Saxon country with both universal public and private healthcare systems. Women's fertility needs and priorities differ for many

  14. Fertility Issues in Girls and Women with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Fertility Issues in Girls and Women with Cancer Treatment ... Issues in Women . Cancer Treatments May Affect Your Fertility Cancer treatments are important for your future health, ...

  15. Knowledge about infertility risk factors, fertility myths and illusory benefits of healthy habits in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Laura; Boivin, Jacky

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has highlighted a lack of fertility awareness in the general population especially in relation to the optimal fertile period during the menstrual cycle, incidence of infertility and duration of the reproductive life span. The current study assessed fertility knowledge more broadly in young people and investigated three areas of knowledge, namely risk factors associated with female infertility (e.g. smoking), beliefs in false fertility myths (e.g. benefits of rural living) and beliefs in the illusory benefits of healthy habits (e.g. exercising regularly) on female fertility. The sample (n = 149) consisted of 110 female and 39 male postgraduate and undergraduate university students (average age 24.01, SD = 7.81). Knowledge scores were based on a simple task requiring the participants to estimate the effect a factor would have on a group of 100 women trying to get pregnant. Items (n = 21) were grouped according to three categories: risk factors (e.g. smoking; 7 items), myths (e.g. living in countryside; 7 items) and healthy habits (e.g. being normal weight; 7 items). An analysis of variance showed a significant main effect of factor (P healthy habits (P healthy habits. We suggest that the public education campaigns should be directed to erroneous beliefs about pseudo protective factors.

  16. Fertility Desires among Women Living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lynne Jones

    Full Text Available Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLHIV have increased with the availability of effective HIV treatment. Planning for pregnancy and childbirth is an increasingly important element of HIV care. Though rates of unintended pregnancies are high among women in general, among couples affected by HIV, significant planning and reproductive decisions must be considered to prevent negative health consequences for WLHIV and their neonates. To gain insight into this reproductive decision-making process among WLHIV, this study explored women's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding fertility planning, reproductive desires, and safer conception practices. It was hypothesized that pregnancy desires would be influenced by partners, families, the potential risk of HIV transmission to infants, and physicians' recommendations.WLHIV of childbearing age were recruited from urban South Florida, and completed an assessment of demographics (N = 49, fertility desires and a conjoint survey of factors associated with reproductive decision-making.Using conjoint analysis, we found that different decision paths exist for different types of women: Younger women and those with less education desired children if their partners wanted children; reproductive desires among those with less education, and with less HIV pregnancy-related knowledge, displayed a trend toward additional emphasis on their family's desires. Conversely, older women and those with more education appeared to place more importance on physician endorsement in their plans for childbearing.Results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing preconception counselling for all women of reproductive age during routine HIV care. Counselling should be tailored to patient characteristics, and physicians should consider inclusion of families and/or partners in the process.

  17. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  18. Preventing FASD: Healthy Women, Healthy Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use by pregnant women: Anonymous versus confidential questionnaires with item nonresponse differences. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 29(8):1444–1449. 8. Moraes, C.L.; ...

  19. Suicide in Danish women evaluated for fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T. K.; Jensen, A.; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Women with fertility problems often experience higher levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms associated with both the infertility diagnosis and eventual fertility treatment. The authors investigated whether women who do not succeed in having a child after an infertility evaluation...... are at a higher risk of suicide than women who succeed in having a child after an infertility evaluation....

  20. [Fertility changes in women working in greenhouses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, A; Gemelli, V; Giovannelli, Cinzia; Paciotti, G; Sabatucci, A; Spagnolo, A

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse workers (GW) are exposed to environmental contaminants, including pesticides, that may not only cause known immediate effects such as acute poisoning, but also long-term effects related to chronic exposure to low dosages, a problem that has not been extensively studied This study investigated the relationship between fertility changes and exposure to pesticides in a group of women working in greenhouses. The analysis is based on a retrospective cohort of 145 women working in greenhouses located in the province of Latina, Lazio Region, Italy, who were exposed to pesticides at the time of their first pregnancy. Information on health status, lifestyle, work activity, reproductive history and some confounding factors (age, smoking, alcohol abuse, drug consumption) were collected using a questionnaire. Exposure to pesticides was classified in two levels (high or low) according to the work task and the length of exposure. Changes in fertility were measured in terms of time to pregnancy (TTP), that is the number of non-contraceptive cycles that it takes a couple to conceive. A control group was selected among public administration employees in the same province. The difference in average TTP between exposed and non-exposed groups was analysed by using Student t-test. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare TTP between the two groups after correction for confounding factors. In the high-level exposure group average TTP was 10.8 months (+/- 2.0), among the non-exposed average TTP was 6.2 months (+/- 1.0). The difference between exposed and non-exposed was thus 4.6 months (p<0.05). Comparison of the distribution of TTP between the high-level exposure group and nonexposed resulted in a hazard ratio of 1.27 (I.C. 95%: 1.03-1.79); the same analysis using the low-level exposure group and non-exposed group yielded a hazard ratio of 1.12 (I.C. 95%: 0.67-1.87). The study showed reduced fertility, in terms of TTP, in the population exposed to pesticides. Among

  1. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertility decisions 128 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v27i4.3. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on antiretroviral therapy at a health centre in Balaka, Malawi: A descriptive qualitative. Abstract. Background. The proportions of women of reproductive age living with the human immunodeficiency ...

  2. Changes in women's status and fertility behaviour in Sub- Saharan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very little is known about the contribution of changes in women's status to fertility trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using a linear decomposition technique, this study assessed changes in women's status and the influence on fertility levels. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for 2-time periods with a minimum of ...

  3. Economic Empowerment of Women and Fertility Behaviour in Ogbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study investigated the role of women's economic empowerment on fertility behaviour using Ogbia Local Government Area in Bayelsa State as a case study. The study sought to know how different women's economic empowerment indicators can affect different fertility behaviour. The Quality-Quantity theory and ...

  4. Economic Empowerment of Women and Fertility Behaviour in Ogbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the role of women's economic empowerment on fertility behaviour using Ogbia Local Government Area in Bayelsa State as a case study. The study sought to know how different women's economic empowerment indicators can affect different fertility behaviour. The Quality-Quantity theory and Feminist ...

  5. Fertility-related research needs among women at the margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Baral, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Fertility-related research encompasses fertility intentions, preconception care, research amongst pregnant women, and post-partum outcomes of mothers and children. However, some women remain under-represented within this domain of study. Women frequently missing within fertility-related research include those who are already the most vulnerable to health disparities, including female sex workers, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender women, women living with HIV, and women who use drugs. Yet characterization of the needs of these women is important, given their unique fertility-related concerns, including risks and barriers to care emanating from social stigmas and discrimination. This synthesis provides an overview of fertility-related evidence, highlighting where there are clear research gaps among marginalized women and the potential implications of these data shortfalls. Overall, research among marginalized women to date has addressed pregnancy prevention and in some cases fertility intentions, but the majority of studies have focused on post-conception pregnancy safety and the well-being of the child. However, among female sex workers specifically, data on pregnancy safety and the well-being of the child are largely unavailable. Within each marginalized group, preconception care and effectiveness of conception methods are consistently understudied. Ultimately, the absence of epidemiologic, clinical and programmatic evidence limits the availability and quality of reproductive health services for all women and prevents social action to address these gaps. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P celiac women than in the control women (higher by 49.4%, 121.4%, and 58.6%, respectively; P celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  7. [Fertility on women with Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhtoura, Zeina; Touraine, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous pregnancies occur in 1.8 to 7.6% among women with Turner syndrome. A genetic counseling is required before conception because only 30 to 40% of these pregnancies lead to the birth of a healthy child. A check-up has to be done before pregnancy, and if authorized, it will be tightly followed-up. Pregnancy is contraindicated if cardiac or aortic malformations exist, except for bicuspid aortic valve. Teams advice single embryo transfer. Rates of pregnancies of 45 to 60% after oocyte donation, but 40 to 60% of spontaneous abortions are noted, due to uterine factors. A study is trying to define patients who could postulate to cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for Sahelian women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for Sahelian women. June 06, 2016. Ibro M Abdoulaye, Baco Mohamed Nasser, Badiori Ouatara, Sogodogo Diakalia, Mahaman Sabiou,Akponikpè PB Irenikatche, Derek Peak, Kimaro Anthony and Koala Saidou. The localized application of small quantities of fertilizer ...

  9. Normative or economic behavior? Fertility and women's employment in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert-Jaffe, Olivia; Stier, Haya

    2009-09-01

    Women's employment and childrearing are competing activities, which exert much pressure on their time and energy. Many studies have found that women in paid employment, especially in a demanding career, limit their fertility and have few children or none. This negative correlation was explained mainly in terms of opportunity costs and the incompatibility of women's employment and childrearing. This study focuses on the interplay between women's employment and fertility decisions in Israel, a socially diverse country, characterized by high levels of both fertility and female employment. We argue that in an environment which supports and encourages high fertility women's employment activity is less consequential for family planning. The study analyzes simultaneously the decision to have a third child and the decision to work. The findings show that fertility affects negatively women's work activity, but women's employment has no effect on their decision to have an additional child. Also, cultural variables affect the fertility decision but not economic considerations, while the opposite holds for the work decision.

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  11. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  12. The Comparison of Marital Satisfaction between Fertile and Iinfertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdolmajid Bahrainian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research studied and compared marital satisfaction level of the women who have infertility problem with those who does not have this problem. Methods: Totally 180 persons participated (90 infertile women and 90 fertile women were participated in this study. Participants were comprised of those referring to 3 Tehran city infertility centers. For data gathering in this research, the constructed questionnaire and Enrich Marital Satisfactions questionnaire have been used. Data analysis has been done with use of two independent t-tests and one way variance analysis has been done. Results: Results showed significant difference in satisfaction level of the fertile and infertile women, while, our research hypotheses were not confirmed in this regard by studying factors effective on marital satisfaction of the infertile women. The number of unsuccessful pregnancies whether in fertile women or infertile women didn’t have considerable effect on the marital satisfaction, while, effect of this factor on marital satisfaction level of the infertile women was higher than that on the fertile women. Discussion: Generally, by inclusion of limitations in this plan, it is impossible to generalize the present research results with difficulty, though it is inevitable to emphasize on negative consequences of the spouses' life and it is important to pay attention to its different dimensions.

  13. Many women undergoing fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices that may affect treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormack, Alice A; Peek, John C; Derraik, José G B; Gluckman, Peter D; Young, Natalie L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-07-01

    (OR 2.27; P = 0.049). While 93.2% of women took a folic acid supplement, 16.8% had an inadequate intake compared with the current New Zealand prenatal recommendation of 800 mcg/day. Women who held a university degree or higher qualification had twice the odds of becoming pregnant as women with lower levels of education (OR 2.08; P = 0.017), though this finding appeared to be unrelated to lifestyle or dietary habits. The study involved self-reported behaviours that might have been misrepresented by respondents. In addition, our questionnaires covered the period following the first clinical assessment but ∼5 weeks prior to fertility treatment initiation, so that we cannot ascertain whether dietary intakes and lifestyle choices persisted over the course of treatment itself. Many women about to undergo fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices that may negatively affect their chances of becoming pregnant. These findings may be more widely applicable to other women attempting to become pregnant. Specific advice for women regarding healthy lifestyle choices while undergoing fertility treatment is warranted. A.A.G. received financial support from Abbott Nutrition Research & Development Asia-Pacific Center; J.C.P. is a shareholder of Fertility Associates; the other authors have no financial or non-financial conflicts of interest to disclose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Family type, family resources, and fertility among Iranian peasant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1978-01-01

    A survey of Iranian peasants was undertaken in 1974 to test the assumption that the extended family structure encourages high fertility in all cases. Data were collected on household characteristics, fertility, age of women, age of marriage of women, education of husbands (few women were literate), size of landholding, and number of relatives (other than the husband, wife, and unmarried children) in the household. These data were submitted to multiple classification analysis which allows the effects of variables other than the one under consideration to be controlled. It was found that women in nuclear families bore 6.0 children as compared to 5.3 in extended families when age of women, age of marriage of women, and education of husbands were controlled. When family size was considered in light of the size of the landholding, it was found that for all sizes of landholding, the mean size of extended families was larger than that of nuclear families. Thus, extended families reduce this population pressure by discouraging fertility; for each nonnuclear family member, fertility is reduced by 0.65 children. It is concluded that the extended family is flexible enough to encourage or discourage fertility depending upon the demographic and economic characteristics of the household.

  15. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  16. Measurement of Fertility Benefits with Low Dose Thyroxine in Sub-fertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Pandit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High prevalence rate of thyroid dysfunction associated infertility is identified by a number of studies in Nepal. Thyroid dysfunction not only affects fertility but is also associated with miscarriage and fetal death. The objective of this study was to measure the fertility rate after low dose Thyroxine, 12.5 microgram, in women with subfertility. Methods: This was a descriptive and observational study done among women visiting infertility and in-vitro fertilization (IVF center at Nepalgunj Medical College, Nepal. After undergoing baseline investigations for infertility, all women diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility were enrolled in the study. Male factor and tubal factor infertility was excluded. All 136 women who were enrolled in the study received 12.5 microgram of thyroxine supplementation for a period of three months and subsequently followed up until the same time period. Results: Out of 136 women, 83 (61.02% women achieved pregnancy within three months of supplementation with low dose thyroxine. Among them, 34 (40.9% women with primary infertility achieved pregnancy within three months. Similarly 14 (16.8% women with previous miscarriage, 20 (24.09% women with previous caesarean section within past five years back, and 15 (18.07% with previous IUFD achieved pregnancy within three months. Conclusion: Low dose thyroxine supplementation would be beneficial and recommended to subfertile women of reproductive age group in the endemic regions of hypothyroidism. Dose adjustment would give extended benefits as soon as pregnancy is achieved.

  17. Fertility intention and use of contraception among women living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic resulted in decreased fertility among HIV-positive women, who did not want to transmit the virus to their unborn children. With the availability of antiretroviral therapy that suppresses viral load, HIV-infected women live normal lives and even acknowledge the ...

  18. Contraception and fertility awareness among women with solid organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Valerie A; Davis, John S; Sayles, Harlan S; Wu, Serena S

    2013-10-01

    To assess the contraception and fertility counseling provided to women with solid organ transplants. A telephone survey of 309 women aged 19-49 years who had received a solid organ transplant at the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed. Of the 309 eligible women, 183 responded. Patients were asked 19 questions regarding pretransplant and posttransplant fertility awareness and contraception counseling. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Patients had undergone a variety of solid organ transplantations: 40% kidney (n=73); 32% liver (n=59); 6% pancreas (n=11); 5% heart (n=9); 3% intestine (n=5); and 14% multiple organs (n=26). Before their transplantations, 79 women (44%) reported they were not aware that a woman could become pregnant after transplantation. Only 66 women aged 13 and older at the time of transplantation reported that a health care provider discussed contraception before transplantation. Approximately half of women surveyed were using a method of contraception. Oral contraceptive pills were the most commonly recommended method. Twenty-two of the 31 pregnancies after organ transplantation were planned, which is higher than that of the general population. Few women with transplants are educated regarding the effect of organ transplantation on fertility and are not routinely counseled about contraception or the potential for posttransplant pregnancy. Health care providers should incorporate contraceptive and fertility counseling as part of routine care for women with solid organ transplants. : II.

  19. The Sexual Impact of Infertility Among Women Seeking Fertility Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Winkelman, MD

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: In women seeking fertility treatment, younger age and female factor infertility were associated with increased sexual impact and thus these women are potentially at higher risk of sexual dysfunction. Providers should consider the role young age and an infertility diagnosis plays in a women’s sexual well-being.

  20. Fertility Preferences of Women Living with HIV in the Kumasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study sought to determine fertility preferences and their predictors among women living with HIV. A survey of 295 women aged 18 to 49 years living with HIV, and attending two HIV/AIDS clinics in the Kumasi metropolis, was conducted between July and August 2012. We administered questionnaires, and retrieved ...

  1. Fertility intention and use of contraception among women living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kebogile Mokwena

    rarely acknowledged in antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic services. This study examined fertility intentions and contraception use among a sample of women attending an ART clinic in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive design was used on a sample of 362 HIV-positive women.

  2. Chapter 4- Fertility preservation in women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A.; Oktay, Kutluk

    2010-01-01

    Fertility preservation is an important issue for young women diagnosed with breast cancer. The most well-established options for fertility preservation in cancer patients, embryo and oocyte cryopreservation, have not been traditionally offered to breast cancer patients as estradiol rise during standard stimulation protocols may not be safe for those patients. Potentially safer stimulation protocols using tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors induce lower levels of estradiol while similar results in terms of number of oocyte and embryo obtained to standard protocols. Cryopreservation of immature oocytes and ovarian cortical tissue, both still experimental methods, are also fertility preservation options for breast cancer patients. PMID:21048442

  3. Sleep, Sleep Disturbance and Fertility in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Perlis, Michael; Zamzow, Jessica; Culnan, Elizabeth; Gracia, Clarisa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep and sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as determinants of women’s health and well-being, particularly in the context of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. At present, however, little is known about whether fertility is affected by sleep quantity and quality. That is, to what degree, and by what mechanisms, do sleep and/or its disturbances affect fertility? The purpose of this review is to synthesize what is known about sleep disturbances in relation to reproductive capacity. A model is provided, whereby stress, sleep dysregulation, and circadian misalignment are delineated for their potential relevance to infertility. Ultimately, if it is the case that sleep disturbance is associated with infertility, new avenues for clinical intervention may be possible. PMID:25458772

  4. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  5. Women's work, fertility, and competing time use in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S K

    1981-01-01

    This study suggests that the degree to which work and childcare are competing uses of time is an important determinant of the female labor force participation (FLFP) fertility relationships in less developed countries. A negative relationship may be found where work and childcare are competing uses of time, and no relationship (or even a positive relationship) where they are not. Several measures of competing time use are developed. The competing time use hypothesis is tested using sample survey data from Mexico City. Focus is on correlation, not causation. A basic assumption is that FLFP and fertility decisions are made jointly and depend on income, prices, tastes, wages, employment opportunities, and current family size. The empirical work deals with the direction and significance of partial correlations between FLFP and fertility and whether these correlations vary predictably according to the degree to which work and childcare are competing uses of time. The data were drawn from a multistage, stratified, clustered probability sample of married Mexican women living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. All women were living with their husbands at the time of the interview in early 1971. Sample size was 798. The empirical results provide strong support for the hypothesis that a negative FLFP fertility relationship will exist only if work and childcare are competing uses of time. When no distinction was made regarding competing time use, there was no significant FLFP fertility relationship. Women who had worked at some time since marriage had very similar levels of fertility to women who had not. When distinctions regarding competing time use were made, large fertility differences were evident. Workers for whom market work and childcare cannot be performed simultaneously had significantly lower fertility than nonworkers; workers for whom market work and childcare could be performed simultaneously had similar or higher fertility than nonworkers. Full time workers

  6. Fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Jennifer R; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer.......When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer....

  7. Urinary paraben concentrations and in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chiu, Yu-Han; Messerlian, Carmen; Williams, Paige L.; Sabatini, Mary E.; Toth, Thomas L.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between urinary paraben concentrations and IVF outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility clinic in a hospital setting. Patient(s) A total of 245 women contributing 356 IVF cycles. Intervention(s) None. Quantification of urinary concentrations of parabens by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of clinical endpoints of IVF treatments abstracted from electronic medical records at the academic fertility center. Main Outcome Measure(s) Total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high quality embryos, fertilization rates, and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Results The geometric mean of the urinary concentrations of methyl (MP), propyl (PP) and butyl paraben (BP) in our study population were 133, 24 and 1.5 µg/L, respectively. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, smoking status and primary infertility diagnosis, urinary MP, PP and BP concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes, specifically total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high embryo quality and fertilization rates. Moreover, no significant associations were found between urinary paraben concentrations and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Conclusion(s) Urinary paraben concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatments. PMID:26654974

  8. Urinary paraben concentrations and in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chiu, Yu-Han; Messerlian, Carmen; Williams, Paige L; Sabatini, Mary E; Toth, Thomas L; Ford, Jennifer B; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2016-03-01

    To explore the relationship between urinary paraben concentrations and IVF outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center. Prospective cohort study. Fertility clinic in a hospital setting. A total of 245 women contributing 356 IVF cycles. None. Quantification of urinary concentrations of parabens by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of clinical endpoints of IVF treatments abstracted from electronic medical records at the academic fertility center. Total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high-quality embryos, fertilization rates, and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live births. The geometric means of the urinary concentrations of methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben in our study population were 133, 24, and 1.5 μg/L, respectively. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and primary infertility diagnosis, urinary methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes, specifically total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high embryo quality, and fertilization rates. Moreover, no significant associations were found between urinary paraben concentrations and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live births. Urinary paraben concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatments. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Women's empowerment and fertility: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Gipson, Jessica D; Withers, Mellissa; Lewis, Shayna; Ciaraldi, Erica J; Fraser, Ashley; Huchko, Megan J; Prata, Ndola

    2014-08-01

    Women's empowerment has become a focal point for development efforts worldwide and there is a need for an updated, critical assessment of the existing evidence on women's empowerment and fertility. We conducted a literature review on studies examining the relationships between women's empowerment and several fertility-related topics. Among the 60 studies identified for this review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n = 35) and used household decision-making as a measure of empowerment (n = 37). Overall, the vast majority of studies found some positive associations between women's empowerment and lower fertility, longer birth intervals, and lower rates of unintended pregnancy, but there was some variation in results. In many studies, results differed based on the measure of empowerment used, sociopolitical or gender environment, or sub-population studied. This article is one of the first evaluations of the literature assessing the relationships between women's empowerment and fertility. We identify several key issues that merit further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Work, fertility, and the status of women in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, O; Garcia, B

    1990-01-01

    Among the major transformations affecting Mexican women in recent decades were their growing participation in the labor market and the fertility decline that began in the 1970s with widespread access to contraception. Data from 3 major Mexican fertility surveys, employment surveys, and censuses are used to analyze changes in female employment and their determinants during the years of economic recession in the 1980s. The main characteristics of the Mexican fertility decline are described, and the relationship between fertility and female employment before and during the economic recession is scrutinized for different social sectors. Suggestions for research on the affects of these changes on the social condition of Mexican women are then presented. The proportions of Mexican women over 12 years old who declared themselves economically active increased from 16% in 1970 to 21% in 1979 and 32% in 1987. Until the 1970s the majority of employed women were young and single or childless. But a clear increase occurred between 1976-87 in the economic participation of older women in union. Economic participation of low income and less educated women increased as they sought work or created their own in response to deteriorating living conditions during the recession. Young women with intermediate or higher educational levels did not increase their relative presence in the labor market in the same period. The marked increase in economic participation of less educated women in union with small children was accompanied by a significant increase in manual occupations. Between 1982-87, the proportion of women aged 20-49 in nonsalaried manual occupations rose from 7.6% to 18.5%. Mexico's fertility decline has been well documented. The total fertility rate declined from 6.3 in 1973 to 3.8 in 1986, while the percentage of women in union using a contraceptive method increased from 30.2 in 1976 to 52.7 in 1987. Fertility differentials have been declining but are still considerable

  11. Intergenerational fertility among Hispanic women: new evidence of immigrant assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, Emilio A; Morgan, S Philip

    2008-08-01

    In recent decades, rapid growth of the U.S. Hispanic population has raised concerns about immigrant adaptation, including fertility. Empirical research suggests that Hispanics, especially Mexicans, might not be following the historical European pattern of rapid intergenerational fertility decline (and convergence toward native levels). If confirmed, continued high Hispanic fertility could indicate a broader lack of assimilation into mainstream American society. In this paper, we reexamine the issue of Hispanic and Mexican fertility using an approach that combines biological and immigrant generations to more closely approximate a comparison of immigrant women with those of their daughters' and granddaughters' generation. Contrary to cross-sectional results, our new analyses show that Hispanic and Mexican fertility is converging with that of whites, and that it is similarly responsive to period conditions and to women's level of education. In addition, we employ a mathematical simulation to illustrate the conditions under which cross-sectional analyses can produce misleading results. Finally, we discuss the import of the fertility convergence we document for debates about immigrant assimilation.

  12. Sexual function and fertility quality of life in women using in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Madeira, Jody; Millard, Heather R

    2015-04-01

    Women undergoing fertility treatment are likely to report negative changes in sexual function. With the rapid increase in the number of women pursuing in vitro fertilization (IVF), there is a need to better understand how IVF impacts a woman's sexual experiences and quality of life. This study has three purposes: (i) test the psychometric properties of the Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) in a sample of U.S. women undergoing IVF; (ii) compare sexual function of women undergoing IVF with a nonclinical sample of U.S. women; and (iii) identify the aspects of sexual function most related to fertility quality of life (FertiQoL). A total of 136 women who had recently undergone or who were currently undergoing IVF completed a web-based, cross-sectional survey about sexual experiences and quality of life. Data were collected on infertility diagnosis, length of infertility, number of IVF cycles, pregnancy, and birth outcomes. Six domains of sexual function as well as the medical impact of IVF were assessed using the SFQ. A validated instrument was used to measure FertiQoL. Reliability analyses for the SFQ indicate sufficiently strong fit (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79 to 0.89). Compared with a nonclinical sample, women undergoing IVF scored significantly lower in sexual interest, desire, orgasm, satisfaction, sexual activity, and overall sexual function (P Women undergoing IVF may be at particular risk for sexual problems. Sexual function issues may markedly impact overall quality of life during fertility treatment and should be addressed as an important component of comprehensive care. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Development of Malaysian women fertility index: Evidence from Shannon's entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Wan Aznie Fatihah Wan Abd; Sharif, Shamshuritawati

    2017-11-01

    A fertility rate is a measure of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Malaysia is now facing a population crisis and the fertility rate continues to decline. This situation will have implications for the age structure of the population where percentages of senior citizens are higher than percentages of people aged below 5 years old. Malaysia is expected to reach aging population status by the year 2035. As the aging population has a very long average life expectancy, the government needs to spend a lot on medical costs for senior citizens and need to increase budgets for pensions. The government may be required to increase tax revenues to support the growing older population. The falling fertility rate requires proper control by relevant authorities, especially through planning and implementation of strategic and effective measures. Hence, this paper aims to develop a fertility index using Shannon's entropy method. The results show that Selangor, Johor, and Sarawak are among the states with the highest values of the fertility index. On the other end of the spectrum, Terengganu, W.P. Labuan, and Perlis are ranked in the last positions according to the fertility index. The information generated from the results in this study can be used as a primary source for the government to design appropriate policies to mitigate dwindling fertility rates among Malaysian women.

  14. The Sexual Impact of Infertility Among Women Seeking Fertility Care

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelman, William D.; KATZ, PATRICIA P.; Smith, James F.; Rowen, Tami S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility affects approximately 6.7 million women in the United States. Couples with infertility have significantly more anxiety, depression, and stress. This is compounded by the fact that almost 40% of couples undergoing assisted reproduction technology still cannot conceive, which can have an ongoing effect on quality of life, marital adjustment, and sexual impact. Aim: To assess the sexual impact of infertility in women undergoing fertility treatment. Methods: This s...

  15. Fertility Desires and Intentions among HIV-Positive Women during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    women's and men's childbearing decisions11,12. Although many people living with HIV. (PLHIV) report lower fertility intentions, evidence suggests that being on antiretroviral therapy. (ART) can increase the desire for children13-16. Two recent studies in Uganda found that ART use and higher HAART optimism scores were.

  16. Fertility among HIV-infected Indian women Indian women : the biological effect and its implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Janssen, Fanny; Hutter, Inge

    In India, nearly one million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV. This study sought to examine the biological effect of HIV on the fertility of HIV-infected Indian women. This is relevant for the provision of pregnancy-related counselling and care to the infected women, and for

  17. Domestic group, status of women, and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, T

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to explain the fertility behavior of Patels; a major peasant caste in village Mogra in Rajasthan, India. The Patels make up 162 of the 404 households in the village and nearly 50% of the village's population of 2610. The Patels claim to have migrated from Gujarat a few centuries ago. This paper is based on a study of 140 randomly selected Patel households comprising 168 couples by using the method of intensive fieldwork over a period of about 6 months. Every household in Mogra, with the possible exception of 1 household of a Bania trader, is involved in agriculture in 1 capacity or another. The Patels are the major landowning caste, and all but 2 of the households in the sample of 140 own land. The Patels marry early, and the practice of child marriage remains common today. Being a patrilineal people, Patels consider sons as heirs to family property and status. Of the 140 households in the sample, 65 are complex in composition while 75 are simple. All the simple households are consequences of the partition of complex households. The consummation of marriage marks an immediate loss of independence to the woman. The Patels of Mogra have sound economic reasons for having a large number of children. They prefer to use family labor to the maximum possible extent. When labor is the major input, the land can absorb whatever labor is available. A great demand exists for labor in the domestic sphere as well. Compared to the returns, the cost of bringing up children is negligible. The expenditure on their clothing and education is minimal. Economics alone do not explain high fertility. Sons are essential to continue the line and for old age security. The marriage of daughters brings in bride price and religious merit. 1 son may find the burden of carrying out the kinship obligations inherited from his parents too high. When there are several sons, they can share the burden among themselves. Religious values and the obligations of kinship and

  18. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment ... Numbness or pain in the genitals Problems with fertility Many people also have emotional side effects after ...

  19. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N

    1989-01-01

    Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration ...

  20. The Sexual Impact of Infertility Among Women Seeking Fertility Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, William D; Katz, Patricia P; Smith, James F; Rowen, Tami S

    2016-09-01

    Infertility affects approximately 6.7 million women in the United States. Couples with infertility have significantly more anxiety, depression, and stress. This is compounded by the fact that almost 40% of couples undergoing assisted reproduction technology still cannot conceive, which can have an ongoing effect on quality of life, marital adjustment, and sexual impact. To assess the sexual impact of infertility in women undergoing fertility treatment. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of women in infertile couples seeking treatment at academic or private infertility clinics. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondents were surveyed regarding sexual impact and perception of their infertility etiology. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with increased sexual impact. Sexual impact of perceived fertility diagnosis. In total, 809 women met the inclusion criteria, of whom 437 (54%) agreed to participate and 382 completed the sexual impact items. Most of the infertility was female factor only (58.8%), whereas 30.4% of infertility was a combination of male and female factors, 7.3% was male factor only, and 3.5% was unexplained infertility. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, women who perceived they had female factor only infertility reported greater sexual impact compared with woman with male factor infertility (P = .01). Respondents who were younger than 40 years experienced a significantly higher sexual impact than respondents older than 40 years (P < .01). When stratified by primary and secondary infertility, respondents with primary infertility overall reported higher sexual impact scores. In women seeking fertility treatment, younger age and female factor infertility were associated with increased sexual impact and thus these women are potentially at higher risk of sexual dysfunction. Providers should consider the role young age and an infertility diagnosis plays in a women's sexual well

  1. Maintaining fertility in young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvat, Melissa C; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2009-12-01

    Breast cancer effects nearly 200,000 American women each year, with 9% of these women still in their childbearing years. For this subset of future survivors, the issue of fertility may be a significant quality-of-life concern. Both the causes and treatments for infertility in young breast cancer patients must be thoroughly understood by the multidisciplinary team caring for these women in order for the caregivers to be effective advocates for their patients. Radiation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy all effect ovarian function to greater or lesser degrees, with the incidence of permanent post-treatment amenorrhea following systemic treatment for breast cancer in women age 50 or younger estimated as between 33% and 76%. The science of fertility preservation continues to experience significant advances in terms of the success of oocyte, embryo, and ovarian tissue preservation, and it is crucial that physicians and patients are aware of the available fertility preservation options. The optimal time to address the possibility of treatment-related infertility and strategies to combat this with younger patients is prior to treatment, rather than after cancer therapy has begun, and a full knowledge of the available technologies is a prerequisite for an informed discussion. Causes of ovarian suppression and options for treatment, including consideration of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and alternative parenting approaches are also discussed to assist the clinician caring for young patients with cancer.

  2. "We will not rest." Filipino women want a fertility management program that respects women's dignity, women's bodies and women's choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R O

    1993-03-01

    The program officer for the Institute for Social Studies and Action presents 1) her views on women's fertility management under different political administrations in the Philippines, 2) the political postures of influential groups, 3) the goals of women's and health groups, and 4) the actions taken by Filipino women. Under Ferdinand Marcos, the official family planning (FP) program emphasized reduction of population growth and established a quota system and incentives for the number of new acceptors. Women, as a result, became victims; e.g. IUDs were inserted without prior knowledge, and inadequate information and follow-up were provided on oral contraceptive use. Efforts were criticized for treating women as program targets and not as individuals capable of making choices. Under Corazon Aquino, the Roman Catholic hierarchy dominated and would have banned all forms of artificial contraception had women's and health groups not blocked the effort. Only in 1989 did President Aquino finally announce that multiple methods of family planning (FP) would be promoted. There was a transition in program services during the transfer to the Department of Health. Currently the government promotes FP within the safe motherhood and child survival context, but adolescents and unmarried women and couples are excluded from FP services. Population control advocates believe FP is a health issue. The Roman Catholic Church accepts only natural methods and believes artificial methods interfere with the natural processes of procreation. Anti-FP groups promote only natural FP methods and wage campaigns to discredit contraceptive methods. Women's and FP groups contend that it is a woman's right to regulate her own fertility. Safe abortion should be made available to those who need it. Women's networks are mobilizing to talk about the issues, to hold public activities to change laws and policies and to encourage women's involvement in decision making affecting their lives, and to conduct

  3. Hair mercury concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Smith, Kristen; Williams, Paige L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Batsis, Maria; Toth, Thomas L.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Total hair mercury (Hg) was measured among 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and the association with prospectively collected IVF outcomes (229 IVF cycles) was evaluated. Hair Hg levels (median=0.62 ppm, range: 0.03-5.66 ppm) correlated with fish intake (r=0.59), and exceeded the recommended EPA reference of 1ppm in 33% of women. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts accounting for within-woman correlations across treatment cycles were used to evaluate the association of hair Hg with IVF outcomes adjusted for age, body mass index, race, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, and protocol type. Hair Hg levels were not related to ovarian stimulation outcomes (peak estradiol levels, total and mature oocyte yields) or to fertilization rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. PMID:25601638

  4. Fertility and Family Planning Among Immigrant Afghan Women in an Iranian City: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajede Vaezzade

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent estimates of fertility level of women in Afghanistan suggest that Afghan women have a very high fertility level as they marry young and continue to have children through the end of reproductive period. However, when Afghan women move to Iran as immigrants, they quickly adopt the fertility patterns of Iran. On the average the Afghan immigrant women in Iran has three children fewer than the average number of children ever born to women in Afghanistan.

  5. Dimensions of neuroticism and androgeny: fertile versus infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasemi A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Infertility influences various aspects of a woman's personality and psyche, and affects her functions within her family and occupation, as well as her ability to communicate. Studies have shown that infertility is associated with depression, stress, anxiety, dissatisfaction with life and other psychological problems. The purpose of the present study was to compare the dimensions of neuroticism and androgyny in fertile, infertile and postmenopausal women."n"n Methods: This study included of 180 fertile, infertile and postmenopausal women (60 in each group selected from inpatients at Imam Khomeini and Mirza Koochak Khan Hospitals, Tehran, Iran, during 2004. Data were collected using the NEO Personality Inventory Neuroticism Scale and Bem Sex-Role Inventory and analyzed using the one-way ANOVA technique."n"n Results: LSD test results show that mean neuroticism scores were significantly different between the three groups, with scores following the trend: infertile women > postmenopausal women > fertile women. The mean androgyny scores were also significantly different between the three groups, following the trend: infertile women < postmenopausal women < fertile women (p<0

  6. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing...... to be established, as there is a strong unmet demand among women and men to obtain: (i) knowledge of fertility status, (ii) knowledge of reproductive lifespan (women) and (iii) pro-fertility advice. Addressing these issues is often more challenging than treating infertile patients. Therefore, we propose...

  7. Perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Aho, Inka; Thorsteinsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population ages, issues concerning sexuality and fertility, among others, are becoming relevant. HIV is still surrounded by stigma and taboos, and there have been few studies conducted in industrialized settings concerning these que......INTRODUCTION: As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population ages, issues concerning sexuality and fertility, among others, are becoming relevant. HIV is still surrounded by stigma and taboos, and there have been few studies conducted in industrialized settings concerning...... these questions. We therefore wanted to investigate the perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV (WLWH) in an industrialized setting, using a questionnaire. METHODS: WLWH were recruited at their regular outpatient clinic visits, at the major Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark......L and mild or no symptoms of their HIV infection. A total of 62% were sexually active, stating condom use as their sole form of contraception. Of the sexually inactive women, one-third were in steady relationships. Eighty percent reported prior pregnancies, of which the majority had one or more children...

  8. ENDURING ECONOMIC HARDSHIP, WOMEN'S EDUCATION, MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY TRANSITION IN KINSHASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines fertility transition in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa. Shapiro (1996) documented the onset of fertility transition in the city, using data from 1990. Women's education was strongly inversely related to fertility, beginning with secondary schooling, and increases in women's education were important in initiating fertility transition in the city. The paper uses data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC to examine fertility in Kinshasa and assess fertility transition since 1990, a period characterized by severe adverse economic conditions in the DRC. Fertility transition has continued at a strong pace. In part this reflects increased educational attainment of women, but it appears also to be largely a consequence of enduring economic hardship. The ongoing fertility decline has been accompanied by substantial delays in entry to marriage and childbearing, reflecting adverse economic conditions, which in turn have contributed to continuing declines in fertility.

  9. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  10. Perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Aho, Inka; Thorsteinsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    these questions. We therefore wanted to investigate the perception of sexuality and fertility in women living with HIV (WLWH) in an industrialized setting, using a questionnaire. METHODS: WLWH were recruited at their regular outpatient clinic visits, at the major Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark...... of mother-to-child transmission was, with all precautions taken. Fifteen percent estimated the risk to be above two percent. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the majority of WLWH in industrialized settings in Denmark and Finland have few HIV-related symptoms, are sexually active and have a strong desire......INTRODUCTION: As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population ages, issues concerning sexuality and fertility, among others, are becoming relevant. HIV is still surrounded by stigma and taboos, and there have been few studies conducted in industrialized settings concerning...

  11. Fertility Preservation: A Key Survivorship Issue for Young Women with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M Angarita; Cynae Alonia Lillian Johnson; Amanda eNickles Fader; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health-care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, p...

  12. Impact of ART on the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Beckles, Zosia; Benton, Lorna; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and to planning resource needs and coverage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In the light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women. We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, PubMed and African Index Medicus. Studies were included if they were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and provided estimates of fertility outcomes (live births or pregnancies) among women on ART relative to a comparison group. Of 2070 unique references, 18 published papers met all eligibility criteria. Comparisons fell into four categories: fertility of HIV-positive women relative to HIV-negative women; fertility of HIV-positive women on ART compared to those not yet on ART; fertility differences by duration on ART; and temporal trends in fertility among HIV-positive women. Evidence indicates that fertility increases after approximately the first year on ART and that while the fertility deficit of HIV-positive women is shrinking, their fertility remains below that of HIV-negative women. These findings, however, were based on limited data mostly during the period 2005-2010 when ART scaled up. Existing data are insufficient to characterise how ART has affected the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving evidence about fertility among women on ART is an urgent priority for planning HIV resource needs and understanding HIV epidemic trends. Alternative data sources such as antenatal clinic data, general population cohorts and population-based surveys can be harnessed to understand the issue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of Serum Leptin Level in Women with Unexplained Infertility and Fertile Women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafvizi, Farzaneh; Masomi, Masomeh

    2016-10-01

    Various studies have been conducted on the role of leptin in the different types of infertility, including endometriosis, polycystic ovaries and male infertility; however, only a few studies have been conducted on the effect of leptin on unexplained infertility. The purpose of the present study was therefore to compare serum leptin levels in women with unexplained infertility and fertile women as a contributing factor to female infertility in Iran. The present case-control study was conducted on 40 women with unexplained infertility and 30 fertile women who met the inclusion criteria (FSH women with unexplained infertility (31.20 ± 2.83 ng/ml) than in fertile women (24.89 ± 2.93 ng/ml), no statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups (P = 0.13). No statistically significant relationship was found between serum leptin levels in the two groups. In addition, there were no significant relationships between leptin and other predisposing factors such as hormone profile and antral follicle count.

  14. Pre-treatment fertility counseling and fertility preservation improve quality of life in reproductive age women with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Ebbel, Erin E; Katz, Patricia P; Katz, Audra; Ai, Wei Z; Chien, A Jo; Melisko, Michelle E; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2011-01-01

    Background The post-treatment quality of life (QOL) impacts of receiving pre-cancer-treatment infertility counseling and of pursuing fertility preservation have not been described in large-scale studies of reproductive age women with cancer. Methods 1041 women diagnosed between the ages of 18 and 40 responded to a retrospective survey and reported whether they received infertility counseling before cancer treatment and whether they took action to preserve fertility. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Validated QOL scales were used: Decision Regret Score (DRS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and World Health Organization QOL BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Results 560 women (61%) whose treatment could affect fertility were counseled by the oncology team, 45 (5%) were counseled by fertility specialists, 36 (4%) took action to preserve fertility. Pre-treatment infertility counseling by a fertility specialist and an oncologist resulted in lower regret than counseling by an oncologist alone (8.4 vs. 11.0, Pfertility preservation (6.6 vs. 11.0, Pfertility specialist counseling (23.0 vs. 19.8, P=0.09) or preserving fertility (24.0 vs. 19.0, P=0.05). Conclusions Receiving specialized counseling about reproductive loss and pursuing fertility preservation is associated with less regret and greater QOL for survivors, yet few patients are exposed to this potential benefit. Reproductive aged women should have expert counseling and be given the opportunity to make active decisions about preserving fertility. PMID:21887678

  15. Fertility in adult women with classic galactosemia and primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erven, B. van; Berry, G.T.; Cassiman, D.; Connolly, G.; Forga, M.; Gautschi, M.; Gubbels, C.S.; Hollak, C.E.M.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Knerr, I.; Labrune, P.; Langendonk, J.G.; Ounap, K.; Thijs, A.; Vos, R.; Wortmann, S.B.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study pregnancy chance in adult women with classic galactosemia and primary ovarian insufficiency. Despite dietary treatment, >90% of women with classic galactosemia develop primary ovarian insufficiency, resulting in impaired fertility. For many years, chance of spontaneous

  16. Women's reflections on fertility and motherhood after breast cancer and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, M; Winship, I; Stern, C; Neil, S; Mann, G B; Fisher, J R W

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer and its treatment have complex ramifications for women of reproductive age, including reduced fertility. With the aim of increasing understanding of what it means to women to manage fertility and motherhood in the years after a diagnosis of breast cancer, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women aged 26-45 years, living in Victoria, Australia, who had been diagnosed with breast cancer aged 25-41. Transcripts were analysed thematically and interpreted within narrative theory. Six themes linking breast cancer to fertility and motherhood were identified: diagnosis as a pivotal life event, robbed of time and choice, significance of fertility, being a mother, narrative justification, and life after breast cancer treatment. Women without children described a preoccupying sorrow about lost fertility. Women's accounts yielded evidence of narrative meaning-making, including justifying their decisions and actions in relation to survival, treatment and fertility, and coping with adversity by developing consoling plots. Breast cancer, fertility and reproductive health are inter-linked in diverse ways which have immediate and long-term consequences. Even if women are receiving optimum fertility management, it is evident that some women of reproductive age will need continuing post-cancer care to manage and ameliorate ramifications of diminished or lost fertility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fertility desires and condom use among HIV-positive women at an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, fertility and contraception patterns are likely to change. Two hundred HIV-positive women at an ART roll-out site in Zimbabwe responded to a questionnaire on fertility desires and condom use. Ten women (5%) reported planning a pregnancy in the ...

  18. Do infertile women and their partners have equal experiences with fertility care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huppelschoten, A.G.; Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Bommel, P.F. van; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the possible differences between women and their partners' experiences with patient-centered fertility care. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Thirty-two Dutch fertility clinics. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,620 infertile women and their partners, under treatment in one of

  19. Contemporary Fertility Patterns and First-Birth Timing among Mexican-Origin Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Christie D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines first-birth timing among Mexican women in the United States over two birth cohorts. Currently, Mexican women are one of a small group that maintains above-replacement fertility in the United States, contributing to both Mexican population growth and overall national population growth. Yet, the fertility timing of Mexican…

  20. Australian women's use of complementary and alternative medicines to enhance fertility: exploring the experiences of women and practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies exploring the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM to enhance fertility are limited. While Australian trends indicate that women are using CAM during pregnancy, little is known about women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. With the rising age of women at first birth, couples are increasingly seeking assisted reproductive technologies (ART to achieve parenthood. It is likely that CAM use for fertility enhancement will also increase, however this is not known. This paper reports on an exploratory study of women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. Methods Three focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia in 2007; two with women who used CAM to enhance their fertility and one with CAM practitioners. Participants were recruited from five metropolitan Melbourne CAM practices that specialise in women's health. Women were asked to discuss their views and experiences of both CAM and ART, and practitioners were asked about their perceptions of why women consult them for fertility enhancement. Groups were digitally recorded (audio and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed thematically. Results Focus groups included eight CAM practitioners and seven women. Practitioners reported increasing numbers of women consulting them for fertility enhancement whilst also using ART. Women combined CAM with ART to maintain wellbeing and assist with fertility enhancement. Global themes emerging from the women's focus groups were: women being willing to 'try anything' to achieve a pregnancy; women's negative experiences of ART and a reluctance to inform their medical specialist of their CAM use; and conversely, women's experiences with CAM being affirming and empowering. Conclusions The women in our study used CAM to optimise their chances of achieving a pregnancy. Emerging themes suggest the positive relationships achieved with CAM practitioners are not always attained with orthodox medical providers

  1. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliud Wekesa

    Full Text Available Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS.A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41] with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires.Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-infection prevention. More than a third (34% of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent.Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of

  2. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS. A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41]) with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires. Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-)infection prevention. More than a third (34%) of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent. Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of these

  3. Traditional Chinese medicine patterns and recommended acupuncture points in infertile and fertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeflet, Oddveig; Laake, Petter; Vøllestad, Nina

    2012-03-01

    Acupuncture is rooted in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and emphasises individualised treatment according to TCM patterns. Eight TCM patterns are regarded as typical for female infertility. There are no empirical data comparing these patterns in fertile and infertile women. To identify and compare the TCM patterns and recommended acupuncture points in infertile and fertile women. The hypothesis that infertile and fertile women should differ in occurrence of TCM patterns described as typical for infertility was examined. A cross-sectional study examined the distribution of TCM patterns and acupuncture points among 24 infertile and 24 fertile women. TCM patterns and points proposed by two acupuncturists were analysed. The odds ratio was used as the effect measure. Three patterns were found in more than 92% of the women. Five patterns occurred more frequently among infertile (p≤0.03), and four among fertile (p≤0.02) women. Only three of the eight patterns assumed typical for infertile women were more common among infertile women. Two of the eight patterns were more common among fertile women. Acupuncture points KI3, LI3 and SP6 were chosen for almost all women, whereas CV4, CV3 and ST29 were chosen more often for infertile women (pwomen (p<0.001). The data indicate that the presence of some, and the absence of other, TCM patterns are associated with infertility. These results are not consistent with the assumed associations between eight specific patterns and infertility, as maintained by TCM textbooks.

