WorldWideScience

Sample records for healthy elderly persons

  1. Memory complaints and test performance in healthy elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the use of a structured self-report questionnaire with direct questioning about memory problems, 71 healthy and independent aged individuals (63 women from the community without risk factors for cognitive deficits were objectively asked about subjective memory complaints (SMC, given the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q and then submitted to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT. SMC positively correlated with higher scores on MAC-Q, although a significant percentage of the sample had SMC and lower scores on MAC-Q and also no SMC and higher scores on MAC-Q. Performance on RAVLT was significantly worse (p<0.05 for the group presenting SMC but not for the group with higher scores on the MAC-Q. We conclude that direct questioning maybe more clinically significant than a self report questionnaire, at least for elderly persons from the community without risk factors for cognitive decline or depression.

  2. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  3. Effect of parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation on spatial working memory in healthy elderly persons--comparison of near infrared spectroscopy for young and elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yamanaka

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we succeeded in improving the spatial working memory (WM performance in healthy young persons by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the parietal cortex and simultaneously measuring the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb level using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Since an improvement in WM was observed when TMS was applied to the right parietal cortex, the oxy-Hb distribution seemed to support a model of hemispheric asymmetry (HA. In the present study, we used the same study design to evaluate healthy elderly persons and investigated the effect of TMS on WM performance in the elderly, comparing the results with those previously obtained from young persons. The application of TMS did not affect WM performance (both reaction time and accuracy of 38 elderly participants (mean age = 72.5 years old. To investigate the reason for this result, we conducted a three-way ANOVA examining oxy-Hb in both young and elderly participants. For the right parietal TMS site in the elderly, TMS significantly decreased the oxy-Hb level during WM performance; this result was the opposite of that observed in young participants. An additional three-way ANOVA was conducted for each of the 52 channels, and a P value distribution map was created. The P value maps for the young participants showed a clearly localized TMS effect for both the WM and control task, whereas the P map for the elderly participants showed less significant channels and localization. Further analysis following the time course revealed that right-side parietal TMS had almost no effect on the frontal cortex in the elderly participants. This result can most likely be explained by age-related differences in HA arising from the over-recruitment of oxy-Hb, differentiation in the parietal cortex, and age-related alterations of the frontal-parietal networks.

  4. A Genetic Variant (COMT) Coding Dopaminergic Activity Predicts Personality Traits in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyuk, Eszter; Duchek, Janet; Head, Denise; Szekely, Anna; Goate, Alison M; Balota, David A

    2015-08-01

    Association studies between the NEO five factor personality inventory and COMT rs4680 have focused on young adults and the results have been inconsistent. However, personality and cortical changes with age may put older adults in a more sensitive range for detecting a relationship. The present study examined associations of COMT rs4680 and personality in older adults. Genetic association analyses were carried out between the NEO and the targeted COMT rs4680 in a large, well-characterized sample of healthy, cognitively normal older adults (N = 616, mean age = 69.26 years). Three significant associations were found: participants with GG genotype showed lower mean scores on Neuroticism (p = 0.039) and higher scores on Agreeableness (p = 0.020) and Conscientiousness (p = 0.006) than participants with AA or AG genotypes. These results suggest that older adults with higher COMT enzymatic activity (GG), therefore lower dopamine level, have lower Neuroticism scores, and higher Agreeableness and Conscientiousness scores. This is consistent with a recent model of phasic and tonic dopamine release suggesting that even though GG genotype is associated with lower tonic dopamine release, the phasic release of dopamine might be optimal for a more adaptive personality profile.

  5. [Mutual adaptation of elderly patients with schizophrenia and mentally healthy persons in a family (socio-psychological analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha'lskiĭ, Iu E; Dru'z, V F

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and psychosocial examinations of 70 families of senile schizophrenic patients and 40 families of healthy persons showed that in the patients' and controls' families, the identical events were caused by the subjects' age itself: lower status and adaptation of senile persons, rationalistic attitude of the relatives toward them, conflicts, disintegrated families, dysharmonic relations. In line with the schizophrenic process, the patients have less frequently higher status, enjoy more care of siblings, more rationalistic attitude of the relatives, higher conflict rate, larger variety of familial cooperation disorders and adaptations.