  4. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal......%) were born to women with fertility problems. In all, 313 children born to women with fertility problems (0.36%) and 5176 children born to women without fertility problems (0.28%) were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The risk of type 1 diabetes was not affected by maternal fertility status (hazard ratio...

  5. Emotional impact of unsuccessful fertility treatment in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    IVF infertility anxiety depression marital relationship longitudinal prospective study. Threatening infertility: emotional response to unsuccessful fertility treatment IVF of ICSI is usually the last treatment option for couples with fertility problems. The central aim of this thesis was to

  6. Factors affecting fertility decisions of married men and women living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In a setting with high HIV prevalence and high fertility rates, addressing fertility issues of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is crucial. However, understanding of the factors associated with fertility decisions of PLWHA in Ethiopia is remarkably low. Objective: The study was conducted to assess factors ...

  7. Women with celiac disease present with fertility problems no more often than women in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; West, Joe; Sultan, Alyshah Abdul; Ban, Lu; Tata, Laila J

    2014-12-01

    Studies have associated infertility with celiac disease. However, these included small numbers of women attending infertility specialist services and subsequently screened for celiac disease, and therefore may not have been representative of the general population. We performed a large population-based study of infertility and celiac disease in women from the United Kingdom. We identified 2,426,225 women with prospective UK primary care records between 1990 and 2013 during their child-bearing years from The Health Improvement Network database. We estimated age-specific rates of new clinically recorded fertility problems among women with and without diagnosed celiac disease. Rates were stratified by whether celiac disease was diagnosed before the fertility problem or afterward and compared with rates in women without celiac disease using Poisson regression, adjusting for sociodemographics, comorbidities, and calendar time. Age-specific rates of new clinically recorded fertility problems in 6506 women with celiac disease were similar to the rates in women without celiac disease (incidence rate ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.42 among women age 25-29 years). Rates of infertility among women without celiac disease were similar to those of women with celiac disease before and after diagnosis. However, rates were 41% higher among women diagnosed with celiac disease when they were 25-29 years old, compared with women in the same age group without celiac disease (incidence rate ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.92). Women with celiac disease do not have a greater likelihood of clinically recorded fertility problems than women without celiac disease, either before or after diagnosis, except for higher reports of fertility problems between 25-39 years if diagnosed with CD. These findings should assure most women with celiac disease that they do not have an increased risk for fertility problems. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier

  8. Practical recommendations for fertility preservation in women by the FertiPROTEKT network. Part II: fertility preservation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wolff, Michael; Germeyer, A; Liebenthron, J; Korell, M; Nawroth, F

    2018-01-01

    In addition to guidelines focusing on scientific evidence, practical recommendations on fertility preservation are also needed. A selective literature search was performed based on the clinical and scientific experience of the authors. This article (Part II) focuses on fertility preservation techniques. Part I, also published in this journal, provides information on disease prognosis, disease-specific therapy, and risks for loss of fertility. Ovarian stimulation including double stimulation and freezing of oocytes is the best-established therapy providing live birth chances in women good ovarian, if spontaneous conception is favoured and if preservation in women provides realistic chances of becoming pregnant. The choice of technique needs to be based on the time required, the woman's age, its risks and efficacy, and the individual preference of the patient.

  9. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Premenstrual symptoms in fertile age are associated with impaired quality of life, but not hot flashes, in recently postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautamäki, Hanna; Haapalahti, Petri; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S

    2014-12-01

    Because premenstrual symptoms in fertile age resemble menopausal symptoms, many women with premenstrual symptoms fear that they have an increased risk for developing vasomotor symptoms in menopause. We investigated the impact of premenstrual symptoms on the occurrence and severity of menopausal vasomotor symptoms and quality of life. One hundred fifty recently postmenopausal healthy women recorded hot flashes prospectively (23, none; 34, mild; 30, moderate; 63, severe), and their quality of life was assessed using the Women's Health Questionnaire. We measured the occurrence of premenstrual symptoms in fertile age using the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool and calculated a premenstrual score reflecting symptom severity. One hundred seven women (89.2%) reported premenstrual symptoms (median score, 7.0; range, 0-38), which had impaired work efficiency or social relations in 64 women (53.3%). The occurrence of premenstrual symptoms was similar in women with and without hot flashes of different magnitudes, as the mean (SEM) premenstrual score was 7.8 (1.4) for no hot flashes, 5.0 (1.0) for mild hot flashes, 7.7 (1.3) for moderate hot flashes, and 9.4 (1.2) for severe hot flashes (P = 0.10). The severity of premenstrual symptoms failed to correlate with the severity of postmenopausal hot flashes (r = 0.087, P = 0.346). A history of premenstrual symptoms was associated with impaired memory and concentration capacity (r = -0.448, P hot flashes, in recently postmenopausal women.

  11. Does Women's Education Affect Fertility? Evidence from Pre-Demographic Transition Prussia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Sascha; Cinnirella, Francesco; Woessmann, Ludger

    2013-01-01

    , and 1867—to estimate the relationship between women's education and their fertility before the demographic transition. Despite controlling for several demand and supply factors, we find a negative residual effect of women's education on fertility. Instrumental-variable estimates using educational variation......While women's employment opportunities, relative wages, and the child quantity–quality trade-off have been studied as factors underlying historical fertility limitation, the role of women's education has received little attention. We combine Prussian county data from three censuses—1816, 1849...... deriving from landownership concentration, as well as panel estimates controlling for fixed effects of counties, suggest that the effect of women's education on fertility is causal....

  12. Evaluation of the melatonin and oxidative stress markers level in serum of fertile and infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Rad, Sara; Abbasalizadeh, Shamsi; Ghorbani Haghjo, Amir; Sadagheyani, Mehzad; Montaseri, Azadeh; Soleimani Rad, Jafar

    2015-07-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals. The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women. The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test. Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46). MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (plevel of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (plevel of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.

  13. Environmental Intolerance, Symptoms and Disability Among Fertile-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuokko, Aki; Karvala, Kirsi; Lampi, Jussi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Pasanen, Markku; Voutilainen, Raimo; Pekkanen, Juha; Sainio, Markku

    2018-02-08

    The purpose was to study the prevalence of environmental intolerance (EI) and its different manifestations, including behavioral changes and disability. Fertile-aged women ( n = 680) of the Kuopio Birth Cohort Study were asked about annoyance to 12 environmental factors, symptoms and behavioral changes. We asked how much the intolerance had disrupted their work, household responsibilities or social life. We chose intolerance attributed to chemicals, indoor molds, and electromagnetic fields to represent typical intolerance entities. Of the respondents, 46% reported annoyance to chemicals, molds, or electromagnetic fields. Thirty-three percent reported symptoms relating to at least one of these three EIs, 18% reported symptoms that included central nervous system symptoms, and 15% reported behavioral changes. Indicating disability, 8.4% reported their experience relating to any of the three EIs as at least "somewhat difficult", 2.2% "very difficult" or "extremely difficult", and 0.9% "extremely difficult". Of the latter 2.2%, all attributed their intolerance to indoor molds, and two thirds also to chemicals. As the number of difficulties increased, the number of organ systems, behavioral changes and overlaps of the three EIs also grew. EI is a heterogeneous phenomenon and its prevalence depends on its definition. The manifestations of EI form a continuum, ranging from annoyance to severe disability.

  14. Prevalence of Child Marriage and its Impact on the Fertility and Fertility Control Behaviors of Young Women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Child marriage in India is considered a major barrier to the nation's social and economic development, as well as a major women's health concern. The current study assesses prevalence of child marriage (i.e., marriage prior to the national legal age of 18 years) among young adult women in India, and associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility control behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household sample of Indian women ages 16-49 years (N=124,385) collected in 2005-2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3. Participants Analyses were restricted to women age 20-24 years (n=22,807) and the subsample of ever married women aged 20-24 years (n=14,628). Data Analysis Prevalence estimates of child marriage were produced for all women 20-24 years. Using the ever married subsample, simple regression models, models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility control outcomes. Fertility and Fertility Control Outcomes No contraception prior to childbirth, childbirth within first year of marriage, high fertility (3 or more births), history of recent rapid repeat childbirth, unwanted pregnancy, and female sterilization. Results Child marriage was reported by 44.5% of Indian women ages 20-24 years; 22.6% reported marriage prior to age 16 years, and 2.6% were married prior to age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with women's increased risk for no contraceptive use prior to first childbirth (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.22, 1.54), high fertility (AOR=7.40, 95% CI=6.45, 8.50), history of rapid repeat childbirth (AOR=3.00, 95% CI=2.74, 3.29), multiple unwanted pregnancies (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.90, 2.94), pregnancy termination (AOR=1.22; 95% CI=1.06, 1.41) and female sterilization (AOR=5

  15. Provision of fertility services for women at increased risk of complications during fertility treatment or pregnancy: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This opinion addresses the ethics of providing fertility treatment to women at elevated risk from fertility treatment or pregnancy. Providers ethically may treat women at elevated risk provided that they are carefully assessed; that specialists in their medical condition are consulted as appropriate; and that patients are fully informed about risks, benefits, and alternatives, including oocyte and embryo donation, use of a gestational surrogate, not undergoing fertility care, and adoption. Providers also may conclude that the risks are too high for them to treat particular patients ethically; such determinations must be made in a medically objective and unbiased manner and patients must be fully informed of the decision. Counseling of women who wish to initiate fertility treatment with underlying medical conditions that confer increased risk during treatment or pregnancy should incorporate the most current knowledge available, being cognizant of the woman's personal determinants in relation to her reproductive desires. In such a way, both physician and patient will optimize decision making in an ethically sound, patient-supportive context. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Divorce or end of cohabitation among Danish women evaluated for fertility problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Trille; Albieri, Vanna; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne O

    2014-03-01

    Couples with fertility problems may experience marital or sexual distress which could potentially result in dissolved relationships. We investigated the likelihood of ending a relationship among women who did not have a child after a fertility evaluation. Longitudinal cohort study. Danish women ever referred for primary or secondary fertility problems to a public Danish hospital or private fertility clinic between 1990 and 2006. A total of 47,515 women. The data were linked to Danish administrative population-based registries containing demographic and socioeconomic information. Discrete-time survival models were used with person-period data. Each woman was followed from the year of her initial fertility evaluation through to 2007. Effects of parity after a fertility evaluation on the likelihood of ending a marital or cohabitation relationship. After up to 12 years of follow up, nearly 27% of the women were no longer living with the person with whom they had lived at the time of the fertility evaluation. Women who did not have a child after the evaluation had significantly higher odds ratios for ending a relationship up to 12 years after the evaluation (with odds ratios up to 3.13, 95% CI 2.88-3.41) than women who had a child, regardless of their parity before the evaluation. Parity after a fertility evaluation may be an important component in the longitudinal relationships of couples with fertility problems. Studies with detailed information on marital quality and relational well-being of couples with fertility problems are needed. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Women's Education and Family Behavior: Trends in Marriage, Divorce and Fertility. NBER Working Paper No. 15725

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…

  18. Are women and men well informed about fertility? Childbearing intentions, fertility knowledge and information-gathering sources in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Santos, Teresa; Melo, Cláudia; Macedo, Ana; Moura-Ramos, Mariana

    2017-08-04

    The postponement of parenthood may increase the number of couples experiencing infertility and prolonged time to pregnancy. Previous research has revealed that childless people are not well informed regarding fertility, which may threat their childbearing intentions. This study aimed to examine fertility knowledge and childbearing intentions held by Portuguese people and their use and perceived usefulness of information sources on fertility. Participants were recruited using a random-route domiciliary approach. A total of 2404 individuals aged 18-45 were asked to complete a structured questionnaire evaluating socio-demographic characteristics, childbearing intentions, fertility knowledge and information-gathering sources regarding fertility. In total, 95.5% of the participants indicated the desire to have children in the future, and 61.7% reported that having children would contribute to life satisfaction. Most of the participants expressed the desire to have two children in the future. The discrepancy between the numbers of planned and desired children was higher in men, in participants with lower education levels, in professionally active participants and in the unemployed participants. Relationship stability seemed to be more important in influencing childbearing decisions than financial stability or family support. Participants' knowledge regarding fertility was poor. Women, the participants who were older than 25, the participants with longer education and the participants with higher income exhibited the greatest levels of knowledge of fertility, although this knowledge was only slightly enhanced in these subgroups. Also, the participants overestimated both the chances of spontaneous pregnancy and the success rates of assisted reproduction techniques. Finally, the results revealed that websites were the main information sources used by the participants and only 18.0% of the participants had previously discussed fertility issues with their doctors. Although

  19. Predictors of mercury, lead, cadmium and antimony status in Norwegian never-pregnant women of fertile age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløtre, Christina Herland; Varsi, Kristin; Helm, Thea; Bolann, Bjørn; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    The toxic trace elements mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and antimony (Sb) are transferred over the placenta to the fetus and secreted into the breastmilk. All four elements bioaccumulate in the body and as maternal age at delivery is increasing in industrialized countries, the burden of toxic trace elements in never-pregnant women of fertile age is of concern. Healthy, never-pregnant women aged 18 to 40 years (n = 158) were recruited between June 2012 and March 2015 in Bergen, Norway. Clinical data were collected and non-fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for whole blood Hg, Pb and Cd and serum Sb by ICP-MS and related to diet and life style factors. In a multiple linear regression model, increasing age was associated with higher levels of Hg and Sb, but diet and life style factors were more important predictors. Median whole blood Hg was increased by a factor of 70 in women who had fish for dinner ≥1/week, compared to women who rarely or never ate fish (pnever-pregnant women, age contributed to Hg and Sb levels, but diet and life style factors were stronger determinants of whole blood Hg, Pb, Cd and serum Sb levels. Continuous public actions are needed to reduce modifiable and preventable sources of potentially deleterious toxins to minimize the exposure in children and fertile women.

  20. The Role of socioeconomic factors in fertility of Umuahia women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid population growth arising from high fertility has been argued as being disadvantageous to the economic growth of countries especially the developing country like Nigeria. This paper examines the role of socioeconomic factors in fertility. The study elicited information from 500 women of the reproductive age of 15-49 ...

  1. [The incidence of latent asymptomatic celiac disease in women with decreased fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedíková, M; Ulčová-Gallová, Z; Bibková, K; Mičanová, Z

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether patients with recurrent spontaneous abortions and IVF suffer from latent celiac disease. Perspective study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Faculty Hospital, Charles University, Pilsen. Sera from 442 infertile patients aged 23-47 years and 86 healthy fertile controls aged 22-38 years were examined by commercial ELISA sets for the presence (absence) of antibodies against gliadin IgG, IgA and tissue transglutaminase in IgG and IgA. We found a statistically significant difference between the control group and patients with decreased fertility. They have a positive values in anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (p = 0.0096). Frequent, very low positive reaction of antigliadin IgG was also found in the control group of women. Patients with unexplained repeated miscarriages and repeated unsuccessful IVF with IgA positive tissue transglutaminase have new complement of other tests for autoimmunity and examination of a total IgA, and gastroenterological examination. Eleven patients with significant positive anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA were successfully conceived only under strict gluten-free diet.

  2. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Pinborg, Anja; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing create a need for pro-fertility initiatives. Three years ago we established a new separate unit: The Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) clinic. The FAC clinic offers free individual counselling based on a clinical assessment including measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone and ovarian and pelvic sonography in women, sperm analysis in men, and a review of reproductive risk factors in both sexes. The FAC clinic includes a research programme with the goal to improve prediction and protection of fertility. Our first proposition is that clinics for individual assessment and counselling need to be established, as there is a strong unmet demand among women and men to obtain: (i) knowledge of fertility status, (ii) knowledge of reproductive lifespan (women) and (iii) pro-fertility advice. Addressing these issues is often more challenging than treating infertile patients. Therefore, we propose that fertility assessment and counselling should be developed by specialists in reproductive medicine. There are two main areas of concern: As our current knowledge on reproductive risk factors is primarily based on data from infertile patients, the first concern is how precisely we are able to forecast future reproductive problems. Predictive parameters from infertile couples, such as duration of infertility, are not applicable, diagnostic factors like tubal patency are unavailable and other parameters may be unsuitable when applied to the general population. Therefore, strict validation of reproductive forecasting in women and men from the general population is crucial. The second main concern is that we may turn clients into patients. Screening including reproductive forecasting

  3. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women's employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes.

  4. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women......, a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following...

  5. Women are more likely to wear red or pink at peak fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Alec T; Tracy, Jessica L

    2013-09-01

    Although females of many species closely related to humans signal their fertile window in an observable manner, often involving red or pink coloration, no such display has been found for humans. Building on evidence that men are sexually attracted to women wearing or surrounded by red, we tested whether women show a behavioral tendency toward wearing reddish clothing when at peak fertility. Across two samples (N = 124), women at high conception risk were more than 3 times more likely to wear a red or pink shirt than were women at low conception risk, and 77% of women who wore red or pink were found to be at high, rather than low, risk. Conception risk had no effect on the prevalence of any other shirt color. Our results thus suggest that red and pink adornment in women is reliably associated with fertility and that female ovulation, long assumed to be hidden, is associated with a salient visual cue.

  6. Spatial patterns and determinants of fertility levels among women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oluwayemisi O Alaba

    Results: Secondary or higher level of education of the mother, Yoruba ethnicity, Christianity, family planning use, higher wealth index, previous ... community and household effects contribute to the high fertility patterns in Nigeria. The hotspots for high ... high compared with Latin America and Asia where fertility declined from ...

  7. Obesity is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation among fertile young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karasoy, Deniz; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women.......Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women....

  8. Impact of ART on the Fertility of HIV-Positive Women in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yeatman, S.; Eaton, JW; Beckles, Z.; Benton, L.; Gregson, S.; Zaba, B

    2016-01-01

    Objective Understanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and planning resource needs and coverage of prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Popline,...

  9. Fertility in women of late reproductive age: the role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in its assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, B; Czyzyk, A; Kunicki, M; Podfigurna-Stopa, A; Plociennik, L; Jakiel, G; Maciejewska-Jeske, M; Lukaszuk, K

    2016-11-01

    Fertility is referred to the capability for having offspring and can be evaluated by fertility rate. Women's fertility is strictly dependent on individual's age. The fertility peak occurs in the early 20s, and it starts to decline in the third and fourth decades of life (falling sharply after age 35). The aim of this work is to review the available data concerning fertility in women of late reproductive age, especially the role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. There are a lot of factors responsible for decrease of fertility in women of late reproductive age. These factors can be classified as oocyte-dependent (decrease in oocyte quantity and quality) and oocyte-independent (reproductive organs [uterus, oviducts] status and general health). Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily produced directly by the ovarian granulosa cells of secondary, preantral, and early antral follicles. It has been used as an ovarian reserve marker since 2002. Anti-Müllerian hormone seems to be the best endocrine marker for assessing the age-related decline of the ovarian pool in healthy women. Evaluation of AMH's predictive value in the naturally aging population is important for counseling women about reproductive planning as well as for treatment planning for women experiencing hormone-sensitive gynecological conditions such as endometriosis and fibroids. AMH can be considered as an indicator of fertility in late reproductive age women and pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology cycles. AMH can strongly predict poor response in the controlled ovarian stimulation.

  10. Web-based survey of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ann H; Gelber, Shari; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sampson, Ebonie; Knudsen, Katherine; Laufer, Marc; Rosenberg, Randi; Przypyszny, Michele; Rein, Alison; Winer, Eric P

    2004-10-15

    Young women with breast cancer often seek advice about whether treatment will affect their fertility. We sought to gain a better understanding of women's attitudes about fertility and how these concerns affect decision making. We developed a survey about fertility issues for young women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. The survey was e-mailed to all registered Young Survival Coalition survivor members (N = 1,702). E-mail reminders were used. Six hundred fifty-seven eligible respondents completed the survey. Mean age at breast cancer diagnosis was 32.9 years; mean current age was 35.8 years. Ninety percent of women were white; 62% were married; 76% were college graduates. Stages at diagnosis were as follows: 0, 10%; I, 27%; II, 47%; III, 13%. Sixty-two percent of women were within 2 years of diagnosis. Fifty-seven percent recalled substantial concern at diagnosis about becoming infertile with treatment. In multivariate logistic regression, greater concern about infertility was associated with wish for children/more children (odds ratio [OR], 120; P conceiving (OR, 1.86; P = .08). Twenty-nine percent of women reported that infertility concerns influenced treatment decisions. Seventy-two percent of women reported discussing fertility concerns with their doctors; 51% felt their concerns were addressed adequately. Women seemed to overestimate their risk of becoming postmenopausal with treatment. Fertility after treatment is a major concern for young women with breast cancer. There is a need to communicate with and educate young patients regarding fertility issues at diagnosis and a need for future research directed at preserving fertility for young breast cancer survivors.

  11. Are women with fibromyalgia less physically active than healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Michael J; Colbert, Lisa H; Stegner, Aaron J; Cook, Dane B

    2011-05-01

    The primary purpose was to quantify and compare physical activity in fibromyalgia (FM) patients to age-matched healthy controls using both objective and self-report measures. Secondary purposes were to compare self-reported and objective measurement of physical activity and to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and pain and mood. Patients with FM (n=39) and healthy controls (n=40) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer at the hip for 7 d. Pain and mood were measured using the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. FM patients had significantly lower physical activity than controls measured by both the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and accelerometer (Pphysical activities than were measured by the accelerometer (P activity showed significant correlations in healthy controls (r=0.41-0.51, ρ=0.41, P0.05). Finally, physical activity levels were negatively related (r=-0.37, Pphysically active than healthy controls, thus extending on two earlier investigations that did not show differences in total physical activity levels using wrist-mounted actigraphy methods. Physical activity levels were not predictive of pain in FM but were significantly related to depressed mood. FM patients may also have a greater variability in their manner of self-report than healthy controls. Therefore, physical activity measurement in FM patients should not be limited solely to self-report measures. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  12. THE DELINKING OF SEX AND MARRIAGE: PATHWAYS TO FERTILITY AMONG YOUNG FILIPINO WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Jessica D; Hicks, Andrew L

    2017-01-01

    Partnership and fertility patterns of young Filipinos have changed dramatically from previous generations, with a widening gap between sexual initiation and marriage, and concurrent increases in teenage pregnancy and unwanted fertility. Further understanding of young adults' social contexts and partnership patterns are needed to inform reproductive health programmes and policies affecting young Filipinos. Multivariate Poisson regression models were conducted with longitudinal and inter-generational data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (1998-2009) to examine the predictors of young women's fertility. Age at first sex, and number and duration of partnerships each independently and significantly predicted women's fertility by 2009 after controlling for contextual influences. Young women with more conservative attitudes towards dating, sex and marriage, and who perceived their mothers to have more conservative attitudes, had higher fertility than their peers, as did young women with mothers who reported more adolescent sexual behaviours. In contrast, fertility was lower among daughters who had higher levels of communication with their mothers. Given high levels of unintended fertility and teenage pregnancy in the Philippines, the findings indicate that the interval between sexual initiation and first and subsequent partnerships may be ideal intervention points for reproductive health services for young Filipinos.

  13. The fertility of Korean minority women in China: 1950-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Cho, L; Choe, M K; Tuan, C

    1988-03-01

    Korean minority women in China have registered dramatic declines in fertility since 1950. The annual growth rate of the Chinese population averaged 2.1% in the 1964-82 period and that for the Han majority was 2.0%. The growth rates for all other ethnic groups were higher than the national average, except for the Korean minority (1.5%). Between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s the fertility decline was particularly marked among Yanbian Korean women; the total fertility rate dropped from 4.8 in 1965 to 1.9 in 1975. With small fluctuations, fertility has remained at or slightly below replacement level since 1975. The observation that Yanbian Koreans began and completed the fertility transition earlier than the rest of China is puzzling given the fact that government family planning programs have less stringent requirements for minorities. Since 1975, the childbearing of Korean women in China has been virtually limited to ages 20-29 years and there are relatively small differences in fertility for women with different levels of education. It is speculated that the migrant Koreans are a selected group of people who place less value on traditional norms and thus are more receptive to the small family size ideal. The fact that this minority has its own language schools and mass communication systems has meant that new norms adopted by the elite are spread to the rest of the Korean population at a pace faster than that in typical Chinese communities. When China introduced its ambitious national family planning program in the 1970s, the Koreans who had already begun the fertility transition were given the means to complete it at a very rapid pace. Overall, the fertility transition of Yanbian Korean women shows that rapid economic progress is not essential to a rapid decline in fertility if other conditions are favorable.

  14. Economic Empowerment of Women and Fertility Behaviour in Ogbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symposiums etc. regarding strengthening the very fragile status accorded to women have been held and are still holding. ..... Table 2: Women Economic Empowerment Measurements. Women Economic. Empowerment. Measurement. Categories Frequency Mean. (X). Standard. Deviation. (SD). Research. Decision.

  15. Use of fertility treatment modalities in a large United States cohort of professional women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Chavarro, Jorge E; Barbieri, Robert L; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the use of fertility treatments among a large cohort of women in the United States. Cohort study. Nurses' Health Study II. Ten thousand thirty-six women who reported having used fertility treatment on biennial questionnaires from 1993-2009. None. Data on patterns of treatment modality were collected via self-report from validated mailed questionnaires. Information on clomiphene, gonadotropin injections alone, and gonadotropin injections as part of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) was queried. Most women who reported fertility treatment used clomiphene (94%), with a large majority reporting clomiphene as their only form of treatment (73%). Of women who reported treatment more advanced than clomiphene, 13% had used gonadotropin injections alone, 11% IUI treatment, and 11% IVF. Several subgroups were more likely to use multiple treatment modalities and to initiate treatment with gonadotropins rather than clomiphene, including women living in states with insurance coverage of fertility procedures, with higher household income, younger in age, who remained nulliparous at the study close, and treated after 2000. Results should be interpreted cautiously, but to our knowledge, this represents the first study of fertility treatment patterns in the United States and could inform public health planning. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reaching Perinatal Women Online: The Healthy You, Healthy Baby Website and App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hearn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overwhelming evidence reveals the close link between unwarranted weight gain among childbearing women and childhood adiposity. Yet current barriers limit the capacity of perinatal health care providers (PHCPs to offer healthy lifestyle counselling. In response, today’s Internet savvy women are turning to online resources to access health information, with the potential of revolutionising health services by enabling PHCPs to guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents the findings of a project designed to develop an online resource to promote healthy lifestyles during the perinatal period. The methodology involved focus groups and interviews with perinatal women and PHCPs to determine what online information was needed, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The outcome was the development of the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and smartphone app. This clinically-endorsed, interactive online resource provides perinatal women with a personalised tool to track their weight, diet, physical activity, emotional wellbeing, and sleep patterns based on the developmental stage of their child with links to quality-assured information. One year since the launch of the online resource, data indicates it provides a low-cost intervention delivered across most geographic and socioeconomic strata without additional demands on health service staff.

  17. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young ...

  18. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  19. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-24

    Oct 24, 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  20. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women...... with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA. Results In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA...

  1. Subfertility in Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Outcome of Fertility Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Jenny; Fleurbaaij, Rosalie; Hazes, Johanna M W; Dolhain, Radboud J E M; Laven, Joop S E

    2017-08-01

    Subfertility is frequently encountered among female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and has been associated with disease activity and antirheumatic drugs. However, little is known about the results of the fertility assessments in these women. Our aim was to study the outcome of fertility assessments in subfertile women with RA. A cross-sectional study was performed in a nationwide cohort of female RA patients who were pregnant or trying to conceive between 2002 and 2010 (Pregnancy-Induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis Study). Patients who had given consent for future contact (n = 260) received a questionnaire on reproductive history, fertility examinations, and fertility treatments. Medical files were obtained from attending gynecologists. A completed questionnaire was returned by 178 women (68%), of whom 96% had ended their efforts to conceive. Eighty-two subjects (46%) had at least 1 subfertile episode, and for 61 women a diagnosis for subfertility was available. Unexplained subfertility (48%) and anovulation (28%) were the most common gynecologic diagnoses, and both occurred more often in RA patients than reported in the general population. Women with unexplained subfertility more often used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during the periconceptional period. Seventeen percent of all pregnancies were conceived after fertility treatments. Fertility treatments had equal or higher pregnancy rates in RA compared to other subfertile populations. Unexplained subfertility is more often diagnosed in subfertile female RA patients than in the general population, and is related to periconceptional NSAID use. Despite the higher incidence of subfertility in women with RA, the outcome of fertility treatments in these women appears favorable. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Effectiveness of in vitro fertilization in women with previous tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, Eva; Kemp, Anna; Hart, Roger; Jama-Alol, Khadra; Preen, David B

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to determine the effectiveness of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on live-delivery rates in women who had previously undergone tubal sterilization. We examined first IVF live deliveries for women aged 20-44 years at their first embryo transfer (ET) with history of hospital admission for tubal sterilization in Western Australia (WA). The ET cycles (n=178) were ascertained over the period of 1996 to 2010 using WA hospital records. A control group of subfertile women matched by age was randomly selected (n=178). We used Kaplan-Meier curves and life-table analysis to evaluate the cumulative live-delivery rates. An overall cumulative live-delivery rate in women who had undergone previous tubal sterilization (31%) was comparable to that of subfertile controls (34%) within the first 24 months. Younger women (aged 20-34 years) with previous sterilization (34%) were slightly more likely to deliver an IVF live baby than older women (aged 35-39 and 40-44 years) (33% and 22%, respectively), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=.449). Women who desire fertility after a tubal sterilization procedure and undergo IVF have rates of pregnancy similar to age-matched subfertile IVF control patients. In vitro fertilization success in women who had undergone previous tubal sterilization is similar to that of the subfertile controls and thus does not depend on past fertility. Age is the most important predictive factor in achieving pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporating Origin and Process in Migration-Fertility Frameworks: The Case of Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Susan G.; Landale, Nancy S.

    1998-01-01

    Life history data from both origin and destination areas were used to examine the relationship between migration and fertility among Puerto Rican women. Migration to the U.S. mainland had opposite effects on childbearing for single versus married or cohabiting women. For all migrants, migration played an integral part in the family formation…

  4. Religiosity: Its Impact on Coping Styles Among Women Undergoing Fertility Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein-Cohen, O; Katz, A; Sarid, O

    2017-06-01

    The Israeli worldview places great significance on childbearing. This could create emotional and ethical difficulties for women coping with fertility issues in addition to their treatments. This study examined the relations between coping strategies and level of religiosity in 159 women undergoing infertility treatment. Statistically significant relations were found between the problem-solving coping style and religious observance (p treatment.

  5. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic: A Descriptive Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil Eldridge, Katrine; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    in their sexual life. Aim: To investigate how women at a fertility clinic desire and experience communication about sexual matters with doctors and to investigate the sexual function of these women. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of women attending a Danish fertility clinic over...... 4 months was performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented as frequencies. Main Outcome Measure: Communication about sexual matters with doctors included the women’s comfort, preferred and actual frequency of discussion, and initiation of the conversation. Sexual function included...... for discussing sexual matters, and greater communication on this subject needs to be clinically implemented. Eldridge KE, Giraldi A. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic. A Descriptive Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e196ee202....

  6. Localisation of the Notch family in the human endometrium of fertile and infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sinderen, Michelle; Cuman, Carly; Gamage, Thilini; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Osianlis, Tiki; Rombauts, Luk; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the spatial and temporal immunolocalisation and staining intensity of the Notch signalling family in endometrium of fertile and infertile women, endometrial biopsies were collected by curettage from 25 fertile women across the menstrual cycle and 10 infertile women in the mid secretory phase of menstrual cycle. Immunohisotchemistry was completed for NOTCH1, -2, -3, -4, cleaved Notch, DLL1, -3, -4, JAGGED1, -2, HES and NUMB and immunostaining intensity measured in both the endometrial glandular and luminal epithelium. NOTCH1 and the ligands DLL1 and JAGGED1 were key proteins displaying increased staining intensity during the receptive phase of the menstrual cycle and dysregulated in infertile endometrium. Conversely, NUMB a negative regulator of Notch signalling was decreased in the mid secretory phase of the menstrual cycle in fertile women and increased with infertility.

  7. Outcome of deliveries in healthy but obese women: obesity and delivery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan-Sturk Rebecka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity among fertile women is a global problem. 25% of pregnant Swedish women are overweight at admission to the antenatal clinic and 12% of them are considered as obese. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of delivery complications with an elevated maternal BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate delivery outcomes in relation to maternal BMI on admission to the antenatal clinic. A healthy group of 787 women with full-term pregnancies and spontaneous onset of labor were included in the study. Delivery outcome was assessed in relation to maternal BMI when attending the antenatal clinic. Results The results indicated that in deliveries where the maternal BMI was >30 a high frequency of abnormal CTG trace during the last 30 minutes of labor was shown. A blood sample for evaluation of risk of fetal hypoxia was performed in only eight percent of these deliveries. A spontaneous vaginal delivery without intervention was noted in 85.7%, and 12% of neonates were delivered with an adverse fetal outcome compared to 2.8% in the group with a maternal BMI Conclusion These results indicate an increased risk at delivery for healthy, but obese women in labor. Furthermore, the delivery management may not always be optimal in these deliveries.

  8. Come On! Using intervention mapping to help healthy pregnant women achieve healthy weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-06-01

    Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan. A consortium of users and related professionals guided the process of development. As a result of the needs assessment, two goals for the intervention were formulated: (i) helping healthy pregnant women to stay within the IOM guidelines for GWG; and (ii) getting midwives to adequately support the efforts of healthy pregnant women to gain weight within the IOM guidelines. To reach these goals, change objectives and determinants influencing the change objectives were formulated. Theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Practical strategies to use the theories were the foundation for the development of 'Come On!', a comprehensive programme that included a tailored Internet programme for pregnant women, training for midwives, an information card for midwives, and a scheduled discussion between the midwife and the pregnant woman during pregnancy. The programme was pre-tested and evaluated in an effect study.

  9. Complex biological pattern of fertility hormones in children and adolescents: a study of healthy children from the CALIPER cohort and establishment of pediatric reference intervals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konforte, Danijela; Shea, Jennifer L; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Colantonio, David; Cohen, Ashley H; Shaw, Julie; Bailey, Dana; Chan, Man Khun; Armbruster, David; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    .... Because growth and development can markedly influence normal circulating concentrations of fertility hormones, accurate reference intervals established on the basis of a healthy, nonhospitalized...

  10. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Katrine Fiil; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown that sexuality is an important aspect of life. Nevertheless, sexual matters are only rarely discussed between patients and doctors. Other studies have suggested that women undergoing fertility treatment compose a group of patients with low satisfaction in their sexual life. To investigate how women at a fertility clinic desire and experience communication about sexual matters with doctors and to investigate the sexual function of these women. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of women attending a Danish fertility clinic over 4 months was performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented as frequencies. Communication about sexual matters with doctors included the women's comfort, preferred and actual frequency of discussion, and initiation of the conversation. Sexual function included participants' sexuality during the past year including certain sexual difficulties. Of the 201 participating women in the survey, most felt comfortable discussing sexual matters with doctors and preferred gynecologists for such discussions. There was a greater desire for communication than what was actually experienced by the women, and most wanted to initiate the conversation themselves. The women were less satisfied with their sexual life compared with a national control group, and they experienced sexual difficulties more often. There is an unmet desire of women in fertility treatment for discussing sexual matters, and greater communication on this subject needs to be clinically implemented. Eldridge KE, Giraldi A. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic. A Descriptive Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e196-e202. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, K; Beyene, Y; Nachtigall, R D

    2013-02-01

    What do older women understand of the relationship between age and fertility prior and subsequent to delivering their first child? Women who were first-time parents over the age of 40 did not accurately perceive the relationship between age and fertility prior to conceiving with IVF. While increases in women's age at their first birth have been most pronounced in relatively older women, the rapidity of fertility decline is not appreciated by most non-infertility specialist physicians, the general public or men and women who are delaying childbearing. Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2011 with 61 self-selected women who were patients in one of two fertility clinics in the USA. All participants had delivered their first child following IVF when the woman was 40 years or older. The data include women's responses to the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions 'What information did you have about fertility and age before you started trying to get pregnant?' and 'What did you learn once you proceeded with fertility treatment?' Of the women, 30% expected their fertility to decline gradually until menopause at around 50 years and 31% reported that they expected to get pregnant without difficulty at the age of 40. Reasons for a mistaken belief in robust fertility included recollections of persistent and ongoing messaging about pregnancy prevention starting in adolescence (23%), healthy lifestyle and family history of fertility (26%), and incorrect information from friends, physicians or misleading media reports of pregnancies in older celebrity women (28%). Participants had not anticipated the possibility that they would need IVF to conceive with 44% reporting being 'shocked' and 'alarmed' to discover that their understanding of the rapidity of age-related reproductive decline was inaccurate'. In retrospect, their belated recognition of the effect of age on fertility led 72% of the women to state that they felt 'lucky' or had

  12. Biological and Social Determinants of Fertility Behaviour among the Jat Women of Haryana State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Chandiok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility is a way through which human beings biologically replace themselves in order to continue their existence on earth. The present paper therefore attempts to study the factors affecting fertility among the Jat women of Haryana state. A household survey was conducted in 15 villages of Palwal district in which the concentration of Jats was found to be highest and 1014 ever married women were interviewed. Age at marriage, present age, education status, family type, and preference for male child were the most important factors that affected fertility in the studied population. Age at menarche, age at first conception, occupation status, use of birth control measures, and household per capita annual income did not affect the fertility in the studied population.

  13. Frustrated Fertility: Infertility and Psychological Distress among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey

    2003-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…

  14. Periodontal status in infertile women attending in vitro fertilization clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarthi Lalasa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that altered hormonal levels in infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy and infertile women not undergoing this treatment can lead to increased attachment loss, suggesting that these women may require constant periodontal monitoring.

  15. Fertility Behaviour of Men and Women in Three Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UN Millennium Project aims to reduce poverty, hunger, and disease while promoting education, health, gender equity, and environmental sustainability. Fertility is not mentioned anywhere within the eight goals, but population growth rates profoundly impact the achievability of all goals by increasing the budgets ...

  16. Spatial patterns and determinants of fertility levels among women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite aggressive measures to control the population in Nigeria, the population of Nigeria still remains worrisome. Increased birth rates have significantly contributed to Nigeria being referred to as the most populous country in Africa. This study analyses spatial patterns and contributory factors to fertility levels ...

  17. Determinants of Fertility Intention among Women Living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify significant predictors of fertility desire at 95 CL. Out of 456 respondents ... Interventions to address this problem include integrated access to contraception methods, and counselling on reproductive health decision-making. (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; ...

  18. Freezing the Biological Clock: A Viable Fertility Preservation Option for Young Singaporean Women?

    OpenAIRE

    Blyth, Eric; Lee, Geok Ling; Yee, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    In March 2012, an article in The Straits Times entitled ‘Freezing eggs could reverse falling birth rate’ suggested that employing the latest oocyte cryopreservation techniques could both foster individual women’s reproductive autonomy and impact Singapore’s fertility rate, which in recent years has consistently been among the world’s lowest. The article cited both local and international fertility specialists’ approval of elective oocyte cryopreservation for young women wishing to protect the...

  19. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Cardiac Responses to Exercise with Age in Healthy Women

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Masako; Yoneda, Junko; Tsukahara, Masato; Haraguchi, Masahiko

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the cardiac responses during exercise across the age groups in healthy women. Cordiopilmonary indices and Borg scale were obstained at rest and during exercise in twenty0one young female university students and 23 healthy postmenopausal volunteers. Exercise workloads in the younger group were significantly higher than those in the older group at anaerobic threshold (85±13 vs 58±13 watts, respectively ; p < 0.001) and at peak exercise (141±18 vs 93±17 watts, respectively : p < 0.00...

  1. Coronary endothelial function is better in healthy premenopausal women than in healthy older postmenopausal women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Mathews

    Full Text Available Premenopausal women have fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD events than postmenopausal women and age-matched men, but the reasons are not fully understood. Coronary endothelial function (CEF, a barometer of coronary vascular health, promises important insights into age and sex differences in atherosclerotic CVD risk, but has not been well characterized in healthy individuals because of the invasive nature of conventional CEF measurements. Recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI methods were used to quantify CEF (coronary area and flow changes in response to isometric handgrip exercise (IHE, an endothelial-dependent stressor to test the hypothesis that healthy women have better CEF compared to men particularly at a younger age.The study participants were 50 healthy women and men with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD or traditional CV risk factors and Agatston coronary calcium score (on prior CT <10 for those ≥ 50 years. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA measurements and flow-velocity encoded images (CBF were obtained at baseline and during continuous IHE using 3T breath-hold cine MRI-IHE. CEF (%change in CSA and CBF with IHE comparisons were made according to age and sex, and all women ≥50 years were post-menopausal.In the overall population, there were no differences in CEF between men and women. However, when stratified by age and sex the mean changes in CSA and CBF during IHE were higher in younger premenopausal women than older postmenopausal women (%CSA: 15.2±10.6% vs. 7.0±6.8%, p = 0.03 and %CBF: 59.0±37.0% vs. 30.5±24.5% p = 0.02. CBF change was also nearly two-fold better in premenopausal women than age-matched men (59.0±37.0% vs. 33.6±12.3%, p = 0.03.Premenopausal women have nearly two-fold better mean CEF compared to postmenopausal women. CEF, measured by CBF change is also better in premenopausal women than age-matched men but there are no sex differences in CEF after menopause. Fundamental age and sex

  2. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis differs from that in endometrium from healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system comprises four receptors, HER1-4, and several ligands, and is cyclically expressed in endometrium from healthy fertile women. Our aim is to identify differences in expression of the EGF system between endometriotic and normal endometrium. METHODS...... was analyzed by real-time PCR, and proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Endometrial mRNA for HER1-3 was high compared with our previous findings in healthy endometrium, whereas HER4 and the ligands were unchanged. Endometriomas show lower expression of HER1-3 and no HER4 expression....... Significant differences were demonstrated in late secretory phase for HER1 and HER2 and in the proliferative phase for HER3 compared to healthy women. Immunohistochemically, HER2 was identified in all samples, predominately in glands and surface epithelium. In a few glands, HER2 was in both cytoplasm and cell...

  3. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and association with in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Gaskins, Audrey J; Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Ehrlich, Shelley; Chavarro, Jorge E; Petrozza, John C; Ford, Jennifer B; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2015-09-01

    Are urinary BPA concentrations associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center? Urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes among women from a fertility clinic. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is detected in the urine of most Americans. Although animal studies have demonstrated that BPA reduces female fertility through effects on the ovarian follicle and uterus, data from human populations are scarce and equivocal. This prospective cohort study between 2004 and 2012 at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center included 256 women (n = 375 IVF cycles) who provided up to two urine samples prior to oocyte retrieval (total N = 673). Study participants were women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study. Intermediate and clinical end-points of IVF treatments were abstracted from electronic medical records. We used generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to evaluate the association between urinary BPA concentrations and IVF outcomes adjusted by age, race, body mass index, smoking status and infertility diagnosis. The specific gravity-adjusted geometric mean of BPA was 1.87 µg/l, which is comparable to that for female participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012. Urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with endometrial wall thickness, peak estradiol levels, proportion of high quality embryos or fertilization rates. Furthermore, there were no associations between urinary BPA concentrations and implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates per initiated cycle or per embryo transfer. Although we did not find any associations between urinary BPA concentrations and IVF outcomes, the relation between BPA and endometrial wall thickness was modified by age. Younger women (women (≥37 years old) had thinner endometrial thickness across increasing quartiles of

  4. Women, Fertility and Economics: Fifty Years of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Del Río; Nelson Alvis; Martha Yánez; Raúl Quejada; Karina Acevedo

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of the scientific literature on fertility and its relationship with economics. We explore theoretical and empirical frameworks developed in the last fifty years, emphasizing on the classical (Becker, Easterling) and unorthodox approaches (Bongaarts, Iannaccone, Lehrer). This literature review focused on journals of economics, sociology and demography indexed in the Journal Storage database (JSTOR), Elsevier’s research database (ScienceDirect), Elton B. ...

  5. Abdominal breathing increases tear secretion in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Ikeura, Kazuhiro; Arita, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between abdominal breathing and tear meniscus volume in healthy women, we investigated the change in tear meniscus volume in two groups: normal breathing and abdominal breathing. We used a crossover experimental model and examined 20 healthy women aged 20-54 years (mean ± SD, 32.7 ± 11.1 years). The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. During the first visit, the normal breathing group was subjected to normal breathing for 3 min, whereas the abdominal breathing group was subjected to abdominal breathing (4-second inhalation and 6-second exhalation) for 3 min. During the second visit, the protocols were swapped between the two groups. We estimated the R wave to R wave (R-R) interval, tear meniscus volume, salivary amylase activity, pulse, and blood pressure before and immediately after, 15 min after, and 30 min after completion of the breathing activity. After abdominal breathing, compared to that before breathing, the tear meniscus volume increased significantly 15 min after breathing (Pabdominal breathing (PAbdominal breathing for 3 minutes increases the tear meniscus volume in healthy women. Consequently, abdominal breathing may be considered in the treatment of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Rejnmark, Lars; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome.......To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome....

  7. Barriers to healthy nutrition: perceptions and experiences of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahmand Maryam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sound understanding of community perceptions and experiences regarding barriers to a healthy diet is a prerequisite for the design of effective interventions aimed at prevention of diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This study focused on exploring barriers to healthy nutrition as experienced by women participating in the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS. Methods A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants’ experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Data collection was conducted through sixteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 102 women, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. Results The study revealed that the most important barriers to healthy nutrition were: 1 Interpersonal/cultural effects, 2 Lack of access to healthy foods, and 3 Food preferences. Conclusions Understanding these barriers might contribute to existing literature by providing evidence from a different culture, and help design effective preventive strategies, and implement appropriate interventions among Tehranian families.