  6. A Healthy Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Sevald; Kvigne, Kari; Aiyub, Ilyas; Gillund, Margrethe V.; Hermansyah, Hasan; Nordström, Gun; Rystedt, Ingrid; Suwarni, Abubakar; Trollvik, Anne; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Hov, Reidun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing students in Indonesia and Scandinavia characterize a healthy person. Two hundred thirty-two nursing students from Indonesia, 50 students from Sweden, and 119 students from Norway participated by answering an open-ended question. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns of health in a cultural and national context. The characteristics of a healthy person were summarized in the theme “external and inner balance,” which are intertwined because of the wholeness of self-image and appearance. The subcategories were having a strong and positive body image, feeling well and having inner harmony, following the rules of life, coping with challenges, and acting in unison with the environment. There were more similarities than differences between the Indonesian and Scandinavian nursing students’ understanding of being a healthy person. The difference is that the Scandinavian students mentioned individuality, whereas the Indonesian students referred to collective values. PMID:28462342

  7. A Healthy Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevald Høye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing students in Indonesia and Scandinavia characterize a healthy person. Two hundred thirty-two nursing students from Indonesia, 50 students from Sweden, and 119 students from Norway participated by answering an open-ended question. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns of health in a cultural and national context. The characteristics of a healthy person were summarized in the theme “external and inner balance,” which are intertwined because of the wholeness of self-image and appearance. The subcategories were having a strong and positive body image, feeling well and having inner harmony, following the rules of life, coping with challenges, and acting in unison with the environment. There were more similarities than differences between the Indonesian and Scandinavian nursing students’ understanding of being a healthy person. The difference is that the Scandinavian students mentioned individuality, whereas the Indonesian students referred to collective values.

  8. A Healthy Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevald Høye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing students in Indonesia and Scandinavia characterize a healthy person. Two hundred thirty-two nursing students from Indonesia, 50 students from Sweden, and 119 students from Norway participated by answering an open-ended question. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns of health in a cultural and national context. The characteristics of a healthy person were summarized in the theme “external and inner balance,” which are intertwined because of the wholeness of self-image and appearance. The subcategories were having a strong and positive body image, feeling well and having inner harmony, following the rules of life, coping with challenges, and acting in unison with the environment. There were more similarities than differences between the Indonesian and Scandinavian nursing students’ understanding of being a healthy person. The difference is that the Scandinavian students mentioned individuality, whereas the Indonesian students referred to collective values.

  9. Change over time in brain computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in healthy elderly persons. A 10 year prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Hiroo [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Early detection, treatment and prevention of dementia have become increasingly important as the population ages. I have performed a follow-up study of changes in the brains of healthy elderly persons with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since 1982. One hundred thirty-three healthy elderly volunteers were first examined in 1982 with CT or MRI, electroencephalography, the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), blood pressure measurement, and interview. Subsequent examinations were done in 1986, 1989, and 1992. On CT, microinfarctions were found in 15.0% of subjects in 1982 and in 13.0% in 1986, and periventricular lucency (PVL) was found in 6.0% and 8.3%. The most frequent findings were vascular changes, which were observed in six persons (5.6%), followed by PVL, which was found in four persons (3.7%). Thus, vascular changes became more pronounced during the follow-up period. Lesions with high signal intensity on T{sub 2}-weighted images (T{sub 2}HSI) were found in 69.5% of subjects and increased in prevalence with age in the 1989 study. Such T{sub 2}HSI lesions were found most frequently in the basal ganglia (61.9%), followed by the thalamus (39.0%), parietal lobe (37.0%), temporal lobe (12.7%), and the pons (8.5%). Of these lesions, lacunar infarctions showed low signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted images and were found in 24.6% of subjects; their prevalence also increased with age. Results of BVRT were closely correlated with T{sub 2}HSI lesions, suggesting that T{sub 2}HSIs lesions may affect cognitive function. By 1992, 10 years after the start of the study, 34 (25.6%) of subjects had died and 19 (14.3%) had become demented. Subjects were divided into surviving and dead groups and dementia and non-dementia groups. Findings on CT and BVRT in this study have provided clear clinical indices of death and dementia, especially maximal width of third ventricule in impairment of the diagnosis of dementia. (author)