  8. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIVpositive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A purposive sampling technique was used to select pregnant women enroled in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. A sample size of thirty-five women was decided upon after data saturation. Qualitative inquiry was used during data collection. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation, while numbers ...

  9. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared...

  10. Testosterone and sexual desire in healthy women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual desire is typically higher in men than in women, with testosterone (T) thought to account for this difference as well as within-sex variation in desire in both women and men. However, few studies have incorporated both hormonal and social or psychological factors in studies of sexual desire. The present study addressed how three psychological domains (sexual-relational, stress-mood, body-embodiment) were related to links between T and sexual desire in healthy adults and whether dyadic and solitary desire showed associations with T. Participants (n = 196) were recruited as part of the Partnering, Physiology, and Health study, which had 105 men and 91 women who completed questionnaires and provided saliva for cortisol and T assays. T was positively linked to solitary desire in women, with masturbation frequency influencing this link. In contrast, T was negatively correlated with dyadic desire in women, but only when cortisol and perceived social stress were controlled. Replicating past findings, no significant correlations between T and desire in men were apparent, but these analyses showed that the null association remained even when psychological and confound variables were controlled. Men showed higher desire than women, but masturbation frequency rather than T influenced this difference. Results were discussed in terms of challenges to assumptions of clear links between T and desire, gendered approaches to T, and the unitarity of desire.

  11. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on mental health in fertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivaridelavar, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    The process of assisted reproductive treatment is a stressful situation in the treatment of infertile couples and it would harm the mental health of women. Fertile women who started infertility treatment due to male factor infertility have reported to experience less stress and depression than other women before the assisted reproductive process but considering the cultural and social factors and also the etiology of the assisted reproductive process, it could affect the metal health of these women. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of fertile women who undergo assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility. This study was a prospective study on 70 fertile women who underwent assisted reproductive treatment due to male factor infertility. The exclusion criterion was to stop super ovulation induction. To assess mental health, anxiety and depression dimensions of the general health questionnaire were used. Before starting ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting, the general health questionnaire was filled by women who were under treatment. Data were analyzed using multi-variable linear regression, paired t-test, and Chi-square. The results showed that the mean score of depression and anxiety before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting were not significantly different; but the rate of mental health disorder in the depression dimension was significantly decreased after oocytes harvesting (31.7% vs. 39.7%). Also, there was a significant relation between the level of anxiety and depression before ovulation induction and after oocyte harvesting (P assisted reproductive treatment does not affect the mental health in fertile women independently, but these women start assisted reproductive process with high levels of depression and anxiety. Therefore, prior to the assisted reproductive treatment mental health consultation is needed.

  12. Fertility outcomes in asthma: a clinical study of 245 women with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-04-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96 women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood of achieving pregnancy was lower in women with asthma compared with those without asthma: median total time to pregnancy was 32.3 months in non-asthmatic women versus 55.6 months in those with asthma, hazard ratio 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.74) pWomen with asthma had fewer successful pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often became pregnant than non-asthmatic women. Increasing age reduced the chances of conceiving especially among asthmatic women. The causal relationship between asthma and subfertility remains unclear. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  13. Fertility intentions of HIV-infected women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Susan; Townsend, Claire L; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2011-09-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), the number of pregnancies in HIV-infected women has increased dramatically over the last decade, but attitudes towards childbearing among infected women have not been previously described. The aim of this survey was to explore fertility intentions among HIV-infected women and to assess the effect of HIV treatment and interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) on these intentions. HIV-infected women, aged between 16 and 49 years, attending one of seven HIV clinics in the UK between July 2003 and January 2004 were asked to complete a questionnaire. Information on demographic factors, HIV test history, pregnancy history and fertility intentions (i.e., desire for children) was collected. Eighty-six per cent of eligible women (450/521) completed the questionnaire. Three quarters of women (336/450) reported that they wanted (more) children. Forty-five per cent (201/450) reported that HIV diagnosis did not affect their fertility intentions, 11% (50/450) that it made them want children sooner, and 10% (44/450) did not know or reported other views. About one third of women (155/450) decided they no longer wanted children after their HIV diagnosis, but 41% of these (59/144) had changed their mind following advances in HIV management and treatment. Factors associated with an increase in fertility intentions after advances in HIV management and treatment were being in a partnership and having fewer than two children. In this survey of HIV-infected women, the majority wanted children and women were more likely to want children after improvements in HIV management and treatment. These findings highlight the need for specialised family planning and reproductive health services targeting this population.

  14. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-12-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this intervention. We conducted a qualitative study in a Dutch university medical center and held in-depth interviews with women on the waiting list for oocyte banking. We recorded the interviews, transcribed them verbatim and used thematic analysis. All women were financially independent and lived in single-person urban households. They opted for oocyte banking because they wished to share parenthood with a future partner rather than becoming a single parent. This strong desire was key in their interpretation of all aspects of the intervention. Women set aside information about the limited success rates and potential risks, as they were optimistic about their own prognosis, thought that the chances for success were equally likely as the chances it would fail, and because of "anticipatory regret". They perceived oocyte banking as a "helping hand" to achieve shared parenthood. Although women found the costs of the intervention high, they were willing to invest their money to increase their chances for shared parenthood. Oocyte banking allows women to circumvent age-related fertility decline. The prospect of potential shared parenthood overrules the perceived health risks and burden. Health professionals should take this into account when informing potential users of oocyte banking. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Study of psychiatric disorders among fertile and infertile women and some predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of psychiatric disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.   Symptom Checklist -90 -Revised (SCL-90-R test and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing psychological and personality factors were recorded and psychological symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Results showed that 44% of infertile and 28.7% of fertile women had psychiatric disorders. Using SCL-90-R test, the highest mean scores among infertile women were found for paranoid ideation, depression and interpersonal sensitivity scales and the lowest scores were related to psychoticism and phobic anxiety scales. Interpersonal sensitivity, depression, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideas and psychoticism scales were significantly different between infertile and fertile women (p<0.05. Housewives were at a statistically significant higher risk for psychiatric disorders as compared to working women (p<0.001. Conclusion: The significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women mandates a more serious attention from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists regarding to diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  16. Ultrasound characteristics and histological dating of the endometrium in a natural cycle in infertile women compared with fertile controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, A; Ravn, V; Bentin-Ley, U

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endometrial dating and ultrasound texture in a natural cycle before IVF and relate these to outcome and to fertile references. DESIGN: Prospective study with a fertile reference group. SETTING: Four university IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Seventy-five IVF patients and 21 fertile...... in nonpregnant women compared with in women with ongoing pregnancies and with fertile controls. A periovulatory hyperechogenic endometrium resulted in no ongoing pregnancies. CONCLUSION(S): In a natural cycle preceding IVF, a low midluteal P level predicts a low implantation rate. A periovulatory hyperechogenic...... women. INTERVENTION(S): Ultrasound, biopsy, blood sampling. In vitro fertilization-ET in the following cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Endometrial evaluation, P, IVF outcome. RESULT(S): At day LH+7, 42% infertile vs. 67% fertile women demonstrated endometria that were in phase (statistically...

  17. Does infertility cause marital benefit? An epidemiological study of 2250 women and men in fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lone; Holstein, Bjørn; Christensen, Ulla; Boivin, Jacky

    2005-12-01

    To investigate (i) marital benefit, e.g., that infertility has strengthen the marriage and brought the partners closer together among people beginning fertility treatment and (ii) communication and coping strategies as predictors of marital benefit 12 months later. A prospective cohort design including 2250 people beginning fertility treatment and a 12-month follow-up. Data were based on self-administered questionnaires measuring marital benefit, communication, and coping strategies. The analyses of predictors were based on the sub-cohort (n=816) who had not achieved a delivery after fertility treatment. 25.9% of women and 21.1% of men reported high marital benefit. Among men medium use of active-confronting coping (e.g., letting feelings out, asking others for advice) and use of meaning-based coping were significant predictors for high marital benefit. Having the infertility as a secret, difficult marital communication, and using active-avoidance coping (e.g., avoid being with pregnant women or children, turning to work to take mind off things) were among men significant predictors for low marital benefit. No significant predictors were identified among women. Fertility patients frequently experience marital benefit. The study provides information about where to intervene with male fertility patients in order to increase their marital benefit after medically unsuccessful treatment.

  18. An analytical comparison of fertility rate among women in Beijing with different social and economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H; Gaoling; Shen, Q

    1993-01-01

    In Beijing, the total fertility rate (TFR) fluctuated between 1.3 and 1.8 in the 1980s, and in 1989 it was 1.3. A preliminary survey of 10% of the city's population involved 1,086,000 people, including 299,700 women aged 15-50. Samples of these women were used in group-specific comparisons of fertility rates in 1989. Women in agricultural residence made up 43.2% of the total, whose TFR was 1.822, vs. 0.925 for women in nonagricultural residence. The average childbearing age for agricultural women was 16 years, and their fertility was declining gradually after the age of 28 as opposed to the precipitous after 28 among nonagricultural women. 54% of the agricultural group had 1 child, 48% had 2 children, and 6% had 3 or more children. In contrast, 98% of nonagricultural women had 1 child. Among employed women, 30.7% were in production and transport, 2.6% were farmers, forest workers, and fishers and 20.5% were professional and technical personnel, with the rest being employed in services, post and telecommunications, civil service, and business. The TFR of unemployed women (mostly housewives with a TFR of 3.42) was 2.367, vs. 1.224 for agricultural women. More than 90% of these housewives were agricultural women. A multivariate analysis with the dependent variable of live births to individual women found that, except for age and housewife (or not) status, all variables were negative. In contrast to illiterates, farmers, forest workers, and fisher women, women with higher educational levels and in other occupations had few children. The average number of children born to women with elementary school education was 0.5 less than among illiterates, and 1 less among university graduates than among illiterates. Elementary and junior high school education had the highest marginal impact. The family planning program has been successful in Beijing in lowering fertility, with further declines expected. However, rural women still had more than 1 child at an early age; this

  19. Fluoxetine treatment for anxiety in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serafini, Paulo; Lobo, Daniela Sabatini; Grosman, Adriana; Seibel, Debora; Rocha, Andre M; Motta, Eduardo L.A

    2009-01-01

    ...) and treatment outcomes between women taking fluoxetine and a placebo. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients allocated to receive either fluoxetine (FLX) or folic acid (FA...

  20. A pilot study comparing the DuoFertility® monitor with ultrasound in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollason JCB

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jennie CB Rollason,1 Joanne G Outtrim,2 Raj S Mathur1 1Cambridge IVF, Addenbrooke's NHS Trust, 2University Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of ovulation detection by the DuoFertility® monitor compared with transvaginal ultrasound in infertile women with regular menstrual cycles. Methods: Eight infertile patients, aged 27–40 years, with a body mass index of 19–29, regular menses, normal ovaries on pelvic ultrasound scan, and normal early follicular luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin were recruited from infertility clinics in primary and secondary care for this pilot, prospective, observational study. The patients were asked to use the DuoFertility monitor for the whole cycle, with investigators and patients blind to DuoFertility data. Daily urine LH monitoring commenced on cycle day 8, with daily transvaginal ultrasound following the first positive LH until ovulation was observed. Ovulation was further confirmed by serum progesterone. The main outcome measure was detection of ovulation by the DuoFertility monitor, and correlation between day of ovulation assessed by DuoFertility and ultrasound. Results: DuoFertility identified ovulation as having occurred within one day of that determined via ultrasound in all cycles. The sensitivity of ovulation detection was 100% (95% confidence interval 82–100. The specificity could not be concluded from the data. Conclusion: In infertile women with regular cycles, the DuoFertility monitor appears to accurately identify ovulatory cycles and the day of ovulation. Keywords: fertility monitor, ovulation, infertility, ultrasound scan, urinary luteinizing hormone

  1. Fertility in premenopausal women post autologous stem cell transplant with BEAM conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasica, Masa; Taylor, Emma; Bhattacharyya, Puja; Bennett, Ashwini; Cooke, Rachel E; Stern, Catharyn; Agresta, Franca; Ayton, Rosemary; Grigg, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    There is currently minimal data on fertility outcomes in premenopausal women undergoing autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) with carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) conditioning. A retrospective analysis of fertility outcomes in premenopausal females aged between 18 and 40 yr who underwent BEAM/ASCT for lymphoma between 1995 and 2011 was performed at four transplant centres. Of 41 premenopausal women who underwent BEAM conditioning, 25 met the inclusion criteria with the main exclusion criterion being inadequate documentation. Eighteen had Hodgkin lymphoma, and seven had non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Median number of chemotherapy regimens pretransplant was 2 (1-3). Seventeen women (68%) with a median age at transplant of 25 yr (range 17-33) recovered their menses. The comparative group without recovery was older with a median age of 34 yr (range 20-40) (P = 0.007). Ten patients, with a median age at transplant of 22 yr (range 17-30), had 15 naturally conceived pregnancies. Chemotherapy regimens and lymphoma type did not obviously influence the incidence of menses recovery or conception. The incidence of recovery of menses and fertility in premenopausal women undergoing BEAM/ASCT for lymphoma is substantial. Younger age at transplant correlates with superior fertility outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Estimating the effect of HIV/AIDS on fertility among Malawian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show lower age-specific fertility rates (except for the 15–19-year-old age group) and probabilities of giving birth for HIV-positive relative to ... We think that the scaling up of antiretroviral treatment has contributed to the increase in the likelihood of giving birth among HIV-positive women between 2004 and 2010, ...

  3. Psychological correlates of prenatal attachment in women who conceived after in vitro fertilization and women who conceived naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmstedt, Anna; Widström, Ann-Marie; Collins, Aila

    2006-12-01

    Investigators have pointed out that long-awaited pregnancies, such as those after in vitro fertilization (IVF), are emotionally vulnerable. In addition, higher pregnancy-related distress has been found among women pregnant after in vitro fertilization compared with women with "naturally" achieved pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare prenatal attachment among IVF mothers and control mothers (women who conceived naturally), and to study relationships between prenatal attachment and psychosocial variables. Fifty-six IVF women from IVF clinics and 41 control women from antenatal clinics in Stockholm were assessed in gestational weeks 26 and 36. They completed self-rating scales measuring prenatal attachment, personality, marital relationship, anxiety, and depression. Prenatal attachment increased as the pregnancy progressed in both groups. Prenatal attachment rated in gestational week 26 was significantly associated with that in gestational week 36. Multiple regression analyses showed that, in gestational week 26, prenatal attachment was explained by satisfaction with the partner relationship, whereas in gestational week 36 the factors contributing to high prenatal attachment were low scores of the personality trait detachment, low ambivalence, and younger age. Method of conception was unrelated to prenatal attachment at either assessment time point. In vitro fertilization mothers are attached to their unborn children to the same extent as other mothers. Prenatal attachment increases during pregnancy. At the same time, however, individual scores on prenatal attachment seem to be relatively stable. Significant contributors to prenatal attachment are marital satisfaction, age, ambivalence, and detachment.

  4. Determinants of Fertility Intention among Women Living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    University, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Department of Population and Family Health, Jimma, Ethiopia. ... rights. In 2013, an estimated 1.5 million women living with HIV gave birth, virtually unchanged from 2009. Globally, 3.2 million children under. 15 were living with HIV in 2013, comprising 9.1% of all people ...

  5. Child Spacing and Fertility Planning behavior among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    birth in the last three years prior to the survey and who resided in the district for more than 6 months. To identify the study units, six of the 24 rural kebeles were selected using lottery method. Household census and numbering was carried out to obtain a sampling frame (list of eligible women) before the actual data collection.

  6. Barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle: insight from postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Katrina M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum weight retention can contribute to obesity. There may be unique barriers to weight loss in this period. Findings Cases are presented for three postpartum women who declined to participate in a postpartum weight loss intervention. Despite their desire to engage in healthier behaviors, or partake in an intervention uniquely designed to promote healthy lifestyles for postpartum women, some find it too difficult to make such commitments. Barriers women face in adopting a healthier lifestyle in this period include 1 time availability; 2 prioritizing other competing life responsibilities above their own health; 3 support from family members, friends, and/or co-workers; and 4 lack of flexibility in the intervention structure. These illustrations describe their perspectives in the context of life balance, perceived health, and support, and reflect the multi-dimensional nature of their lives during the life cycle change of the postpartum period. Conclusion Postpartum women face difficult and complex challenges to prioritizing their health and their weight management.

  7. Oncologists' confidence in knowledge of fertility issues for young women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Christine; Allen, Susan M; Dube, Catherine; Dickersin, Kay

    2012-06-01

    We sought to identify factors associated with greater cancer-related fertility knowledge in a national survey of oncologists. We surveyed 344 oncologists from a sampling pool drawn randomly from the AMA Masterfile. We conducted multiple linear regression to determine the relationship between confidence in knowledge and oncologists' characteristics. Respondents' average age was 48.5, and 75.3% were male. The average confidence in knowledge summary score was 23.8 (SD 6.4, range 8-40). In multivariable regression, confidence was higher among oncologists with more information resources, a sense of responsibility to discuss fertility issues and among gynecologic oncologists vs. other oncology specialties. Physician age, gender, and practice setting were not associated with fertility-related knowledge. Oncologists lack confidence in their knowledge of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer. Increasing professional responsibility to discuss fertility and greater information access could improve the depth and breadth of education regarding fertility issues among oncologists and their young patients.

  8. Exploring the concept of uncertain fertility, reproduction and motherhood after cancer in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lesley E; Boughton, Maureen A

    2011-06-01

    Exploring the concept of uncertain fertility, reproduction and motherhood after cancer in young adult women The topics of uncertainty in illness and infertility--as separate entities--are well covered and critiqued in the literature. Conversely, no research has been identified that specifically relates to the uncertain fertility, reproduction and motherhood challenges faced by young women after cancer. Therefore, there has been no opportunity to extend understanding, adequately acknowledge or effectively manage the needs of young women who may face unique reproductive uncertainties after cancer. The objective of this article is to provide a descriptive review of the literature and present what is currently known about uncertainty in the context of cancer and in relation to fertility, reproduction and motherhood. This article sets out the need for an increased research focus into this aspect of cancer survivorship to minimise the unique psychosocial challenges these women often face. Raising awareness and acknowledging the significance and impact of uncertain reproductive capacity on younger women's psychosocial health will aid cancer co-ordinators, nurses and other health professionals to formulate and deliver timely and appropriate education, management and support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Women's fertility across the cycle increases the short-term attractiveness of creative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Martie G; Miller, Geoffrey F

    2006-03-01

    Male provisioning ability may have evolved as a "good dad" indicator through sexual selection, whereas male creativity may have evolved partly as a "good genes" indicator. If so, women near peak fertility (midcycle) should prefer creativity over wealth, especially in short-term mating. Forty-one normally cycling women read vignettes describing creative but poor men vs. uncreative but rich men. Women's estimated fertility predicted their short-term (but not long-term) preference for creativity over wealth, in both their desirability ratings of individual men (r=.40, p<.01) and their forced-choice decisions between men (r=.46, p<.01). These preliminary results are consistent with the view that creativity evolved at least partly as a good genes indicator through mate choice.

  10. Fertility Control: Reproductive Desires, Kin Work, and Women's Status in Contemporary India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Holly Donahue

    2017-03-01

    This article reappraises the link between fertility and women's status by examining changing means and meanings of reproduction in India. It is based on data gathered during and after 16 months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, on social and cultural contexts of infertility. Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, India's most populous state. Historical views of population and fertility control in India and perspectives on the contemporary use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for practices such as surrogacy situate the ethnographic perspectives. Analysis of ARTs in practice complicates ideas of autonomy and choice in reproduction. Results show that these technologies allow women to challenge power relations within their marital families and pursue stigmatized forms of reproduction. However, they also offer new ways for families to continue and extend an old pattern of exerting control over women's reproductive potential. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  11. Comparison of abdominal skin temperature between fertile and infertile women by infrared thermography: A diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Junyoung; Kim, Hyunho

    2016-10-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the differences in abdominal temperature (AT) between fertile (n=206; age) and infertile (n=250) women between the ages of 30 and 39 years. We evaluated the differences in two distinctive skin temperatures by thermography: ΔT1 (CV8 index) - difference in temperature between the mid-abdomen (CV8 acupuncture area) and ventral upper arm (VUA) and ΔT2 (CV4 index) - difference in temperature between the lower abdomen (CV4 acupuncture area) and VUA. The results indicated that the ΔT1 and ΔT2 of infertile women were significantly lower (by 1.05°C and 0.79°C, respectively; pthermography for analysis of infertility in women. Further evaluation of the influence of AT on fertility outcomes is required to determine the causal relationship between AT and infertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Family planning use and fertility desires among women living with HIV in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, James; Warren, Charlotte; Abuya, Timothy; Mutemwa, Richard; Mayhew, Susannah; Askew, Ian

    2015-09-17

    Enabling women living with HIV to effectively plan whether and when to become pregnant is an essential right; effective prevention of unintended pregnancies is also critical to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality as well as vertical transmission of HIV. The objective of this study is to examine the use of family planning (FP) services by HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Kenya and their ability to achieve their fertility desires. Data are derived from a random sample of women seeking family planning services in public health facilities in Kenya who had declared their HIV status (1887 at baseline and 1224 at endline) and who participated in a longitudinal study (the INTEGRA Initiative) that measured the benefits/costs of integrating HIV and sexual/reproductive health services in public health facilities. The dependent variables were FP use in the last 12 months and fertility desires (whether a woman wants more children or not). The key independent variable was HIV status (positive and negative). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to describe the women's characteristics and to examine the relationship between FP use, fertility desires and HIV status. At baseline, 13 % of the women sampled were HIV-positive. A slightly higher proportion of HIV-positive women were significantly associated with the use of FP in the last 12 months and dual use of FP compared to HIV-negative women. Regardless of HIV status, short-acting contraceptives were the most commonly used FP methods. A higher proportion of HIV-positive women were more likely to be associated with unintended (both mistimed and unwanted) pregnancies and a desire not to have more children. After adjusting for confounding factors, the multivariate results showed that HIV-positive women were significantly more likely to be associated with dual use of FP (OR = 3.2; p fertility desires were age, education level and household wealth status. The findings highlight

  13. Fertility intentions among HIV positive women aged 18–49 years in Addis Ababa Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Asfaw, Hussen Mekonnen; Gashe, Fikre Enquselassie

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the degree of HIV epidemic among women and the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale up in Ethiopia; considering the issue of fertility is vital to ensure the delivery of integrated reproductive health along with prevention services provided to positive women. This study was aimed to assess fertility intentions of women living with HIV attending public health institutions (hospitals & health centers) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional sur...

  14. Fertility in adult women with classic galactosemia and primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erven, Britt; Berry, Gerard T; Cassiman, David; Connolly, Geraldine; Forga, Maria; Gautschi, Matthias; Gubbels, Cynthia S; Hollak, Carla E M; Janssen, Mirian C; Knerr, Ina; Labrune, Philippe; Langendonk, Janneke G; Õunap, Katrin; Thijs, Abel; Vos, Rein; Wortmann, Saskia B; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2017-07-01

    To study pregnancy chance in adult women with classic galactosemia and primary ovarian insufficiency. Despite dietary treatment, >90% of women with classic galactosemia develop primary ovarian insufficiency, resulting in impaired fertility. For many years, chance of spontaneous conception has not been considered, leading to counseling for infertility. But an increasing number of reports on pregnancies in this group questions whether current counseling approaches are correct. Multicenter retrospective observational study. Metabolic centers. Adult women (aged >18 y) with confirmed classic galactosemia and primary ovarian insufficiency were included. Participants and medical records were consulted to obtain study data in a standardized manner with the use of a questionnaire. Conception opportunities, time to pregnancy, pregnancy outcome, hormone replacement therapy use, fertility counseling, and the participants' vision of fertility were evaluated. Potential predictive factors for increased pregnancy chance were explored. Eighty-five women with classic galactosemia and primary ovarian insufficiency participated. Twenty-one women actively attempted to conceive or did not take adequate contraceptive precautions. Of these 21 women, nine became pregnant spontaneously (42.9%). This was higher than reported in primary ovarian insufficiency due to other causes (5%-10%). After a period of 12 months, a cumulative proportion of 27.8% of couples had conceived, which increased to 48.4% after 24 months and 61.3% after 27 months. Predictive factors could not be identified. A considerable miscarriage rate of 30% was observed (6 of 20 pregnancies). Although a substantial proportion of women expressed a child-wish (n = 28/53; 52.8%), the vast majority of participants (n = 43/57; 75.4%) considered conceiving to be highly unlikely, owing to negative counseling in the past. The pregnancy rate in women with classic galactosemia and primary ovarian insufficiency was higher than for

  15. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  16. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [When women's schools were schools of mothers. The influence of education on the fertility of Quebec women (1850-1940)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalou, R

    1993-01-01

    In Quebec, the relationship between instruction of women and their fertility almost always conforms to hypotheses and traditional theoretical reasonings. The history of education in Quebec contradicts certain sub-vacant theories of explicative models. Until recently, the Quebecois school was not a bearer of new and progressive ideas as the theoretical demographic frameworks demographers thought. On the contrary, due to the strong influence of Catholicism, it tried to maintain the woman in her traditional roles of mother and housewife. Inversely, it is not clear that it allowed girls to acquire the means of their freedom. The Quebecois school did promote birth limitations by the act of educating if not by the contents of its teaching. The school's pronatalist position shaped the collective conscience to respect tradition. The cultural and ideological conservatism of yesterday's school is certainly not an unknown reality of researchers. It is surprising that one must note its persistent absence in demographic studies. The demographers conducting this historical survey of women's schools and fertility do not claim that an approach of the relationship between fertility and education taking in account the cultural and political finality of school would change profoundly the statistical evidence. The evidence shows that the school's emancipatory characteristics did influence the reproductive behavior of Quebec women, but its conservative characteristics probably kept the school from fully contributing to progress. This approach makes us better understand this phenomenon of Quebec history and a little less in terms of some models which are a little too conventional. In conclusion, education in Quebec probably did not have as much impact on fertility decline as fertility decline theories claim.

  18. An econometric analysis of the fertility and labor supply of unmarried women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, E; Nerlove, M

    1982-01-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of dividing the life cycle into various stages for the analysis of female labor supply and fertility. It confirms the need for a multiperiod model for the case of unmarried women as well. The relationship between fertility and female employment varies across the life cycle stages; the pattern for postmarried women is similar to that of married women, but a completely different picture emerges for single women. It is also found that the impact of some exogenous variables on the labor supply of postmarried mothers changes over the life cycle, in the same direction as for married mothers. For the group of widowed, divorced, and separated women, the impact of female education on labor supply is much larger in the interval between marriage and 1st birth than in the subsequent stages. Also, although the former husband's income has no influence on the woman's market activity prior to the birth of the 1st child, it has a marked negative effect in the child rearing period. In the post child rearing stage, a variable that controls for other income sources, including alimony and child support, exerts a strong negative influence on female employment. Some differences in the fertility and labor supply behavior of married and unmarried women include: 1) the absence of husbands and their incomes in the case of unmarried women implies that such women face a relatively strong economic pressure to enter the labor market so that greater participation rates in the child rearing and post-child rearing stages occur; 2) whereas unmarried mothers are typically the sole earners in their households, they often qualify to receive other income such as welfare payments; 3) the labor supply of unmarried mothers is significantly affected by regional variations in the level of benefits; and 4) the family size of unmarried mothers is insensitive to being Catholic and having education.

  19. Comparison of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Incidence Between Women With Infertility and Healthy Women in Iran Using PCR and Immunofluorescence Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Seyed Mahmoud Amin; Moulana, Zahra; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mashhadi Karim, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    For a long time, infertility has been one of the most sequels in medical sciences with microbial agents as one group of its causes. The possible etiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis in infertility was suggested years ago, but it has not yet been proved completely. To decrease the severe involvements of C. trachomatis infections, screening by efficient diagnostic methods are necessary. In this study we attempted to determine the incidence of C. trachomatis in infertile women and compared this with healthy women. This case-control study was performed on 150 infertile women with unknown causes and without physiological deficiency for infertility. The control group consisted of 200 fertile safe and impregnated women. Presence of C. trachomatis in the two groups was examined by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and PCR. C. trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence method in 23 (15.3%) infertile women compared and 7 (3.5%) healthy controls. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, a positive test titer of 1:16 as well as the above results were detected in 34 (22.6%) of the infertile cases and 9 (4.5%) of the controls. C. trachomatis was detected by PCR method in 48 (32%) infertile women and 13 (8.7%) among the controls. The results of our study suggest that there is a significant association between C. trachomatis infection and female infertility.

  20. Fertility Preservation in Women with Turner Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review and Practical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Kutluk; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Berkowitz, Karen; Bronson, Richard; Kashani, Banafsheh; McGovern, Peter; Pal, Lubna; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Rubin, Karen

    2016-10-01

    In this article we review the existing fertility preservation options for women diagnosed with Turner syndrome and provide practical guidelines for the practitioner. Turner syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, occurring in approximately 1 in 2500 live births. Women with Turner syndrome are at extremely high risk for primary ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Although approximately 70%-80% have no spontaneous pubertal development and 90% experience primary amenorrhea, the remainder might possess a small residual of ovarian follicles at birth or early childhood. The present challenge is to identify these women as early in life as is possible, to allow them to benefit from a variety of existing fertility preservation options. To maximize the benefits of fertility preservation, all women with Turner syndrome should be evaluated by an expert as soon as possible in childhood because the vast majority will have their ovarian reserve depleted before adulthood. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos is a proven fertility preservation approach, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is a promising technique with a growing number of live births, but remains investigational. Oocyte cryopreservation has been performed in children with Turner syndrome as young as 13 years of age and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in affected prepubertal children. However, current efficacy of these approaches is unknown in this cohort. For those who have already lost their ovarian reserve, oocyte or embryo donation and adoption are strategies that allow fulfillment of the desire for parenting. For those with Turner syndrome-related cardiac contraindications to pregnancy, use of gestational surrogacy allows the possibility of biological parenting using their own oocytes. Alternatively, gestational surrogacy can serve to carry pregnancy resulting from the use of donor oocytes or embryos, if needed. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and

  1. Ultrasound characteristics and histological dating of the endometrium in a natural cycle in infertile women compared with fertile controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, A; Ravn, V; Bentin-Ley, U

    2006-01-01

    women. INTERVENTION(S): Ultrasound, biopsy, blood sampling. In vitro fertilization-ET in the following cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Endometrial evaluation, P, IVF outcome. RESULT(S): At day LH+7, 42% infertile vs. 67% fertile women demonstrated endometria that were in phase (statistically...... nonsignificant difference). Nine percent had an accelerated endometrium, and 47% (infertile) vs. 24% (fertile) had a delayed endometrium (statistically nonsignificant difference). Statistically significantly fewer women with tubal factor and no hydrosalpinges had an endometrium in phase (20%) than was the case...... in fertile women (67%). Dating could not predict outcome. Statistically significantly more women in the hydrosalpinx group had a visible midline at day LH+7 compared with the case in other infertile groups. Forty-three percent conceived after IVF-ET. Plasma P was statistically significantly lower...

  2. An analysis of the effects of fertility on women's spatial mobility in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A E

    1991-12-01

    The question of how fertility might affect the probability of migration for women in the Philippines is explored. Theoretical perspectives and the conceptual framework are outlined. Household maximization theory is used to explain reproductive decisions when confronted with a set of constraints. Education, urban/rural residence, and age of prior move were considered stationary covariates. Parity and timing of births were time varying covariates. Variables are described and discussed. The determinants of migration are central to the investigation, and the impact of fertility on migration is specifically of interest. A negative relationship between fertility and migration is expected due to costs of long distance movements, the extended kin network which is relied on for relieving financial pressures, and the subservience of the Filipino wife. Data were obtained from a national representative sample of 10,843 ever-married women 15-49 years in 1983. 5364 women provided as requested detailed residence history information. Migration events were recorded by month, and each period of residence in a particular place defines a migration interval. Modeling was based on the odds of a 1st and a 2nd migration occurring. Logit regressions in 6 24-month discrete time segments were used to determine the probabilities. The number of parameters was set at a minimum. The results of the multivariate analyses indicate that the relationship between migration and fertility, the size of effects, and the direction of the effects can vary by age segment. Premigration fertility inhibits migration, and thus prevents access to the benefits afforded by spatial mobility. Policy recommendations are that the female age at marriage should be increased through legal reforms, and the interval between marriage and 1st birth should be lengthened so that spatial mobility might be more accessible.

  3. Kisspeptin-54 triggers egg maturation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Channa N; Abbara, Ali; Comninos, Alexander N; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Christopoulos, Georgios; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Sridharan, Mathini; Mason, Alexina J; Warwick, Jane; Ashby, Deborah; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Carby, Anna; Trew, Geoffrey H; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2014-08-01

    Patients with mutations that inactivate kisspeptin signaling are infertile. Kisspeptin-54, the major circulating isoform of kisspeptin in humans, potently stimulates reproductive hormone secretion in humans. Animal studies suggest that kisspeptin is involved in generation of the luteinizing hormone surge, which is required for ovulation; therefore, we hypothesized that kisspeptin-54 could be used to trigger egg maturation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization therapy. Following superovulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist to prevent premature ovulation, 53 women were administered a single subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 (1.6 nmol/kg, n = 2; 3.2 nmol/kg, n = 3; 6.4 nmol/kg, n = 24; 12.8 nmol/kg, n = 24) to induce a luteinizing hormone surge and egg maturation. Eggs were retrieved transvaginally 36 hours after kisspeptin injection, assessed for maturation (primary outcome), and fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with subsequent transfer of one or two embryos. Egg maturation was observed in response to each tested dose of kisspeptin-54, and the mean number of mature eggs per patient generally increased in a dose-dependent manner. Fertilization of eggs and transfer of embryos to the uterus occurred in 92% (49/53) of kisspeptin-54-treated patients. Biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were 40% (21/53) and 23% (12/53), respectively. This study demonstrates that a single injection of kisspeptin-54 can induce egg maturation in women with subfertility undergoing in vitro fertilization therapy. Subsequent fertilization of eggs matured following kisspeptin-54 administration and transfer of resulting embryos can lead to successful human pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667406.

  4. Gender and social controversies of in vitro fertilization in Serbia: Discrimination against childless women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kričković-Pele Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses gender and social controversies of assisted reproductive technologies and the discrimination of childless women in Serbia. Primary goals of this paper are critical analysis of new reproductive technologies phenomenon, discrimination against women without children and critical analysis of the legal framework regulating biomedical assisted reproduction in Serbia from gender studies and feminist methodology perspectives, as well as presentation of the research results on discrimination of childless women. For the purpose of this research the survey and the content analysis have been used. A survey was conducted of 50 female participants in the in vitro fertilization program at the Department for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad. The results indicate that the regulations on biomedical assisted reproduction and the criteria for inclusion in the in vitro fertilization program are discriminatory and that women involved in the program feel discriminated against, usually at work and in their own surroundings. The conclusion is that it is necessary to change the regulations governing this area, further work on the elimination of discrimination against childless women and destigmatisation of women and couples that cannot or do not want to have children.

  5. Study of Personality Disorders Among Fertile and Infertile Women and Some Predisposing Factors

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    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of personality disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.  Eysenck personality (EPQ and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing personality factors were recorded and personality symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Based on EPQ, personality instability was significantly more frequent in infertile women in comparison to fertile women (P<0.001. Housewives are at higher risk of developing personality instability as compared to working women. This finding was also statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of personality disorders among infertile women, it seems that more serious attention is required from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists for better treatment of these disorders. The use of psychotherapy, especially supportive methods, should be considered as part of the general therapeutic framework of infertility.

  6. Gene Expression analysis of the endometrium after endometrial biopsy in fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mia Steengaard; Starnawska, Anna; Agerholm, Inge

    and Methods The study is part of a large prospective clinical study. Six fertile women, with no prior use of intrauterine device or anticonception pills, underwent a therapeutic endometrial injury with a Pipelle de CornierR in two consecutive cycles. The endometrial samples were taken at cycle day LH+7...... (baseline) and repeated in the next cycle at day LH+7 (after biopsy). Endometrial biopsies were homogenized and RNA/DNA extracted. Gene expression was analyzed using RNAseq. DNA methylation was analyzed using Illumina 450K methylation array. Results Preliminary results show differentially expressed genes......Background Recent data indicate, that therapeutic endometrial injury, may enhance implantation in assisted reproductive therapy (ART). Aim The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the gene expression and epigenetic modifications after an endometrial biopsy in fertile women. Material...

  7. In vitro fertilization pregnancy rates in levothyroxine-treated women with hypothyroidism compared to women without thyroid dysfunction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccia, Bert; Demir, Habibe; Kang, Yuna; Fierro, Michelle A; Winston, Nicola J

    2012-06-01

    Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to ovulatory dysfunction resulting in oligo-amenorrhea. Treatment with levothyroxine can reverse such dysfunction and thus should improve fertility. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rates differ in levothyroxine-treated women with hypothyroidism compared to women without thyroid dysfunction/disorders. Treated hypothyroid and euthyroid women undergoing IVF at an academic IVF center were studied after Institutional Review Board approval. Women with hypothyroidism were treated with levothyroxine 0.025-0.15 mg/day for at least 3 months to maintain baseline thyrotropin (TSH) levels of 0.35-4.0 μU/mL prior to commencing IVF treatment (HYPO-Rx group). Causes of infertility were similar in both groups with the exception of male factor, which was more common in the HYPO-Rx group. The main outcomes studied were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, clinical miscarriage rate, and live birth rate. We reviewed the first IVF retrieval cycle performed on 240 women aged 37 years or less during the period January 2003 to December 2007. Women with treated hypothyroidism (n=21) had significantly less implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates than euthyroid women (n=219). We conclude that, despite levothyroxine treatment, women with hypothyroidism have a significantly decreased chance of achieving a pregnancy following IVF compared to euthyroid patients. A larger prospective study is necessary to assess confounding variables, confirm these findings, and determine the optimal level of TSH prior to and during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF.

  8. In Vitro Fertilization Pregnancy Rates in Levothyroxine-Treated Women With Hypothyroidism Compared to Women Without Thyroid Dysfunction Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Habibe; Kang, Yuna; Fierro, Michelle A.; Winston, Nicola J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to ovulatory dysfunction resulting in oligo-amenorrhea. Treatment with levothyroxine can reverse such dysfunction and thus should improve fertility. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rates differ in levothyroxine-treated women with hypothyroidism compared to women without thyroid dysfunction/disorders. Methods Treated hypothyroid and euthyroid women undergoing IVF at an academic IVF center were studied after Institutional Review Board approval. Women with hypothyroidism were treated with levothyroxine 0.025–0.15 mg/day for at least 3 months to maintain baseline thyrotropin (TSH) levels of 0.35–4.0 μU/mL prior to commencing IVF treatment (HYPO-Rx group). Causes of infertility were similar in both groups with the exception of male factor, which was more common in the HYPO-Rx group. The main outcomes studied were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, clinical miscarriage rate, and live birth rate. Results We reviewed the first IVF retrieval cycle performed on 240 women aged 37 years or less during the period January 2003 to December 2007. Women with treated hypothyroidism (n=21) had significantly less implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates than euthyroid women (n=219). Conclusions We conclude that, despite levothyroxine treatment, women with hypothyroidism have a significantly decreased chance of achieving a pregnancy following IVF compared to euthyroid patients. A larger prospective study is necessary to assess confounding variables, confirm these findings, and determine the optimal level of TSH prior to and during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF. PMID:22540326

  9. Family influence in fertility: A longitudinal analysis of sibling correlations in first birth risk and completed fertility among Swedish men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Dahlberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The intergenerational transmission of fertility has received much attention in demography. This has been done by estimating the correlation between parents' and offsprings' fertility. An alternative method that provides a more comprehensive account of the role of family background - sibling correlations - has not been used before. OBJECTIVE I estimate the overall importance of family background on entry into parenthood and completed fertility and whether it changed over time. Furthermore, I compare the intergenerational correlation in completed fertility with corresponding sibling correlations. METHODS Brother and sister correlations in first birth hazard and in final family size were estimated using multi-level event-history and multi-level linear regression on Swedish longitudinal register data. RESULTS The overall variation in fertility that can be explained by family of origin is approximately 15Š-25Š for women and 10Š-15Š for men. The overall importance of the family of origin has not changed over the approximately twenty birth cohorts that were studied (1940-63 for women, 1940-58 for men. Parents' completed fertility accounts for only a small share of the total family background effect on completed fertility. CONCLUSIONS This study contributes to the existing understanding of intergenerational transition of fertility, both methodologically, by introducing a new and powerful method to study the overall importance of family of origin, and substantially, by estimating the overall importance of family of origin and ist development over time. A non-negligible proportion of the variation in fertility can be attributed to family of origin and this effect has remained stable over twenty birth cohorts.

  10. Quality of life in women of reproductive age: a comparative study of infertile and fertile women in a Nigerian tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduloju, Olusola Peter; Olaogun, Oluwole Dominic; Aduloju, Tolulope

    2017-09-18

    The study examined the quality of life in women of reproductive age and the aim was to evaluate and compare the quality of life (QoL) scores among fertile and infertile women. A cross-sectional study was carried out among women attending the Gynaecology and Postnatal Clinics of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital comparing their QoL using the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. The age of fertile women was significantly higher than the age of infertile women (p women and their spouses were civil servants (p women obtained significantly higher scores than fertile women in the physical domain (QoL) and significantly lower scores than fertile women in the social domain (QoL), (p women, those with secondary infertility had significantly better overall QoL scores, (p women were associated with significantly lower QoL scores in psychological and social domains (p quality of life is significantly lower among infertile women compared to fertile ones and this should be borne in mind when attending to these women. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Infertility has been shown to be associated with poor quality of life. Most of these studies were conducted in developed countries. What the results of this study add: The findings of this study revealed that women who were infertile had low quality of life scores compared to the fertile ones in physical, social and psychological domains. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: A community-based and multicultural study involving more participants may shed more light on this topic in future research. Counselling sessions should be incorporated as part of the holistic approach in the day-to-day management of the infertile women.

  11. Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Geethavani; Singaravelu, Balamuru Ganvelu; Srikumar, R; Reddy, Sreenivasalu V; Kokan, Afraa

    2017-08-01

    The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and Trichomonas vaginalis, 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by Lactobacillus (40, 27.8 %) followed by Micrococcus (22, 15.3 %), Enterococcus (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the

  12. Maternal-foetal attachment during early pregnancy in Taiwanese women pregnant by in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pi-Chao; Bowers, Beverly; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Chen, Chung-Hey; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate maternal-foetal attachment at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation and to identify factors that influenced maternal-foetal attachment in Taiwanese women who conceived by in vitro fertilization. Development of maternal-foetal attachment is an important part of taking on the maternal role. However, evidence about maternal-foetal attachment after assisted conception is inconclusive. A longitudinal design with repeated measures. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures was used. Over an 18-month period in 2006-2008, a convenience sample of 160 women who conceived after undergoing successful in vitro fertilization were recruited from a major infertility care centre in Taiwan. Data were collected by self-reported measures, including: (1) Maternal-Foetal Attachment Scale; (2) Symptoms Checklist; (3) Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale; (4) Social Support Apgar; (5) Chinese childbearing attitude Questionnaire; and (6) Awareness of Foetus Scale. The selected instruments to measure each variable were administered to participants at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation. Maternal-foetal attachment increased as pregnancy progressed from 9 to 20 weeks gestation. General linear mixed model showed predictors of maternal-foetal attachment included Chinese childbearing attitude, awareness of the foetus, and social support. Health provider awareness of cultural influences on the development of early maternal-foetal attachment of women pregnant by in vitro fertilization is needed. Prenatal education in early pregnancy might incorporate more information about foetal development to allow the mother to visualize her unborn child. Providing social support for women who were conceived by in vitro fertilization is beneficial to the development of maternal-foetal attachment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Effect of licorice on PTH levels in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarello, Mee Jung; Benedini, Stefano; Fiore, Cristina; Camozzi, Valentina; Sartorato, Paola; Luisetto, Giovanni; Armanini, Decio

    2006-05-01

    Licorice has been considered a medicinal plant for thousands of years. Its most common side effect is hypokalemic hypertension, which is secondary to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 at the level of the kidney, leading to an enhanced mineralocorticoid effect of cortisol. This effect is due to glycyrrhetinic acid, which is the main constituent of the root, but other components are also present, including isoflavans, which have estrogen-like activity, and are thus involved in the modulation of bone metabolism. We investigated nine healthy women 22-26 years old, in the luteal phase of the cycle. They were given 3.5 g of a commercial preparation of licorice (containing 7.6%, w/w of glycyrrhizic acid) daily for 2 months. Plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone, cortisol, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D (1,25OHD), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), estradiol, FHS, LH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, phosphate and creatinine, urinary calcium and phosphate and mineralometry were measured. PTH, 25OHD and urinary calcium increased significantly from baseline values after 2 months of therapy, while 1,25OHD and ALP did not change during treatment. All these parameters returned to pretreatment levels 1 month after discontinuation of licorice. PRA and aldosterone were depressed during therapy, while blood pressure and plasma cortisol remained unchanged. licorice can increase serum PTH and urinary calcium levels from baseline value in healthy women after only 2 months of treatment. The effect of licorice on calcium metabolism is probably influenced by several components of the root, which show aldosterone-like, estrogen-like and antiandrogen activity.

  14. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, M F; Hargreave, M; Nielsen, T S S; Plessen, K J; Jensen, S M; Kjaer, S K; Jensen, A

    2015-09-01

    Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders in children born to women with fertility problems. Few studies have investigated the risk of mental disorders in children born after fertility treatment and although some studies have pointed to an increased risk, others found no association. The inconsistent results may be due to methodological constraints in many previous studies, including small sample size and short follow-up, resulting in imprecise risk estimates and lack of information on risk patterns of mental disorders in adulthood. This nationwide retrospective register-based cohort study included all 2 412 721 children born in Denmark between 1969 and 2006. All children were followed from date of birth until date of hospital contact for a mental disorder, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2009, whichever occurred first. Information concerning maternal fertility status for all children in the cohort was obtained by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort, which contains data on nearly all women with fertility problems in Denmark since 1963. A total of 124 269 (5%) children were born to women with fertility problems and 2 288 452 (95%) to women without fertility problems. To identify children hospitalized for a mental disorder, the cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal fertility status and the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for various groups of mental disorders, including any mental disorder and all 11 main discharge diagnostic groups, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases

  15. AGE AT MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY PATTERN OF ADOLESCENT MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL BANGLADESH

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    Shaila Ahmed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in two purposively selected rural areas of Faridpur district - Alfadanga and Boalmari. The objectives were to find out the age at marriage and fertility pattern amongst the adolescent married women residing in the study areas. A total of 426 women were selected purposively and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Most (97.2% were in the age group of 15-19 years, being married by 15.5 ± 1.5 years. Although 57.5% had a secondary level education, almost all (97% were found to be housewives. Monthly income was between Taka 2001-4000 in 41.3% of the households. Regarding fertility pattern, 19% of the adolescent women were found to be pregnant at the time of survey. The total fertility rate (TFR among this age group was estimated to be 2.6 per woman. To help improve the situation, awareness on the negative consequences of early marriage and consequent childbearing needs to be created not only among the young adolescent girls but should be targeted towards their parents too. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 9-12

  16. [Association between the decline in global fertility rate and the incorporation of women to the workforce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, María de Los Ángeles; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Cárcamo, Marcela; Urquidi, Cinthya; Cavada, Gabriel; San Martín P, Pamela

    2016-05-01

    The global fertility rate (GFR) is defined as the mean number of children that a woman could have in a hypothetical cohort, not exposed to death during the fertile period. GFR has fallen from 3.4 to 1.9 children per women in the period 1970-2010. To explore the relationship between the fall in GFR and the incorporation of women to work in the period 1960-2011. Data from the National Statistics Institute was used. GRF was calculated using specific fertility rates for each year considering women aged 15 to 49 years. Work rates were obtained from yearly vital statistics reports. Between 1960 and 2011, GRF decreased from 5.5 to 1.9 in Chile. The first inflection occurred in 1970. In the same period, female workforce increased from 22.4 to 40.2%. To motivate the participation of female work-force without decrease the GRF allowing population replacement, it is suggested the need to create new public policies with benefits and support from the state.

  17. Comparison of fertility ratios, attitudes and beliefs of Polish and Czech women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to estimate some basic data related to the fertility in the chosen groups of Polish and Czech women. We have tried to acquire and analyze the attitudes and beliefs of these women in motherhood and the desire to have children. These data enable to verify the interdisciplinary hypothesis explaining the decline of birth rate and low fertility in European countries. Materials and methods: The authors performed the survey by means of a questionnaire formulated after a comprehensive discussion of possible reasons of birth rate decline. They have tried through the questions of the survey to verify the hypothesis that the decline is the result of the cumulative mental changes occurring in contemporary societies. The questionnaire completed 90 Polish women students pursuing complementary studies of nursing in Higher School of Applied Sciences in Nysa, during the academic year 2012/2013. The questionnaire also completed 53 Czech women students pursuing part-time studies and training at the Tomas Bata University in Zlin (the Czech Republic. Results: The above surveyed 90 Polish women gave birth to 132 children, so fertility rates is 1.46. The average age at the birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.5 and of the third child 31.7 years. The surveyed 53 Czech women gave birth to 86 children, so fertility rates is 1.62. The average age at birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.2 and of the third child 27,5 years. The authors present also convictions, beliefs and attitudes of the women under study. Conclusions: The multifaceted and interdisciplinary hypothesis (theoretical model formulated at the outset of our work, can be useful for attempts to estimate the pro-family attitudes in different populations of women. The results in the light of compliance with the proposed theoretical model allow for the formulation of proposals for action, which would counteract the

  18. Healthy lifestyle and decreasing risk of heart failure in women: the Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Golareh; Loucks, Eric B; Tinker, Lesley F; Waring, Molly E; Michaud, Dominique S; Foraker, Randi E; Li, Wenjun; Martin, Lisa W; Greenland, Philip; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-10-28

    The impact of a healthy lifestyle on risk of heart failure (HF) is not well known. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a combination of lifestyle factors on incident HF and to further investigate whether weighting each lifestyle factor has additional impact. Participants were 84,537 post-menopausal women from the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) observational study, free of self-reported HF at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HL score) was created wherein women received 1 point for each healthy criterion met: high-scoring Alternative Healthy Eating Index, physically active, healthy body mass index, and currently not smoking. A weighted score (wHL score) was also created in which each lifestyle factor was weighted according to its independent magnitude of effect on HF. The incidence of hospitalized HF was determined by trained adjudicators using standardized methodology. There were 1,826 HF cases over a mean follow-up of 11 years. HL score was strongly associated with risk of HF (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.62], 0.36 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.46], 0.24 [95% CI: 0.19 to 0.31], and 0.23 [95% CI: 0.17 to 0.30] for HL score of 1, 2, 3, and 4 vs. 0, respectively). The HL score and wHL score were similarly associated with HF risk (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.52] for HL score; HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.55] for wHL score, comparing the highest tertile to the lowest). The HL score was also strongly associated with HF risk among women without antecedent coronary heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension. An increasingly healthy lifestyle was associated with decreasing HF risk among post-menopausal women, even in the absence of antecedent coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Weighting the lifestyle factors had minimal impact. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive choice for women and men living with HIV: contraception, abortion and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Thérèse; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2007-05-01

    From a policy and programmatic point of view, this paper reviews the literature on the fertility-related needs of women and men living with HIV and how the entry points represented by family planning, sexually transmitted infection and HIV-related services can ensure access to contraception, abortion and fertility services for women and men living with HIV. Most contraceptive methods are safe and effective for HIV positive women and men. The existing range of contraceptive options should be available to people living with HIV, along with more information about and access to emergency contraception. Potential drug interaction must be considered between hormonal contraception and treatment for tuberculosis and certain antiretroviral drugs. Couples living with HIV who wish to use a permanent contraceptive method should have access to female sterilisation and vasectomy in an informed manner, free of coercion. How to promote condoms and dual protection and how to make them acceptable in long term-relationships remains a challenge. Both surgical and medical abortion are safe for women living with HIV. To reduce risk of vertical transmission of HIV and in cases of infertility, people with HIV should have access to sperm washing and other assisted conception methods, if these are available. Simple and cost-effective procedures to reduce risk of vertical transmission should be part of counselling for women and men living with HIV who intend to have children. Support for the reproductive rights of people with HIV is a priority. More operations research on best practices is needed.

  20. Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer precursors among young women: a reproductive point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, E; Maniglio, P; Frega, A; Marci, R; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

    2012-12-01

    Early-stage endometrial cancer and complex atypical hyperplasia are treated with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. An emerging issue among younger women affected is the possibility of a fertility-sparing treatment with progestative therapy and close follow-up. To assess the possibility of conceiving after a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia among women younger than 40 years old, in term of delaying definitive treatment and achieving pregnancy. 15 women younger than 40 years old with complex CAH or early carcinoma of the endometrium and a wish to preserve fertility. Progestins were administered orally for at least a 12 weeks period. Endometrial biopsies were used at follow-up. In 11 women, a complete pathological remission of the disease was observed. 4 pregnancies were attained in 4 women. 3 showed progression and underwent definitive surgery at 18 months. 1 showed no response at 24 months and 3 cycles and was counseled to receive a hysterectomy. A conservative approach in patients younger than 40 years appears a valid option, and a progestative therapy trial should be attempted whether a valid consensus is attained. Considering the risk to find AEH at biopsies and eventually a carcinoma at hysterectomy (25% of cases) a careful management is strictly required.

  1. Women's education, infant and child mortality, and fertility decline in urban and rural sub-Saharan Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Shapiro; Michel Tenikue

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper provides estimates of the contributions of increased women's education and reduced infant and child mortality to fertility declines in urban and rural areas of countries in Sub-Saharan...

  2. The Experiences of Women Fertilized through Egg Donation during Their Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Bagheri-Lankarani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a dramatic increase over the past few decades in the use of modern fertility technologies and the demand by infertile couples for using these techniques have increased as well. Studies exploring the experiences of women fertilized with egg donation technique in their treatment process have been rare. Aim: This study aimed to explore and explain the treatment experiences of women fertilized with egg donation. Method: This is a Qualitative study. Data were analyzed simultaneously as they were being collected and according to the conventional content analysis method. The study began in July 2013 and continued until September 2014. Fourteen unstructured, in-depth interviews were carried out with 12 infertile women who had been fertilized or had given birth to children through egg donation. One of Tehran’s referral centers for infertility was used as the study setting. All participants submitted their written consent prior to the start of the study. Results: Analysis of the findings showed "difficult and stressful treatment" as the final theme with 6 subthemes, including: 1 religious barriers, 2 treatment difficulties, 3 treatment frustration (including the following subcategories: fatigue and despair, and the experience of frequent failures, 4 dissatisfaction with the services provided, 5 confusions in treatment, and 6 Perception of relative peace. Implications for Practice: Exposure to various assisted reproductive technologies, including egg donation, is a stressful process, and providing emotional support to patients is one of the most essential care services they require from treatment centers. The results of the present study can assist in planning future strategies for meeting the specific needs of these distinguished patients.

  3. Psychometric Properties of The Fertility Quality of Life Instrument in Infertile Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Maroufizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility and its treatment can have a considerable effect on a person’s quality of life (QoL. The Fertility QoL (FertiQoL questionnaire is currently the most frequently used instrument to measure QoL in people with fertility problems. This study aims to examine the reliability and validity of the FertiQoL in infertile Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 155 women with fertility problems in a referral fertility clinic in Tehran, Iran from January to March 2014. A battery of instruments was used: FertiQoL, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and a demographic questionnaire. Construct validity of the scale was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. We assessed internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha and convergent validity was examined by correlating the FertiQoL with SWLS and HADS. Results: The results of the CFA generally supported the four-factor model of Core FertiQoL and two-factor model of Treatment FertiQoL. Both FertiQoL modules and their subscales revealed acceptable internal consistency that ranged from 0.643 to 0.911. However, the FertiQoL might be improved if Q15 and T2 items were removed from the scale. These items had low loadings on the Relational and Environment factors which decreased their internal consistency. The FertiQoL and their subscales significantly correlated with both SWLS and HADS, which confirmed convergent validity. Conclusion: The Persian version of the FertiQoL is a valid, reliable instrument to measure QoL in infertile women and seems to perform as well as the original English Version.

  4. Prevalence of child marriage and its effect on fertility and fertility-control outcomes of young women in India: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G

    2009-05-30

    Child marriage is a substantial barrier to social and economic development in India, and a primary concern for women's health. We assessed the prevalence of child marriage-ie, before 18 years of age-in young adult women in India, and the associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility-control outcomes. Data from the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-06) were limited to a sample of Indian women aged 20-24 years (n=22 807), of whom 14 813 had been or were presently married (ever-married). Prevalence of child marriage was estimated for the whole sample. We used regression models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility-control outcomes, in the ever-married subsample. 44.5% of women aged 20-24 years were married before age 18 years, 22.6% were married before age 16 years, and 2.6% were married before age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with no contraceptive use before first childbirth (adjusted OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.22-1.54]), high fertility (three or more births) (7.40 [6.45-8.50]), a repeat childbirth in less than 24 months (3.00 [2.74-3.29]), multiple unwanted pregnancies (2.36 [1.90-2.94]), pregnancy termination (1.48 [1.34-1.63]), and female sterilisation (6.68 [5.78-7.60]). The association between child marriage and high fertility, a repeat childbirth in less than 24 months, multiple unwanted pregnancies, pregnancy termination, and sterilisation all remained significant after controlling for duration of marriage. Increased enforcement of existing policies is crucial for prevention of child marriage. Improved family-planning education, access, and support are urgently needed for women married as children, their husbands, and their families to reduce the high fertility and poor fertility-control outcomes of this practice. US National Institutes of Health and Indian

  5. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J. Lee; Smed, Mette Kiel; Gildengorin, Virginia L.; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hetland, Merete Lund; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Olsen, Jørn; Jawaheer, Damini

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA. Results In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters) over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p valuepregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256) showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data. PMID:26683605

  6. The emergence of the nuclear family: its effect on women's roles and fertility change in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omideyi, A K

    1993-01-01

    A survey of Yoruba women was carried out in 1986 in the urban areas of Ibadan and Ilesa and four villages in Nigeria which focused on the relationships between the status of married women and their fertility. A total of 2176 married women and their husbands were randomly selected and interviewed on marriage, pregnancy and fertility histories, employment histories, wife's purchasing power, social and political participation, and knowledge and practice of family planning (FP). At least 60% of the women had formal education (primary, secondary, or university). About one-fifth had no formal education and the same proportion had only Koranic or vocational education. The proportion that had formal education was higher in urban areas (63.8%) than in rural areas (53.2%) and those with no formal education were more in rural (28%) than in urban areas (15.6%). 69.1% of husbands had formal education vs. 60.5% of wives; and 72.5% of husbands were educated in urban areas vs. 61.4% in rural areas. Nine-tenths of the women worked full-time and one-tenth worked part-time. 85% of the husbands received income below Naira (N) 600 a month. In rural areas 89.5% of husbands had such low income; the percentage was lower in urban areas. A higher proportion of husbands living in urban areas than in rural areas earned an income above this level. Also a higher proportion of women living in urban areas earned higher incomes than women living in rural areas. The median household income ranged between N401 and N600, and it was earned in 29.5% of urban households vs. 25.1% of rural households. About 16% of the rural households earned less than N200 compared with 5.5% of urban households. The mean number of children ever born (CEB) was higher for rural women than for urban women with a household income below N200 and above N800. Households with income between N401 and N800 had higher fertility in urban than in rural areas.

  7. Ovulation as a male mating prime: subtle signs of women's fertility influence men's mating cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Saul L; Maner, Jon K

    2011-02-01

    Women's reproductive fertility peaks for a few days in the middle of their cycle around ovulation. Because conception is most likely to occur inside this brief fertile window, evolutionary theories suggest that men possess adaptations designed to maximize their reproductive success by mating with women during their peak period of fertility. In this article, we provide evidence from 3 studies that subtle cues of fertility prime mating motivation in men, thus facilitating psychological and behavioral processes associated with the pursuit of a sexual partner. In Study 1, men exposed to the scent of a woman near peak levels of fertility displayed increased accessibility to sexual concepts. Study 2 demonstrated that, among men who reported being sensitive to odors, scent cues of fertility triggered heightened perceptions of women's sexual arousal. Study 3 revealed that, in a face-to-face interaction, high levels of female fertility were associated with a greater tendency for men to make risky decisions and to behaviorally mimic a female partner. Hence, subtle cues of fertility led to a cascade of mating-related processes-from lower order cognition to overt behavior-that reflected heightened mating motivation. Implications for theories of goal pursuit, romantic attraction, and evolutionary psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Impact of reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation on women's fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Emmanuelle; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Prebet, Thomas; Broussais, Florence; Coso, Diane; Gamerre, Marc; Vey, Norbert; Blaise, Didier; Courbiere, Blandine

    2013-12-01

    Available data on women fertility for younger patients treated using RIC Allo-SCT are still limited. We evaluated ovarian function and fertility among female patients younger than 35 years who received RIC Allo-SCT for hematological malignancy or aplastic anemia (AA). Information on therapies before RIC Allo-SCT were collected. Data on ovarian function and fertility evaluation after RIC Allo-SCT included clinical and biological criteria. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. After RIC Allo-SCT, amenorrhea affects 68.1% of patients. Ovarian function was impaired for 86.3% of cases. All 3 AA patients have regular cycles and became pregnant after RIC Allo-SCT. Only 6 (27.2%) patients declared to have been correctly informed before RIC Allo-SCT on potential deleterious effects on fertility of anticancer treatment and only 36.8% of patients with ovarian failure had a hormonal supplementation. Results showed a high rate of ovarian failure, evaluated by clinical and biological criteria. The difference between AA and malignant diseases might suggest that a potential deleterious role was played by previous anticancer treatments rather than by RIC Allo-SCT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Uterine artery embolization for uterine arteriovenous malformation in five women desiring fertility: pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, Angelos G; Vilos, George A; Hollett-Caines, Jackie; Rajakumar, Chandrew; Garvin, Greg; Kozak, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare and can be classified as either congenital or acquired. Acquired AVMs may result from trauma, uterine instrumentation, infection or gestational trophoblastic disease. The majority of acquired AVMs are encountered in women of reproductive age with a history of at least one pregnancy. Traditional therapies of AVMs include medical management of symptomatic bleeding, blood transfusions, uterine artery embolization (UAE) or hysterectomy. In this retrospective case series, we report our experience with AVM and UAE in five symptomatic women of reproductive age who wished to preserve fertility. Patients were 18-32 years old, and had 1-3 previous pregnancies prior to initial presentation. All patients were followed until their deliveries. All five patients delivered live births. Three of the five patients required two embolization procedures and one of these women required a subsequent hysterectomy. Two deliveries were at term and had normal weight babies and normal placenta. One woman had cerclage placed and developed chorioamnionitis at 34 weeks but had a normal placenta. Two pregnancies were induced AVM as previously thought and should be questioned as an initial therapy in symptomatic women of reproductive age desiring fertility preservation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fertility Drug Use and the Risk of Ovarian Tumors in Infertile Women: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Albert; Leonard, Phoebe H; Weaver, Amy L; Goode, Ellen L; Jensen, Jani R; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Coddington, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of infertility and fertility drugs on risk of ovarian tumors. Design Case-control study (Mayo Clinic Ovarian Cancer Study). Setting Ongoing academic study of ovarian cancer. Patient(s) A total of 1900 women (1028 with ovarian tumors and 872 controls, frequency matched on age and region of residence) who had provided complete information in a self-report questionnaire about history of infertility and fertility drug use. Intervention(s) None Main outcome measure(s) Effect of infertility history, use of fertility drugs and oral contraception and gravidity on the risk of ovarian tumor development, after controlling for potential confounders. Result(s) Among women who had a history of infertility, use of fertility drugs was reported by 24% (44/182) of controls and 17% (38/226) of cases. Infertile women who used fertility drugs were not at increased risk of developing ovarian tumors compared to infertile women who did not use fertility drugs, adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI 0.37, 1.11). Findings were similar when stratified by gravidity and when analyzed separately for borderline versus invasive tumors. Conclusion(s) We did not find any significant association between fertility drug use and risk of ovarian tumors. Further larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm this observation. PMID:23552324

  11. Fertility preservation in young women with endometrial carcinoma; report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi A.S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although endometrial cancer is primarily a disease of the postmenopausal female, 25% of patients are premenopausal, with 3-5% in women 40 years old or younger. The younger group of women with endometrial carcinoma are frequently nulligravid with a history of infertility, and a strong desire to preserve fertility. This may pose a therapeutic dilemma for both patients and treating physician. Case report: We reported 3 young patients with atypical; complex hyperplasia or early stage endometrial cancer that treated with conservative hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Medical treatment of young patients with endometrial carcinoma and complex atypical hyperplasia who wish to preserve fertility is a reasonable and appealing option. A comprehensive evaluation prior to counseling the patient should include A complete history and physical examination. A formal D&C with review of history with an experienced gyn-onc pathologist. Evaluation of the pelvic and abdomen preferably with contrast-enhanced MRI or transvaginal ultrasound. In patients found to have a clinical stage I grade I tumor and who want to preserve fertility , thorough counseling include risks and benefits, and explanation that the data is partial and incomplete due to the lack of appropriate controlled studies is mandatory. In patients considered for medical treatment, a high dose progestin regimen should be started with endometrial sampling every 3 months until complete regression of the tumor is documented. Although most responses are long standing, there is a small risk of progression during or after cessation of progestin therapy.

  12. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients.

  13. Effects of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives containing drospirenone on bone turnover and bone mineral density in young fertile women: a prospective controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Virginia; Massaro, Mariangela; Morra, Ilaria; Formisano, Carmen; Di Carlo, Costantino; Nappi, Carmine

    2008-07-01

    The effects of a 21-day combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol plus 3 mg drospirenone with a 21-day preparation containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol plus 3 mg drospirenone on bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in young fertile women were compared. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted on healthy fertile women treated with 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol plus 3 mg drospirenone (Group A; n=21), 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol plus 3 mg drospirenone (Group B; n=23) and healthy controls (Group C; n=21). At 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, serum and urinary calcium, osteocalcin (BGP), urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were measured. At baseline and after 12 months, lumbar bone mineral density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In Groups A and B, urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline at 6, 9 and 12 months were significantly reduced in comparison with basal values and Group C (pbasal values. Both combined oral contraceptives exert a similar positive influence on bone turnover in young postadolescent women.

  14. The impact of women's education, workforce experience, and the One Child Policy on fertility in China: a census study in Guangdong, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manyu Lan; Yaoqiu Kuang

    2016-01-01

    ... and workforce participation on fertility outcomes under China's One Child Policy. We found that: (1) under circumstances of low fertility, women tend to have more children with greater educational attainment...

  15. Effect of body mass index on in vitro fertilization outcomes in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sathya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :Obesity has become a major health problem across the world. In women, it is known to cause anovulation, subfecundity, increased risk of fetal anomalies and miscarriage rates. However, in women going for assisted reproduction the effects of obesity on egg quality, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy, live birth rates are controversial. Objectives :To assess the effect of women′s body mass index (BMI on the reproductive outcome of non donor In vitro fertilization (IVF/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The effects of BMI on their gonadotrophin levels (day 2 LH, FSH, gonadotrophin dose required for ovarian stimulation, endometrial thickness and oocyte/embryo quality were looked at, after correcting for age and poor ovarian reserve. Materials and Methods : Retrospective study of medical records of 308 women undergoing non donor IVF cycles in a University affiliated teaching hospital. They were classified into three groups: normal weight (BMI25 30 kg/m 2 . All women underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation using long agonist protocol. Results : There were 88 (28.6% in the normal weight group, 147 (47.7% in the overweight and 73 (23.7% in the obese group. All three groups were comparable with respect to age, duration of infertility, female and male causes of infertility. The three groups were similar with respect to day 2 LH/FSH levels, endometrial thickness and gonadotrophin requirements, oocyte quality, fertilization, cleavage rates, number of good quality embryos and clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion :Increase in body mass index in women does not appear to have an adverse effect on IVF outcome. However, preconceptual counselling for obese women is a must as weight reduction helps in reducing pregnancy-related complications.

  16. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loe, Henrik; Rognmo, Øivind; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years.......To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years....

  17. Study of Comparison between Autonomic Dysfunction and Dyslipidemia in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamudi, Kavyach

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, physical inactivity, and altered estrogen levels play an important role in contributing to disease risk profile and autonomic dysfunction in healthy postmenopausal women. This study was conducted to test the correlation between autonomic dysfunction and dyslipidemia in healthy postmenopausal women. This study was carried out on sixty healthy postmenopausal women before the age of 65 years, without any gross systemic disease. The following five autonomic functional tests were performed on the study group: heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to Valsalva maneuver, heart rate response to standing up from supine position, blood pressure response to sustained hand grip, and blood pressure response to standing up from supine position. Fasting lipid profile of the study group was tested. In the present study, autonomic dysfunction was found in 67% of healthy postmenopausal women. Among the sixty female healthy postmenopausal women included in the study, 68% were found to have dyslipidemia. In our study, there is a statistically significant correlation between autonomic dysfunction and dyslipidemia in healthy postmenopausal women. In these healthy postmenopausal women with increased serum cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein, and serum triglycerides, there was autonomic dysfunction which is statistically significant. There is no statistical significance on comparing serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with autonomic dysfunction in healthy postmenopausal women.

  18. Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites and Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Undergoingin VitroFertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Courtney C; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Butt, Craig M; Williams, Paige L; Meeker, John D; Stapleton, Heather M; Toth, Thomas L; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ

    2017-08-25

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) can disrupt endocrine function and impair embryo development. However, no epidemiologic studies have been conducted to evaluate effects on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. We evaluated associations between urinary concentrations of PFR metabolites and outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment among couples recruited from an academic fertility clinic. This analysis included 211 women enrolled in the Environment And Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2005-2015) who provided one or two urine samples per IVF cycle. We measured five urinary PFR metabolites [bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), isopropylphenyl phenyl phosphate (ip-PPP), tert-butylphenyl phenyl phosphate (tb-PPP), and bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP)] using negative electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Molar concentrations of the urinary PFR metabolites were summed. We used multivariable generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of the PFR metabolites with IVF outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Detection frequencies were high for BDCIPP (87%), DPHP (94%), and ip-PPP (80%), but low for tb-PPP (14%) and BCIPP (0%). We observed decreased success for several IVF outcomes across increasing quartiles of both summed and individual PFR metabolites (DPHP and ip-PPP) in our adjusted multivariable models. Significant declines in adjusted means from the lowest to highest quartile of ΣPFR were observed for the proportion of cycles resulting in successful fertilization (10% decrease), implantation (31%), clinical pregnancy (41%), and live birth (38%). Using IVF to investigate human reproduction and pregnancy outcomes, we found that concentrations of some urinary PFR metabolites were negatively associated with proportions of successful fertilization, implantation

  19. Low fertility awareness in United States reproductive-aged women and medical trainees: creation and validation of the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Chernyak, Elizabeth; McAvey, Beth

    2017-10-01

    To create, validate, and use a fertility awareness survey based on current U.S. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Phase 1 included U.S. women ages 18-45; phase 2 included female medical students and obstetrics and gynecology trainees at two urban academic programs. Survey including demographics, the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS) instrument, and General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Knowledge of natural fertility and infertility treatments. The FIT-KS was validated through detailed item and validity analyses. In phase 1, 127 women participated; their median age was 31 years, and 43.7% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 16.2 ± 3.5 (55.9% correct). In phase 2, 118 medical trainees participated; their median age was 25 years, and 12.4% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 18.8 ± 2.1 (64.9% correct), with year of training correlating to a higher score (r=0.40). Participant awareness regarding lifestyle factors varied, but it was particularly low regarding the effects of lubricants. The majority underestimated the spontaneous miscarriage rate and overestimated the fecundability of 40-year-old women. There was general overestimation of success rates for assisted reproductive technologies, particularly among medical trainees. The FIT-KS is validated to current U.S. data for use in both general and medical populations as a quick assessment of fertility knowledge. The knowledge gaps demonstrated in this study correlate with national trends in delayed childbearing and time to initiate treatment. For medical trainees, these results raise concerns about the quality of fertility counseling they may be able to offer patients. Greater educational outreach must be undertaken to enhance fertility awareness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographic variation in cardiovascular inflammation among healthy women in the Women's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R Clark

    Full Text Available Geographic variation in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors has been observed among women in the US. It is not known whether state-level variation in cardiovascular inflammation exists or could be explained by traditional clinical risk factors and behavioral lifestyle factors.We used multilevel linear regression to estimate state-level variation in inflammatory biomarker patterns adjusted for clinical and lifestyle characteristics among 26,029 women free of CVD. Participants derived from the Women's Health Study, a national cohort of healthy middle-aged and older women. Inflammatory biomarker patterns (plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, and fibrinogen were compared to state-level patterns of traditional CVD risk factors and global risk scores. We found that all three inflammatory biomarkers exhibited significant state-level variation including hsCRP (lowest vs. highest state median 1.3 mg/L vs. 2.7 mg/L, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range for log hsCRP 0.52, p<.001, sICAM-1 (325 ng/ml vs. 366ng/ml, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range 0.44, p<.001, and fibrinogen (322 mg/dL vs. 367 mg/dL, unadjusted random effect estimate 1(st to 99(th percentile range 0.41, p = .001. Neither demographic, clinical or lifestyle characteristics explained away state-level effects in biomarker patterns. Southern and Appalachian states (Arkansas, West Virginia had the highest inflammatory biomarker values. Regional geographic patterns of traditional CVD risk factors and risk scores did not completely overlap with biomarkers of inflammation.There is state-level geographic variation in inflammatory biomarkers among otherwise healthy women that cannot be completely attributed to traditional clinical risk factors or lifestyle characteristics. Future research should aim to identify additional factors that may explain

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X......-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA......) (CLA-mix); 2) cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA); or 3) control (olive oil). We assessed all variables before and after the intervention. The CLA-mix group had less total FM (4%) and lower-body FM (7%) than the control (P = 0.02 and

  2. Amphetamine alters neural response to sucrose in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, A James; Bailer, Ursula; Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Paulus, Martin P; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-06-30

    Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. We hypothesized that neural response in both limbic and cognitive sweet taste circuits would mirror past work with monetary rewards by effectively blunting sweet taste reward, and 'equalizing' it's rewarding taste with receipt of water. Behavioral results showed that amphetamine reduced self-reported hunger (supporting the existence of amphetamine anorexia) and increased self-report euphoria. In addition, region of Interest analysis revealed significant treatment by taste interactions in the middle insula and dorsal anterior cingulate confirming the 'equalizing' hypothesis in the cingulate, but unlike monetary reinforcers, the insula actually evinced enhanced separation between tastes on the amphetamine day. These results suggest a divergence from prior research using monetary reinforcers when extended to primary reinforcers, and may hint that altering dopaminergic signaling in the insula and anterior cingulate may be a target for pharmacological manipulation of appetite, and the treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hormonal background of physiological aggressiveness in psychologically healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Speca, Azzurra; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Biondi, Massimo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether or not physiological hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle modulate normal aggressiveness in psychophysically healthy women. In 15 probands estrogens (E), progesterone (PROG) and free testosterone (FT) plasma levels were measured by immunochemiluminescence and levels of global aggressiveness and its subitems "verbal aggressiveness", "suspiciousness" and "resentments" were measured by the Buss-Durkee Rating Scale in the early follicular, midluteal and premenstrual phases of the cycle. E and PROG levels varied significantly along the menstrual cycle, while those of FT, of global aggressiveness (GA) and of its subitems did not change. Values of global aggressiveness did not correlate with any of the hormonal parameters studied. However, E values correlated positively with "verbal aggression" scores in the follicular phase and positively with "resentment" in the premenstruum, while PROG levels correlated negatively with "suspiciousness" and "resentment" in the premenstrual phase of the cycle. Hormonal and psychological changes from one phase to the next (Delta) revealed that Delta E in the second half of the cycle correlated negatively with "verbal aggressiveness", while Delta PROG from follicular to luteal and from luteal to premenstrual phases correlated negatively with "resentment". Thus, although aggressiveness did not seem to vary along the menstrual cycle, nor to correlate with hormonal changes, hormone secretions and fluctuations might possibly modulate some of the physiological aspects of the behavioral parameter. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and IVF success rate among non-obese women attempting fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayiannis, Dimitrios; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mendorou, Christina; Mastrominas, Minas; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2018-01-30

    Is adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) associated with better IVF performance in women attempting fertility? Greater adherence to the MedDiet, defined using the validated Mediterranean diet score (MedDietScore), was associated with a higher likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth among non-obese women IVF treatment in an Assisted Conception Unit in Athens, Greece, between November 2013 and September 2016. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of habitual dietary intake and lifestyle on fertility outcomes. Diet was assessed before the IVF treatment via a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed through the MedDietScore (range: 0-55), with higher scores indicating greater adherence. Intermediate outcomes (oocyte yield, fertilization rate and embryo quality measures) and clinical endpoints (implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth) were abstracted from electronic medical records. Associations between MedDietScore and IVF outcomes were analysed using generalized linear models adjusting for age, ovarian stimulation protocol, BMI, physical activity, anxiety levels, infertility diagnosis, caloric intake and supplements use. No association of MedDietScore with any of the intermediate outcomes or with implantation was found. However, compared with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore (≥36, n = 86), women in the lowest tertile (≤30, n = 79) had significantly lower rates of clinical pregnancy (29.1 vs 50.0%, P = 0.01) and live birth (26.6 vs 48.8%, P = 0.01). The multivariable-adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for clinical pregnancy comparing women in the lowest with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore was 0.35 (0.16-0.78; P-trend=0.01), and for live birth it was 0.32 (0.14-0.71; P-trend = 0.01). These associations were significantly modified by women's age (P-interaction IVF treatment. This work was partially supported by a grand from Harokopio University (KE321

  5. A lifetime of healthy skin: implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, W F

    1999-01-01

    ultraviolet (UV) light. It is the leading cause of extrinsic aging, or alterations of the skin due to environmental exposure. Estimates indicate that almost half of a person's UV exposure occurs by age 18. Photoaging causes numerous histologic, physiologic, and clinical changes; it also increases the risk for skin cancer. Photodamage can be prevented through the use of sun screens, protective clothing, and avoidance of the sun during peak intensity time. The only product approved by the FDA for the treatment of photodamage (fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin roughness), topical tretinoin emollient cream, may help prevent additional photoaging when it is used to treat existing photoaging. Other management options for photodamaged skin include alpha-hydroxy acids, antioxidants, antiandrogens, moisturizers, and exfoliants. In patients with excessive manifestations of photodamage, surgical management may be needed, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, soft tissue augmentation, laser resurfacing, botulism toxin, and Gortex threads. Clinicians must educate their patients about the most appropriate skin care regimen as well as approaches for preventing and treating common afflictions. In this way, women will have the best opportunity for having and maintaining healthy skin.

  6. Effects of core stability exercises on multifidus muscles in healthy women and women with chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Klizas, Sarunas; Imbrasiene, Daiva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low-back pain (LBP) may be related to decreased lumbar multifidus muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). In this study, core stabilization exercises were designed to enhance neuromuscular control and correct multifidus dysfunction. The subjects were healthy women (n = 11) and women with chronic LBP (n = 17). Lumbar multifidus muscle CSAs were measured by ultrasonography. Tests were carried out before training exercises for lumbar stability, and again 4 months and 8 months after training. In women with LBP, the mean multifidus muscle CSA increased by 22% on the right side and 23% on the left side after 8 months of lumbar stabilization training, compared with baseline measurements. In healthy women, mean multifidus muscle CSA increased by 24% on the right side and 23% on the left side, compared with baseline values. A core stabilization exercise program significantly increased multifidus muscle CSAs in both healthy women and women with chronic LBP.

  7. Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In previous studies, people’s knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women’s psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment.

  8. Yes, No, Maybe: Fertility Intentions and Reasons Behind Them Among Childless Finnish Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Miettinen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine reproductive intentions among childless Finnish men and women aged 18 to 34 years. In Finland, as in other European countries, young adults are postponing parenthood to an ever-later age. Our intention is to investigate expressions of reproductive intentions, and particularly, to focus on the division of intentions between more positive and more hesitant expressions. We examine how education, factors related to economic security and values relate to childbearing hesitation among young adults. We also use information on the reasons that the young themselves have provided to examine differences in fertility intentions. Our study uses a sample of 724 men and women drawn from the PPA2 survey, which focused on Finns attitudes in 2002 toward family and children, family policy measures, values in life, and fertility intentions. We ? nd that education is related to postponement, and that unemployment increases hesitation. Partnership and the state of the relationship are clearly important preconditions for positive childbearing intentions among both men and women. Postponers are more likely to stress reasons that are related to present life situation and are more open to change, while persons who hesitate regarding future childbearing stress longer-standing reasons behind their intentions.

  9. Some socio-cultural factors influencing fertility behaviour: a case study of Yoruba women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, B

    1989-12-01

    The sociocultural factors impacting on fertility behavior among the Yoruba of Nigeria were investigated in a sample of 330 women, 199 from Ife-Ife urban area and 131 from 3 rural villages also in the Oranmiyan Local Government Area. All study participants were Yoruba women married to Yoruba men who had at least 1 child; their mean age was 34.5 years and 41% had no education. The study was conducted during 1987. The responses confirmed the close link between marriage and procreation in this culture. Children are valued as a source of prestige to a woman, and childless women are stigmatized. The reasons for which children are valued were found to vary according to educational level. 77% of women with no education compared with 41% of those with high levels of education value children as a source of caretaking in old age. In contrast, 44% of highly educated women versus 11% of uneducated women valued children as a source of joy. Educated women were also more likely than women with no education to view motherhood as a means of fulfilling God's command to continue the human race. In terms of sex preference, higher percentages of educated and urban women wanted their 1st child to be a male and son preference has strong religious, legal, and social status significance in the Yoruban culture. However, all respondents indicated they wanted to have children of both sexes. More information on sociocultural factors examined in this study is needed to help in the design of a population policy for the Yoruba.

  10. Should obese women's access to assisted fertility treatment be limited? A scientific and ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremellen, Kelton; Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is associated with a reduction in fertility treatment success and increased risks to mother and child. Therefore guidelines of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) suggest that a body mass index exceeding 35 kg/m2 should be an absolute contraindication to assisted fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilisation IVF. In this paper we challenge the ethical and scientific basis for such a ban. Livebirth rates for severely obese women are reduced by up to 30%, but this result is still far better than that observed for many older women who are allowed access to IVF. This prohibition is particularly unjust when IVF is the only treatment capable of producing a pregnancy, such as bilateral tubal blockage or severe male factor infertility. Furthermore, the absolute magnitude of risks to mother or child is relatively small, and while a woman has a right to be educated about these risks, she alone should be allowed to make a decision on proceeding with treatment. We do not prohibit adults from engaging in dangerous sports, nor do we force parents to vaccinate their children, despite the risks. Similarly, we should not prohibit obese women from becoming parents because of increased risk to themselves or their child. Finally, prohibiting obese women's access to IVF to prevent potential harms such as 'fetal programing' is questionable, especially when compared to that child never being born at all. As such, we believe the RANZCOG ban on severely obese women's access to assisted reproductive treatment is unwarranted and should be revised. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Perception of emotion and bilateral advantage in women with eating disorders, their healthy sisters, and nonrelated healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Michal Hason; Latzer, Yael; Stein, Daniel; Eviatar, Zohar

    2011-11-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized not only by disordered eating, but also by other psychopathology. In this exploratory study, we examined the ability of women with different diagnoses of EDs, their unaffected sisters, and healthy unrelated controls to recognize their own and other's emotions. We also looked at interhemispheric integration of emotion recognition and its relationship with depression. Five groups of women participated: 1. anorexia nervosa restricting (AN-R) and 2. (AN-B/B) binge/purge, 3. bulimia nervosa binge/purge, (BN-B/P), 4. healthy sisters of women with ED, and 5. unrelated healthy controls. We used two questionnaires measuring alexithymia and depression, and two lateralized experimental tasks requiring recognition of facial emotion. Unilateral versus bilateral presentation allow the indexing of interhemispheric integration. Alexithymia: All the ED groups were found to be more alexithymic and depressed on the self report scales compared to the two healthy groups. Depression completely mediated alexithymia in the AN-R group but not in the AN-B/P and BN-B/P patients. Sisters of ED women were more alexithymic than unrelated controls. Lateralized facial emotion recognition: ED women showed no deficits in recognizing basic emotions. However, the clinical groups did not show a bilateral advantage whereas the two healthy groups did so. We present three conclusions: we show, for the first time, evidence for a deficit in hemispheric integration in EDs. This implies that EDs may be a disconnection syndrome; alexithymia characterizes women with EDs and members of their family; depression is manifested differently in AN-R, than in women who binge/purge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mittal

    Full Text Available Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA.In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR-adjusted p value<0.05. These genes were enriched in pathways spanning multiple systems, as would be expected during pregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256 showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA.Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data.

  13. Perspectives of displaced Syrian women and service providers on fertility behaviour and available services in West Bekaa, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Mourtada, Rima; Bashour, Hyam; Kak, Faysal El; Zurayk, Huda

    2017-10-01

    Prior to the conflict, Syria had relatively high fertility rates. In 2010, it had the sixth highest total fertility rate in the Arab World, but it witnessed a fertility decline before the conflict in 2011. Displacement during conflict influences fertility behaviour, and meeting the contraceptive needs of displaced populations is complex. This study explored the perspectives of women and service providers about fertility behaviour of and service provision to Syrian refugee women in Bekaa, Lebanon. We used qualitative methodology to conduct 12 focus group discussions with Syrian refugee women grouped in different age categories and 13 in-depth interviews with care providers from the same region. Our findings indicate that the displacement of Syrians to Lebanon had implications on the fertility behaviour of the participants. Women brought their beliefs about preferred family size and norms about decision-making into an environment where they were exposed to both aid and hardship. The unaffordability of contraceptives in the Lebanese privatised health system compared to their free provision in Syria limited access to family planning services. Efforts are needed to maintain health resources and monitor health needs of the refugee population in order to improve access and use of services.

  14. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Lim, Myong Cheol; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires...

  15. Perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia: explanatory factors and comparison with healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Bjersing, Jan; Löfgren, Monika; Ernberg, Malin; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ghafouri, Bijar; Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    To investigate perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia. A controlled cross-sectional multi-centre study. Seventy-three women with fibromyalgia and 73 healthy women matched by occupation and physical workload were compared in terms of perceived exertion at work (0-14), muscle strength, 6-min walk test, symptoms rated by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), work status (25-100%), fear avoidance work beliefs (0-42), physical activity at work (7-21) and physical workload (1-5). Spearman's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were conducted. Perceived exertion at work was significantly higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the reference group (p = 0.002), while physical activity at work did not differ between the groups. Physical capacity was lower and symptom severity higher in fibromyalgia compared with references (p fibromyalgia, perceived exertion at work showed moderate correlation with physical activity at work, physical workload and fear avoidance work beliefs (rs = 0.53-0.65, p anxiety (rs = 0.26, p = 0.027). Regression analysis indicated that the physical activity at work and fear avoidance work beliefs explained 50% of the perceived exertion at work. Women with fibromyalgia perceive an elevated exertion at work, which is associated with physical work-related factors and factors related to fear and anxiety.

  16. Parenting style of women who conceived using in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shu, Bih-Ching; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Ying-Ju

    2014-06-01

    Research has shown that the mental health of women contributes to their parenting style. However, it remains unclear whether the experience of in vitro fertilization (IVF) affects parenting style. This study was designed to assess whether there is a difference in parenting styles between women who conceived using IVF and those who conceived naturally. This meta-analysis searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and CINAHL) for relevant articles published between 1978 and 2011. Key words used included parenting, mothering, parent-child relations, childrearing, infertility, assisted reproductive technique, IVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Study inclusion criteria were as follows: published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal, with the definition of parenting style categorized as one of two dimensions: warmth and control; quantification of the parenting behaviors; use of a case-controlled study design to compare IVF and natural conceptions; and reported data sufficient to calculate the effect sizes. Studies that included women who conceived using a donor egg or sperm for IVF and those that included women who were either surrogates or in homosexual relationships were excluded. Three hundred ninety studies were identified. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to appraise the quality of the data. The IVF participants used significantly greater controlling parenting behaviors than their natural conception participant peers (d = 0.148, p parenting behaviors related to warmth, rejection, or respect for autonomy. The homogeneity test for the effect size of warmth and controlling parenting behavior achieved significance. Women who conceive using IVF have slightly but still significantly greater controlling parenting behaviors than women who conceive naturally. The results of this study may help professionals to better understand the parenting style of IVF women and develop appropriate interventions

  17. Physical Fitness can Partly Explain the Metabolically Healthy Obese Phenotype in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelkens, F.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Brussee, P.; Verheggen, R.J.H.M.; Tack, C.J.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether physical fitness and/or fat distribution and inflammation profile may explain why approximately 30% of the women with obesity are protected against obesity-related disorders.10 metabolically healthy obese women and 10 age- and weight-matched women with the metabolic syndrome

  18. Correlation between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Platelet Function in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Stefan; Assinger, Alice; Pokan, Rochus; Volf, Ivo

    2016-06-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) represents a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, and platelets play a key role in the development of this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between CRF and platelet function. CRF and different aspects of platelet function were assessed in healthy, young, nonsmoking women. Results were compared between groups of low (LF), medium (MF) and high CRF (HF). Measurements were repeated in group LF after a supervised endurance training program lasting two menstrual cycles and obtained results were compared with groups MF and HF. CRF was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) determined by an incremental treadmill exercise test. V˙O2max criteria for groups were (mL·min·kg bodyweight): LF 55. Platelet activation state and platelet reactivity were assessed by basal and agonist-induced surface expression of CD62P and CD40L as well as the intraplatelet amount of reactive oxygen species. In group LF, basal platelet activation as well as agonist-induced platelet reactivity were increased compared with groups MF and HF. Between groups MF and HF parameters of platelet function were roughly equal despite a pronounced difference regarding CRF. Exercise training improved CRF in group LF and aligned platelet function to levels observed in groups MF and HF, although CRF still markedly differed. Low levels of CRF favor a proinflammatory platelet phenotype. A relatively low dose of exercise is sufficient to normalize platelet function, whereas superior levels of physical activity and CRF do not provide any further substantial benefit, but also no appreciable adverse effects.

  19. [Association of physical activity and dietary habits with overweight in fertile Chilean women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra M, Ximena; Bedregal, Paula; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Caro M, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    Women in Chile are mainly responsible in the formation of eating habits in the population, particularly at their homes. To explore the association of physical activity and alimentary habits with overweight among adult Chilean women in fertile age. Cross sectional study using the data from de National Health Survey 2009-2010. Socio-demographic variables, dietary issues, multidimensional physical activity, sedentary free time and their link with nutritional status were studied in a sample of 1,195 women aged between 20 and 44 years. Sixty three percent of women were overweight. The factors positively associated overweight were having an age between 31 and 44 years (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.4), having a lower education level (PR = 1.23), living in rural areas (PR = 2.21) and being exposed to work environment (PR = 1.29). The factors negatively associated with overweight were the consumption of whole grains at least once daily (PR = 0.59), being physically active according to a self-assessment scale (PR = 0.22) and being physically inactive during leisure time (PR = 0.61). The promotion whole grain cereal consumption and physical activity in women is advisable to prevent overweight, mostly in vulnerable groups such as those older than 31 years, with a low educational level and living rural areas.

  20. Muscle function of the pelvic floor in healthy, puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pardiñas, M A; Torres-Lacomba, M; Navarro-Brazález, B

    2017-05-01

    To understand the function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) at different ages in healthy women and in puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD) and to ascertain whether there are differences among them. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2016 and included 177 women, 70 of whom had no symptoms of PFD, 53 primiparous mothers in late postpartum and 54 with PFD. The function of the PFM was measured through vaginal palpation (quality of the contraction); manometry (force); dynamometer (tone, strength, and response to stretching), and surface electromyography (neuromuscular activity and resistance). The healthy women showed superior values for PFM tone, maximum strength, neuromuscular activity and resistance than the puerperal mothers and the women with PFD (P.05). The muscle function of the healthy women did not vary significantly with age, except in the case of tone, which was lower in the women older than 46 years (P=.004). Age and births decrease the baseline tone of the PFM in healthy women. Therefore, lower strength, resistance and neuromuscular activity appear to be the main difference between the PFM of women with PFD and the PFM of healthy women. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  2. Association between Coping Strategies and Infertility Stress among a Group of Women with Fertility Problem in Shiraz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Aflakseir, Abdulaziz; Zarei, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that individuals with fertility problems experience psychosocial problems. The use of various coping strategies seems to have different impacts on women with infertility stress. The aim of this study was to examine the role of coping strategies (active-avoidance, passive-avoidance, active confronting and meaning based) in predicting infertility stress among a group of women seeking infertility treatment in Shiraz. Methods One hundred twenty infertile women were r...