  10. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  11. POSITIVE EFFECT OF LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN A HEALTHY ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muhammad Diponegoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of elderly found that almost all cognitive functions decline with age. Results of previous studies have shown that cognitive training related to everyday life (reading aloud and learning vocabularies and wisdom, namely learning intervention or therapy, can improve two cognitive function (executive functions and processing speed in elderly people. This study investigates the positive effects of learning foreign language on cognitive functions of an elderly person. This study provides sufficient evidence of learning foreign language effectiveness in a healthy elderly.  Method used is  one single case subject design. A healthy elderly was asked to read aloud and memorize several Quran chapters and verses and write Arabic verbs proposition and several nouns found it the memorized verses and put it into correct sentences. The written words are concerning daily life activity. Since the Qur’an has best structure of Arab sentence, memorizing it help to understand the Arabic sentences properly. The finding support the previous research that the elderly able to improve their cognitive processes and ability through studying foreign language. Keywords: psycholinguistic, foreign language, cognitive function, reading

  12. Calidad de vida y hábitos saludables en la alimentación de personas mayores (Quality of life and healthy food habits of elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vicente Amador Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo realiza un estudio en el que se recogen los procesos más relevantes para conseguir una buena calidad de vida en las personas mayores. Principalmente se centra la relación entre el desarrollo de actividad física y la buena alimentación lograr  un envejecimiento lo más satisfactorio y saludable. Se concluye plantándose la necesidad de una educación centrada en el aprendizaje de hábitos saludables en la alimentación de las personas mayores a con el fin de mantener un estado nutricional adecuado para aumentar la longevidad y para mejorar la calidad de vida.Abstract: The present article realizes a study in which the most relevant processes are gathered to obtain a good quality of life in the major persons. Principally it centres on the relation between the development of physical activity and the good supply an aging achieves the most satisfactory and healthy thing. He concludes reaching the need of an education centred on the learning of healthy habits the supply of the major persons to in order to keep a nutritional condition adapted to increase the longevity and to improve the quality of life.

  13. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly.

  14. Comparing Levels of Depression in Healthy Active and Inactive Elders versus Those with Knee Osteoarthritis Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis can have negative effects on the physical and mental conditions, social and family relations, general health and positive feelings of elders. For example, severe limitation of motion and increased depression, which are results of this disease, can have negative impacts on elders. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of depression in healthy active and inactive elders versus those with knee osteoarthritis disease. Two hundred and twenty (220 elders with knee osteoarthritis disease (110 active and 110 inactive patients and 220 healthy elders (110 active and 110 inactive were voluntarily selected, and they filled the questionnaire about elders’ personal characteristics, physical activity and depression levels. Four groups had differences with respect to education, age and gender. The results of chi-square test revealed that women with knee osteoarthritis disease had increased levels of depression compared to men with the same condition (p<0.05. Older patients had increased levels of depression and educated elders reported lower levels of depression. The results of the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that there exist a significant difference in depression scores of healthy active and healthy inactive elders and those with knee osteoarthritis disease. The results of Tukey’s test revealed that healthy active elder had lower depression scores compared to inactive elders with knee osteoarthritis disease. Carrying out exercises and physical activities can help improve the health state of patients with knee osteoarthritis problem and can also improve the elders’ mental condition and thus decrease their pain and depression.

  15. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  16. Social representation of healthy aging for elder men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the social representations of aging in healthy older men Parnaíba (PI. The sample was random, accidental and intentional, consisting of 50 elderly (M=72 years. Was used as an instrument of data collection structured interview. Data analysis was performed by a software Alceste. The representations of elderly extended beyond making an organismic conception affective aspects, interactional and politicians.