  3. Reproductive counseling, contraception, and unplanned pregnancy in fertile women treated by gynecologic oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Crafton

    2017-02-01

    Members of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO were surveyed electronically regarding consistency of counseling patterns of contraception and fertility concerns, most and least common contraceptive methods utilized, referral patterns, and incidence of unplanned pregnancy. Of the 1424 SGO members identified, 261 participated in the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 18%. Eighty-two percent of respondents agreed unplanned pregnancy is a potential problem, but only 57% believed their patients understood unplanned pregnancy is possible during treatment. Half of respondents report “always” in terms of frequency that contraception is addressed among their high-risk patients. After adjustment for gender, we found that the odds of reporting providing fertility counseling were nearly three times higher among attendings as compared to fellows [AOR = 2.72; 95% CI = (1.44, 5.12, three times higher in women as compared to men [AOR = 2.80; 95% CI = (1.46, 5.38], as well as in individuals 50+ years as compared to those <40 years old [AOR = 4.91; 95% CI = (2.05, 11.74]. Ninety-six percent reported <5 unplanned pregnancies, to their knowledge, in the previous five years of clinical practice. Most providers acknowledge that unplanned pregnancy is a potential risk in fertile gynecologic oncology patients, but only half believe their patients understand an unplanned pregnancy is possible. An opportunity exists to provide more directed counseling regarding fertility during and after cancer therapy, and to educate patients and providers regarding more reliable, long acting contraceptive methods.

  4. Reproductive knowledge and patient education needs among Indonesian women infertility patients attending three fertility clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Linda Rae; Wiweko, Budi; Bell, Lauren; Shafira, Nadia; Pangestu, Mulyoto; Adayana, I B Putra; Hinting, Aucky; Armstrong, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the reproductive knowledge and patient education needs of 212 female Indonesian infertility patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to September 2011 by married women, 18 to 45 years old, seeking infertility care from clinics in Jakarta, Surabaya and Denpasar. Participants were literate, the sample was highly educated, predominantly urban and primarily middle class or elite. Infertility consultants were cited as the most useful source of information by 65% of respondents, 94% understood that infertility results from male and female factors, 84% could distinguish between infertility and sterility, and 70% could identify their fertility window. However, demand for further knowledge of reproduction and infertility was expressed by 87%. Patients' knowledge of the causes and treatment of infertility was extremely poor. Two key causes of infertility, advanced age and untreated sexually transmissible infections, were not named. Only 19% of patients had received written information. The study revealed the need for expanded infertility patient education among women patients accessing fertility care in Indonesian clinics. Opportunities for education should be maximized within infertility consultations. A standardized infertility patient education curriculum should be developed, incorporating patients' priorities, as well as gaps in existing knowledge. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women.......To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women....

  6. In Vitro Fertilization in Women With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is as Successful as in Women From the General Infertility Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Sveta Shah; Pabby, Vikas; Dodge, Laura E.; Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Hacker, Michele R.; Fox, Janis H.; Correia, Katharine; Missmer, Stacey A.; Ibrahim, Yetunde; Penzias, Alan S.; Burakoff, Robert; Friedman, Sonia; Cheifetz, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects women of reproductive age, so there are concerns about its effects on fertility. We investigated the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in patients with IBD compared with the general (non-IBD) IVF population. METHODS We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study of female patients with IBD who under-went IVF from 1998 through 2011 at 2 tertiary care centers. Patients were matched 4:1 to those without IBD (controls). The primary outcome was the cumulative rate of live births after up to 6 cycles of IVF. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who became pregnant and the rate of live births for each cycle. RESULTS Forty-nine patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 71 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 1 patient with IBD-unclassified, and 470 controls underwent IVF during the study period. The cumulative rate of live births was 53% for controls, 69% for patients with UC (P = .08 compared with controls), and 57% for patients with CD (P = .87 compared with controls). The incidence of pregnancy after the first cycle of IVF was similar among controls (40.9%), patients with UC (49.3%; P = .18), and patients with CD (42.9%; P = .79). Similarly, the incidence of live births after the first cycle of IVF was similar among controls (30.2%), patients with UC (33.8%; P = .54), and patients with CD (30.6%; P = .95). CONCLUSIONS Based on a matched cohort study, infertile women with IBD achieve rates of live births after IVF that are comparable with those of infertile women without IBD. PMID:25818081

  7. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on fertility quality of life and pregnancy rates among women subjected to first in vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Long, Ling; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Generally, undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an emotional and physical burden for the infertile woman, which may negatively influence the treatment outcome. We conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) among women subjected to first IVF treatment at a fertility medical center in China. Among infertile women registered for their first IVF treatment, 58 completed the intervention, and 50 were assigned to a control group using a non-randomized controlled study. Standardized measures of mindfulness, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, infertility-related coping strategies and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) were endorsed pre- and post-MBI, and measure of pregnancy rates at the sixth months after the intervention. Both groups were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the intervention, women who attended the intervention revealed a significant increase in mindfulness, self-compassion, meaning-based coping strategies and all FertiQoL domains. Inversely, they presented a significant decrease in emotion regulation difficulties, active- and passive-avoidance coping strategies. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants in the pregnancy rates, the experiment group higher than the control group. Being fully aware of the present moment without the lens of judgment, seems to help women relate to their infertility and IVF treatment in new ways. This is beneficial for promoting their self-compassion, adaptive emotion regulation and infertility-related coping strategies, which, in turn, may influence the FertiQoL and pregnancy rates. The brief and nonpharmaceutical nature of this intervention makes it a promising candidate for women' use during first IVF treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the perception of time pressure a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nicky; McNaughton, Sarah A; Hunter, Wendy; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David

    2009-07-01

    To describe the proportion of women reporting time is a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity, the characteristics of these women and the perceived causes of time pressure, and to examine associations between perceptions of time as a barrier and consumption of fruit, vegetables and fast food, and physical activity. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity and perceived causes of time pressure. A randomly selected community sample. A sample of 1580 women self-reported their food intake and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to healthy eating. An additional 1521 women self-reported their leisure-time physical activity and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to physical activity. Time pressure was reported as a barrier to healthy eating by 41% of the women and as a barrier to physical activity by 73%. Those who reported time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating were significantly less likely to meet fruit, vegetable and physical activity recommendations, and more likely to eat fast food more frequently. Women reporting time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity are less likely to meet recommendations than are women who do not see time pressure as a barrier. Further research is required to understand the perception of time pressure issues among women and devise strategies to improve women's food and physical activity behaviours.

  10. The level and patterns of fertility among women in Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center (KDS-HRC) Field site, Kersa District, East Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelalem, Desalew; Semahegn, Agumasie; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Sileshi, Balewgize

    2015-01-01

    Fertility is one of the three principal components of population dynamics. High fertility and rapid population growth exert negative influences on economic and social development. This study was aimed to estimate the level and trends of fertility among (15-49 years) old women in kersa demographic surveillance and health research center, kersa district Eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted at kersa demographic surveillance and health research center in kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia. The study utilized five years follow up data (2008-2012). All women (15 to 49 years old) who have been living at kersa demographic surveillance and health research center in kersa district from 2008 to 2012 were included in the analysis to estimate the level and pattern of fertility. Descriptive statistics was computed to determine level and pattern of fertility. Age specific fertility rate was highest in women of the age group 25-29 years old (233.2 per 1000 women in 2008; 205.8 per 1000 women in 2009; 279.0 per 1000 women in 2010; 186.6 per 1000 women in 2011 and 198.5 per 1000 women in 2012) in five consecutive years from 2008 to 2012. Total fertility rate didn't show any significant decline during the study period, i.e., 4.3, 4.5, 4.9, 3.5, 4.0 live births per woman throughout her reproductive period (15-49) years old in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. On the other hand, general fertility rate declined from 110.3 births per 1000 women in 2008 to 95.9 per 1000 women in the reproductive age in 2012. The total fertility rate was found to be relatively high. Fertility rate is higher in rural residents and illiterate women than in urban residents and literate women. Strong information, education, communication and behavior change communication on family planning should be designed and implemented to prevent unwanted fertility.

  11. Measurement of uterine natural killer cell percentage in the periimplantation endometrium from fertile women and women with recurrent reproductive failure: establishment of a reference range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Mariee, Najat; Jiang, Lingming; Liu, Yingyu; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan

    2017-09-19

    Uterine natural killer cells are the major leukocytes present in the periimplantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure compared with fertile controls. We sought to compare the uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. This was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals. A total of 215 women from 3 university centers participated in the study, including 97 women with recurrent miscarriage, 34 women with recurrent implantation failure, and 84 fertile controls. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Endometrial sections were immunostained for CD56 and cell counting was performed by a standardized protocol. Results were expressed as percentage of positive uterine natural killer cell/total stromal cells. The median uterine natural killer cell percentage in Chinese ovulatory fertile controls in natural cycles was 2.5% (range 0.9-5.3%). Using 5th and 95th percentile to define the lower and upper limits of uterine natural killer cell percentage, the reference range was 1.2-4.5%. Overall, the groups with recurrent reproductive failure had significantly higher uterine natural killer cell percentage than the controls (recurrent miscarriage: median 3.2%, range 0.6-8.8%; recurrent implantation failure: median 3.1%, range 0.8-8.3%). However, there was a subset of both groups (recurrent miscarriage: 16/97; recurrent implantation failure: 6/34) that had lower uterine natural killer cell percentage compared to fertile controls. A reference range for uterine natural killer cell percentage in fertile women was established. Women with recurrent reproductive failure had uterine natural killer cell percentages both above and below the reference range. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The psychological profile and affective response of women diagnosed with unexplained infertility undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg Romano, Gabi; Ravid, Hila; Zaig, Inbar; Schreiber, Shaul; Azem, Foad; Shachar, Izhak; Bloch, Miki

    2012-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that unexplained infertility may be related to specific personality and coping styles. We studied two groups of women with explained infertility (EIF, n = 63) and unexplained infertility (UIF, n = 42) undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Women completed personality and coping style questionnaires prior to the onset of the cycle, and state depression and anxiety scales before and at two additional time points during the cycle. Almost no in-between group differences were found at any of the measured time points in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 validity and clinical scales, Illness Cognitions and Life Orientation Test, or for the situational measures. The few differences found suggest a more adaptive, better coping, and functioning defensive system in women with EIF. In conclusion, we did not find any clinically significant personality differences or differences in depression or anxiety levels between women with EIF and UIF during an IVF cycle. Minor differences found are probably a reaction to the ambiguous medical situation with its uncertain prognosis, amplifying certain traits which are not specific to one psychological structure but rather to the common experience shared by the group. The results of this study do not support the possibility that personality traits are involved in the pathophysiology of unexplained infertility.

  13. The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Roberta; Della Torre, Sara

    2016-02-11

    In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women's health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic pathways and to impairments in the finely tuned inter-relation between energy metabolism and reproduction, thereby affecting female fertility. Many energetic states could influence female reproductive health being under- and over-weight, obesity and strenuous physical activity are all conditions that alter the profiles of specific hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, thus impairing women fertility. Furthermore, specific classes of nutrients might affect female fertility by acting on particular signaling pathways. Dietary fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and food-associated components (such as endocrine disruptors) have per se physiological activities and their unbalanced intake, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, might impair metabolic homeostasis and fertility in premenopausal women. Even though we are far from identifying a "fertility diet", lifestyle and dietary interventions might represent a promising and invaluable strategy to manage infertility in premenopausal women.

  14. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    Are there differences in preconception cardiovascular function between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage? Preconception cardiovascular function of central haemodynamics and arterial function are similar between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage. Miscarriages have been associated with increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk, and arterial and cardiovascular dysfunction has been hypothesised as the common link. It is not known if these risks are present prior to pregnancy or are a reflection of poor arterial and haemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. This prospective longitudinal preconception cohort study was conducted over 18 months. In total, 367 participants were recruited pre-pregnancy, from which 197 pregnancies were recorded; 39 of these pregnancies ended in first trimester miscarriage. Complete longitudinal data were available for 172 pregnancies (140 viable pregnancies, 32 first trimester miscarriages) from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. This was a single site study based at a maternity hospital in London. Healthy women were recruited prior to natural conception and followed up once they became pregnant. All underwent haemodynamic [cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)] and arterial function [aortic augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] testing prior to pregnancy and at 6 weeks gestation, using non-invasive devices (gas re-breathing method, Innocor® and an occilometric device, Vicorder®). Cross-sectional measurements at pre-pregnancy and 6 weeks gestation and a longitudinal analysis of changes were compared between women who had a subsequent viable pregnancy, and those who had a subsequent first trimester miscarriage. There were no differences between women destined to have a healthy ongoing pregnancy compared to those who miscarried, in terms of baseline cardiovascular function, assessed by CO, PVR, PWV or AIx

  15. In Vitro Fertilization Is Successful in Women With Ulcerative Colitis and Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabby, Vikas; Oza, Sveta Shah; Dodge, Laura E; Hacker, Michele R; Moragianni, Vasiliki A; Correia, Katherine; Missmer, Stacey A; Fox, Janis H; Ibrahim, Yetunde; Penzias, Alan; Burakoff, Robert; Cheifetz, Adam; Friedman, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    Women with ulcerative colitis (UC), who require ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA), have up to a threefold increased incidence of infertility. To better counsel patients who require colectomy, we examined the success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) among women who have undergone IPAA. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Female patients with UC were identified via ICD-9 codes and cross-referenced with those presenting for IVF from 1998 through 2011. UC patients with IPAA were compared with the following two unexposed groups that underwent IVF: (1) patients with UC, who had not undergone IPAA, and (2) patients without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The primary outcome was the cumulative live birth rate. Secondary outcomes included number of oocytes retrieved, proportion of patients who underwent embryo transfer, pregnancy rate, and live birth rate at first cycle. There were 22 patients with UC and IPAA, 49 patients with UC and without IPAA, and 470 patients without IBD. The cumulative live birth rate after six cycles in the UC and IPAA groups was 64% (95% confidence interval (CI): 44-83%). This rate did not differ from the cumulative live birth rate in the UC without IPAA group (71%, 95% CI: 59-83%; P=0.63) or the group without IBD (53%, 95% CI: 48-57%; P=0.57). This study demonstrates that in our cohort, women who undergo IPAA achieve live births following IVF at comparable rates to women with UC without IPAA and to women without IBD.

  16. ACCESS OF SINGLE WOMEN TO FERTILITY TREATMENT: A CASE OF INCIDENTAL DISCRIMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Atina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the extent to which single women have access to publicly funded fertility treatment. It claims that, despite the fact that great progress has been made in removing gender inequalities in the area of assisted reproduction in England and Wales in recent years, there are points in the regulatory framework that still allow for discrimination against single women. The article builds on recent studies concerning the reforms brought about by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 (HFEA 2008). However, it focusses on publicly funded treatment, thus directing scholarly attention away from the controversies over the amended s 13(5) HFEA 1990. It argues that the primary reason for remaining inequalities can be traced back to (a) the limitations of the current legislative framework; (b) the ambiguities inherent in the regulatory framework, which in the context of publicly funded fertility treatment is determined by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines and Clinical Commissioning Groups and Health Boards' resource allocation policies; and (c) the remaining confusion about the relationship between 'welfare of the child' assessments and eligibility criteria in National Health Service rationing decisions. The article argues that the current regulation does not go far enough in acknowledging the inability of single women to conceive naturally, but at the same time that it struggles to address the fluidity of contemporary familial relationships. The analysis presents an opportunity to contribute to debates about the role of law in shaping the scope of reproductive autonomy, gender equality and social justice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Assessment of the level of health literacy among fertile Iranian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Soheila Tontab; Lamyian, Minoor; Granpaye, Loabat

    2015-10-01

    Health literacy is one of the main determinants of health promotion. Regarding the influential role of the women in a society, enhancing their critical health literacy would be a prerequisite for the promotion of public health. The aims of this study were to determine the level of health literacy among fertile Iranian women with breast cancer and to determine the relationship between the health literacy level and socio demographic factors, such as age, educational level, occupation, age of marriage, duration of marriage, and several clinical factors, including taking psychiatric medication and the type of breast surgery among breast cancer patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 260 fertile patients with breast cancer from screening and monitoring centers and breast cancer clinics in Tehran from August 2014 to August 2015. Data were collected using socio demographic and clinical questionnaires developed by the researchers and the questionnaire for health literacy for Iranian adults (HELIA).The results were analyzed using SPSS-IBM version 20 and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, along with Kido's correlation test. The mean age of the participants was 43.32. Most of the participants (68.5%) had high school diplomas or lower school degrees (based on educational system in Iran). The mean score of health literacy was 75.73. The levels of health literacy among the different groups of participants were as follows: insufficient health literacy (6.9% of patients), barely enough health literacy (18.8% of patients), enough health literacy (38.8% of patients) and excellent health literacy (35.1% of patients). Also, significant relationships were found between the level of health literacy and the participants' age of marriage, duration of marriage, educational level, and occupation (p literacy was high among women with breast cancer. This indicates that their high level of health literacy might be used as a contributor to the promotion of the

  18. The Influence of Gender Role and Women's Empowerment on Couples' Fertility Experiences in Urban Society of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Khadivzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Iran has experienced a great variation in women's status in recent years. There is a little knowledge on how and why advancing gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women play a role in recent fertility reduction in the country. This study was conducted to gain insight into the role of gender beliefs and women's empowerment in the couples 'experiences of fertility in Mashhad, Iran in 2011-2012. Methods: In this exploratory qualitative study in-depth interviews were conducted with 54 purposefully selected eligible male and female participants and some key informants who lived in urban society of Mashhad. Data was collected until saturation was happened and analyzed adopting conventional content analysis approach through giving analytical codes and identification of categories using MAXqda software. Study rigor verified via prolonged engagement, thick description and validation of anlysis through member check. Results:Findings from data analysis demonstrated three major categories about the influence of women’s empowerment and gender role on fertility experiences including: 1 The couple’s understanding of gender roles 2 Women’s empowerment and changing gender roles 3 Couple’s interactions in complementary or parallel roles and 4 Fulfillment of fertility goals based on role division. Some aspects of couples' interaction including equal roles in fertility decisions, choosing and using best fit family planning method and participative child care influenced couples' fertility behavior. Women’s empowerment together with balanced gender role in the family resulted in success in attaining couple’s fertility desire. Conclusion: Managing fertility behaviors needs to understand the roles of spouses in their mutual interaction in fertility decision making and related behaviors. Imbalanced gender role in family acts as an obstacle to reach the fertility goals and leads to lower than desired fertility. Reproductive

  19. Prevalence of infertility and use of fertility treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: data from a large community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joham, Anju E; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Zoungas, Sophia; Boyle, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6%-21% of women. PCOS is the primary cause of anovulatory infertility, with major health and economic costs, yet we are unaware of any community-based, natural history studies on fertility and fertility treatments published to date. We aim to compare infertility, fertility treatment use, and relationship to body mass index (BMI) in women reporting PCOS to women not reporting PCOS in a community-based population. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). For the ALSWH, women from the general community were randomly selected from the national public insurance database. Mailed survey data were collected at multiple time points. At survey 4, there were 9145 respondents aged 28-33 years. Of 8612 women with known PCOS status, 478 women reported having PCOS. Information regarding fertility status was available for 4856 women. This was the subgroup used in this analysis. The main outcomes measures are self-reported PCOS status, BMI, infertility, and use of fertility therapies including ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with infertility and use of fertility treatment. Self-reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3%-6.4%). Infertility was noted by 72% of 309 women reporting PCOS, compared with 16% of 4547 women not reporting PCOS (pInfertility was 15-fold higher in women reporting PCOS (adjusted odds ratio 14.9, 95% CI 10.9-20.3), independent of BMI. Of women reporting infertility, there was greater use of fertility hormone treatment, (62%, n=116 vs. 33%, n=162, pinfertility and use of fertility hormone treatment was significantly higher in women reporting PCOS. Considering the prevalence of PCOS and the health and economic burden of infertility, strategies to optimize fertility are important.

  20. Prevalence of uterine diseases in healthy women with hysteroscopy as part of routine gynecological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paredes Palma

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Hysteroscopy showed a high prevalence of detecting uterine pathologies that were never previously described in a population of healthy women in a common sample of patients attending the outpatient Hospital Pemex Picacho.

  1. Women and Heart Disease | Healthy Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Women and Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Photos: ... still underestimate their own personal risk of getting heart disease.” "Having even one risk factor can double a ...

  2. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Mousavi; Manoochehr Makvandi; Ali Teimoori; Angila Ataei; Shokouh Ghafari; Mahin Najafian; Ziba Ourang; Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The lactobacilli are a part of the bacterial flora of the human vagina. Detection of normal Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in different geographical locations, and evaluation of their specific properties, can aid in the selection of the best species for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in the future. This study was performed to isolate and identify the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women and to evaluate the adherence of these lactob...

  3. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    to expose it to increased chances of trauma during sexual intercourse4. Uncomplicated UTI is common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, but the mean incidence peaks in the 15 to 39 year age bracket5. This is also the period of maximum sexual and reproductive activity in many women's lives. About 40-50% ...

  4. An internet forum analysis of stigma power perceptions among women seeking fertility treatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Natalie Anne; Saint Onge, Jarron M

    2015-12-01

    Infertility is a condition that affects nearly 30 percent of women aged 25-44 in the United States. Though past research has addressed the stigmatization of infertility, few have done so in the context of stigma management between fertile and infertile women. In order to assess evidence of felt and enacted stigma, we employed a thematic content analysis of felt and enacted stigma in an online infertility forum, Fertile Thoughts, to analyze 432 initial threads by women in various stages of the treatment-seeking process. We showed that infertile women are frequently stigmatized for their infertility or childlessness and coped through a variety of mechanisms including backstage joshing and social withdrawal. We also found that infertile women appeared to challenge and stigmatize pregnant women for perceived immoral behaviors or lower social status. We argue that while the effects of stigma power are frequently perceived and felt in relationships between infertile women and their fertile peers, the direction of the enacted stigma is related to social standing and feelings of fairness and reinforces perceived expressions of deserved motherhood in the United States. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization in women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Yang, Rui; Chi, Hongbin; Lian, Ying; Wang, Jiejing; Huang, Shuo; Lu, Cuiling; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-02-28

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions.Strategies were used to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, but ectopic pregnancy still occurs. In the present study, women were selected with decreased ovarian reserve (defined as FSH > 10 IU/L) aged 20 to 38 years who underwent IVF-ET between 2009 and 2014. These 2,061 women were age-matched with an equal number of women with normal ovarian reserve (defined as FSH ≤ 10 IU/L). During cycles following fresh embryo transfer, 93 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in clinical pregnancies was significantly higher in the decreased ovarian reserve than in the normal ovarian reserve group (5.51% vs. 2.99%). After adjusting for confounding factors, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased ovarian reserve. Our results showed that decreased ovarian reserve is an independent risk factor for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  6. Grief responses and coping strategies among infertile women after failed in vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Hsin; Wang, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Lee, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2010-09-01

    Reproductive technology has increased the childbearing potential for many infertile women, but in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures are common, which often trigger grief responses and coping strategies to manage the stressful life event. The present cross-sectional study investigated 66 women who had experienced at least one failure with IVF treatment. The data were gathered by a self-administered structured questionnaire, and included the participant's personal profile, grief responses and the Jalowiec's coping scale. The most common grief response among the respondents was bargaining, followed by acceptance, depression, anger, denial, and isolation. The order of coping strategies used, from highest-to-lowest, were confrontative, optimistic, self-reliant, fatalistic, supportive, evasive, palliative, and emotive. Use and self-perceived effectiveness among all coping strategies had a high correlation, except emotion. Bargaining, the most common grief response, was associated with a variety of coping strategies. All coping strategies were correlated with grief responses. The results of identifying the grief responses and associated coping strategies of women who have undergone failed IVF treatment may assist nurses and other health care professionals in their efforts to provide appropriate information, care and psychological support. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Boivin, Diane B.

    2010-01-01

    A relationship exists between the sleep-wake cycle and hormone secretion, which, in women, is further modulated by the menstrual cycle. This interaction can influence sleep across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), who experience specific alterations of circadian rhythms during their symptomatic luteal phase along with sleep disturbances during this time. This review will address the variation of sleep at different menstrual phases in healthy and PMDD women, as well as changes in circadian rhythms, with an emphasis on their relationship with female sex hormones. It will conclude with a brief discussion on nonpharmacological treatments of PMDD which use chronotherapeutic methods to realign circadian rhythms as a means of improving sleep and mood in these women. PMID:20145718

  8. Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship exists between the sleep-wake cycle and hormone secretion, which, in women, is further modulated by the menstrual cycle. This interaction can influence sleep across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, who experience specific alterations of circadian rhythms during their symptomatic luteal phase along with sleep disturbances during this time. This review will address the variation of sleep at different menstrual phases in healthy and PMDD women, as well as changes in circadian rhythms, with an emphasis on their relationship with female sex hormones. It will conclude with a brief discussion on nonpharmacological treatments of PMDD which use chronotherapeutic methods to realign circadian rhythms as a means of improving sleep and mood in these women.

  9. Advances in improving fertility in women through stem cell-based clinical platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Valeria Stella; Viganò, Paola; Papaleo, Enrico; Mangili, Giorgia; Candiani, Massimo; Giorgione, Veronica

    2017-05-01

    Due to their regenerative ability, stem cells are looked at as a promising tool for improving infertility treatments in women. As the main limiting factor in female fertility is represented by the decrease of ovarian reserve, the main goals of stem cell-based clinical platforms would be to obtain in vitro or in vivo neo-oogenesis. Refractory endometrial factor infertility also represents an obstacle for female reproduction for which stem cells might provide novel treatment strategies. Areas covered: A systematic search of the literature was performed on MEDLINE/PubMed database to identify relevant articles using stem-cell based clinical or research platforms in the field of female infertility. Expert opinion: In vitro oogenesis has not so far developed beyond the stage of oocyte-like cells whose normal progression to mature oocytes and ability to be fertilized was not proved. Extensive epigenetic programming of gamete precursors and the complex interactions between somatic and germ cells required for human oogenesis likely represent the main obstacles in stem-cell-based neo-oogenesis. Also resuming oogenesis in vivo in adulthood still appears a distant hypothesis, as there is still a lack of consensus about the existence and functionality of adult ovarian stem cells.

  10. The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Roberta; Della Torre, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women’s health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic pathways and to impairments in the finely tuned inter-relation between energy metabolism and reproduction, thereby affecting female fertility. Many energetic states could influence female reproductive health being under- and over-weight, obesity and strenuous physical activity are all conditions that alter the profiles of specific hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, thus impairing women fertility. Furthermore, specific classes of nutrients might affect female fertility by acting on particular signaling pathways. Dietary fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and food-associated components (such as endocrine disruptors) have per se physiological activities and their unbalanced intake, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, might impair metabolic homeostasis and fertility in premenopausal women. Even though we are far from identifying a “fertility diet”, lifestyle and dietary interventions might represent a promising and invaluable strategy to manage infertility in premenopausal women. PMID:26875986

  11. The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fontana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women’s health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic pathways and to impairments in the finely tuned inter-relation between energy metabolism and reproduction, thereby affecting female fertility. Many energetic states could influence female reproductive health being under- and over-weight, obesity and strenuous physical activity are all conditions that alter the profiles of specific hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, thus impairing women fertility. Furthermore, specific classes of nutrients might affect female fertility by acting on particular signaling pathways. Dietary fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and food-associated components (such as endocrine disruptors have per se physiological activities and their unbalanced intake, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, might impair metabolic homeostasis and fertility in premenopausal women. Even though we are far from identifying a “fertility diet”, lifestyle and dietary interventions might represent a promising and invaluable strategy to manage infertility in premenopausal women.

  12. Do children make you happier? Sustained child-wish and mental health in women 11-17 years after fertility treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameiro, S.; Belt-Dusebout, A.W. van den; Bleiker, E.; Braat, D.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Verhaak, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are fertility treatment-related factors, parenthood status and sustained child-wish associated with women's long-term mental health? SUMMARY ANSWER: Sustaining a child-wish is more strongly associated with women's long-term mental health than fertility treatment-related factors and

  13. Patients’ Perception of Patient–Provider Communication in Fertility Preservation Decision Making Among Young Women With Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakrati Mathur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertility preservation (FP for patients with cancer is an emerging field. With the advancement of technology, patients may face a complex decision-making process about whether to preserve fertility. The purpose of this article is to explore how young women with cancer perceive patient–provider communication in FP decision making. In this study, 25 women between the ages of 18 and 39 were interviewed retrospectively. They were interviewed one time to learn about their decision-making process related to FP. Results of this analysis indicate that patients seek support and involvement from providers throughout the process of decision making. They prefer providers to be directive when referring to the fertility clinic. Later in the process, they expect a supportive style of communication from providers. Patient-accessible language, supportive and reassuring styles of communication, and an existing relationship with providers may enhance well-being of the patients.

  14. Nitrogen balance of healthy Dutch women before and during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Boekholt, H.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies including longitudinal nitrogen balance studies could provide insight into protein metabolism in pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to determine the development of nitrogen balance during pregnancy compared with nitrogen balance before pregnancy in women consuming

  15. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  16. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  17. Health in middle-aged and elderly women : A conceptual framework for healthy menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; Van Dijk, Gabriella M.; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M. Carola; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H.; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the

  18. The enhancement of vaginal vasocongestion by sildenafil in healthy premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.; Everaerd, Walter; Riley, Alan; Scott, Elizabeth; Boolell, Mitradev

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of a single oral dose of sildenafil citrate (Viagra(R) Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY) on vaginal vasocongestion and subjective sexual arousal in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Twelve women without sexual dysfunction were randomly assigned to receive

  19. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  20. The Role of Religious Coping Strategies in Predicting Depression among a Sample of Women with Fertility Problems in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflakseir, Abdulaziz; Mahdiyar, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common mental health problems among women with infertility problems is depression. Research has shown that religious beliefs and practices can help people to cope with difficult situations. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of different religious coping strategies in predicting depression in a group of infertile women in Shiraz. A total of 72 women with fertility problems were recruited from several private infertility clinics in Shiraz using convenience sampling. The participants completed the research questionnaires including Beck Depression Inventory and Religious Coping Scale. The Religious Coping Scale consists of five dimensions including practice, active, passive, benevolent reappraisal and negative religious coping. Descriptive statistics (frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation), Pearson's correlation and simultaneous multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis using SPSS version 16. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The present study showed that about 30% of women with fertility problems experienced the symptoms of depression. The findings also indicated that the most commonly used religious coping strategy was practice religious coping, while the least commonly used religious coping strategies were passive and negative religious coping. The findings also showed that active religious coping, practice religious coping and benevolent reappraisal coping predicted depression reduction. This study highlights the effect of religious coping on depression reduction of women with fertility problems. In other words, women who used religious coping strategies were less likely to experience depression symptoms.

  1. Women's alcohol consumption and cumulative incidence of live birth following in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L E; Missmer, S A; Thornton, K L; Hacker, M R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study is a retrospective cohort study. This study was performed in a private academically affiliated IVF center. Patients included women presenting for their first IVF cycle from July 2004 through October 2012. Women completed self-administered questionnaires before their first IVF cycle, which included report of usual alcohol consumption. Women were categorized as non-drinkers, social drinkers, or daily drinkers, as well as by the number of drinks consumed per week. Competing risks analysis was used to calculate the cumulative incidence of live birth after 6 cycles stratified by alcohol consumption. Main outcome measures included spontaneous abortion, clinical pregnancy, and live birth following IVF. There were 591 (27.7%) non-drinkers, 1466 (68.7%) social drinkers, and 77 (3.6%) daily drinkers (total n = 2134). In the first cycle, compared to non-drinkers, daily drinkers had a twofold increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.5) among all cycle starts, and while their risk of live birth was 30% lower (aRR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.3), the sample size was small, and it was not significantly lower. By the end of 6 cycles, social drinkers and daily drinkers did not differ from non-drinkers in their cumulative incidence of live birth (56.1, 50.6, and 52.1%, respectively; both P ≥ 0.28). There was a trend towards lower risk of live birth among daily drinkers. Daily drinkers had an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in the first cycle, but the number of daily drinkers was small.

  2. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  3. The effect of treatment with growth hormone on fertility outcome in eugonadal women with growth hormone deficiency: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Antonella; Milardi, Domenico; Bianchi, Antonio; Fusco, Alessandra; Cimino, Vincenzo; Valle, Domenico; Marana, Riccardo; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; De Marinis, Laura

    2009-03-01

    To highlight the clinical role of standard GH replacement treatment on fertility and pregnancy outcomes in four infertile eugonadal women with GH deficiency (GHD). Case report. Department of endocrinology and infertility clinic, tertiary-care university hospital. Four normogonadotrophic, normoprolactinemic patients with long-standing infertility, affected by GHD. In two patients (aged 30 and 34 years) GHD was diagnosed after a brain injury. The third patient (age 30 years) had a primary empty sella, documented by magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary. The last patient (age 28 years) underwent transsphenoidal surgery for Ratke's cyst. The LH and FSH responses to GnRH were normal in all four patients. Two of the four patients also had secondary hypoadrenalism and hypothyroidism. Patients received recombinant human GH replacement therapy (0.9-1.8 mg/week) for 6-12 months until pregnancy was first indicated by biochemical markers (beta-hCG) and later confirmed by transvaginal sonography. The GH therapy was discontinued after confirmation of pregnancy. Pregnancy. All patients remained off treatment throughout pregnancy; they had uneventful pregnancies and term deliveries. The babies were healthy and normal in terms of length and weight. Our case studies confirm the important clinical role of the GH-insulin-like growth factor I system in oocyte fertilization and the beginning of pregnancy in a selected population of eugonadotrophic infertile women.

  4. Infertility Centrality in the Woman's Identity and Goal Adjustment Predict Psychological Adjustment Among Women in Ongoing Fertility Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neter, Efrat; Goren, Shira

    2017-12-01

    Some of the women that go through repeated fertility treatments will not adjust well to the treatments and will experience increased distress. The present study examined how centrality of the fertility problem in the woman's identity and dispositional goal adjustment (disengagement and reengagement) are associated with the woman's psychological adjustment. These issues are examined in a context of a pro-natal society (Israel) where parenthood is a major life goal. One hundred ninety-three women in ongoing fertility treatments filled out questionnaires, and follow-up on their psychological well-being was carried out after 3 months (N = 130). Women who perceived their fertility problem as more central to their identity experienced greater distress (β = 0.34, p < 0.01) and less well-being (β = - 0.31, p < 0.01). Concurrently, high ability for goal disengagement was a resource that protected women from these feelings. Women high on goal disengagement who were low on goal reengagement experienced greater distress (β of interaction = - 0.24, p < 0.01), probably because they remained with feelings of emptiness and lack of purpose. These findings were found in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Finally, the models predicting well-being and distress at T2 using centrality, goal adjustment, and T1 well-being/distress explained 42 and 47.5% of the variance, respectively. Much research and therapeutic attention has been invested in coping with fertility treatments, while the options of reducing investment in treatments and finding alternative goals did not receive adequate attention. This study discusses these issues and their possible clinical implications especially in a pro-natal context.

  5. Hospital mental health admissions in women after unsuccessful infertility treatment and in vitro fertilization: an Australian population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louise M; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Semmens, James B; Preen, David; Mai, Qun; Hart, Roger

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and later admission to hospital with a mental health diagnosis in women who remained childless after infertility treatment. This was a population-based cohort study using linked administrative hospital and registry data. The study population included all women commencing hospital treatment for infertility in Western Australia between the years 1982 and 2002 aged 20-44 years at treatment commencement who did not have a recorded birth by the end of follow-up (15 August 2010) and did not have a hospital mental health admission prior to the first infertility admission (n=6,567). Of these, 2,623 women had IVF and 3,944 did not. We used multivariate Cox regression modeling of mental health admissions and compared women undergoing IVF treatment with women having infertility treatment but not IVF. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up, 411 women in the cohort were admitted to hospital with a mental health diagnosis; 93 who had IVF and 318 who did not. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for a hospital mental health admission comparing women who had IVF with those receiving other infertility treatment was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-0.63). After adjustment for age, calendar year and socio-economic status the HR was 0.56 (95% CI 0.44-0.71). IVF treatment is associated with a reduced risk of hospital mental health admissions in women after unsuccessful infertility treatment. This may be explained by the healthy cohort effect.

  6. Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 2004–2010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age ± SD, 36.1 ± 4.5 years; range, 21.0–46.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were –5.0% (–23.7, 18.4) and –16.3% (–30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (–0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (–0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our

  7. Copper and selenium status of healthy pregnant women in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary intake should be modified to ensure optimal selenium levels during pregnancy. Key words: Copper ... common practice to routinely supplement iron and folic acid with the aim of ... pregnant women to assist in the optimal formulation of micronutrient needs .... trend has been shown in many other studies from different.

  8. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Statistical analysis. All results were expressed as the mean ± SD, with the range in parentheses. An unpaired Student's t test was used to analyze all .... electrolytic assessment parameters. Serum GH concentrations. Men (n = 30). Serum GH concentrations. Women (n = 34). Variable r p r p. Calcium (mmol/l).

  9. Importance of generativity for healthy aging in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M C; Seeman, T; Fried, L P

    2000-04-01

    This article reviewed increasing evidence that remaining physically, cognitively, or socially active confers health benefits by delaying or preventing the onset of disease and disability in older adults. The desire to be generative, or to make a difference, has long been considered an important developmental objective in later years in order to give meaning to one's life, and may provide the necessary impetus for older women to initiate and maintain health-promoting activities. Because the prevalence of disability is greatest in older women, it is critical to find ways to maximize their opportunities for generative activity to promote healthier life-styles. Unfortunately, those who stand to gain most from the promotion of generative roles face many limiting factors, including low education, financial dependence and poverty, primary care-taking responsibilities, social isolation, and low self-efficacy. These obstacles may be too difficult and pervasive for an individual to overcome by oneself. Rather, these challenges need to be addressed through progressive changes in social programs that acknowledge the contributions that older adults can make in later years. Decreasing the structural lag between current social and demographic realities of older women's roles with increasing age will become ever more critical as a growing proportion of older women and men transition from a job outside the home to retirement.

  10. Prevalence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer C; McKenzie, Donald C; Warburton, Darren E R; Road, Jeremy D; Sheel, A William

    2004-09-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is reported to occur in approximately 50% of highly trained male endurance athletes. Few studies have examined EIAH in women and the prevalence remains unclear. It has been reported that some female subjects who develop EIAH possess maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) values that are within 15% of their predicted value. This is unique to women, where EIAH has generally been reported in men who have a high VO2max. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of EIAH in a large female population with a wide range of VO2max values. It was hypothesized that EIAH would occur with a greater prevalence and at relatively lower predicted VO2max than that previously reported in males. Young women (N = 52; 26.5 +/- 4.9 yr) performed a cycle test to exhaustion to determine VO2max, and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was monitored via pulse oximetry. All subjects were tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. A >/= 4% drop in SaO2 represented EIAH. Values for VO2max were variable (VO2max range: 28.0-61.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). EIAH was present in 67% of the women with N = 19 displaying mild EIAH (92-94%SaO2) and N = 16 displaying moderate EIAH (87-91%SaO2). It appears that the prevalence of EIAH in women is slightly greater than the 50% prevalence value that is typically reported for highly fit men.

  11. Hair Trace Element and Electrolyte Content in Women with Natural and In Vitro Fertilization-Induced Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Voronina, Irina; Terekhina, Olga; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Kovas, Yulia

    2017-04-25

    The objective of the present study was to perform comparative analysis of hair trace element content in women with natural and in vitro fertilization (IVF)-induced pregnancy. Hair trace element content in 33 women with IVF-induced pregnancy and 99 age- and body mass index-matched control pregnant women (natural pregnancy) was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that IVF-pregnant women are characterized by significantly lower hair levels of Cu, Fe, Si, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Ba at p iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium deficiency and arsenic overload in women with IVF-induced pregnancy. The obtained data indicate the necessity of regular monitoring of micronutrient status in IVF-pregnant women in order to prevent potential deleterious effects of altered mineral homeostasis.

  12. Lessons from elective in vitro fertilization (IVF in, principally, non-infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicher Norbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We here report the first investigation of exclusively elective in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles in women with no apparent history of infertility. Since IVF outcome in women with infertility are always influenced by underlying causes of infertility, a study on non-infertile women may offer new insights. Methods We investigated 88 females without history of infertility in 109 consecutive elective IVF cycles, almost exclusively performed for purposes of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS; i.e., elective gender selection. The following questions were addressed: (i impact of PGS on IVF pregnancy chances; (ii impact of transfer of 1 vs. ≥2 embryos on IVF pregnancy chances; (iii correlation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels to embryo ploidy (iv effect of gonadotropin dosage used in stimulation on available embryos for transfer; and (v in form of a 1:1 case control study, compared 33 elective PGS cycles with matched control cycles without PGS, performed in couples with either prior tubal ligations and/or severe male factor infertility as indication of IVF. Results The overall clinical pregnancy rate for the group was 36.7%; pregnancy was associated with number of euploid (P = 0.009 and number of embryos transferred (P = 0.001. Odds of pregnancy were 3.4-times higher if ≥4 euploid embryos were produced in comparison to Conclusions This study suggests that outcomes of elective IVF cycles may significantly deviate from infertility-associated cycles. Affirming proof of concept for PGS, utilizing day-3 embryo biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, both widely held responsible for earlier failures to establish such proof, suggests that the principal cause of prior failures were likely not insufficient laboratory techniques but poor patient selection for PGS. Such a conclusion questions the current reintroduction of PGS with improved techniques and technologies in absence of prior determination of suited

  13. Do women feel worse to look their best? Testing the relationship between self-esteem and fertility status across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Durante, Kristina M

    2009-12-01

    Two studies measured self-esteem across the menstrual cycle to test the prediction that self-esteem will vary interindividually as a positive function of mate value and intraindividually as a negative function of fertility status. Study 1 (n = 52) found that self-esteem was positively related to mate value between women but that women experienced a self-esteem decrease nearest to ovulation, when women tend to be more attractive to men. Study 2 (n = 59) replicated these results and demonstrated that the self-esteem decrease at high fertility was positively related to women's reported long-term mating motivation. Additionally, the magnitude of the self-esteem decrease at high fertility was found to be related to increased willingness to spend money on items to enhance attractiveness at high fertility. A self-esteem decrease at high fertility may motivate mate value enhancement efforts when such efforts are most critical.

  14. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  15. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  16. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Lim, Myong Cheol; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Kibyung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang Yoon

    2015-04-01

    compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed.

  17. [IMPORTANCE OF SHEAR WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY OF LIVERS IN PRACTICALLY HEALTHY PREGNANT WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyeva, E; Salahova, S; Bayramov, N

    2017-01-01

    Pulse-wave elastography (SWE) that is one of the mostly used methods in the recent years holds important place in assessment of liver fibrosis. However there is no exact information on the results of liver elastography in healthy pregnant women in the world literature. The aim of the study was to investigate theSWE parameters of liver elastography in practically healthy pregnant women. The subject of the research was 50 practically healthy pregnant women within 18-45 years old (mean age 27.7±0.7). The pregnant women with genital and extragenital diseases were not included to the research. The research work was executed in the II Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Azerbaijan Medical University. SWE of liver in pregnant women was conducted in the I Department of Surgical Diseases of Azerbaijan Medical University through Supersonic Aixplorer Multi Wave device presented by the Scientific Development Foundation under the President of the Azerbaijan Republic. The obtained tissue hardness indicators are assessed under METAVIR scale. The results of the research showed that the measures of liver in practically healthy pregnant women are normal, edges flat, its echogenicity mainly normal, echostructure of its parenchyma homogenous, hardness was F0-F1 (normal) under METAVIR scale, fibrosis not observed. The obtained results were processed by variational (power average, percentile distribution) and correlation (ρ-Spearman) analyzes using the statistical package SPSS-20. A statistical study of the distribution of liver density in healthy women showed that the average density was 4,43±0,01 with 95% confidence interval (4,23 - 4,63). The histogram of distribution of liver density in practically healthy women belongs to the family of normal distributions with coefficients of variation coefficient (16.3%), asymmetry (-0.861±0.337) and excess (-0.068±0.662). Correlation analysis in healthy women did not reveal a reliable relationship between age and liver density (ρ=0

  18. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    requis pour une infection de la vessie peut être facilitée par les rapports sexuels, ce qui a été démontré pour comme étant un facteur de risque important et un indice .... A diagnosis of acute UTI was made. A urine test showed leucocyte count of .... Urinary Tract Infection in Post-Menopausal Women. J. Gen Intern Med 2008; ...

  19. The effect of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Vakili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups. Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc., were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week. The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. Results: The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. More women in the intervention group consumed fish after intervention (P = 0.02. The consumption of green leafy vegetables showed a nonsignificant increase in the intervention group. Conclusion: Using mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.

  20. BMI and healthy life expectancy in old and very old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, L; Byles, J E; Jagger, C

    2016-08-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the effect of BMI on mortality at older ages, and little information on its effect on healthy life expectancy (HLE). Longitudinal data were from the 1921-1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n 11 119), over 18 years of follow-up. Self-rated health status was measured at each survey, and BMI was measured at baseline. Multi-state models were fitted to estimate the effect of BMI on total life expectancy (TLE) and HLE. Compared with women of normal weight, overweight women at the age of 75 years had similar TLE but fewer years healthy (-0·79; 95 % CI -1·21, -0·37) and more years unhealthy (0·99; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·42). Obese women at the age of 75 years lived fewer years in total than normal-weight women (-1·09; 95 % CI -1·77, -0·41), and had more unhealthy years (1·46; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·95 years). Underweight women had the lowest TLE and the fewest years of healthy life. Women should aim to enter old age at a normal weight and in good health, as the slight benefit on mortality of being overweight is offset by spending fewer years healthy. All outcomes were better for those who began in good health. The relationship between weight and HLE has important implications for nutrition for older people, particularly maintenance of lean body mass and prevention of obesity. The benefit of weight loss in obese older women remains unclear, but we support the recommendation that weight-loss advice be individualised, as any benefits may not outweigh the risks in healthy obese older adults.

  1. HIV status and treatment influence on fertility desires among women newly becoming eligible for antiretroviral therapy in western Kenya: insights from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayieko, James; Ti, Angeline; Hagey, Jill; Akama, Eliud; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Patel, Rena C

    2017-08-08

    Factors influencing fertility desires among HIV-infected individuals remain poorly understood. With new recommendations for universal HIV treatment and increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, we sought to evaluate how access to early ART influences fertility desires among HIV-infected ART-naïve women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a select subgroup of 20 HIV-infected ART-naïve women attending one of 13 HIV facilities in western Kenya between July and August 2014 who would soon newly become eligible to initiate ART based on the latest national policy recommendations. The interviews covered four major themes: 1) definitions of family and children's role in community; 2) personal, interpersonal, institutional, and societal factors influencing fertility desires; 3) influence of HIV-positive status on fertility desires; and 4) influence of future ART initiation on fertility desires. An iterative process of reading transcripts, applying inductive codes, and comparing and contrasting codes was used to identify convergent and divergent themes. The women indicated their HIV-positive status did influence-largely negatively-their fertility desires. Furthermore, initiating ART and anticipating improved health status did not necessarily translate to increased fertility desires. Instead, individual factors, such as age, parity, current health status, financial resources and number of surviving or HIV-infected children, played a crucial role in decisions about future fertility. In addition, societal influences, such as community norms and health providers' expectations of their fertility desires, played an equally important role in determining fertility desires. Initiating ART may not be the leading factor influencing fertility desires among previously ART-naïve HIV-infected women. Instead, individual and societal factors appear to be the major determinants of fertility desires among these women.

  2. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum and black seeds (Nigella sativa in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa M Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  3. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds' consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  4. Schoolchildren, maternal nutrition and generating healthy brains: the importance of lifecycle education for fertility, health and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Simon H

    2009-01-01

    In order to generate healthy brains, the earlier in life that children develop a healthy lifestyle the better. At home and at school, with a good diet and physical activity, children need to experience and to understand the value of healthy metabolism. Continuous education is needed in lifecycle health, with awareness that the most vulnerable phase relates to reproduction. This is the way that most people can become parents of healthy children. Nutrient deficits, toxins, or uro-genital disease, often unnoticed, affect quality of sperm or ovum, and subsequent development. Early errors can have the most pronounced effect. Gene-switches are being set early in life. Any early flaw can be magnified by growth. Moreover children's habits become set and young couples are too busy to learn and adapt. Many are liable to unintended pregnancy. Adoption of a healthy lifestyle at a young age is the most reliable route to producing healthy babies. The mother's state throughout pregnancy, emotions/hormones included, naturally continues to powerfully affect her child's development, therefore future physical and mental health, behaviour and ability. There has recently been a serious increase in babies conceived by schoolchildren, as well as a shift by working women towards childbearing in their late thirties or more. A return towards childbearing in the twenties and early thirties can reduce risks for the child. The mother needs to build her appropriate body-stores--vitamins and minerals, proteins, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and other essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)--to ensure optimal development of her child. Replenishment of reserves is important for maternal health and before bearing another child. A restorative time of three years is desirable. Governments and school teachers need to guide and encourage parents in this health education and practice, and to use their authority to achieve it in schools. Empowerment with knowledge is the

  5. Program Design for Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women: A Ten-City Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah C; McElroy, Jane A; Garbers, Samantha; McDonnell, Cheryl; Brooks, Jacquetta; Eliason, Michele J; Ingraham, Natalie; Osborn, Ann; Rayyes, Nada; Redman, Sarah Davis; Wood, Susan F; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Adult lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are more likely to be obese than adult heterosexual women. To address weight- and fitness-related health disparities among older LB women using culturally appropriate interventions, the Office on Women's Health (OWH) provided funding for the program, Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women (HWLB): Striving for a Healthy Community. This paper provides a description of the interventions that were implemented. Five research organizations partnered with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community organizations to implement healthy weight interventions addressing the needs of LB women 40 years and older. The interventions incorporated evidence-based recommendations related to physical activity and nutrition. Each group intervention developed site-specific primary objectives related to the overall goal of improving the health of LB women and included weight and waist circumference reduction as secondary objectives. A 57-item core health survey was administered across the five sites. At a minimum, each program obtained pre- and post-program assessments. Each program included the OWH-required common elements of exercise, social support, and education on nutrition and physical activity, but adopted a unique approach to deliver intervention content. This is the first time a multisite intervention has been conducted to promote healthy weight in older LB women. Core measurements across the HWLB programs will allow for pooled analyses, and differences in study design will permit analysis of site-specific elements. The documentation and analysis of the effectiveness of these five projects will provide guidance for model programs and future research on LB populations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  6. Fertility decisions and contraceptive use at different stages of relationships: windows of risk among men and women in accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Ivy Frances; Mayhew, Susannah Harding; Biekro, Leticia; Collumbien, Martine

    2014-09-01

    Despite declining fertility in Ghana, modern contraceptive use-even in urban areas-is low for reasons that remain unclear. Few studies have explored what drives fertility decisions and contraceptive use among contemporary urban residents within a relationship context. In-depth contraceptive life history interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of 80 sexually active women and men living in Accra. Contraception is viewed favorably, although the timing and choice of method strongly depends on the type and stage of relationship. At sexual debut and at first sex with a new partner, sex is usually unprotected. Many women show agency in subsequently negotiating condom use; men also show motivation to practice contraception. As relationships stabilize, couples abandon condoms and adopt traditional methods, out of fear that modern methods could affect fertility. After a first birth, couples prefer modern contraceptives to space children, but side effects often lead women to switch methods or discontinue use; women in supportive relationships are more likely than those in unsupportive relationships to continue use of modern contraceptives despite side effects. After reproductive goals have been realized, couples revert to using traditional methods to avoid further exposure to "chemicals." Contraceptive programs may be more successful if they target messages according to stage of relationship, involve men and work with people's desires to use traditional methods at certain times to ensure that they can do so safely.

  7. The LIFESTYLE study: costs and effects of a structured lifestyle program in overweight and obese subfertile women to reduce the need for fertility treatment and improve reproductive outcome. A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koks Carolien AM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, 30% of subfertile women are overweight or obese, and at present there is no agreement on fertility care for them. Data from observational and small intervention studies suggest that reduction of weight will increase the chances of conception, decrease pregnancy complications and improve perinatal outcome, but this has not been confirmed in randomised controlled trials. This study will assess the cost and effects of a six-months structured lifestyle program aiming at weight reduction followed by conventional fertility care (intervention group as compared to conventional fertility care only (control group in overweight and obese subfertile women. We hypothesize that the intervention will decrease the need for fertility treatment, diminish overweight-related pregnancy complications, and will improve perinatal outcome. Methods/Design Multicenter randomised controlled trial in subfertile women (age 18-39 year with a body mass index between 29 and 40 kg/m2. Exclusion criteria are azoospermia, use of donor semen, severe endometriosis, premature ovarian failure, endocrinopathies or pre-existent hypertensive disorders. In the intervention group the aim is a weight loss of at least 5% to10% in a six-month period, to be achieved by the combination of a diet, increase of physical activity and behavioural modification. After six months, in case no conception has been achieved, these patients will start fertility treatment according to the Dutch fertility guidelines. In the control group treatment will be started according to Dutch fertility guidelines, independently of the patient's weight. Outcome measures and analysis The primary outcome measure is a healthy singleton born after at least 37 weeks of gestation after vaginal delivery. Secondary outcome parameters including pregnancy outcome and complications, percentage of women needing fertility treatment, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, body weight, quality of

  8. Passive urethral resistance to dilation in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Nordsten, M

    1995-01-01

    at equilibrium, P alpha and P beta express the decline in pressure, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants. The size of the pressure response proved highly dependent on velocity and size of dilation as well as urethral site of measurement, with the maximum values in the high pressure zone. The time......The dynamic urethral pressure response to a simulated urine ingression was studied at the bladder neck, in the high pressure zone, and in the distal urethra in 10 healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was characterised by a steep pressure increase simulataneous with the urethral dilation......, followed by a decay during the next seconds until a new equilibrium pressure was reached. The pressure decay could be described by a double exponential function in the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P beta e-t/tau beta, where Pt represents the pressure at the time t, Pequ represents the pressure...

  9. Poor prognosis with in vitro fertilization in Indian women compared to Caucasian women despite similar embryo quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora K Shahine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03, were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01, and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06. Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2. LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01 with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46-0.86. Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40-0.79 in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  10. Fertility preservation in women with borderline ovarian tumors - how does it impact disease outcome? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Limor; Yaniv, Assaf; Beiner, Mario E; Aviel-Ronen, Sarit; Perri, Tamar; Ben-Baruch, Gilad; Hogen Ben-David, Liat; Jakobson-Setton, Ariella; Korach, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors are typically indolent neoplasms. Since many are diagnosed in younger women, fertility conservation is an important consideration and has been advocated based on retrospective data. The objective of this study was to identify features impacting on recurrence and survival in a series of borderline ovarian tumors, and to assess the safety of a fertility-sparing approach. A historical cohort study of consecutive borderline ovarian tumors cases treated at a single institution over 30 years (1981-2011). Data on surgical approach (fertility-sparing or otherwise), disease stage, CA125 levels, histological features, adjuvant treatment and follow-up data were collected. Recurrence and survival were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and associations with the variables of interest were evaluated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. 213 patients were included. Of 132 women age 40 years and below at diagnosis, 112 (85%) had a fertility-sparing procedure and 60 (46%) had conservation of an involved ovary. Fifty patients (24%) developed recurrences; fertility preservation (hazard ratio = 2.57; 95% confidence interval 1.1-6; p = 0.029) and advanced stage (hazard ratio = 4.15; 95% confidence interval 2.3-7.6; p preservation was not associated with compromised survival. Borderline ovarian tumors carry a good prognosis overall. Fertility preservation is associated with a higher risk of disease relapse; however, as most relapses are localized and may be salvaged with surgical treatment, overall survival is not compromised. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Healthy lifestyle in the primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Eliassen, A Heather; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-01-06

    Overall mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States have declined in recent decades, but the rate has plateaued among younger women. The potential for further reductions in mortality rates among young women through changes in lifestyle is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of CHD cases and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young women that might be attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. A prospective analysis was conducted among 88,940 women ages 27 to 44 years at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study II who were followed from 1991 to 2011. Lifestyle factors were updated repeatedly by questionnaire. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity ≥ 2.5 h/week, television viewing ≤ 7 h/week, diet in the top 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and 0.1 to 14.9 g/day of alcohol. To estimate the proportion of CHD and clinical CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) that could be attributed to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle, we calculated the population-attributable risk percent. During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 456 incident CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, nonsmoking, a healthy body mass index, exercise, and a healthy diet were independently and significantly associated with lower CHD risk. Compared with women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio for CHD for women with 6 lifestyle factors was 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.22). Approximately 73% (95% confidence interval: 39% to 89%) of CHD cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Similarly, 46% (95% confidence interval: 43% to 49%) of clinical CVD risk factor cases were attributable to a poor lifestyle. Primordial prevention through maintenance of a healthy lifestyle among young women may substantially lower the burden of CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College

  12. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  13. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Randa M. Mostafa; Moustafa, Yasser M.; Zien Mirghani; Ghader M AlKusayer; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds? consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ? 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) ...

  14. Women's Facial Redness Increases Their Perceived Attractiveness: Mediation Through Perceived Healthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazda, Adam D; Thorstenson, Christopher A; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I

    2016-07-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether the red-attraction relation that has been observed for men viewing women may also be observed with regard to women's facial redness. We manipulated facial redness by slightly increasing or decreasing the redness on the faces of baseline pictures of target women, and then had men judge the attractiveness of the women. We also examined healthiness perceptions as a mediator of the redness-attraction relation, along with several other candidate mediator variables. A series of experiments showed that increased redness led to increased ratings of attractiveness, and decreased redness led to decreased ratings of attractiveness. Perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of the influence of female facial redness on male perceptions of attractiveness, and this mediation was independent of other candidate mediator variables. The findings highlight the importance of attending to facial coloration as an attraction-relevant cue and point to interesting areas for subsequent research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Fertility preservation for women with malignant diseases: ethical aspects and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Mert

    2012-12-01

    As cancer treatment becomes more and more effective, there is greater life expectancy for cancer patients. Because of this, depending upon the modality used in the treatment of cancer, the matter of infertility emerges before us as an issue of increasing significance. Sperm cryopreservation and embryo cryopreservation are well-established methods of fertility preservation (FP). Besides these validated FP options, some FP techniques such as oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are as yet in the experimental stage. FP medicine has experienced some rapid developments in recent years. The advances in this branch of medicine, however, have also brought about new ethical, medical and legal issues. Some of these include problems with obtaining the informed consent of minors, issues that arise because of the experimental nature of some methods, financial problems and the accessibility of FP methods, and the question of what happens to gametes when a patient dies. This review seeks to discuss, in the light of current literature, some ethical and technical issues and risks related to the implementation of FP methods in women with cancer.

  16. Cytomegalovirus Kinetics Following Primary Infection in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael S; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Diener-West, Marie; Pass, Robert F; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2017-05-15

    The kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in infected asymptomatic hosts are largely unknown. We measured viral load (VL) in 124 fluid samples (oral, urine, vaginal, blood) collected from 21 women who acquired CMV. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of US17, which correlated with clinical assays, was used. VL decreased following primary infection in all fluids. The geometric mean VL of vaginal fluid was significantly higher than that of other sources: oral (3.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-10.57), urine (6.36; 95% CI, 2.48-16.32), and whole blood (11.88; 95% CI, 4.12-34.20). Vaginal CMV shedding may provide a route for sexual and possibly perinatal transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Effect of Tibolone on Climacteric Symptoms of Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    S Moghassemi; S Ziaei

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Menopause is related to many symptoms that have an effect on women’s life quality. HRT and its alternatives such as Tibolone are some of the routes for enhancement of different aspects of QoL in menopause. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effects of Tibolone and placebo on climacteric symptoms of healthy menopausal women. Materials & Methods: This is a randomized, prospective clinical study. A total of 96 women with no absolute con...

  18. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Anne; Juul, A A; Andersson, Annica

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  19. Plasma norepinephrine is an independent predictor of vascular endothelial function with aging in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Walker, Ashley E; Seals, Douglas R

    2011-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that reductions in vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation, EDD) with age are related to increases in sympathetic activity. Among 314 healthy men and women, age was inversely related to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (r = -0.30, P women (n = 127, r = -0.37, P women (r = -0.16, P = 0.06). Consistent with this, brachial FMD remained significantly related to PNE when controlling for age (r = -0.24, P women. Indeed, PNE was the strongest independent correlate of brachial FMD in women after controlling for conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors (r = -0.22, P = 0.01). This relation persisted in a subset of women (n = 113) after further accounting for the effects of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (P independent dilation was not related to age in either men or women (P > 0.05). These results provide the first evidence that EDD is inversely related to sympathetic activity, as assessed by PNE, among healthy adults varying in age. In particular, our findings suggest that sympathetic nervous system activity may be a key factor involved in the modulation of vascular endothelial function with aging in women.

  20. Bacterial populations in the vaginas of healthy adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ted; Zhou, Xia; Williams, Chris J; Hochwalt, Anne; Forney, Larry J

    2009-02-01

    Given that the microbiota of the healthy vagina plays an important role in the maintenance of health, it follows that an understanding of its composition and development may offer insights into the etiology and prevention of disease. In contrast to previous studies, this study exclusively investigated the structure and composition of adolescent vaginal bacterial communities. In this report, the vaginal bacterial communities of 90 menarcheal adolescents, ages 13-18y, were characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes. Further characterization involved cluster analysis of the T-RFLP data to identify the number of different kinds of microbial communities found among the adolescents sampled, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences cloned from samples representative of each cluster. We report the identification of four major clusters that accounted for 96.7% of the cohort. In general, these clusters could be divided into those dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and those dominated by a variety of lactic acid producing, anaerobic bacterial types such as Atopobium vaginae and Streptococcus spp. The compositional and structural similarity of the vaginal microbiota of menarcheal adolescents and adults suggests that the vaginal microbiota does not change significantly after the onset of menarche.

  1. Does infertility cause marital benefit? An epidemiological study of 2250 women and men in fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Holstein, Bjørn; Christensen, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) marital benefit, e.g., that infertility has strengthen the marriage and brought the partners closer together among people beginning fertility treatment and (ii) communication and coping strategies as predictors of marital benefit 12 months later. METHODS: A prospecti....... CONCLUSION: Fertility patients frequently experience marital benefit. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The study provides information about where to intervene with male fertility patients in order to increase their marital benefit after medically unsuccessful treatment....

  2. Body composition parameters in healthy Brazilian women differ from white, black, and Hispanic American women reference range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria das Graças Barbosa; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Szejnfeld, Vera L; Castro, Charlles H M

    2013-01-01

    Body composition (BC) seems to vary between populations, suggesting the need for regional reference data. The objective of this study was to determine BC in Brazilian women. Five hundred healthy non-black Brazilian women aged 20 yr or older were included. Women with fractures, chronic diseases, medications affecting bone and mineral metabolism, coronary heart disease, pregnancy, silicone prosthesis, and Asians or Indians were excluded. BC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) included total lean mass, appendicular lean mass, skeletal muscle index, and total body fat (BF). Reference values were made for 10-yr age groups. Lean mass decreased with age reaching the lowest values in women aged 80 yr and older. BF showed a bimodal distribution: increased with age until 50-59 yr, with a slight subsequent decrease. BF in Brazilian women did not differ from American women, except in the age groups 75-79 and 80-84 yr, where BF was lower (p Brazilian women compared with Americans in almost all age and ethnic groups (p Brazilian women differs from American reference data. Our findings support the notion that BC varies according to ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortisol response patterns in depressed women and their healthy daughters at risk: Comparison with healthy women and their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Tunay, Sebnem; Polat, Irmak; Simsek, Fatma; Aksoy, Burcu; Kizilates, Gozde; Erdogan, Yigit; Coburn, Kerry L

    2017-02-01

    A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. This design allowed a comparison of HPA axis functional differences among daughter and mother groups. HPA axis function was evaluated with a modified dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, which was performed after obtaining the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values at 8:00, 16:00, and 23:00 h. We found that MDD mothers and their daughters had low morning cortisol and the MDD mothers additionally had low-morning ACTH compared with controls. Dexamethasone suppressed both cortisol and ACTH in all groups and subsequent HPA axis stimulation by CRH-evoked a lower cortisol response but a higher ACTH response among subjects with MDD mothers. Although high-risk daughters had comparable cortisol levels after CRH infusion, the AUC for ACTH was greater than those of controls. These patterns of results suggest that multiple level HPA dysfunctions are present in both MDD patients and their high-risk carrying daughters. However, insufficient cortisol secretion was only present in MDD mothers, while the daughters could compensate cortisol levels during CRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Elham; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Teimoori, Ali; Ataei, Angila; Ghafari, Shokouh; Najafian, Mahin; Ourang, Ziba; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    The lactobacilli are a part of the bacterial flora of the human vagina. Detection of normal Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in different geographical locations, and evaluation of their specific properties, can aid in the selection of the best species for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in the future. This study was performed to isolate and identify the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women and to evaluate the adherence of these lactobacilli to Vero and HeLa cell lines. The study included 100 women. Bacteria were isolated from healthy women and purified. Phenotypic and biochemical tests were performed to identify the lactobacilli. The Lactobacillus species were detected by molecular methods using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the full length of the 16S rDNA of the isolated bacteria. Several isolates of each species were then selected to study their adherence to Vero and HeLa cell lines. Among the 50 samples taken from healthy women meeting the inclusion criteria, Lactobacillus species were identified in 33 (66%) samples. Of these lactobacilli, 14 isolates were Lactobacillus crispatus, six (18.2%) were Lactobacillus gasseri, nine (27%) were Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and the rest were either Lactobacillus salivarius (6%) or Lactobacillus plantarum (6%). L. rhamnosus showed the greatest adhesion to the cells when compared to the other tested species. All the lactobacilli isolated in this study showed a smaller capacity for cell adherence when compared with control species. L. crispatus, L. rhamnosus, and L. gasseri were the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in Iran. L. rhamnosus attached more readily to the cells than did the other species; therefore, this isolate is a good candidate for further studies on the potential health benefits and application of lactobacilli as probiotics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  5. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  6. Education’s impact on fertility: The case of King Saud University Women, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rshood M. Khraif

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Thus, the improving educational levels at current pace shall bring down fertility remarkably warranting attention, policy measures and population programs to retain it above the replacement level.

  7. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osis Maria José Duarte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  8. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  9. Relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to health centers in Mashhad in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Nahid; Fazeli, Elham; Taghipour, Ali; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility rate apparently is a non-interventional behavior, but in practice, it is influenced by social values and norms in which culture and traditional beliefs play a significant role. In this regard, some studies have shown that gender roles can be associated with reproductive behaviors. With regard to the importance of annual reduction of population growth rate and its outcomes, the present study was performed to determine the relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to Mashhad health centers in 2013. The present study is an analytical cross-sectional and multistage sampling study performed on 712 women. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of two sections: Personal information and gender role attitude questionnaire that contained two dimensions, i.e. gender stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. Its validity was determined by content validity and its reliability by internal consistency (r = 0.77). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Initial analysis of the data indicated that there was a significant relationship between acceptance of gender stereotypes (P = 0.008) and gender egalitarianism (P women's attitude is very important for successful planning in the improvement of fertility rate and population policy.

  10. Maintaining a Healthy BMI: Data From a 16-Year Study of Young Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy J; Kabir, Enamul; Clark, Bronwyn K; Gomersall, Sjaan R

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this prospective cohort study were to examine 16-year trajectories of weight and BMI in young adult women who had a healthy BMI in 1996 and determinants of remaining in the healthy BMI category. A total of 4,881 women with healthy BMI at baseline and either healthy, overweight, or obese BMI at 16-year follow-up reported their weight, height, health, and health behaviors in six surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 1996 (aged 18-23 years) and 2012 (aged 34-39 years). Determinants of BMI maintenance were estimated using binary logistic regression and generalized estimating equations in 2015. Almost 60% remained in the healthy BMI category from 1996 to 2012, (mean weight gain, 0.19 kg/year), 29% transitioned to overweight BMI (0.83 kg/year), and 11.6% transitioned to obese (1.73 kg/year). The mean rates of annual weight gain in each group were consistent over time. Only three factors (low alcohol, moderate/high physical activity, having a university degree) were positively associated with maintaining a healthy BMI. Additional behavioral factors (smoking, high sitting time, energy intake, dieting, takeaway food, and use of oral contraceptives), as well as blue collar occupation, separation/divorce/widowhood, and major illness were negatively associated with BMI maintenance. To prevent the transition from healthy to overweight/obese BMI, weight gain must be limited to healthy BMI, but with higher rates of weight gain in their early 20s, could be identified by health professionals for assistance with prevention of becoming overweight/obese. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthy lifestyle and leukocyte telomere length in U.S. women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sun

    Full Text Available Whether a healthy lifestyle may be associated with longer telomere length is largely unknown.To examine healthy lifestyle practices, which are primary prevention measures against major age-related chronic diseases, in relation to leukocyte telomere length.Cross-sectional analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS.The population consisted of 5,862 women who participated in multiple prospective case-control studies within the NHS cohort. Z scores of leukocyte telomere length were derived within each case-control study. Based on prior work, we defined low-risk or healthy categories for five major modifiable factors assessed in 1988 or 1990: non-current smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight (body mass index in 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2, engaging in regular moderate or vigorous physical activities (≥150 minutes/week, drinking alcohol in moderation (1 drink/week to <2 drinks/day, and eating a healthy diet (Alternate Healthy Eating Index score in top 50%. We calculated difference (% of the z scores contrasting low-risk groups with reference groups to evaluate the association of interest.Although none of the individual low-risk factors was significantly associated with larger leukocyte telomere length z scores, we observed a significant, positive relationship between the number of low-risk factors and the z scores. In comparison with women who had zero low-risk factors (1.9% of the total population and were, therefore, considered the least healthy group, the leukocyte telomere length z scores were 16.4%, 22.1%, 28.7%, 22.6%, and 31.2% (P for trend = 0.015 higher for women who had 1 to 5 low-risk factors, respectively.Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, defined by major modifiable risk factors, was associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes.

  12. Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Hart, Trevor A.; Mohammed, Saira S.; Su, DeSheng; Ralph, Edward D.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Soje, Lena C.; Muchenje, Marvelous; Rachlis, Anita R.; Smaill, Fiona M.; Angel, Jonathan B.; Raboud, Janet M.; Silverman, Michael S.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Gough, Kevin; Yudin, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified to match the geographic distribution of HIV-positive women of reproductive age (18–52) living in Ontario was carried out. Women were recruited from 38 sites between October 2007 and April 2009 and invited to complete a 189-item self-administered survey entitled “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” designed to assess fertility desires, intentions and actions. Logistic regression models were fit to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of significant predictors of fertility intentions. The median age of the 490 participating HIV-positive women was 38 (IQR, 32–43) and 61%, 52%, 47% and 74% were born outside of Canada, living in Toronto, of African ethnicity and currently on antiretroviral therapy, respectively. Of total respondents, 69% (95% CI, 64%–73%) desired to give birth and 57% (95% CI, 53%–62%) intended to give birth in the future. In the multivariable model, the significant predictors of fertility intentions were: younger age (age<40) (p<0.0001), African ethnicity (p<0.0001), living in Toronto (p = 0.002), and a lower number of lifetime births (p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance The proportions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario desiring and intending pregnancy were higher than reported in earlier North American studies. Proportions were more similar to those reported from African populations. Healthcare providers and policy makers need to consider increasing services and support for

  13. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupters and Nuclear Receptor Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Women from Different Italian Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia La Rocca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the PREVIENI project, infertile and fertile women were enrolled from metropolitan, urban and rural Italian areas. Blood/serum levels of several endocrine disrupters (EDs (perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate, DEHP; mono-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate, MEHP; bisphenol A, BPA were evaluated concurrently with nuclear receptors (NRs gene expression levels (ERa, ERb, AR, AhR, PPARg, PXR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Infertile women from the metropolitan area displayed significantly higher levels of: BPA compared to fertile women (14.9 vs. 0.5 ng/mL serum; BPA and MEHP compared to infertile women from urban and rural areas; enhanced expression levels of NRs, except PPARg. Infertile women from urban and rural areas had PFOA levels significantly higher than those from metropolitan areas. Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to EDs and the modulation of the NR panel in PBMC as a suitable biomarker of the effect, to assess the EDs impact on reproductive health.

  14. Costs of a healthy diet: analysis from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J; Upmeier, H; Calvert, C; Greenwood, D

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the direct and indirect cost differences associated with eating a 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' diet. Analysis of data from a baseline postal questionnaire for the UK Women's Cohort Study, including a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), supplemented by a telephone interview on a sub-sample. The first 15,191 women who responded to the questionnaire, aged 35-69 years with similar numbers of meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A healthy diet indicator (hdi), with values from 0 (lowest) to 8 (highest) was developed based on the WHO dietary recommendations. Direct monetary cost of the diet was calculated using prices from the 1995 National Food Survey and the Tesco home shopping catalogue. Women in the healthy diet group were almost four times as likely to be vegetarian and have a higher educational level. For direct costs, the difference between the most extreme hdi groups was 1.48 day-1 (equivalent to 540 year-1), with fruit and vegetable expenditure being the main items making a healthy diet more expensive. Forty-nine per cent of the food budget was spent on fruit and vegetables in hdi group 8 compared to 29% in hdi group 0. Interestingly, 52% of those questioned in both extreme hdi groups did not think that it was difficult to eat healthily. To achieve a particularly healthy diet independent predictive factors were spending more money, being a vegetarian, having a higher energy intake, having a lower body mass index (BMI) and being older.

  15. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  16. Healthy food consumption in young women: The influence of others’ eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  17. Possible consequences of applying guidelines to healthy women with a family history of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asperen, CJ; Tollenaar, RAEM; Krol-Warmerdam, EMM; Blom, Jannet; Hoogendoorn, WE; Seynaeve, CMJC; Brekelmans, CTM; Devilee, P; Cornelisse, CJ; Klijn, JGM; de Bock, GH

    Possible effects of consistently applying published guidelines on healthy women with breast cancer in their family history were analysed. We investigated 1060 unrelated breast cancer patients and calculated the numbers of first-degree relatives that would be referred to a familial cancer clinic if

  18. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mousavi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: L. crispatus, L. rhamnosus, and L. gasseri were the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in Iran. L. rhamnosus attached more readily to the cells than did the other species; therefore, this isolate is a good candidate for further studies on the potential health benefits and application of lactobacilli as probiotics.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Kortekaas, Rudie; Kuipers, Rutger; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Pruim, Jan; Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Holstege, Gert

    2006-01-01

    There is a severe lack of knowledge regarding the brain regions involved in human sexual performance in general, and female orgasm in particular. We used [(15)O]-H(2)O positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy women during a nonsexual resting state,

  20. Voices from the Inside: African American Women's Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of…

  1. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (60) and genetic taste status…

  2. Prostasin and matriptase (ST14) in placenta from preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Jørgensen, Jan S; Hansen, Mie R

    2016-01-01

    activates the renal epithelial sodium channel. We hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with low prostasin expression in placenta and spillover of prostasin into urine across the defect glomerular barrier. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 20 healthy pregnant women and 20 patients suspected...

  3. Live birth rates following in vitro fertilization in women with thyroid autoimmunity and/or subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Joyce; Yeung, Wing-Yee T; Lee, Chi-Yan V; Li, Hang-Wun R; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Hung-Yu E

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the live birth rate following in vitro fertilization (IVF) is affected by thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism in subfertile women. Retrospective study in a university infertility clinic. A total of 627 women without past or current history of thyroid disorder undergoing their first IVF cycle. Pre-IVF archived blood serum samples were tested for TAI and thyroid function tests. Live birth rate. The clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate were similar among women with or without TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism using a TSH threshold 4·5 mIU/l. Thyroid autoantibody level did not affect these IVF outcomes. The live birth rate and miscarriage rate of women with TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism following IVF were not impaired. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Low fertility and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Clara C.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertility problems are frequently followed by early menopause, and early menopause has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus far, it is unknown whether low fertility is independently associated with future T2D risk. METHODS: We assessed the association

  5. Evaluation of prebiotic potential of refined psyllium (Plantago ovata) fiber in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Marina; Cattivelli, Daniela; Soldi, Sara; Bonatti, Marzia; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    To assess the effects of the consumption of psyllium seed husk on fecal bifidobacteria in healthy women and the ability of fecal bifidobacteria to metabolize psyllium seed husk in vitro. Poor microbiologic evidences are nowadays available concerning the ability of psyllium seed husk to promote the growth of bifidobacteria in human gut. Eleven healthy women consumed 7.0 g/d of psyllium seed husk for 1 month. Viability of bifidobacteria in feces was assessed at different time points. In vivo results showed that the average fecal content of viable bifidobacteria was not significantly affected even if fecal counts were found to increase significantly after treatment in 6 out of 11 women having low initial concentration. In vitro trials conducted on bifidobacteria strains isolated from treated women failed to confirm the prebiotic potential of undigested psyllium seed husk, whereas treatment with simulated gastric and pancreatic juices and mimicking physical and chemical alterations during human gut transit allowed fecal Bifidobacterium isolates to metabolize psyllium seed husk as carbon source in a growth medium deprived of sugar. Psyllium seed husk can be metabolized by bifidobacteria only after partial hydrolysis. Bifidogenic potential can be detected in healthy women only in case of low level of fecal bifidobacteria before treatment.

  6. Are young arab women eating a healthy diet? A qualitative dietary study among college hostel students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, P; Al-Kunji, A A; Al-Saffar, B M; Al-Abdul Karim, H M; Al-Thawadi, M I

    1999-07-01

    Two recent studies conducted on young College Arab Women showed a trend towards over nutrition. It is well known that good eating habits adopted early in life not only improve health and control obesity in the youthful years but also promote healthy eating behaviours in later life. To investigate the dietary habits of young college women and identify specific areas for nutrition education. A self-administered questionnaire containing 20 items related to qualitative dietary history was distributed to all the college (King Faisal University, Dammam) women residing in the hostel during a one-week period in April 1998. Out of a total of 56 women, 50.7% frequently missed out on breakfast and lunch. To satisfy their state of hunger, frequent snacking with deserts/carbohydrate-rich food items (21.4%) and consumption of regular cola drinks (32.1%) was common. Fast food rich in fat and calories from restaurants was popular among a majority (98.2%) of the students. On the other hand, there was a deficient intake of protective foods and nutrients for repair, maintenance and growth, such as fruits (73.2%), vegetables (85.6%), milk and milk products (66.1%) and protein-rich foods (82.1%). To decrease the risk of malnutrition among young college women, there is a need to target them for nutrition education and adoption of healthy eating practices within the context of a healthy life style.

  7. Nurses, Healthy Women and Preventive Gynecological Examinations--Vlora City Scenario, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberi, Fatjona; Theodhosi, Gjergji; Ndreu, Vjollca; Sinaj, Enkeleda; Stramarko, Yllka; Kamberi, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Nurses play an important role in preventive medicine because they represent the largest sector of health professionals. This role is very crucial in developing countries, which are going through rapid societal and economic changes, associated with a rising burden of cancers due to different risk factors. The current study aimed to compare health awareness between nurses and healthy women regarding preventive gynecological examinations and to answer the question - can nurses make a difference in women's health? This cross sectional research included a total of 150 women, 70 nurses and 80 healthy women, randomly selected. Data were collected in 2014 in Vlora city through a self-administered questionnaire that assessed different variables about preventive gynecological examinations. Cervical screening rates were 20.3% and 41.8%, respectively, for nurses and healthy women, despite the former having a statistical significant greater knowledge of risk factors and symptoms. Even if the health awareness of nurse participants can be considered good, they need themselves to increase participation rates in cervical screening if they are to provide role models for health education/promotion addressing misconceptions and barriers.

  8. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Henrik; Rognmo, Øivind; Saltin, Bengt; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years. Maximal and sub maximal levels of VO2, heart rate, oxygen pulse, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg scale: 6-20) were measured in 1929 men and 1881 women during treadmill running. The highest VO2max and maximal heart rate among men and women were observed in the youngest age group (20-29 years) and was 54.4±8.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 43.0±7.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (sex differences, pexercise intensity, although observing a slightly different relationship than reported in previous reference material from small populations. This is the largest European reference material of objectively measured parameters of aerobic fitness and exercise-physiology in healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, forming the basis for an easily accessible, valid and understandable tool for improved training prescription in healthy men and women.

  9. Are there any differences in psychiatric symptoms and eating attitudes between pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum and healthy pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Kerimoğlu, Özlem Seçilmiş; Gündüz, Şule; Tazegül, Aybike

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between eating attitudes and psychiatric symptoms in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to compare these women with healthy control subjects. The study sample included 48 women with HG, and the control group had 44 pregnant women. The patients were selected from women with HG hospitalized in the obstetric inpatient clinic. All of the participants were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The participants' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded in the obstetric clinic. All of the participants completed a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and Body Image Scale (BIS). Women with HG were more likely to have had a history of HG during their previous pregnancy (Ppregnancy nausea, food craving and the initial BMI (P>0.05). Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in women with HG (P0.05). We suggest that HG appears to be associated with depression and anxiety symptoms rather than deterioration of eating attitudes and body image. However, these results should be confirmed by prospective and clinical studies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Milk of Healthy and Mastitis-Suffering Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; de Andrés, Javier; Manrique, Marina; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Tobes, Raquel; Martínez-Blanch, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Ramón, Daniel; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2015-08-01

    Some studies have been conducted to assess the composition of the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk, but they did not evaluate the presence of other microorganisms, such as fungi, archaea, protozoa, or viruses. This study aimed to compare the metagenome of human milk samples provided by healthy and mastitis-suffering women. DNA was isolated from human milk samples collected from 10 healthy women and 10 women with symptoms of lactational mastitis. Shotgun libraries from total extracted DNA were constructed and the libraries were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. The amount of human DNA sequences was ≥ 90% in all the samples. Among the bacterial sequences, the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The healthy core microbiome included the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, and Propionibacterium. At the species level, a high degree of inter-individual variability was observed among healthy women. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus clearly dominated the microbiome in the samples from the women with acute mastitis whereas high increases in Staphylococcus epidermidis-related reads were observed in the milk of those suffering from subacute mastitis. Fungal and protozoa-related reads were identified in most of the samples, whereas Archaea reads were absent in samples from women with mastitis. Some viral-related sequence reads were also detected. Human milk contains a complex microbial metagenome constituted by the genomes of bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. In mastitis cases, the milk microbiome reflects a loss of bacterial diversity and a high increase of the sequences related to the presumptive etiological agents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    millet, sorghum) under micro-dosing and water harvesting. • Farmers' access to fertilizer has been improved by an innovative 'warrantage' credit scheme, that has enabled over 1,000 farmers (30% women), to purchase and use more fertilizer on food crops. Fertilizer micro-dosing: a profitable innovation for. Sahelian women.

  12. A population-based survey on family intentions and fertility awareness in women and men in the United Kingdom and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Lallemant, Camille; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    -related decrease in female fertility, most desired having children at an age when female fertility has declined. Women who were not sufficiently aware of the impact of advanced age were significantly more likely to have their first child at a higher age. There is a need for developing educational programs......BACKGROUND: Across several European countries family formation is increasingly postponed. The aims of the study were to investigate the desire for family building and fertility awareness in the UK and Denmark. METHODS: A population-based internet survey was used among women (n = 1,000) and men (n...... = 237) from the UK (40%) and Denmark (60%). Data covered socio-demographics, family formation, and awareness of female age-related fertility. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis for studying associations between low fertility awareness and desired family formation...

  13. A Study of Fertility Patterns of Ever Married Women in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Bakheit, Charles S; Al-Riyami, Asya; Morsi, Magdi; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between age, education, residence and fertility rate and change in fertility rate between 1994/95 and 1999/2000. Methods: The data for the study was extracted from the Oman National Health Survey, 2000. The birth histories data was used to extract data on woman years and births in the periods 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 2000. Results: The marital fertility rate in 1999/2000 was 7.12 births. The rates for rural and urban dwellers were 8.07 and 6.75 respectively in 1999/2000. Corresponding rates in 1994/95 (8.65, 8.30 and 9.69 respectively) were significantly higher than those in 1999/2000 for all categories, indicating a reduction in rates. In both periods the higher the education level of the mother the lower her fertility. Conclusion: Education was a strong determinant of fertility. This study confirms that the higher the education of the woman the lower her fertility and that fertility is on the decline in Oman. PMID:21748133

  14. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  15. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Regina Nepomuceno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years and 2003-2008 (19.4 years. However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  16. Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity and income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Cheryl R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular inflammation is a key contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and the prediction of cardiovascular events among healthy women. An emerging literature suggests biomarkers of inflammation vary by geography of residence at the state-level, and are associated with individual-level socioeconomic status. Associations between cardiovascular inflammation and state-level socioeconomic conditions have not been evaluated. The study objective is to estimate whether there are independent associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and individual-level biomarkers of inflammation, in excess of individual-level income and clinical covariates among healthy women. Methods The authors examined cross-sectional multilevel associations among state-level socioeconomic conditions, individual-level income, and biomarkers of inflammation among women (n = 26,029 in the Women's Health Study, a nation-wide cohort of healthy women free of cardiovascular diseases at enrollment. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 and fibrinogen were measured between 1993 and 1996. Biomarker levels were examined among women within quartiles of state-level socioeconomic conditions and within categories of individual-level income. Results The authors found that favorable state-level socioeconomic conditions were correlated with lower hsCRP, in excess of individual-level income (e.g. state-level real per capital gross domestic product fixed effect standardized Βeta coefficient [Std B] -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.004. Individual-level income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 (Std B -0.04, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03 and fibrinogen (Std B -0.05, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03 than state-level conditions. Conclusions We found associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and hsCRP among healthy women. Personal household income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 and fibrinogen than

  17. Robotic surgery in the management of benign complex adnexal masses with a frozen pelvis in women desiring to preserve fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “frozen pelvis” is a term often used to describe extensive pelvic adhesions. It is considered as one of the most challenging situations that a gynecologic surgeon can face. It commonly is caused by extensive endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease. We present two cases with extensive pelvic adhesive disease with the aim to illustrate the value of robotic assisted laparoscopy in the management of benign complex adnexal masses with severe pelvic adhesive disease in women desiring to preserve the fertility. Case 1: A 27 year old female referred to our clinic for evaluation of a complex left adnexal mass. Trans-vaginal ultrasound scan and an MRI suggested bilateral endometriomas. She was noted to have stage IV endometriosis. Da Vinci robot assisted left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Case 2: A 43 year old female presented with recurrent episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease following an unsuccessful in vitro fertilization procedure. A trans-vaginal ultrasound scan showed a complex left adnexal mass. She was noted to have extensive pelvic adhesions secondary to chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Da Vinci robotic assisted left salpingectomy was performed, while preserving the left ovary. Conclusion: Our experience and review of literature suggest that in hands of an experienced surgeon, the inherent advantages of robotic assisted operative laparoscopy makes it a safe and attractive alternative to conventional operative laparoscopy and laparotomy for managing benign complex adnexal masses with concomitant severe pelvic adhesive disease in women desiring to preserve their fertility.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems: results from a large Danish register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldur-Felskov, B; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V; Steding-Jessen, M; Kjaer, T; Johansen, C; Dalton, S O; Jensen, A

    2013-03-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do? The results indicated that being unsuccessful in giving birth after an infertility evaluation could be an important risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Several studies have investigated the association between fertility treatment and psychological distress, but the results from these studies show substantial variation and lack of homogeneity that may be due to methodological limitations. A retrospective cohort study was designed using data from a cohort of 98 320 Danish women evaluated for fertility problems during 1973-2008 and linked to several Danish population-based registries. All women were followed from the date of first infertility evaluation until date of hospitalization for the psychiatric disorder in question, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2008, whichever occurred first. Owing to the precise linkage between the infertility cohort and the Danish population-based registries, using the unique Danish personal identification number, virtually no women were lost to follow-up. Information on reproductive status for all women in the infertility cohort was obtained by linkage to the Danish Medical Birth Registry. A total of 53 547 (54.5%) women gave birth after the initial infertility evaluation, whereas 44 773 (45.5%) women did not gave birth after the evaluation. To determine psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the women after enrolment in the infertility cohort, the cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. A total of 4633 women were hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between parity status after the initial infertility evaluation and risk of hospitalization for various groups of psychiatric disorders, including

  19. Healthy lifestyle status, antihypertensive treatment and the risk of heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2013-11-01

    To compare the association between antihypertensive drug treatment and heart failure (HF) risk with the association between engaging in a healthy lifestyle and HF risk. We prospectively investigated the single and joint associations of lifestyle factors and awareness, treatment, blood pressure control status with HF risk among 38 075 Finns, who were 25-74 years old and free of HF at baseline. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle was associated with an decreased risk of HF. Compared with normotensive people, hypertensive patients with and without antihypertensive treatment had a higher risk of HF. Hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs but did not engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF [HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.21] than hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drugs but engaged in a healthy lifestyle. In addition, compared with hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs and engaged in a healthy lifestyle, hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drug or engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24-1.95). The present study demonstrates that HF risk was lower in hypertensive patients who engaged in a healthy lifestyle but higher in hypertensive people using antihypertensive drug treatment.

  20. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a representative cohort of Spanish women of fertile age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, José Luis; Lete, Iñaki; Bermejo, Rafael; Arbat, Agnès; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Martínez-Salmeán, Javier; Serrano, Isabel; Doval, José Luis; Coll, Carme

    2011-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms, premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a cohort of women of fertile age representative of the general Spanish population. During the period between November 27th and December 22nd, 2008, a cross-sectional nationwide survey was conducted among a cohort of Spanish women aged between 15 and 49 years. Participants were personally interviewed at home and completed the premenstrual symptoms screening tool. Of the 2108 participants, 1554 women (73.7%) complained of some of the premenstrual symptoms during the last 12 menstrual cycles. A total of 1415 (91%) women presented isolated symptoms and 139 (8.9%) a moderate/severe premenstrual syndrome. Twenty-four (1.1%) women fulfilled criteria for a diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (73.7%) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (1.1%) in Spanish women aged between 15 and 49 years is similar to that reported in other Western countries. Only women with moderate or severe premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder, however, had daily life activities significantly impaired by premenstrual symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Commonly used reference values underestimate oxygen uptake in healthy, 50-year-old Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, M; Andrén, B; Lind, L; Hedenström, H; Malinovschi, A

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (V O 2 ) and CO 2 production. No validated Swedish reference values exist, and reference values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared V O 2 at maximal load (peakV O 2 ) and anaerobic threshold (V O 2@ AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with commonly used reference values, taking gender into account. Further, we analysed maximal workload and peakV O 2 with regard to peak RER and BR. In all, 181 healthy, 50-year-old individuals (91 women) performed CPET. PeakV O 2 was best predicted using Jones et al. (100·5%), while SHIP reference values underestimated peakV O 2 most: 112·5%. Furthermore, underestimation of peakV O 2 in women was found for all studied reference values (P 1·1 (2 328·7 versus 2 176·7 ml min -1 , P = 0·11). Lower BR (≤30%) related to significantly higher peakV O 2 (Pvalues underestimated oxygen uptake in women. No evidence for demanding RER > 1·1 in healthy individuals was found. A lowered BR is probably a normal response to higher workloads in healthy individuals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Body Image and Quality of Life in Female Patients with Breast Cancer and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the relationship between body image and quality of life in female patients with breast cancer and healthy women. Methods:In the current descriptive, causal, comparative, cross-sectional study, 50 women with breast cancer, referring to the radiotherapy and oncology clinic of Imam Reza Hospital (Mashhad, Iran and 50 healthy women, referring to the same clinic, were selected via available sampling. Informed consent forms were obtained from the subjects. A demographic questionnaire, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (consisting of 46 items, and short-form health survey (SF-36 were used as the study tools. For data analysis, Pearson’s correlation test and t-test were performed to determine the differences between the two groups. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference between female patients with cancer and healthy women in terms of quality of life (t=-4.1, P

  3. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  4. Effects of long-term vegetarian diets on cardiovascular autonomic functions in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chin-Hua; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Chin-Lon; Kuo, Terry B J

    2006-02-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease is higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. We hypothesized that long-term vegetarian diets might modulate cardiovascular autonomic functions measured by frequency-domain techniques in healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 35 healthy vegetarians (mean age +/- SEM 55.0 +/- 1.3 years) who had been vegetarians for > or =2 years and 35 omnivores (55.1 +/- 1.4 years) participated in this study. These subjects were all postmenopausal without hormone replacement therapy. Fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heart rate variability were diffracted into low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15 to 0.4 Hz) segments. Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures. The vegetarians had statistically lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lower serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin levels compared with the nonvegetarians. They also exhibited a significantly higher high-frequency power of heart rate variability and increased baroreflex sensitivity than did omnivores. No statistical differences were found in the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio or percentage of low frequency of heart rate variability between the 2 groups. In conclusion, in addition to the lower blood pressure and lipid concentrations in vegetarians, long-term vegetarian diets may facilitate vagal regulation of the heart and increase baroreflex sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women, without increasing the sympathetic modulations of the cardiovascular system.