  17. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy elderly Tunisian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfaxi, Ines; Ben Saad, Helmi; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2015-09-05

    Exhaled-fraction-of-nitric-oxide (FeNO) norms are absent in healthy elderly North-African subjects. i) to identify FeNO influencing factors of elderly Tunisians older 50 years and more; ii) to assess the applicability of some published FeNO norms for elderly in local population; iii) to set-up FeNO norms and to prospectively evaluate their validity in two elderly validation-groups (healthy and asthmatic subjects). A convenience sample of healthy and asthmatic elderly Tunisians was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant), Belgium). Clinical, anthropometric and spirometric data were collected. Three groups of subjects were identified: group I (healthy-elderly; n = 100, 57 females); group II (healthy-validation; n = 17, 4 females) and group III (asthmatic-validation; n = 10, 9 females). ANOVA was performed to compare the three groups' data. No significant factor, among those evaluated, influenced Tunisian elderly FeNO values. The available published FeNO norms did not reliably predict FeNO in Tunisian elderly population. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum) of FeNO (ppb) for group I was 14 ± 6 (3-34). For Tunisian people, each elderly FeNO value higher than 34 ppb will be considered as abnormal. There was no statistical significant difference between FeNO (ppb) mean values of group I and groups II (15 ± 8) or III (18 ± 13). No subject of group II had a FeNO value higher than 34 ppb. Thirty percent of group III subjects had a FeNO value higher than 34 ppb. In practice, FeNO value of more than 34 ppb is considered abnormal in elderly Tunisian population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. GH administration and discontinuation in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Rasmussen, M H;

    2001-01-01

    GH administration results in increased lean body mass (LBM), decreased fat mass (FM) and increased energy expenditure (EE). GH therapy may therefore have potential benefits, especially in the elderly, who are known to have decreased function of the GH/IGF-I axis. Several studies have focused...... on effects of GH administration in the elderly in the last decade. However, very limited information is available regarding changes in body composition and EE upon GH discontinuation in the elderly. The present study therefore investigated the effects of 12 weeks of GH administration and subsequent...... discontinuation on body composition, resting oxygen uptake (VO2), resting heart rate (HR) and GH related serum markers in healthy elderly men....

  19. Cognitive Stimulation Programs in Healthy Elderly: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Tardif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature paper investigated the efficacy of 14 cognitive intervention programs administered to healthy elderly participants. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched using the following terms: cognitive training, cognitive stimulation, elderly, and aging. The majority of participants (13/14 studies were recruited in community. Nine out of 14 studies targeted memory as the principal cognitive function to train or stimulate. Face-name associations, mental imagery, paired associations, and the method of loci were the main techniques taught to participants. Improvements were observed on at least one outcome measure in each study included in this paper. Recommendations to improve cognitive interventions in the healthy elderly are proposed, such as the utilization of more robust experimental designs, the inclusion of measures of generalization of training in daily life, the assessment of instrumental activities of daily living, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  20. Cognitive Stimulation Programs in Healthy Elderly: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Sarah; Simard, Martine

    2011-01-01

    This literature paper investigated the efficacy of 14 cognitive intervention programs administered to healthy elderly participants. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched using the following terms: cognitive training, cognitive stimulation, elderly, and aging. The majority of participants (13/14 studies) were recruited in community. Nine out of 14 studies targeted memory as the principal cognitive function to train or stimulate. Face-name associations, mental imagery, paired associations, and the method of loci were the main techniques taught to participants. Improvements were observed on at least one outcome measure in each study included in this paper. Recommendations to improve cognitive interventions in the healthy elderly are proposed, such as the utilization of more robust experimental designs, the inclusion of measures of generalization of training in daily life, the assessment of instrumental activities of daily living, quality of life, and self-esteem. PMID:21876829

  1. Dynamics of personal development on healthy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramida I.E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the effectiveness of different physical training for the relatively healthy students. The study involved 1004 students. The directions of development of the students' positive personal qualities. Found that the positive development of personality of students observed mostly on the first and third year than in the second. Could not find significant differences between the growth estimates of development of personality traits of students in classes in the sample program and the program specializations. Found that the rate of development of students' personality traits minor: the average growth estimates for core positive personal qualities for 3 years does not exceed 10% of the maximum possible level. Recommended in the classroom more emphasis on developing positive personality traits. It is shown that special attention should be paid to the development of emotional stability of students and their tolerance towards other people.

  2. Normal spirometry values in healthy elderly: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Daan Willem; Ittermann, Till; Lahousse, Lies; Hofman, Albert; Leufkens, Hubert Gerardus Maria; Brusselle, Guy Gaston; Stricker, Bruno Hugo

    2013-04-01

    Although many different reference values for spirometry are available from various studies, the elderly are usually underrepresented. Therefore, our objective was to assess reference values in a sample of healthy participants from a prospective population-based cohort study, including a large proportion of elderly. We included spirometry measurements of healthy, never smokers, from the Rotterdam Study and excluded participants with respiratory symptoms or prescriptions for respiratory medication. Age- and height-specific curves for the 5th (lower limit of normal) and the 50th (median) percentile of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and the ratio (FEV1/FVC) were calculated by quantile regression models. The group of healthy elderly study subjects consisted of 1,125 individuals, with a mean age of 68 years, ranging from 47 to 96 years of age. Sex stratified equations for the median and the lower limit of normal were calculated adjusted for age and height. In this study, we report age- and height-dependent reference limits for FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC in a large population, and prediction equations for the lower limit of normal and median values for a sample containing a large proportion of healthy elderly.

  3. Being next of kin to an elderly person with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Thomé, Bibbi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to illuminate the experience of life as next of kin to an elderly person with cancer.......The aim of the study was to illuminate the experience of life as next of kin to an elderly person with cancer....

  4. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  5. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  6. The Relation between Thyroid Hormone and Blood Lipid in the Healthy Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤屏; 李山; 洗苏; 刘广钊; 夏宁

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To observethe relationship between Thyroid Hormone (TH) leveland blood lipid level in the healthy elderly with therapyof small dose of TH. Methods A total of 120healthy old persons were randomly divided into twogroups: 60 old persons as treatment group and other 60persons as control group. Each person in the treatmentgroup took a thyroid tablet 10 mg daily continuously forsix months while the control group took VitB1 30 mgdaily instead of thyroid tablet. The level of TH, M -TSH, FT3, FT4, TT4, rT3, TC, TG, LDL- C, HDL-C, ApoA1 were measured in two groups before andafter receiving TH or Vit. B1 treatment. Results Inthe treatment group the level of TH increased obvious-ly. And TC, TG, LDL- C levels decreased also tosome extent while HDL- C, ApoA1 levels increasedslightly which was significant when compared with thecontrol group and pre- treatment group. ConclusionsTo use small dose of TH as supplement treatmentcan increase the TH level of healthy old persons anddecrease their blood lipid level. It would be a benefitfor treating hyperlipidemia in the elderly.

  7. Comparison of psychosocial factors and personality characteristics between stroke patients and healthy elderly%脑卒中患者与健康老年人心理社会因素及个性特征的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丹军

    2004-01-01

    scheme.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of psychosocial factors and personality characteristics on the rehabilitation of patients with stroke, thereby providing basis for carrying ont psychological rehabilitative treatment.DESIGN: A case-control study.SETTING: This study was conducted in the Department of Clinical Psychology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight patients with stroke received rehabilitative treatment in our department between January 2000 and December 2001, including 37 male and 41 female patients aged(61.6 ±7.2) years. Fifty-two healthy elderly subjects were included as the control group, consisting of 33male and 19 female subjects aged(62.7 ± 5.4) years free of cerebrovascular diseases. None of the subjects in the two groups had history of psychotic disorders.METHODS: Symptom checklist(SCL-90), eysenck personality questionnaire(EPQ) and social support rating scale(SSRS) were used for investigation in the 78 stroke patients and the results compared with that in the 52age-matched elderly subjects.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scores for SCL-90, EPQ and SSRS.RESULTS: The total score for SCL-90 and scores for depression, anxiety and importunity were significantly higher in stroke group than in control group( P < 0.01 ), as with the score for neuroticism in EPQ(53.42 ± 9.42vs 47.42 ± 10. 46, t =4. 050, P < 0. 01). The scores for subjective support and support utility in SSRS were 15.68 ±5.57 and 5.73 ±3.14 respectively in stroke group, obviously lower than those in the control group(19. 94 ± 6.61 and 8.75 ± 2.93; t = - 2. 267, - 2. 613, P < 0. 05).CONCLUSION: Besides depression, anxiety, importunity and phobia, inadequate personality and poor recognition and utility of social support are important impediment for rehabilitation of patients with stroke.

  8. Utilization of health promotion resources and control of health condition among healthy elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwajima, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, the world’s most rapidly aging country, health promotion services are often provided for elderly people, especially frail elderly and disabled people. However, in 2010, more than 60% of elderly people considered themselves to be “healthy” (Cabinet Office, white paper on aging society, 2010). It is therefore also necessary to enhance services for health promotion among these healthy elderly people. Previous studies have reported the needs of healthy elderly people with respect to hea...