  5. Synergism between abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women: a systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ferla

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The training of the pelvic floor muscles is widely used for treating pelvic floor dysfunctions, like urinary incontinence. During the training, abdominal contractions are avoided; however several studies support the use of the synergy between these muscle groups. Objective: Carrying out a systematic review of studies that seek to identify the presence of synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor and its functionality in women without pelvic floor dysfunction. Methodology: To conduct the review, we have followed the recommendations proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration for systematic reviews. The literature search included the databases SCIELO, PEDro, MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE, and manual research, the starting date of the databases until August 2013. We included cross observational studies with healthy women who were assessed to find the presence of synergy between the abdominal muscles and the pelvic floor. Results: We included 10 articles and they all showed the existence of synergy between the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women in the supine, sitting and standing positions. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that there is synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor in healthy women. Better understanding the behavior of these muscles and synergy may favor the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of disorders of the female pelvic floor muscles.

  6. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. The impact of social relations among men and women in fertility treatment on the decision to terminate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Lund, Rikke; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do social support and social strain from social relations have an impact on the decision to terminate fertility treatment among men and women after 1 year of unsuccessful treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: Several functional aspects of social relations show an impact on the probability...... clinics during their initial visit and follow-up data were collected after 1 year. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study group (n = 777; 427 women, 350 men) consisted of patients who did not achieve a live birth or an ongoing pregnancy during follow-up. Social support and strain from......% of the study group had decided to terminate treatment. For women, low levels of family support, specifically with regard to infertility, were associated with the termination of treatment after 1 year [odds ratio (OR) 6.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-16.8] and, for men, low levels of general family support...

  8. The impact of women's education, workforce experience, and the One Child Policy on fertility in China: a census study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Manyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2016-01-01

    The impact of women's education on fertility is of interest to researchers, particularly in China. However, few studies have provided well-founded assessments of how women's education, workforce experience, and birth control policy jointly affect fertility in China. This study, conducted in Guangdong Province, aimed to analyze how these three factors influenced the timing of births and affected women at different stages of their reproductive lives. We used census data for Guangdong Province (1990, 2000, and 2010) to make cross-sectional age-specific comparisons to examine the effects of women's education and workforce participation on fertility outcomes under China's One Child Policy. We found that: (1) under circumstances of low fertility, women tend to have more children with greater educational attainment; (2) the impact of women's education and workforce experience on fertility varied across age groups, with the effect of education showing a bimodal curve peaking at 25-29 years and 40-44 years, and a workforce experience effect at 25-34 years; and (3) the fertility time-squeeze effect by educational attainment was relatively small, the effect by workforce participation was larger, and the most important effect was birth control policy and its implementation. These results suggest that educational attainment and workforce experience have a substantial effect on women's fertility, and a tradeoff between them is unavoidable. China's 2015 birth control policy adjustment should be considered in planning future services to accommodate anticipated increases in the birth rate. More attention should be directed to the causal mechanism (women's preference and selection effects) behind the factors analyzed in this study.

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID

  10. DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of DHEA and DHEA-S in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Physiological measurements were performed before, directly after the stress test and after 30 mins of recovery. In both men and women, significantly elevated DHEA and DHEA-S levels were observed in response to the stressor. There was a large inter-individual variation in the magnitude of the response, especially for DHEA but no statistical difference between men and women. Magnitude of the change in the levels of DHEA was found to be positively associated with the magnitude of the changes in ACTH, cortisol and heart rate. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that the capacity to secrete DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress declines with age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentration of free amino acids in human milk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Katharina; Bancher-Todesca, Dagmar; Graf, Thorsten; Garo, Fritz; Roth, Erich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Worda, Christof

    2013-02-01

    It is generally agreed that breastfeeding has a positive effect on the metabolic situation in diabetic mothers. However, negative long-term effects are described for breastfed offspring of diabetic women. It is unknown if the composition of free amino acids (FAAs) in breastmilk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) differs from that in milk of healthy women. We studied the amount of FAAs in breastmilk of women with GDM and women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Human milk samples of 68 women (21 GDM and 47 NGT) were analyzed. Contents of FAAs in milk samples, obtained within the first 4 days after delivery (colostrum) and 6 weeks later (mature milk), were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total amounts of FAAs in colostrum and in mature milk were compared between the groups. The impact of maternal age, body mass index (BMI), gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM on the total amount of FAAs was evaluated. Overall, the total amount of FAAs increased significantly from colostrum to mature milk in both groups (pmature milk (1,560 μmol/L vs. 1,730 μmol/L and 2,440 μmol/L vs. 2,723 μmol/L, respectively). No significant influence on the total amount of FAAs at both measurements of maternal age, BMI, gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM could be observed by regression analyses. The content of FAAs of human milk does not significantly differ between women with GDM and women with NGT.

  12. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  13. Infertility Treatment and Fertility-Specific Distress: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Population-Based Sample of U.S. Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia; Lowry, Michele; Shreffler, Karina M.

    2011-01-01

    Because research on infertile women usually uses clinic-based samples of treatment seekers, it is difficult to sort out to what extent distress is the result of the condition of infertility itself and to what extent it is a consequence of the experience of infertility treatment. We use the National Survey of Fertility Barriers, a two-wave national probability sample of U.S. women, to disentangle the effects of infertility and infertility treatment on fertility-specific distress. Using a series of ANOVAs, we examine 266 infertile women who experienced infertility both at Wave 1 and at Wave 2, three years later. We compare eight groups of infertile women based on whether or not they have received treatment and on whether or not they have had a live birth. At Wave 1, infertile women who did not receive treatment and who had no live birth reported lower distress levels than women who received treatment at Wave 1 only, regardless of whether their infertility episode was followed by a live birth. At Wave 2, women who received no treatment have significantly lower fertility-specific distress than women who were treated at Wave 1 or at Waves 1 and 2, regardless of whether there was a subsequent live birth. Furthermore, fertility-specific distress did not increase over time among infertile women who did not receive treatment. The increase in fertility-specific distress was significantly higher for women who received treatment at Wave 2 that was not followed by a live birth than for women who received no treatment or for women who received treatment at Wave 1 only. These patterns suggest that infertility treatment is associated with levels of distress over and above those associated with the state of being infertile in and of itself. PMID:21645954

  14. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie McGrice

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the extent to which low carbohydrate diets can affect fertility outcomes; (2 Methods: The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42016042669 and followed Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Infertile women were the population of interest, the intervention was low carbohydrate diets (less than 45% total energy from carbohydrates, compared to usual diet (with or without co-treatments. Four databases were searched from date of commencement until April 2016; a supplementary Google scholar search was also undertaken. Title and abstract, then full text review, were undertaken independently and in duplicate. Reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews were checked to ensure that all relevant studies were identified for inclusion. Quality assessment was undertaken independently by both authors using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Outcome measures were improved fertility outcomes defined by an improvement in reproductive hormones, ovulation rates and/or pregnancy rates; (3 Results: Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the evidence synthesis. Interventions were diverse and included a combination of low carbohydrate diets with energy deficit or other co-treatments. Study quality was rated as positive for six studies, suggesting a low risk of bias, with one study rated as neutral. Of the six studies which reported changes in reproductive hormones, five reported significant improvements post intervention; (4 Conclusion: The findings

  15. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Random Start Ovarian Stimulation for Oocyte or Embryo Cryopreservation in Women Desiring Fertility Preservation Prior to Gonadotoxic Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Rachel B; Pereira, Nigel; Elias, Rony T

    2017-11-10

    Women of reproductive age diagnosed with cancer are often interested in preserving gametes or reproductive tissue that would allow for future genetic parenthood. Preservation of fertility is often accomplished in young cancer patients via ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. Conventional stimulation protocols, however, require 2-4 weeks to complete ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval and possible fertilization. Such a strategy may not be feasible in patients requiring urgent cancer treatment. Recent studies have highlighted that random start ovarian stimulation can be initiated irrespective of the phase of the menstrual cycle and is an attractive alternative to conventional ovarian stimulation. The primary aim of the current review is to discuss the feasibility and success of random start ovarian stimulation for oocyte or embryo cryopreservation in women desiring fertility preservation prior to gonadotoxic cancer therapy. We performed a systematic review of medical literature published between January 2000 to June 2017 reporting the utility of random start ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. Search terms included "fertility preservation," "cancer," "ovarian stimulation," "random-start ovarian stimulation," "embryo cryopreservation, and" "oocyte cryopreservation." Publications were included in this review only if patients underwent random start ovarian stimulation prior to cancer therapy. Nineteen publications were identified and perused by the authors. Most publications described the utility of random start ovarian stimulation in the setting of breast cancer. Radom-start stimulation was associated with a reduced time interval between ovarian stimulation initiation and oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. The yield of mature oocytes and their developmental potential into embryos was comparable between conventional and random-start protocols, albeit with higher gonadotropin doses in the latter. The current review suggests

  17. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies against simian virus 40 in healthy pregnant women in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy.Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples.Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123 and 12.7% (14/110, respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods.SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines.

  18. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Strizzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can substantially alter many areas of a person’s life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL, Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI, Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI, and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS. Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p<0.001, FSFI subscales of desire (p<0.05, arousal (p<0.05, lubrication (p<0.05, orgasm (p<0.05, and satisfaction (p<0.05, and the ISS (p<0.001 than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs.

  19. Influence of aging and menopause on postprandial lipoprotein responses in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeno, Yuka; Fukuchi, Yoshiko; Matsutani, Yasuko; Naito, Michitaka

    2007-06-01

    To analyze the influence of menopause and age on postprandial lipoprotein responses in healthy adult women. Twenty-seven healthy young and middle-aged pre- and postmenopausal female volunteers aged 21-53 y were enrolled. They ingested OFTT cream(Jomo, Takasaki, Japan). Fasting and postprandial blood samples were obtained for up to 6 h, and serum concentrations of lipoproteins were analyzed. In the postprandial phase, serum triglycerides(TG), remnant-like particle(RLP)-TG(RLP-TG), RLP-cholesterol(RLP-C), and TG-rich lipoprotein-TG(TRL-TG)concentrations in all groups peaked after 2 h. After 4 h, the TG, RLP-C, RLP-TG and TRL-TG concentrations in the young women returned to the fasting concentrations. However, at 6 h, these parameters in the pre- and postmenopausal women had barely returned to the fasting concentrations. The present results suggest that:(1)the magnitude of postprandial TG concentrations is dependent on age, but not on menopause;(2)clearance of remnant lipoproteins is delayed with age in pre- and postmenopausal women compared to young women, and(3)menopause is associated with an increase of RLP-C, but may not influence LDL particle size.

  20. The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Tetens, Inge; Bugel, S.

    2008-01-01

    /d of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, on inflammatory markers. Methods and results: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 22) completed a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Women consumed daily a Low-fat muffin, with or without a lignan complex, for 6 weeks, separated by a 6-week washout period...... chemoattractant protein-1 were found between the lignan complex intervention period and placebo period. Conclusion: Daily consumption for 6 week of a low-fat muffin enriched with a lignan complex may reduce CRP concentrations compared to a low-fat muffin with no lignans added....

  1. Rape and Mental Health Outcomes Among Women: Examining the Moderating Effects of "Healthy" Fear Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Ryan; Wright, Emily M; Peterson, Johanna C

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the mediating and moderating impact of fear of victimization on the relationships between forcible and vicarious rape on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among college women. Forcible and vicarious rape positively affected PTSD and depression symptomology, but fear did not mediate these relationships. Fear moderated the impact of forcible rape on PTSD, but was not a moderator for depression. Findings suggest that there may be "healthy" levels of fear in the aftermath of victimization where having too little fear may leave women unnecessarily vulnerable to victimization, while having too much fear may lead to social isolation and withdrawal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with cancer and contemplating fertility preservation treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina; Hughes, Jane; Mahmoodi, Neda; Smith, Emily; Skull, Jonathan; Ledger, William

    2017-07-01

    Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all made important contributions to our understanding of the FP decision-making process, none of them examine solely and specifically these processes for women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of any cancer, leaving a gap in the knowledge base. Given the expectation that care is patient-centred, our review aims to address this gap which may be of help to those managing patients struggling to make difficult decisions in the often brief period before potentially sterilizing cancer treatment is started. Underpinning this narrative review was the question 'What factors hinder the decision-making process for women with any cancer and contemplating FP treatment?' Our objectives were to (i) assess and summarize this existing literature, (ii) identify the factors that hinder this decision-making process, (iii) explore to what extent these factors may differ for women choosing different methods of FP and (iv) make recommendations for service delivery and future research. A systematic search of the medical and social science literature from the 1 January 2005 up to the end of January 2016 was carried out using three electronic databases (Web of Science (PubMed), Ovid SP Medline and CINAHL via Ebsco). Included in the review were quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method studies. Reference lists of relevant papers were also hand searched. From the 983 papers identified, 46 papers were included. Quality assessment was undertaken using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. From the analysis, 6 key themes with 15 sub-themes emerged: (i) fertility information provision (lack of information, timing of the information, patient

  3. Exploring women's beliefs and perceptions about healthy eating blogs: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Provencher, Veronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Pluye, Pierre; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Sophie

    2015-04-08

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death (63%) worldwide. A key behavioral risk factor is unhealthy eating. New strategies must be identified and evaluated to improve dietary habits. Social media, such as blogs, represent a unique opportunity for improving knowledge translation in health care through interactive communication between health consumers and health professionals. Despite the proliferation of food and lifestyle blogs, no research has been devoted to understanding potential blog readers' perceptions of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians. To identify women's salient beliefs and perceptions regarding the use of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians promoting the improvement of their dietary habits. We conducted a qualitative study with female Internet users living in the Quebec City, QC, area with suboptimal dietary habits. First, the women explored 4 existing healthy eating blogs written in French by qualified dietitians. At a focus group 2-4 weeks later, they were asked to discuss their experience and perceptions. Focus group participants were grouped by age (18-34, 35-54, and 55-75 years) and by their use of social media (users/nonusers). Using a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, participants were asked to identify salient beliefs underlying their attitudes (advantages/disadvantages), subjective norms (what people important to them would think), and perceptions of control (facilitators/barriers) regarding the use of a healthy eating blog written by a dietitian to improve dietary habits. Discussion groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and a deductive content analysis was performed independently by 2 individuals using the NVivo software (version 10). All participants (N=33) were Caucasian women aged between 22 to 73 year. Main advantages perceived of using healthy eating blogs written by a dietitian were that they provided useful recipe ideas, improved lifestyle, were a credible source of

  4. Complex biological pattern of fertility hormones in children and adolescents: a study of healthy children from the CALIPER cohort and establishment of pediatric reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konforte, Danijela; Shea, Jennifer L; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Colantonio, David; Cohen, Ashley H; Shaw, Julie; Bailey, Dana; Chan, Man Khun; Armbruster, David; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric endocrinopathies are commonly diagnosed and monitored by measuring hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Because growth and development can markedly influence normal circulating concentrations of fertility hormones, accurate reference intervals established on the basis of a healthy, nonhospitalized pediatric population and that reflect age-, gender-, and pubertal stage-specific changes are essential for test result interpretation. Healthy children and adolescents (n = 1234) were recruited from a multiethnic population as part of the CALIPER study. After written informed parental consent was obtained, participants filled out a questionnaire including demographic and pubertal development information (assessed by self-reported Tanner stage) and provided a blood sample. We measured 7 fertility hormones including estradiol, testosterone (second generation), progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone by use of the Abbott Architect i2000 analyzer. We then used these data to calculate age-, gender-, and Tanner stage-specific reference intervals according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A3 guidelines. We observed a complex pattern of change in each analyte concentration from the neonatal period to adolescence. Consequently, many age and sex partitions were required to cover the changes in most fertility hormones over this period. An exception to this was prolactin, for which no sex partition and only 3 age partitions were necessary. This comprehensive database of pediatric reference intervals for fertility hormones will be of global benefit and should lead to improved diagnosis of pediatric endocrinopathies. The new database will need to be validated in local populations and for other immunoassay platforms as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute.

  5. Validation study of the SCREENIVF : An instrument to screen women or men on risk for emotional maladjustment before the start of a fertility treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockhuysen, Henrietta D.L.; van Smeden, Maarten; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Boivin, Jacky

    Objective: To examine construct and criterion validity of the Dutch SCREENIVF among women and men undergoing a fertility treatment. Design: A prospective longitudinal study nested in a randomized controlled trial. Setting: University hospital. Patient(s): Couples, 468 women and 383 men, undergoing

  6. Oral contraceptive use and saliva diurnal pattern of metabolic steroid hormones in young healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibarel-Rebot, N; Rieth, N; Lasne, F; Jaffré, C; Collomp, K

    2015-03-01

    The impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on the saliva diurnal pattern of metabolic steroid hormones remained unknown. Saliva samples were taken from young healthy women (11 OC users, 10 non-OC users) to analyze cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone 4 times (days 1, 8, 15 and 22) over one menstrual cycle. OC use decreased saliva testosterone concentrations (ppattern. The clinical relevance requires further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the static balance in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Joon; Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Wan Hee

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the menstrual cycle on the static balance of healthy young women. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy young subjects (mean age 19.1 years; weight 57.5 kg; height 159.9 cm) participated in this study. The Good Balance system was used to measure the postural sway speed and velocity moment of subjects in the static standing posture. Subjects were measured for static balance between 1 and 3 days after menstruation and 13 days after menstruation. [Results] The velocity moment of postural sway was significantly higher at 13 days after menstruation. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the menstrual cycle affects the static balance of healthy subjects. During the menstrual cycle, intensity for balance exercises in females should be carefully controlled for injury prevention.

  8. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  9. [Microbiota of urine and vagina of healthy postmenopausal women (a pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, Yu L; Rymashevsky, A N; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Borovleva, O A; Jalagonia, K T; Zarutskiy, S A

    2016-02-01

    Studying microbiota of different urogenital tract habitats in healthy postmenopausal women is of practical importance in deciding on the appropriateness of correction of dysbiotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the vaginal and urine microbiota of healthy postmenopausal women. The study included 20 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 59,0+/-2,1 years). Duration of menopause in all subjects was more than 8 years. Bacteriological testing of urine and vaginal specimen was carried out on the extended media (15) for cultivating facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) and nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) and included PCR of midstream morning urine. Among FAB in the urine and vagina dominated coagulase-negative staphylococci and NAB. Bacterial patterns of studied habitats turned out to be similar in many respects. In the urine Megasphaera spp., Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Mobiluncus spp., Fusobacterium spp. were found, whereas in the vagina these microorganisms were not present. Cluster analysis revealed no significant differences in the concentration of the same microorganisms isolated from the urine and vagina. When comparing the frequency of microorganism detection in urine by bacteriological method and by PCR, bacterial patterns were identical in 56% of cases.

  10. Nutritional intake and recreational physical activity in healthy elderly women living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Y; Pillard, F; Garrigue, E; Amouyal, K; Riviere, D; Vellas, B

    2005-01-01

    Recreational physical activity, which increases energy expenditure, may help to maintain proper food intake. To compare the nutritional intake of inactive, active and very active healthy elderly women. Eighty-two women were recruited in the community. Participants had to be > or = 65 years and in good health (< or = 2 drugs, < or = 1 major illness, < or = 1 surgical operation, no disability in basic or instrumental activities of daily living and no cognitive impairment). We compared food intakes between the 26 inactive (age 73.9 +/- 7.7 y, BMI 24.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m2), the 29 active (age 71.5 +/- 5.6 y, BMI 23.2 +/- 3.5 kg/m2) and the 27 very active (age 70.9 +/- 4.8 y, BMI 24.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m2) healthy women. The nutritional intake was evaluated by a three-day food record. Macronutrient, mineral and vitamin content were derived from tables. Self-reported type, duration and frequency of recreational physical activities during the last month were converted into energy expenditures. Despite high levels of energy intake (mean 1743.9 kcal/d), mean intakes of calcium, vitamin B1, E and folic acid were lower than Recommended Dietary Allowances (-26.2%, -12%, -50.8%, -2.4% respectively) in the whole sample. There were no significant differences of energy intake and quantities of nutrients between the groups except for calcium intake which was significantly higher in inactive women (p=0.04). Active healthy elderly women do not have a better nutritional profile than their inactive peers.

  11. Pain pressure threshold algometry of the abdominal wall in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L.S. Montenegro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of pain pressure threshold algometry at various points of the abdominal wall of healthy women. Twenty-one healthy women in menacme with a mean age of 28 ± 5.4 years (range: 19-39 years were included. All volunteers had regular menstrual cycles (27-33 days and were right-handed and, to the best of our knowledge, none were taking medications at the time of testing. Women with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety or other mood disturbances were excluded. Women with previous abdominal surgery, any pain condition or any evidence of inflammation, hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, or inflammatory disease were also excluded. Pain perception thresholds were assessed with a pressure algometer with digital traction and compression and a measuring capacity for 5 kg. All points were localized by palpation and marked with a felt-tipped pen and each individual was evaluated over a period of 2 days in two consecutive sessions, each session consisting of a set of 14 point measurements repeated twice by two examiners in random sequence. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean pain threshold obtained by the two examiners on 2 diferent days (examiner A: P = 1.00; examiner B: P = 0.75; Wilcoxon matched pairs test. There was excellent/good agreement between examiners for all days and all points. Our results have established baseline values to which future researchers will be able to refer. They show that pressure algometry is a reliable measure for pain perception in the abdominal wall of healthy women.

  12. Independent predictors of all osteoporosis-related fractures among healthy Saudi postmenopausal women: the CEOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Al-Sibiani, Sharifa A; Al-Senani, Nawal S; Radaddi, Raja M; Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to identify independent predictors of all osteoporosis-related fractures (ORFs) among healthy Saudi postmenopausal women. We prospectively followed a cohort of 707 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age, 61.3±7.2 years) for 5.2±1.3 years. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, medical history, personal and family history of fractures, lifestyle factors, daily calcium intake, vitamin D supplementation, and physical activity score. Anthropometric parameters, total fractures (30.01 per 1000 women/year), special physical performance tests, bone turnover markers, hormone levels, and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed. The final model consisted of seven independent predictors of ORFs: [lowest quartile (Q(1)) vs highest quartile (Q(4))] physical activity score (Q(1) vs Q(4): ≤12.61 vs ≥15.38); relative risk estimate [RR], 2.87; (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.88-4.38); age≥60 years vs agewomen), having three or more clinical risk factors (4.8% of women) increased fracture risk by more than 4-fold, independent of BMD. Having three or more risk factors and being in the lowest tertile of T-score of [total hip/lumbar spine (L1-L4)] was associated with a 14.2-fold greater risk than having no risk factors and being in the highest T-score tertile. Several clinical risk factors were independently associated with all ORFs in healthy Saudi postmenopausal women. The combination of multiple clinical risk factors and low BMD is a very powerful indicator of fracture risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social support attenuates the harmful effects of stress in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L R; Ryan Borchers, T A; Robison, L M; Wiediger, M; Park, J S; Chew, B P; McGuire, M K; Sclar, D A; Skaer, T L; Beerman, K A

    2007-01-01

    The decline in estrogen concentrations in women after menopause can contribute to health related changes including impairments in cognition, especially memory. Because of the health concerns related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alternative approaches to treat menopausal symptoms, such as nutritional supplements and/or diet containing isoflavones, are of interest. This study investigated whether soy isoflavones (soy milk and supplement) could improve cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION AND DESIGN: A total of 79 postmenopausal women, 48-65 years of age, completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: cow's milk and a placebo supplement (control); soy milk and placebo supplement (soy milk, 72 mg isoflavones/day); or cow's milk and isoflavone supplement (isoflavone supplement, 70 mg isoflavones/day). Cognitive functioning was assessed using various cognitive tasks before the intervention (baseline) and after the intervention (test). In contrast to predictions, soy isoflavones did not improve selective attention (Stroop task), visual long-term memory (pattern recognition), short-term visuospatial memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), or visuo-spatial working memory (color match task). Also, the soy milk group showed a decline in verbal working memory (Digit Ordering Task) compared to the soy supplement and control groups. Soy isoflavones consumed as a food or supplement over a 16-week period did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women.

  15. Dietary fiber intake increases the risk of zinc deficiency in healthy and diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Karra, Michelle; Picone, Tegan; Chu, Anna; Hancock, Dale P; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Phytic acid is a major determinant of zinc bioavailability. Little is known about phytic acid intakes or indices of zinc bioavailability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), a condition that predisposes to zinc deficiency. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure and explore the relationships among phytic acid intake, zinc bioavailability, and molecular markers of zinc homeostasis in 20 women with DM compared to 20 healthy women. The phytate/zinc, (calcium)(phytate)/zinc, and (calcium + magnesium)(phytate)/zinc molar ratios were used to indicate zinc bioavailability. Plasma zinc concentrations and zinc transporter (ZnT1, ZnT8, and Zip1) gene expression in mononuclear cells were measured. Participants with DM consumed 1,194 ± 824 mg/day (mean ± SD) phytic acid, an amount similar to the intake of healthy women (1,316 ± 708 mg/day). Bread products and breakfast cereals contributed more than 40 % of the phytic acid intake in each group. A positive relationship was observed in all participants between phytic acid and dietary fiber (r = 0.6, P dietary fiber and the (calcium)(phytate)/zinc ratio (r = 0.5, P diabetic women consume phytic acid in amounts that are likely to decrease the bioavailability of dietary zinc. Recommendations to consume greater amounts of dietary fiber, much of which is associated with phytate, increase the risk of zinc deficiency.

  16. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2009-01-01

    secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. METHODS: In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid...... artery (CCA) luminal diameter, and IMT in different carotid segments were measured in digitized ultrasound images. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin secretion was reconstructed...... by mathematical modeling. RESULTS: CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P IMT (608 +/- 78 vs. 576 +/- 74 microm, P IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid...

  17. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha A Kajale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  18. Interactions Among Sexual Activity, Menstrual Cycle Phase, and Immune Function in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney K; Heiman, Julia R; Demas, Gregory E

    2017-11-21

    Past research has found menstrual-cycle-related changes in functional immune response; we examined if sexual activity also changed markers of immune defense. We followed 32 naturally cycling women (15 sexually active with a partner ≥ 1 time/week, 17 sexually abstinent for the last four months) over one menstrual cycle. Participants provided serum and saliva samples at menses and ovulation, and additional saliva samples at midfollicular and midluteal phases. At each phase, participants also self-reported symptoms associated with colds, flu, pain, menstrual discomfort, and premenstrual syndrome. We tested saliva and serum for ability to kill Escherichia coli or Candida albicans, and serum for complement protein activity. For serum-mediated pathogen killing, among sexually active women only, there was a significant midcycle decrease in killing of E. coli. For saliva-mediated pathogen killing, among abstinent women only, there was a significant midcycle decrease in killing of E. coli, and midcycle increase in killing of C. albicans. Sexually active women had significantly lower complement activity than abstinent women overall. Finally, both groups reported lower physical symptoms at midcycle and higher symptoms at menses. There may be important differences in immune function between healthy women who are sexually active versus abstinent. Further replication is warranted.

  19. Less depressed or less forthcoming? Self-report of depression symptoms in women preparing for in vitro fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam M.; Liu, Dawei; Stuart, Scott P.; Ryan, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE While depression has been associated with infertility treatments, it is not routinely assessed in women prior to undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Findings are mixed regarding the degree to which women report depression prior to IVF. The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine response profiles in women preparing for IVF, and 2) compare responses to those of postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. METHODS Female IVF patients (n=321; 19 – 45 years) completed the PHQ-9 at their first visit. Clinical, demographic characteristics, and incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorder (ODD) were examined. Overall score distributions of the IVF group were compared to those of local postpartum patients, and published primary care and general populations. RESULTS Demographic or clinical characteristics did not account for response differences within the IVF group. The IVF group had lower incidences of MDD and ODD than a PHQ-9 normative group. Women in the IVF group reported no depressive symptoms significantly more than postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. CONCLUSIONS Women preparing to undergo IVF report fewer symptoms of depression than multiple comparison groups. Specific quality of life measures may be needed to assess distress in this population. PMID:23138273

  20. Infertility treatment and fertility-specific distress: A longitudinal analysis of a population-based sample of U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Arthur L; McQuillan, Julia; Lowry, Michele; Shreffler, Karina M

    2011-07-01

    Because research on infertile women usually uses clinic-based samples of treatment seekers, it is difficult to sort out to what extent distress is the result of the condition of infertility itself and to what extent it is a consequence of the experience of infertility treatment. We use the National Survey of Fertility Barriers, a two-wave national probability sample of U.S. women, to disentangle the effects of infertility and infertility treatment on fertility-specific distress. Using a series of ANOVAs, we examine 266 infertile women who experienced infertility both at Wave 1 and at Wave 2, three years later. We compare eight groups of infertile women based on whether or not they have received treatment and on whether or not they have had a live birth. At Wave 1, infertile women who did not receive treatment and who had no live birth reported lower distress levels than women who received treatment at Wave 1 only, regardless of whether their infertility episode was followed by a live birth. At Wave 2, women who received no treatment have significantly lower fertility-specific distress than women who were treated at Wave 1 or at Waves 1 and 2, regardless of whether there was a subsequent live birth. Furthermore, fertility-specific distress did not increase over time among infertile women who did not receive treatment. The increase infertility-specific distress was significantly higher for women who received treatment at Wave 2 that was not followed by a live birth than for women who received no treatment or for women who received treatment at Wave 1 only. These patterns suggest that infertility treatment is associated with levels of distress over and above those associated with the state of being infertile in and of itself. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Normative Values of Voice Analysis Parameters With Respect to Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Adult Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Emel C; Sahin, Mustafa; Demiral, Dilek; Bayir, Omer; Saylam, Guleser; Ozdek, Ali; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Objective measurements are quite important for assessment of voice disorders. The first aim of this study was to establish a prototype database of normative values of voice analysis parameters in healthy Turkish adult female population. The second aim was to evaluate the variations of these parameters during physiological menstrual cycle. This is a prospective, single-blind study. Eighty-nine healthy women (mean age, 31.5 ± 6.0 years) with normal physical findings and without vocal abuse or dysphonia were participated. Detailed physical and videostroboscopic larynx examination was done. Participants' voice samples of sustained /a/ and /i/ vowels were recorded, and voice analysis was done. GRBAS scale was done by four otolaryngologists, and subjects were asked to score their own voice quality using Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) at the premenstruation, during menstruation, and postmenstruation periods. Eighty-nine healthy Turkish women's some normative acoustic vocal parameters of three different phases of menstrual cycle were reported. The data indicated that during the premenstruation period; the mean jitter %, shimmer % and noise-to-harmonic ratio values were significantly higher than that of other two periods. Variations of computerized acoustic vocal analysis parameters through menstruation cycle were in concordance with the perceptual voice assessment (GRBAS) and the questionnaire of subjects' perception of their own voices (VHI-10). In this study the normative values of voice analysis parameters of healthy adult Turkish women was reported. Adding computerized voice analysis parameters may improve the assessment and screening of voice in routine clinical practice because this is a simple and reliable method. Evaluation of voice can be performed regardless of the phases of menstrual cycle, but not performing acoustic analysis during the premenstrual period may prevent some of the unintended errors. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  2. Fertility rate oF epileptic women at Kenyatta national Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... study in Iceland reported no difference in fertility rate between patients and controls. A study in Finland by Javala and Sillanpaa(12) found out that persons with epilepsy were less likely to marry and to have offsprings. One limitation of a study of this nature is recall bias. To minimise this, medical records ( ...

  3. Fertility After Treatment With High Dose Melphalan in Women With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Or, Ehud; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Yahel, Anat; Yaniv, Isaac; Stein, Jerry

    2016-02-01

    High-dose melphalan (HDM) is an integral component of conditioning regimens for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. The gonadotoxic effects of HDM are often obscured by previous or concurrent administration of alkylating agents. From April 1996 to January 2006 our acute myeloid leukemia treatment regimen included induction and consolidation therapy with cytosine arabinoside, anthracyclines and etoposide, followed by HDM and autologous stem cell infusion. We explored gonadal function in surviving female patients so treated, who represent a unique group of patients exposed to HDM as a single gonadotoxic agent. The fertility assessment included a questionnaire, blood tests for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and anti mullerian hormone (AMH), and a gynecological ultrasound exam for antral follicular count (AFC). Eight female survivors participated. Although fertility assessment showed considerable damage to ovarian reserve in all participants, four of the eight female survivors conceived and bore children without medical intervention. In this cohort, HDM treatment reduced fertility potential but did not preclude fecundity. Early referral to a fertility clinic and long term follow-up including serial measurements of AMH levels and AFC for female patients receiving HDM are recommended. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Levels and associations among self-esteem, fertility distress, coping, and reaction to potentially being a genetic carrier in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeli, Ceylan; Lobel, Marci; Franasiak, Jason; Pastore, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    To measure the level of distress and its relationship with other psychologic factors in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who participated in a fragile X genetics study. Longitudinal data analyzed with structural equation modeling. Four U.S. private and academic fertility centers. Sixty-two infertile patients with DOR. None. Fertility Problem Inventory, Coping Scale for Infertile Couples, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Health Orientation Scale. Nineteen percent had low fertility distress, 56% had average fertility distress, and 24% had high fertility distress. Thirty-six percent self-reported a "favorable" or "very favorable" emotional response to potentially being a fragile X carrier (termed "emotions"), 53% were "ambivalent," and 11% had an unfavorable reaction. Three months after learning that they were not a carrier, these percentages were 91%, 9%, and 0%, respectively. Emotions at this second time point were significantly more positive than at pretesting. At baseline, higher self-esteem was a significant predictor of reduced fertility distress both directly and indirectly through emotions. Fertility distress was not associated with coping. Self-esteem, fertility distress, pretesting emotions, and coping were unrelated to posttesting emotions. The potential of having an explanation for one's DOR condition may have a beneficial impact on women's psychologic states during the process of genetic testing, and this appeared to be especially true for women with higher self-esteem. Psychologic interventions targeted to women with low self-esteem may reduce distress and improve reactions to genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Women with celiac disease present with fertility problems no more often than women in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Dhalwani, Nafeesa N.; West, Joe; Sultan, Alyshah Abdul; Ban, Lu; Tata, Laila J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have associated infertility with celiac disease. However, these included small numbers of women attending infertility specialist services and subsequently screened for celiac disease, and therefore may not have been representative of the general population. We performed a large population-based study of infertility and celiac disease in women from the United Kingdom. \\ud \\ud METHODS: We identified 2,426,225 women with prospective UK primary care records between 1990...

  6. Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

    2012-08-01

    The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of using complementary medicine on the infertility-specific quality of life of women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat-Katz, Anat; Paltiel, Ora; Kahane, Arik; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate associations between the use of complementary medicine, quality of life (QoL), and lifestyle habits among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). In a cross-sectional study, women aged 18-44 years undergoing an IVF cycle at a large IVF center in Israel between February 1, 2013 and April 30, 2015 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Patients who reported using of at least one complementary medicine intervention to treat infertility prior to IVF treatment were considered complementary-medicine users. Fertility QoL and lifestyle behaviors were compared between complementary-medicine users and non-users with the FertiQoL tools. Of 381 patients eligible to participate in the study, 323 completed the questionnaire; 110 (34.1%) participants were complementary-medicine users. Complementary-medicine users demonstrated higher scores for the FertiQol relational domain (P=0.005) and lower scores for the social domain (P=0.010). Complementary-medicine users reported greater utilization of psychosocial support (Pinfertility could be useful in identifying patients who could benefit from psychosocial interventions or lifestyle recommendations. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Tibolone on Climacteric Symptoms of Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moghassemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Menopause is related to many symptoms that have an effect on women’s life quality. HRT and its alternatives such as Tibolone are some of the routes for enhancement of different aspects of QoL in menopause. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effects of Tibolone and placebo on climacteric symptoms of healthy menopausal women. Materials & Methods: This is a randomized, prospective clinical study. A total of 96 women with no absolute contraindication for hormone replacement therapy (HRT that reffered to selected clinics (gynecologic clinics in Fajr and Avesina Hospitals, Aboraihan and Shahid Haidari Polyclinic and an individual clinic during 2007-2008 were divided into two groups: 41 women in the Tibolone group received Tibolone 2.5 mg/day + Ca-D (500 mg +200 IU and 45 women in the placebo group received only Ca-D (500 mg +200 IU for six months. At baseline and after six months, climacteric symptoms were assessed by Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 15. Paired and independent t-test, Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney were used for analyzing the collected data. Results: Thirty two women in the Tibolone group and 43 women in the placebo completed the study. Comparing the baseline and placebo values, the Tibolone group significantly improved on all of GCS subscales which include: depression, anxiety, somatic, vasomotor symptoms and libido (P<0.05. Conclusion: In postmenopausal women, Tibolone significantly improved all aspects of climacteric symptoms and increased their quality of life. Keywords: Tibolone, menopausal women, Greene Climacteric Scale

  9. Intra-individual variability in TSH levels of healthy women during the first half of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Llorente, Mayte; Fajardo-Montañana, Carmen; Pérez-Bermejo, Marcelino; Vila-Candel, Rafael; Gómez-Vela, José; Velasco, Inés

    TSH is the parameter most widely accepted to assess thyroid function, especially in pregnant women. The aim of this current study was to analyze intra-individual changes in TSH during the first half of pregnancy in women with TSH levels higher than 2.5mIU/L in early pregnancy. An observational, prospective study was conducted on 243 healthy pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Thyroid function was assessed by testing TSH and free T4 levels. A subgroup of women with TSH levels >2.5mIU/L underwent additional tests (TSH, free T4, peroxidase antibodies). Information on dietary iodine intake and/or iodine supplements was also recorded. Mean TSH level was 1.89mIU/L (range 0.024-6.48mIU/L), and mean FT4 level was 1.19ng/dL (range 0.80-1.90ng/dL). Fifty-eight women (23.8%) had TSH levels>2.5mIU/L in the first trimester of pregnancy, and additional thyroid function tests were performed in 27 women. TSH levels significantly decreased from the first to the second test (3.59±0.92mIU/L vs 2.81±1.06mIU/L respectively; ppregnancy in women with values slightly above the normal range. Pregnant women who used iodized salt were more likely to have decreased TSH levels in a second test. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Is There a Healthy Immigrant Effect Among Women Through Transnational Marriage? Results from Immigrant Women from Southeast Asian Countries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Shiung; Yang, Hao-Jan

    2018-02-01

    In this study we examine whether there is healthy immigrant effect among women immigrated to Taiwan through transnational marriage. A sample of immigrant women (N = 246) with original nativity of Southeast Asian countries and Taiwanese-born women sample (N = 201) was recruited from December 2008 to December 2009. Their depressive symptoms, acculturative stresses and family functioning were assessed by a series of questionnaires. Immigrant women had lower depressive scores than their native-born counterparts when other potential confounders were controlled for in the multiple regression model. Our findings suggest that the healthy immigrant effect exists among immigrant women in Taiwan. Although such effect may due to immigrant women is a highly selective population with hardy mental characteristics, it is crucial to improve immigrant women's mental health by helping them to enhance the ability of expressing emotions between family members as well as by mitigating socioeconomic inequality of cross-cultural immigrant families.

  11. Trimester-Specific Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Blood Glucose Levels Among Pregnant Women From a Fertility Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Ford, Jennifer B; Keller, Myra; Seely, Ellen W; Messerlian, Carmen; Petrozza, John; Williams, Paige L; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ; James-Todd, Tamarra

    2017-04-01

    Women with a history of infertility are at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Studies suggest higher urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations are associated with diabetes in nonpregnant populations, but the association between BPA and glucose levels among pregnant women is unclear. To assess trimester-specific urinary BPA concentrations in relation to blood glucose levels among subfertile women. Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study. A fertility center in a teaching hospital. A total of 245 women contributed at least one urine sample during first and/or second trimesters, delivered a singleton or twin pregnancy, and had available blood glucose data (2005 to 2015). Blood glucose levels after a nonfasting 50-g glucose challenge test at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. The specific gravity-adjusted geometric mean urinary BPA concentrations during first and second trimesters were 1.39 and 1.27 µg/L, respectively. Second-trimester BPA concentrations were positively associated with blood glucose (P, trend = 0.01). Specifically, the adjusted mean glucose levels (95% confidence interval) for women in the highest quartile of second-trimester BPA concentrations was 119 (112, 126) mg/dL compared with 106 (100, 112) mg/dL for women in the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between first-trimester BPA concentrations and glucose levels. BPA exposure during the second trimester may have adverse effect on blood glucose levels among subfertile women. As the findings represent the first report suggesting a potential etiologically relevant window for BPA and glucose in humans, further studies are needed.

  12. Observational study of the development and evaluation of a fertility preservation patient decision aid for teenage and adult women diagnosed with cancer: the Cancer, Fertility and Me research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G L; Hughes, J; Mahmoodi, N; Greenfield, D; Brauten-Smith, G; Skull, J; Gath, J; Yeomanson, D; Baskind, E; Snowden, J A; Jacques, R M; Velikova, G; Collins, K; Stark, D; Phillips, R; Lane, S; Bekker, H L

    2017-03-13

    Women diagnosed with cancer and facing potentially sterilising cancer treatment have to make time-pressured decisions regarding fertility preservation with specialist fertility services while undergoing treatment of their cancer with oncology services. Oncologists identify a need for resources enabling them to support women's fertility preservation decisions more effectively; women report wanting more specialist information to make these decisions. The overall aim of the 'Cancer, Fertility and Me' study is to develop and evaluate a new evidence-based patient decision aid (PtDA) for women with any cancer considering fertility preservation to address this unmet need. This is a prospective mixed-method observational study including women of reproductive age (16 years +) with a new diagnosis of any cancer across two regional cancer and fertility centres in Yorkshire, UK. The research involves three stages. In stage 1, the aim is to develop the PtDA using a systematic method of evidence synthesis and multidisciplinary expert review of current clinical practice and patient information. In stage 2, the aim is to assess the face validity of the PtDA. Feedback on its content and format will be ascertained using questionnaires and interviews with patients, user groups and key stakeholders. Finally, in stage 3 the acceptability of using this resource when integrated into usual cancer care pathways at the point of cancer diagnosis and treatment planning will be evaluated. This will involve a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the PtDA in clinical practice. Measures chosen include using count data of the PtDAs administered in clinics and accessed online, decisional and patient-reported outcome measures and qualitative feedback. Quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t-tests and CIs; interviews will be analysed using thematic analysis. Research Ethics Committee approval (Ref: 16/EM/0122) and Health Research Authority approval

  13. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FADIME KUCUK; AYSE LIVANELIOGLU

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates...

  14. Validity and interobserver agreement of lower extremity local tissue water measurements in healthy women using tissue dielectric constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Birkballe, Susanne; Nørregaard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few....

  15. Women's health as an ideological and political issue: Restricting the right to abortion, access to in vitro fertilization procedures, and prenatal testing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, Piotr; Żuk, Paweł

    2017-07-01

    The authors describe the problems of women in Poland, who have limited access to abortion, in vitro fertilization procedures, and prenatal tests. The current situation stems from ideological pressure, which affects women's health issues. This is part of a broader syndrome of the conservative approach to women's health in Eastern Europe, as well as the factor that strengthens the extreme right in Europe. As women's sexual health is demonized, women less often undergo preventive examinations. Making the debate about health more rational requires radical sociocultural changes in this part of the world.

  16. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL, plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05. However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384. Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases.

  17. Patterns and prevalence of medication use across the menstrual cycle among healthy, reproductive aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, KA; Sjaarda, LA; Mumford, SL; Garbose, RA; Schliep, KC; Mattison, D; Perkins, NJ; Wactawski-Wende, J; Schisterman, EF

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the patterns of medication intake in healthy, reproductive-age women not using hormonal contraception. Methods 259 healthy, premenopausal women (18–44 years of age) enrolled in the BioCycle Study (2005–2007), were followed over two menstrual cycles. Women were excluded if they were currently using oral contraceptives or other chronic medications. Over-the-counter and prescription medication use among participants was evaluated daily throughout the study via a diary assessing type of medication, dosage, units, and frequency. Medications were categorized as allergy, antibiotics, central nervous system (CNS), cold and cough, gastrointestinal (GI), musculoskeletal, and pain medication based on primary active ingredient. Medication use within each category was assessed across standardized 28-day cycles to evaluate differences in use across cycle phases (i.e. early, mid, late). Results Medication use was reported by 73% of participants. The most and least frequently used medications, respectively, were pain (69%) and musculoskeletal medications (1%). Pain, CNS, and antibiotic medication use varied significantly across the cycle, with pain and CNS medication more frequently reported during menses and antibiotics more frequently during the luteal phase. Allergy, cold and cough, GI, and musculoskeletal medication use did not vary across the cycle. Conclusions Patterns of medication use among reproductive-age women vary across the menstrual cycle for certain types of medications, particularly in pain (e.g. Ibuprofen), antibiotics (e,g, Amoxicillin), and CNS (e.g. Adderall) medications. Future studies involving use of these types of medication in premenopausal women may need to consider the relationship of their use to the menstrual cycle. PMID:26954695

  18. Patterns and prevalence of medication use across the menstrual cycle among healthy, reproductive aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristen A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Mumford, Sunni L; Garbose, Rebecca A; Schliep, Karen C; Mattison, Donald; Perkins, Neil J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the patterns of medication intake in healthy, reproductive-age women not using hormonal contraception. Two hundered fifty-nine healthy, premenopausal women (18-44 years of age) enrolled in the BioCycle Study (2005-2007) were followed over two menstrual cycles. Women were excluded if they were currently using oral contraceptives or other chronic medications. Over-the-counter and prescription medication use among participants was evaluated daily throughout the study via a diary assessing type of medication, dosage, units, and frequency. Medications were categorized as allergy, antibiotics, central nervous system (CNS), cold and cough, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and pain medication based on primary active ingredient. Medication use within each category was assessed across standardized 28-day cycles to evaluate differences in use across cycle phases (i.e., early, middle, and late). Medication use was reported by 73% of participants. The most and least frequently used medications, respectively, were pain (69%) and musculoskeletal medications (1%). Pain, CNS, and antibiotic medication use varied significantly across the cycle, with pain and CNS medication more frequently reported during menses and antibiotics more frequently during the luteal phase. Allergy, cold and cough, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal medication use did not vary across the cycle. Patterns of medication use among reproductive age women vary across the menstrual cycle for certain types of medications, particularly in pain (e.g., Ibuprofen), antibiotics (e,g, Amoxicillin), and CNS (e.g., Adderall) medications. Future studies involving use of these types of medication in premenopausal women may need to consider the relationship of their use to the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Different rates of forearm bone loss in healthy women with early or late menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Zangari, M; Bottega, F; Peccolo, F; Galuppo, P; Nardi, A; Ziliotto, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether healthy women with early or late menopause have different rates of age- and menopause-related bone loss, and whether premature menopause really represents a risk factor for osteopenia. Healthy women aged from 27 to 84 years (n = 2204), with no history of fractures, were divided into two groups according to their age at menopause (AAM): group A with AAM or = 50 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the distal non-dominant forearm by single-photon absorptiometry. Group B had a significantly lower average BMD than group A (group A, 0.430 +/- 0.074 g/cm2; group B, 0.419 +/- 0.081; p = 0.003); however, the average age of group A was significantly lower, and weight and height were significantly higher. When women older than 50 years of age were divided into five age-matched subgroups, BMD was significantly lower in women with AAM < or = 43 years up to 60 years; after that age this difference disappeared and, in the oldest subgroups, BMD was significantly lower in group B than in group A. Independent variables such as age, AAM and body mass index (BMI) explain about 30% of the variation of BMD, using a multiple linear regression analysis. In both groups age and BMI weighted more than AAM in determining BMD. When BMD was plotted versus either chronological age or years since menopause, women with late menopause showed a significantly faster bone loss than those with early menopause.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The effects of prospective mate quality on investments in healthy body weight among single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew C; Cronin, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines how a single female's investment in healthy body weight is affected by the quality of single males in her marriage market. A principle concern in estimation is the presence of market-level unobserved heterogeneity that may be correlated with changes in single male quality, measured as earning potential. To address this concern, we employ a differencing strategy that normalizes the exercise behaviors of single women to those of their married counterparts. Our main results suggest that when potential mate quality in a marriage market decreases, single black women invest less in healthy body weight. For example, we find that a 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of low quality single black males leads to a 5-10% decrease in vigorous exercise taken by single black females. Results for single white women are qualitatively similar, but not consistent across specifications. These results highlight the relationship between male and female human capital acquisition that is driven by participation in the marriage market. Our results suggest that programs designed to improve the economic prospects of single males may yield positive externalities in the form of improved health behaviors, such as more exercise, particularly for single black females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Healthy habits and osteoporosis prevention in perimenopausal women from rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, M Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José M; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura-Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez-Fernández, Román

    2014-01-01

    The probability of developing osteoporosis decreases with an adequate supply of vitamin D, a balanced diet, and increased physical activity. In this study, we evaluated whether an educational intervention improves osteoporosis-related behavior in perimenopausal women from rural areas. A randomized experimental evaluation was performed of an educational intervention. The variables were physical activity, calcium intake and sun exposure in women from rural areas aged 45-54 years (n=216) at time 0 and 12 months after the educational intervention. In the control group (n=106), the information was sent by surface mail (month 0). In the intervention group (n=110), two interactive workshops were given (month 0). The topic of the workshops and the information sent by surface mail was healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. After 12 months, the intervention group, but not the control group, had increased their physical activity (p=0.006), sun exposure (p=0.029), and calcium intake (53% to 64%). A simple educational intervention in perimenopausal women from rural areas improved healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLeptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Fasting blood samples were collected during the follicular phase, mid cycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH and LH were measured with coated tube immunoradiometric assay. Estrogen and progesterone were measured using antibody -coated tubes. Serum Leptin concentration were measured by Leptin (sandwich ELISA. In menstruating women, serum leptin increased from 13.15+/-1.60 ng/ml in the early follicular phase to 16.57+/-1.68 ng/ml (P<0.01 at the luteal phase. Serum leptin concentration negatively correlated with LH and progesterone (P<0.05. Mean serum leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI (r =0.78, P<0.001.

  4. Reliability of pelvic floor muscle strength assessment in healthy continent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Dulcegleika V B; Gameiro, Monica O; Yamamoto, Hamilto A; Kawano, Paulo R; Guerra, Rodrigo; Padovani, Carlos R; Amaro, João L

    2015-04-10

    The aim of this study was to compare pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength using transvaginal digital palpation in healthy continent women in different age groups, and to compare the inter- and intra-rater reliability of examiners performing anterior and posterior vaginal assessments. We prospectively studied 150 healthy multiparous women. They were distributed into four different groups, according to age range: G1 (n = 37), 30-40 years-old; G2 (n = 39), 41-50 years-old; G3 (n = 39), 51-60 years-old; and G4 (n = 35), older than 60 years-old. PFM strength was evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation in the anterior and posterior areas, by 3 different examiners, and graded using a 5-point Amaro's scale. There was no statistical difference among the different age ranges, for each grade of PFM strength. There was good intra-rater concordance between anterior and posterior PFM assessment, being 64.7%, 63.3%, and 66.7% for examiners A, B, and C, respectively. The intra-rater concordance level was good for each examiner. However, the inter-rater reliability for two examiners varied from moderate to good. Age has no effect on PFM strength profiles, in multiparous continent women. There is good concordance between anterior and posterior vaginal PFM strength assessments, but only moderate to good inter-rater reliability of the measurements between two examiners.

  5. Psychological distress and coping in breast cancer patients and healthy women whose parents survived the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar

    2006-07-01

    Psychological distress levels of breast cancer patients whose parents were Holocaust survivors ('second-generation Holocaust' patients) were previously shown to be significantly higher than those of a matched group of patients with non-traumatized parents. In this study, we investigated whether this effect reflects only the generally higher distress levels of second-generation Holocaust women or whether breast cancer patients with traumatized parents also present lower adaptation abilities, which result in increased distress to the breast cancer diagnosis. We assessed psychological distress and measures of coping in 193 second-generation Holocaust patients diagnosed with breast cancer, 164 breast cancer patients with non-traumatized parents, 176 healthy second-generation Holocaust women, and 143 healthy women with non-traumatized parents. The main effect of cancer and the main effect of second-generation Holocaust survivor on psychological distress were found to be significant. These two factors (cancer x second generation) had a synergistic effect on the levels of depression and psychoticism. These results support the hypothesis that, at least on some psychological measures, the cumulative distressing effect of having traumatized parents and breast cancer diagnosis is higher than the effect of each factor alone.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise training in formerly preeclamptic women and healthy parous control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Thijssen, Dick J H; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T E; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2014-11-01

    Women who have had preeclampsia demonstrate higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired vascular function, and increased sympathetic activity and are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 12 weeks of exercise training (70-80% maximum volume of oxygen utilization) in women who had had preeclampsia on physical fitness, components of MetS, vasculature, and autonomic functions compared with healthy control subjects. Our prospective case-control study included 24 normotensive women who had had preeclampsia and 20 control subjects who were matched for age and postpartum interval (all 6-12 months after delivery). Before and after training, we measured all components of MetS (ie, BP, lipids, glucose/insulin, and albuminuria), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial and superficial femoral artery endothelial function that used flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Autonomic activity was quantified with power spectral analysis (low-frequency/high-frequency power [LF/HF] ratio). At baseline, women who had had preeclampsia demonstrated higher values of most components of MetS. Compared with the control subjects, women who had had preeclampsia had increased IMT (580 ± 92 μm vs 477 ± 65 μm, respectively), impaired endothelial function (FMD brachial artery, 5.3% ± 2.2% vs 10.8% ± 3.5%, respectively; FMD superficial femoral artery, 4.9% ± 2.1% vs 8.7% ± 3.2%, respectively) and increased LF/HF power ratio (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 1.3 ± 0.4, respectively; all P exercise training decreased values of most components of MetS and IMT, improved FMD, and concurrently reduced LF/HF. Despite these improvements, vascular and autonomic variables did not normalize by 12 weeks of training in women who had had preeclampsia. This study demonstrates that exercise training in women who had had preeclampsia and control subjects improves components of MetS, endothelial function, vascular wall thickness, and autonomic control

  7. Physical activity pattern and activity energy expenditure in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf, M

    2011-12-01

    Energy costs of pregnancy approximate 320  MJ in well-nourished women, but whether or not these costs may be partly covered by modifications in activity behavior is incompletely known. In healthy Swedish women: (1) to evaluate the potential of the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity (IDEEA) to assess energy expenditure during free-living conditions, (2) to assess activity pattern, walking pace and energy metabolism in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls, and (3) to assess the effect on energy expenditure caused by changes in physical activity induced by pregnancy. Activity pattern was assessed using the IDEEA in 18 women in gestational week 32 and in 21 non-pregnant women. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was assessed using IDEEA, as well as using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. AEE using the IDEEA was correlated with reference estimates in both groups (r=0.4-0.5; P<0.05). Reference AEE was 0.9 MJ/24 h lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 92 min/24 h more on sitting, lying, reclining and sleeping (P=0.020), 73 min/24 h less on standing (P=0.037) and 21 min/24 h less on walking and using stairs (P=0.049), and walked at a slower pace (1.1 ± 0.1 m/s versus 1.2±0.1 m/s; P=0.014) than did non-pregnant controls. The selection of less demanding activities and slower walking pace decreased energy costs by 720 kJ/24 h and 80 kJ/24 h, respectively. Healthy moderately active Swedish women compensated for the increased energy costs of pregnancy by 0.9 MJ/24 h. The compensation was mainly achieved by selecting less demanding activities.

  8. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Loe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years. METHODS: Maximal and sub maximal levels of VO2, heart rate, oxygen pulse, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg scale: 6-20 were measured in 1929 men and 1881 women during treadmill running. RESULTS: The highest VO2max and maximal heart rate among men and women were observed in the youngest age group (20-29 years and was 54.4±8.4 mL·kg(-1·min(-1 and 43.0±7.7 mL·kg(-1·min(-1 (sex differences, p<0.001 and 196±10 beats·min(-1 and 194±9 beats·min(-1 (sex differences, p<0.05, respectively, with a subsequent reduction of approximately 3.5 mL·kg(-1·min(-1 and 6 beats·min(-1 per decade. The highest oxygen pulses were observed in the 3 youngest age groups (20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years among men and women; 22.3 mL·beat(-1±3.6 and 14.7 mL·beat(-1±2.7 (sex differences, p<0.001, respectively, with no significant difference between these age groups. After the age of 50 we observed an 8% reduction per decade among both sexes. Borg scores appear to give a good estimate of the relative exercise intensity, although observing a slightly different relationship than reported in previous reference material from small populations. CONCLUSION: This is the largest European reference material of objectively measured parameters of aerobic fitness and exercise-physiology in healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, forming the basis for an easily accessible, valid and understandable tool for improved training prescription in healthy men and women.

  9. [Investigation of the situation of vaginal microflora in healthy women population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhang, Ning; Di, Wen; Liao, Qin-ping; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the distribution of vaginal microflora in healthy women and investigate their cognition of lower reproductive tract infection-related knowledge as well as personal hygiene habits and character of behavior in seeking medical treatment. Total of 1660 healthy women who had physical check-ups at the Medical Center of Renji Hospital were selected and received gynecologic examination, as well as routine examination, pH examination and bacterial culture of the vaginal discharge. In addition, 860 of them were randomly selected for questionnaire survey, in which reproductive tract infection -related knowledge and personal hygiene habits as well as behavior in seeking medical treatment were involved. Among the 1660 censused women, vaginal average pH was 4. 16 +/- 0.21. The positive rate of Candida in vaginal discharge routine examination was 3.86% (64/1660), which was lower than that in aerobes culture 7.71% (128/1660). Candida albicans was the most populous species 78.9% (101/128), followed by 7.8% (10/128) and 7.0% (9/128) for the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei respectively. The most populous species of vaginal microflora were hemolytic streptococcus A (63.80%, 1059/1660), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, 237/1660), and Enterococcus faecalis (D) group (11.44%, 190/1660). The questionnaire survey showed that 88.4% (760/860) of 860 women took active treatment when feeling unwell, 92.1% (792/860) of them had good hygiene practices, and only 21.2% (182/860) had the habit of vaginal douching. In addition, 50.0% (430/860) of them had the desire to obtain reproductive health knowledge through out-patient consultation. Vulvovaginal Candida disease ranks the first in all types of vaginitis, among which, Candida albicans is the most populous species followed by the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Hemolytic streptococcus A and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common species of vaginal microflora in healthy women. The censused women have high awareness of

  10. Effect of ADA1 mother-fetus and wife-husband phenotypic differences on the ratio birth weight/placental weight in fertile women and on reproductive success in couples with RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Nicotra, Maria; Amante, Ada; Ambrosi, Sara; Cozzoli, Eliana; Saccucci, Patrizia; Bottini, Egidio; Magrini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect Adenosine Deaminase locus 1 (ADA(1)) mother-fetus and wife-husband phenotypic differences on the ratio Birth Weight/Placental Weight (BW/PW) in fertile women and on reproductive success in couples with repeated spontaneous abortion (RSA). 209 couples with primary RSA and a consecutive series of 379 healthy puerperae with their newborn infants from the White Caucasian population of central Italy were studied. In primary RSA women reproductive success was indicated by the presence of at least one live-born infant within 5 years of follow up. Two way contingency tables were analyzed by chi-square. The proportion of primary RSA couples with at least a live-born infant shows the highest value in couples mother ADA(1)1/father carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele (55.2%) and the lowest value in reciprocal couples mother carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele /father ADA(1)1 (18.7%) (O.R. = 5.33; P = 0.023). The highest ratio BW/PW is observed in the class mother ADA(1)1/newborn carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele while the lowest ratio is observed in the reciprocal class mother carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele/ newborn ADA(1)1. Differences between mother and fetus in ADA(1) phenotype may influence the ratio BW/PW in healthy women and reproductive success in RSA women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Like Mother(-in-Law) Like Daughter? Influence of the Older Generation's Fertility Behaviours on Women's Desired Family Size in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bordone, Valeria; Muttarak, Raya

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the associations between preferred family size of women in rural Bihar, India and the fertility behaviours of their mother and mother-in-law. Scheduled interviews of 440 pairs of married women aged 16-34 years and their mothers-in-law were conducted in 2011. Preferred family size is first measured by Coombs scale, allowing us to capture latent desired number of children and then categorized into three categories (low, medium and high). Women's preferred family size is estimated using ordered logistic regression. We find that the family size preferences are not associated with mother's fertility but with mother's education. Mother-in-law's desired number of grandchildren is positively associated with women's preferred family size. However, when the woman has higher education than her mother-in-law, her preferred family size gets smaller, suggesting that education provides women with greater autonomy in their decision-making on childbearing.

  12. Ovarian responsiveness in women receiving fertility treatment after methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Loundou, A; Courbière, B; Cravello, L; Agostini, A

    2014-09-01

    Does previous methotrexate (MTX) treatment for ectopic pregnancy (EP) have an effect on ovarian response in women receiving fertility treatment? MTX treatment for EP does not seem to affect subsequent fertility treatment. MTX is commonly used to treat EPs that are diagnosed early. Previous studies have reported conflicting results about its effect on subsequent fertility treatments. This systematic review and meta-analysis included a total of 329 patients who had participated in 7 observational studies. A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED databases was conducted to identify studies about fertility treatments after MTX treatment for EP, published in English or French up to December 2013. Studies were eligible for inclusion only if they compared indicators of ovarian responsiveness during ART in the cycles before and after an injection of MTX for EP. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes retrieved. Secondary outcomes included the basal serum FSH level, duration of stimulation, total gonadotrophin dose and serum E2 level on the day of hCG triggering. The mean number of oocytes retrieved during the cycles before and after the MTX treatment did not differ significantly (P = 0.4). The comparisons before and after MTX treatment of the basal plasma FSH level, the duration of stimulation, the total gonadotrophin dose used for stimulation and the estradiol level on the day ovulation was triggered did not find any significant differences. The literature on this topic is sparse, with few studies and even fewer of high methodological quality. These results indicate that MTX to treat EP in infertile patients does not have any negative effect on their subsequent fertility treatment, but further studies should be performed before this result can be considered definitive. This work received support from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, La Conception Hospital, Marseille, France. The authors have no competing interests to declare. N/A. © The Author

  13. The psychological effects of short-term fasting in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Watkins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to investigate affective responses to 18-hour fasting in healthy controls. In particular the study focused on self-reported mood, irritability, sense of achievement, reward, pride, and control. Method: Participants were a non-clinical sample of 52 women with a mean age of 25. A repeated-measures design was used, whereby participants provided diary measures of psychological variables throughout both 18-hour fasting and non-fasting periods. Results: Fasting led to increased irritability, and also to positive affective experiences of increased sense of achievement, reward, pride, and control. Discussion: Even short-term fasting in healthy controls can lead to positive psychological experiences. This lends support to cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-interpersonal models of ANR, which suggest that dietary restriction is maintained through positive reinforcement.

  14. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  15. Macronutrient intake, eating habits, and exercise as moderators of menstrual distress in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W G; Carr-Nangle, R E; Bergeron, K C

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation studied the relationship between symptoms of menstrual distress and macronutrient intake, eating behavior, and exercise in healthy women. Twenty-six normally menstruating women with no complaints of menstrual distress completed a disguised questionnaire on menstrual symptoms and monitored the type and amount of food consumed as well as the type and duration of exercise during a full menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycle phases were determined by the presence of menses, ovarian hormonal assays, and basal temperature monitoring. Reports of pain, water retention, negative affect, behavior change, and arousal were significantly higher (p performance/decreased activity (p eating behavior, and regular exercise are reliably associated with menstrual distress and deserving of experimental evaluation as treatment interventions for menstrual distress.

  16. Healthy lifestyle behaviours and cardiovascular mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanabe, Naohito; Wada, Yasuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2012-02-01

    To examine the combined impacts of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Asians. A total of 18 747 men and 24 263 women aged 40-79 without a history of stroke or coronary heart disease (CHD) at baseline in 1988-90 were followed up until 2006. Participants scored one point for each following lifestyle behaviour: consumption of fruits ≥1 intake per day, fish ≥1 intake per day, milk almost every day, exercise ≥5 h per week and/or walking ≥1 h per day, body mass index (BMI) of 21-25 kg/m(2), alcohol intake lifestyle score category was one-third in men and one-fourth in women of those in the lowest scores, suggesting that a large fraction of CVD could be prevented through lifestyle modification.

  17. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  18. Glycodelin in endometrial flushing fluid and endometrial biopsies from infertile and fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Lindhard, Anette; Skovlund, Vibeke Ravn

    2011-01-01

    To investigate in the natural cycle just before IVF, whether glycodelin levels in endometrial flushing fluid obtained days LH+1 and LH+7 can be used in predicting pregnancy in the following IVF cycle, and whether there are differences in women with tubal factor infertility compared to women...

  19. Joint Model of Iron and Hepcidin During the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Adeline; Lainé, Fabrice; Lavenu, Audrey; Ropert, Martine; Lacut, Karine; Gissot, Valérie; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie; Jezequel, Caroline; Moignet, Aline; Laviolle, Bruno; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Hepcidin regulates serum iron levels, and its dosage is used in differential diagnostic of iron-related pathologies. We used the data collected in the HEPMEN (named after HEPcidin during MENses) study to investigate the joint dynamics of serum hepcidin and iron during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. Ninety menstruating women were recruited after a screening visit. Six fasting blood samples for determination of iron-status variables were taken in the morning throughout the cycle, starting on the second day of the period. Non-linear mixed effect models were used to describe the evolution of iron and hepcidin. Demographic and medical covariates were tested for their effect on model parameters. Parameter estimation was performed using the SAEM algorithm implemented in the Monolix software. A general pattern was observed for both hepcidin and iron, consisting of an initial decrease during menstruation, followed by a rebound and stabilising during the second half of the cycle. We developed a joint model including a menstruation-induced decrease of both molecules at the beginning of the menses and a rebound effect after menses. Iron stimulated the release of hepcidin. Several covariates, including contraception, amount of blood loss and ferritin, were found to influence the parameters. The joint model of iron and hepcidin was able to describe the fluctuations induced by blood loss from menstruation in healthy non-menopausal women and the subsequent regulation. The HEPMEN study showed fluctuations of iron-status variables during the menstrual cycle, which should be considered when using hepcidin measurements for diagnostic purposes in women of child-bearing potential.

  20. Effects of Muay Thai training frequency on body composition and physical fitness in healthy untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.

  1. Measurement of unmet need for family planning: longitudinal analysis of the impact of fertility desires on subsequent childbearing behaviors among urban women from Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Calhoun, Lisa M; Hoke, Theresa; Sengupta, Ranajit

    2013-10-01

    The measure of unmet need relies on women's reported fertility desires; previous research has demonstrated that fertility desires may be fluid and not firm. Our study uses recently collected longitudinal data from four cities in Uttar Pradesh, India, to examine whether women's fertility desires and family planning (FP) use at baseline predict pregnancy/birth experience in the 2-year follow-up period. Multivariate models demonstrate that women who were using any method of FP and reported an intention to stop childbearing were the least likely to experience a pregnancy/birth in the 2-year follow-up period. The stated desire to delay childbearing, whether or not the woman was using FP, did not distinguish pregnancy/birth experience. Ninety-two percent of pregnancies/births over the follow-up period were considered "wanted then" suggesting post-hoc rationalization of the pregnancy/birth even among those women who reported a desire to stop childbearing 2 years earlier. More nuanced assessments of fertility intentions may be needed to adequately gauge latent FP needs. Non-users of FP may be ambivalent about future childbearing and the timing of future births; these women may not have an unmet need for FP as typically defined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Depressive symptoms impact health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and quality of life in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Suzanne M; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 15% of persons with CVD have depressive symptoms, which are twice as likely to occur in women. Depressive symptoms in women being screened for CVD have not been well studied. The relationships between depressive symptoms, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors, heart disease risk awareness, cardiac risk, and quality of life (QOL) in women were investigated. Whether the effect of depressive symptoms on QOL was mediated by cardiac risk and/or health-promoting lifestyle behaviors was also examined. The Wilson-Cleary Health-Related Quality of Life Model guided this descriptive study. A convenience sample of 125 women was recruited from cardiac health screening events. The study measurements were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Framingham risk score; the Ferrans-Powers Quality of Life Index Generic Version-III; the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II; and questions related to heart disease risk, awareness of heart disease risk, health history, and demographics. Body mass index, percentage of body fat, and lipid profile were also measured. More than one-third (34%) of the women reported significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not associated with cardiac risk or risk awareness but were inversely associated with health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (r = -0.37, P lifestyle behaviors (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.97; P lifestyle behaviors mediated the association between depressive symptoms and QOL. Depressive symptoms contribute significantly to health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and QOL for women. Early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms are important for participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which could result in improved QOL.

  3. Diurnal fatigue patterns, sleep timing, and mental health outcomes among healthy postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBean, Amanda L; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum women have frequently interrupted sleep, report high levels of fatigue, and may experience circadian rhythm disruptions. They are also susceptible to mood impairments, anxiety, and stress. The current study explored associations between maternal postpartum daily fatigue patterns, which should vary according to circadian influences and mental health. Seventy-one primiparous, healthy mothers completed multiple daily self-reports of fatigue during postpartum Weeks 2 and 12 and were categorized at each week as having either a rhythmic or random fatigue pattern during the daytime. Wrist actigraphy data were used to calculate sleep midpoints. Surveys assessed chronotype, mood, anxiety, and stress. At postpartum Week 2, there were no differences in mental health measures between fatigue groups. At postpartum Week 12, higher overall fatigue levels were associated with increased anxiety, stress, and mood disruption. However, overall fatigue levels did not differ between fatigue groups. Women with a rhythmic fatigue pattern reported significantly less stress and more vigor than women with a random fatigue pattern. An earlier sleep midpoint was associated with a rhythmic fatigue pattern during postpartum Week 12. These data suggest that, despite similar average daily fatigue levels, having a rhythmic daily pattern of fatigue may be advantageous for mental health outcomes among postpartum women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. In Vitro Fertilization in Women With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is as Successful as in Women From the General Infertility Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Sveta Shah; Pabby, Vikas; Dodge, Laura E; Moragianni, Vasiliki A; Hacker, Michele R; Fox, Janis H; Correia, Katharine; Missmer, Stacey A; Ibrahim, Yetunde; Penzias, Alan S; Burakoff, Robert; Friedman, Sonia; Cheifetz, Adam S

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects women of reproductive age, so there are concerns about its effects on fertility. We investigated the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in patients with IBD compared with the general (non-IBD) IVF population. We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study of female patients with IBD who underwent IVF from 1998 through 2011 at 2 tertiary care centers. Patients were matched 4:1 to those without IBD (controls). The primary outcome was the cumulative rate of live births after up to 6 cycles of IVF. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who became pregnant and the rate of live births for each cycle. Forty-nine patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 71 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 1 patient with IBD-unclassified, and 470 controls underwent IVF during the study period. The cumulative rate of live births was 53% for controls, 69% for patients with UC (P = .08 compared with controls), and 57% for patients with CD (P = .87 compared with controls). The incidence of pregnancy after the first cycle of IVF was similar among controls (40.9%), patients with UC (49.3%; P = .18), and patients with CD (42.9%; P = .79). Similarly, the incidence of live births after the first cycle of IVF was similar among controls (30.2%), patients with UC (33.8%; P = .54), and patients with CD (30.6%; P = .95). Based on a matched cohort study, infertile women with IBD achieve a rate of live births after IVF that is comparable with those of infertile women without IBD. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  6. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Scanlon, Anne Blaes, Melissa Geller, Navneet S Majhail, Bruce Lindgren, Tufia Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health.METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up.RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68% and length (66% of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85% and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%. Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.

  7. Comparing reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation in semen samples of unexplained infertile and healthy fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Zahra; Vatannejad, Akram; Doosti, Mahmood; Zabihzadeh, Sara; Haddadi, Mahnaz; Bajelan, Leila; Rashidi, Batool; Amanpour, Saeid

    2017-11-15

    Male factor infertility has increased to more than 40% during the last decade. About 30% of these couples are diagnosed with unexplained infertility. In fact, reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide anion (O2-·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), play a crucial role in regulation of physiological and pathological processes in spermatozoa. Moreover, since the diagnosis of unexplained infertility just through semen analysis is a matter of much controversy; we aimed to evaluate the levels of ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation in the semen samples of unexplained infertile and fertile control couples. The semen samples of 28 unexplained infertile couples and 30 fertile control couples were analyzed according to WHO criteria. The intracellular levels of H2O2 and O2-· were detected by flow cytometry with 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and Dihydroethidium, respectively, and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by sperm chromatin dispersion test. In unexplained infertile group, sperm motility and normal morphology were significantly lower than the control. The levels of sperm H2O2, O2-·, and DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in unexplained infertile men compared to fertile. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the level of H2O2 and sperm DNA fragmentation in the unexplained infertile group. Besides, reduced sperm motility in the unexplained infertile group was significantly correlated with elevated levels of ROS. The higher levels of intracellular ROS and DNA fragmentation in the semen samples of unexplained infertile couples and their causes might be considered as an important factor related to diagnosis and treatment of the unexplained infertile couples.

  8. Predictors of live birth and pregnancy success after in vitro fertilization in infertile women aged 40 and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ok; Sung, Nayoung; Song, In Ok

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and the live birth rate at 1-year age increments in women aged ≥40 years undergoing fresh non-donor in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), and to identify predictors of success in these patients. This retrospective study was performed among women ≥40 years of age between 2004 and 2011. Of the 2,362 cycles that were conducted, ET was performed in 1,532 (73.1%). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in women ≥40 years significantly decreased with each year of increased age (plive birth. A statistically significant increase in live birth rates was seen when ≥3 embryos were transferred in patients 40 to 41 years of age, whereas poor pregnancy outcomes were seen in patients ≥43 years of age, regardless of the number of transferred embryos. Moreover, the cumulative live birth rate increased in patients 40 to 42 years of age with repeated IVF cycles, but the follicle-stimulating hormone in those ≥43 years of age rarely showed an increase. IVF-ET has acceptable outcomes in those live birth.

  9. Outcomes of fertility-sparing surgery for women of reproductive age with FIGO stage IC epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Katsunori; Yahata, Tetsuro; Fujita, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2013-04-01

    To report the clinical outcomes of patients with FIGO stage IC epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treated by fertility-sparing surgery (FSS). A retrospective review was conducted of 18 women who underwent FSS at Niigata University Hospital, Japan, between December 15, 1986, and December 31, 2010. Tumors were mucinous (n=9), clear cell (n=4), endometrioid (n=3), and serous (n=2). Median follow-up was 78.0 months (range, 9.3-181.3 months). Five patients (27.8%) developed tumor recurrence at 7.4-19.2 months after initial surgery. The sites of recurrence were peritoneal lymph nodes (n=2), contralateral ovary (n=1), contralateral ovary and peritoneal cavity (n=1), and brain (n=1). In all, 7 full-term singleton pregnancies were recorded among 5 of the 10 women who attempted to conceive after FSS. Favorable reproductive outcomes were observed following FSS, suggesting that this procedure may be a valid treatment option for women with FIGO stage IC EOC who wish to conceive. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eggs-ploiting women: a critical feminist analysis of the different principles in transplant and fertility tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2011-11-01

    Intergovernmental agencies have recognized that inconsistencies in the way that nation states regulate commerce in human kidneys lubricate transplant tourism, and have repeatedly exhorted recalcitrant governments of both organ-importing and organ-exporting nations to criminalize the exchange of cash for kidneys. Yet these same organizations have elected to remain silent on inconsistencies in the regulation of the trade in human eggs that lubricate fertility tourism. This article is a critical feminist analysis of this paradox. Sketches of the histories of regulation of the global markets in human kidneys and human eggs allow attribution of the different approaches to sales of kidneys and eggs to the triumph of neo-liberalism in the 1990s. Neo-liberalism supports the growth of the medical tourism industry and its niche market catering for infertility, and is responsible for exacerbating the relative disadvantage of poor and powerless women in destination countries, thereby creating the conditions for 'bioavailability', that is, the willingness to exchange body parts for cash. The paper identifies a disturbing correlation between deeply engrained conservative attitudes to women and a plentiful supply of eggs, and concludes by suggesting that what women need to lift themselves out of poverty and discrimination is secure and dignified work. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  12. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joe M; Just, Allan C; Williams, Paige L; Smith, Kristen W; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben, propyl-paraben, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston, MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 h and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 41%, 216%) than non-users, whereas their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI: 2%, 62%). Women using cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI: 98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy.

  13. The Predictors of Healthy Eating Behavior among Pregnant Women: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynaz Chitsaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been documented that maternal nutrition is associated with positive birth outcomes. This study was aimed at determining the predictors of healthy eating behavior among pregnant women in Qazvin, Iran in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TBP. Materials and Methods In this longitudinal study, 182 pregnant women who were referred to teaching hospitals in Qazvin in 2016 were recruited for participation. Data were obtained using TPB-specific questionnaires at baseline. The same pregnant women were asked to complete a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ 3 months later. A series of hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine factors associated with healthy eating behavior among pregnant women.   Results The pregnant women reported low amounts of whole grain consumption and low-fat dairy product consumption. All TPB variables significantly predicted healthy eating behaviors at three-month follow-up. Perceived behavioral control (PBC and behavioral intention were found to be the strongest predictors of healthy eating behaviors among pregnant women. The pregnant women’s subjective norms had the weakest relationship with healthy eating behaviors. The TPB model together with age provided a moderate to high explanation of consumptions in low-fat dairy products (R2=0.57, P

  14. Symptomatic changes of oral mucosa during normal hormonal turnover in healthy young menstruating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Usha; Gonsalves, Nitin; Jose, Maji; Girish, K L

    2012-03-01

    Changes in hormonal levels, such as those that occur during puberty, pregnancy, menstruation and menopause, have varying effects on oral cavity. Many researchers have proposed a direct link between changing hormonal status and oral health among females. To study the various symptoms and clinical manifestations of oral cavity during normal course of menstrual cycle in healthy women. Our study comprised of forty healthy young women volunteers with normal menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 days. A proper menstrual history was recorded from the study subjects. The entire cycle was divided into four phases comprising of bleeding, proliferative, ovulation and secretory. All the study subjects had a menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 days. Thorough recording of oral discomforts during various phases of the cycle was done during the study period. 30% of study subjects complained of aphthous ulcers, 5% had herpes labialis, 25% of them complained of depression, 8% showed gingival bleeding. Complaints, like oral ulcerations, mood variations, recurrent herpetic lesions, gingival bleeding in females during normal menstrual period, are attributed to the role of female sex hormones. Lesions, like oral ulcers, recurrent herpetic lesions and increased gingival bleeding, seen in females during normal menstrual periods, could be related to hormonal turnover and therefore treated accordingly.

  15. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Penergy intake upon meal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (Penergy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  16. [SNACK HIGH WHEY PROTEIN IMPROVES THE LEVEL OF SATIETY AND REDUCES APPETITE HEALTHY WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in the muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Mousavikhatir, Roghayeh

    2012-08-01

    Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR), timed get up and go (TGUG), single leg stance (SLS), and stairs walking (SW) tests. Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  18. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  19. Biomechanical determinants of maximal stair climbing capacity in healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A H; Sørensen, H; Puggaard, L; Aagaard, P

    2009-10-01

    Stair walking is an important functional movement task that may require considerable amounts of muscle strength/power. This study aimed to perform a descriptive biomechanical analysis of maximal stair ascent in elderly women and to examine the relationship between mechanical muscle function and maximal stair ascending velocity (MAV). Seventeen healthy elderly women (age 72.4 +/- 6.4) were tested for MAV, maximal multi-joint counter movement jumping (CMJ), and maximal single-joint isokinetic/isometric muscle moment. Peak knee joint power during MAV was the single independent parameter that explained most of the variation in MAV (50%), however, combining knee and ankle parameters in a multiple regression analysis mean joint power explained 82.4% of the variation in MAV. Generally, multi-joint CMJ parameters showed stronger correlations with MAV than single-joint isokinetic/isometric muscle strength parameters. MAV appeared to be highly dependent upon knee and ankle power and to a lesser extent on joint moment and range of motion. Furthermore, CMJ assessment seemed well applicable in healthy elderly individuals to distinguish between differentiated levels of maximal stair walking capacity.

  20. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation does not increase blood pressure of healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is an attractive method to increase strength and proprioception of elderly individuals. However, a major clinical concern about the prescription of PNF is the belief that it can cause a cardiovascular overload, because it involves close-to-maximal loads and isometric contractions. Yet the acute effect of a PNF training session on cardiovascular response in elderly individuals is still unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PNF on diastolic and systolic blood pressure of healthy elderly people. Fifteen older women (mean age 72.40±6.82 years) performed three sets (five repetitions each) of three different PNF techniques (rhythmic initiation, dynamic reversion, and isotonic combination), executing a single movement pattern. Diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP) were evaluated by means of a manual sphygmomanometer immediately before and during the last two repetitions (last set) of each technique. A two-way ANOVA test (time and technique) was performed to investigate the PNF effect on blood pressure. No time (preexercise to postexercise) (p=0.33 for DBP; p=0.06 for SBP) or PNF technique (p=0.75; p=0.81) effect were observed. In conclusion, we can state that the execution of these PNF techniques is safe for the cardiovascular system of healthy elderly women, because no blood pressure increases were found.

  1. Efficacy of vaginal danazol treatment in women with menorrhagia during fertile age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Stefano; Razzi, Sandro; Lazzeri, Lucia; Bocchi, Caterina; Severi, Filiberto M; Petraglia, Felice

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction of danazol delivered vaginally as treatment for young women with menorrhagia. Prospective study. University of Siena, Siena, Italy. Women with menorrhagia (n = 55; age range 25-35 years) after ultrasound and hysteroscopy. Low-dose danazol (200 mg/day) was daily administered by vaginal route for 6 months. Before and every month during the treatment women were requested: 1) to keep a diary of menstrual bleeding and to rate blood loss on a visual analog scale from 0 (no blood loss) to 10 (gushing-type bleeding); 2) to record side effects and their satisfaction with the therapy. Transvaginal ultrasound, blood count, serum chemistries, and serum concentration of LH, FSH, E(2), TSH, FT(3), FT(4), and PRL were evaluated before and after 6 months. The severity of blood loss was significantly reduced in all of the women after 2 months of treatment. Uterine volume was significantly reduced, and hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count increased in all of the women after 6 months. The medical treatment did not affect hormonal parameters, and menstrual cycle remained unaffected; few local vaginal adverse effects were recorded. Vaginal danazol resulted in effective medical treatment in young women with menorrhagia, and, because of a lack of significant adverse effects, it may be proposed as an alternative treatment.

  2. Fertility Outcome after Operative Laparoscopy versus No Treatment in Infertile Women with Minimal or Mild Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in sites other than the uterine cavity, which is associated with infertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic surgical treatment on clinical pregnancy in infertile women with minimal or mild endometriosis.Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed in infertile women who were referred to the gynecological clinic between April 2008 and March 2009. After confirmation of minimal or mild endometriosis by diagnostic laparoscopy, patients were randomly assigned into two groups using consecutively numbered, opaque sealed envelops. The first group consisted of women who only underwent diagnostic laparoscopy (no treatment before randomization. The second group of patients underwent operative laparoscopies. T-test and chi-square test were used when appropriate. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Analysis with 38 patients in each group showed characteristics such as age, body mass index (BMI, and duration of infertility were statistically similar in both groups. At 9 months follow-up, 9 (24% women who had operative laparoscopies became pregnant compared with 7 (18% women in the diagnostic laparoscopy group. The pregnancy rate showed no statistically significant difference between both groups (p=0.49. No complications were reported in either group.Conclusion: The present study suggested that laparoscopic surgical treatment was not superior to diagnostic laparoscopy in pregnancy occurrence in infertile women with minimal and mild endometriosis. (IRCT Number: IRCT201012311952N2.

  3. Does hormonal therapy for fertility preservation affect the survival of young women with early-stage endometrial cancer?

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    Greenwald, Zoë R; Huang, Lina N; Wissing, Michel D; Franco, Eduardo L; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of endometrial cancer among young women is increasing. Some patients with low-grade endometrial cancer receive hormone therapy (HT) before surgery to preserve fertility. It is unclear whether this adversely affects survival. Patients with localized, low-grade endometrial cancer who were aged Cancer-specific and overall survival were measured using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age, period of diagnosis, marital status, race, tumor grade, morphology, and previous radiotherapy. A total of 6339 women were included in the current study cohort, 161 of whom initially received HT and 6178 of whom received primary surgery. After 15 years of follow-up, all-cause mortality did not differ between the groups (HT group: 14.1% [95% CI, 6.7%-28.4%] and propensity score-matched primary surgery group: 9.3% [95% CI, 4.1%-20.5%]). Cancer-specific mortality appeared higher in patients treated with HT compared with those treated with primary surgery (9.2% [95% CI, 3.4%-24.0%] vs 2.1% [95% CI, 1.5%-2.8%]). However, this difference was driven by 3 late deaths in the HT group. Sensitivity analyses using a broader definition of cancer-specific mortality provided no statistical evidence of a survival difference between the treatment groups. The hazard ratio for the overall risk of death was 1.45 (95% CI, 0.44-4.74). Based on this population-based cohort, young patients with low-grade endometrial cancer appear to have excellent survival, regardless of the primary therapy chosen (HT vs primary surgery). The current selection of patients for HT to preserve fertility, which is managed carefully by experienced clinicians, does not appear to significantly worsen clinical outcomes. Cancer 2017;123:1545-1554. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. The influence of age and the beginning of menopause on the lipid status, LDL oxidation, and CRP in healthy women

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    Čaparević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atherogenic lipid profile is an important risk factor in development of atherosclerosis in menopausal women. High level of small dense LDL, that is more susceptible to oxidation, and high levels of inflammatory markers are also associated with an increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid profile, oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL and C-reactive protein (CRP as inflammatory reaction in healthy women dependent on age and menopause. Method. The study included a group of clinically healthy women (total of 97 women. Group 1: 15 women younger than 45 years; group 2: 62 women between 46 and 55 years, group 3: 20 women between 56 and 65 years, group of menopausal women (73 and group of premenopausal women (24. None of the women had history of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular, ischaemic heart disease, and hypertension. Lipid profiles were measured by enzymatic methods. Ox-LDL was measured by using a specific monoclonal antibody, mAb4E6. CRP was measured using hemiluminiscent methods (Immulite-DPC. Results. Results showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (p<0.01 and LDL cholesterol (p<0.01 in women over 56 years compared with women younger than 45 years. We also found similar results in menopausal women. Levels of Ox-LDL (p<0.05 and CRP (p<0.01 showed significantly higher levels in women over 56 years. In menopausal women, we found significantly higher levels of CRP (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the levels of oxLDL between the menopausal and premenopausal women. Levels of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were not different among groups. We found that 51% women had levels of HDL cholesterol lower than 1.3 mmol/L. In all groups of women, we found positive correlation among age, Ox-LDL (p<0.01 and CRP (p<0.01. Ox-LDL also positively correlated with CRP (p<0.01. Conclusion. In healthy women older than 56 as in menopausal

  5. Rectal visceral sensitivity in women with irritable bowel syndrome without psychiatric comorbidity compared with healthy volunteers.

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    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity and visceral hypersensitivity are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without psychiatric disorders. We wanted to examine rectal visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without comorbid psychiatric disorders, IBS patients with phobic anxiety and healthy volunteers. A total of thirty-eight female, non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders and eleven female IBS patients with phobic anxiety were compared to nine healthy women using a barostat double random staircase method. The non-psychiatric patients were divided into those with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and those with alternating stool habits. The IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had normal visceral pressure thresholds. However, in the diarrhoea predominant subgroup, the volume discomfort threshold was reduced while it was unchanged in those with alternating stool habits. The phobic IBS patients had similar thresholds to the healthy volunteers. The rectal tone was increased in the non-psychiatric IBS patients with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and in the IBS patients with phobic anxiety. Non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had increased visceral sensitivity regarding volume thresholds but normal pressure thresholds. Our study suggests that the lowered volume threshold was due to increased rectal tone.

  6. Dietary intake and physical performance in healthy elderly women: a 3-year follow-up.

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    Sarti, Silvia; Ruggiero, Elena; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Perissinotto, Egle; Miotto, Fabrizia; Pintore, Giulia; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Aging is generally accompanied by changes in body composition, muscle mass and strength, leading to a decline in motor and functional performance. Physical activity and eating habits could be involved in modulating this paraphysiological deterioration. Aim of our study was to investigate changes in body composition, diet and physical performance in healthy, elderly females over a 3-year follow-up. 92 healthy elderly females (70.9±4.0 years) attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were eligible for the study. They were assessed at baseline and again after 3 years in terms of clinical history, diet, body composition by DEXA, resting energy expenditure, handgrip strength, knee extensor isometric/isotonic strength, and functional performance measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After 3 years, women had a significant decline in muscle strength (∆ isotonic: -1.4±4.3 kg, ∆ isokinetic: -2.0±6.3 kg, ∆ handgrip: -3.2±5.0 kg; pperformance (∆ walking time: 0.71±0.9 s, ∆ walking speed: -0.25±0.35 m/s; pperformance declines even in healthy, fit females despite a spare of weight and body composition. This decline in physical activity could lead to a lower calorie intake, which would explain why there is no variation in body weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Menstrual cycle variability of CA 72-4 in healthy women.

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    Yarcı Gursoy, Aslı; Kiseli, Mine; Ozdemir, Sedat; Şeker, Rabia; Caglar, Gamze Sinem

    2015-01-01

    CA 72-4 is not approved as a tumor marker but has been used as an adjunct marker in gynecological practice. The study aims to evaluate the menstrual cycle variability of CA 72-4 in a population of healthy women. Forty apparently healthy regularly menstruating subjects were included in the cross-sectional study designed in the University Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice: first at the follicular phase (2nd-5th days of the menstrual cycle) for FSH, estradiol, CA 125, CA 72-4 and the other at the luteal phase (21st-24th days of the menstrual cycle) for progesterone, CA 125 and CA 72-4 levels. CA 72-4 values were similar in follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in apparently healthy regularly menstruating subjects (1.15U/mL (0.2-5.4) vs 1.15 U/mL (0.56-6.3); p=0.326 respectively). Ovulatory or smoking status did not have an effect on CA 72-4 values (p>0.05). This first clinical study about the menstrual cycle variability of CA 72-4 revealed that the menstrual cycle does not have a significant impact on CA 72-4 values and that it can be measured at any time during the menstrual period. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Body Mass Index with Leptin and Other Hormonal Parameters in Women with Unexplained Infertility and Fertile Women

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    Farzaneh Tafvizi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Given the presence of a correlation between leptin and BMI, and the effect of leptin on ovulation, it is recommended that the infertile women maintain the BMI in the normal range, exercise and put the physical activity in their daily life schedules.

  9. Patterns of mood changes throughout the reproductive cycle in healthy women without premenstrual dysphoric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, X; Telek, T; Juhász, G; Lazary, J; Vargha, A; Bagdy, G

    2008-12-12

    The cyclic nature of female reproductive function is a natural part of life accompanied by changes in several physical and psychological phenomena. The aim of our study was to investigate the fluctuation of psychological symptoms throughout the female reproductive cycle in healthy, non-PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) women. 63 psychiatrically healthy, non-PMDD women with normal regular menstrual cycles and not using hormonal contraceptive methods participated in the study. Participants completed the PRISM (Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstrual Symptoms) calendar every night for three cycles and in addition they completed several other psychometric measures (Symptom Distress Checklist-SCL-51, State Trait Anxiety Inventory-STAI, Zung Self-rating Depression Scale-