  9. [Urinary function integrity in the elderly person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, O; Rancourt, K

    1998-01-01

    How can nurses help preserve the integrity of elimination in the elderly? Further, what new perspectives must they bring to practice? First, health professionals must rid themselves of their misconceptions, especially the belief that incontinence is "normal" in the aging process. The authors provide avenues for reflection and action, with a view to arriving at a dynamic clinical practice focusing on quality of life and the well-being of the individual. In terms of new perspectives, nurses are encouraged to stop limiting themselves to assisting with personal hygiene because this deprives the client of possible recourse to a better adaptation. Nurses must no longer dispense comfort by reassuring the incontinent person that "there's no harm done". This message ignores the real-life experience associated with the problem and reinforces the idea of normality. Assessment of the client's condition must go beyond the superficial and instead target interventions that lead to a resolution. Updating the caregiver's and the client's knowledge, enhancing the nurse's role in prevention and treatment, combining various approaches to care and improving communication are good places to start.

  10. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque-López María

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf, waist to hip ratio (WHR, elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the associations between health and BMI, waist circumference and WHR in the elderly.

  11. Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugkana Mato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL. Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750 mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential.

  12. Postural Control of Healthy Elderly Individuals Compared to Elderly Individuals with Stroke Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Filippo, Thais Raquel; Imamura, Marta; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    A stroke and aging process can modify the postural control. We aimed to compare the postural control of health elderly individuals to that of individuals with stroke sequelae. This cross-sectional transversal study was made with individuals capable of walking without any assistance and that were considered clinically stable. The study had 18 individuals in the group with stroke sequelae (SG) and 34 in the healthy elderly control group (CG). The participants were evaluated for the timed up and go test (TUG) and force platform. The SG showed the worst results in relation to the time of execution of the TUG and the force platform evaluation. The displacement of center of pressure was worse for both groups in the eyes-closed situation, especially in the anteroposterior direction for the CG. The GS showed worse results in the static and dynamic postural control. The healthy elderly showed more dependence on sight to maintain their static balance and there was no difference in the balance tests in relation to the side affected by the stroke.

  13. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  14. Promoting Healthy Nutrition Among the Elderly Living in a Service Home

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Norinda; Jeptanui, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of promoting healthy nutrition in the care of the elderly living in a service home. The aim of this thesis was to explain how some basic nursing interventions can be used to improve healthy nutrition among the elderly. The authors’ intention was that this thesis could create an awareness of the importance of nutrition among the elderly. The study was conducted as a qualitative research study. The data was collected through questi...

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley Evans, J; Malouf, R; Huppert, F; van Niekerk, J K

    2006-10-18

    In view of the theoretical possibility of beneficial effects of DHEA or DHEAS in retarding age-associated deterioration in cognitive function, we have reviewed studies in this area. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults. Trials were identified from a last updated search of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group on 10 October 2005 using the terms dhea*, prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone*. In addition MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched to find trials with volunteers who had no or minor memory complaints. Relevant journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All randomized placebo-controlled trials enrolling people aged over 50 without dementia and to whom DHEA/S in any dosage was administered for more than one day were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (JGE and RM) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. Only three studies provided results from adequate parallel-group data. Barnhart 1999 enrolled perimenopausal women with complaints of decreased well-being and, using three cognitive measures, found no significant effect of DHEA compared with placebo at 3 months. Wolf 1998b enrolled 75 healthy volunteers (37 women and 38 men aged 59-81) in a study of the effect of DHEA supplements on cognitive impairment induced by stress; after two weeks of treatment, placebo group performance deteriorated significantly on a test of selective attention following a psychosocial stressor (pDHEA group (p=0.85). However, when compared with placebo, DHEA was associated with

  16. Occupational Role Performance and Life Satisfaction in Elderly Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marjorie S.; Barris, Roann

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between the number and meaningfulness of roles performed and life satisfaction in a sample of 112 noninstitutionalized elderly persons. Results suggest a positive, significant relationship between life satisfaction and the number of roles performed and the level of involvement in meaningful roles. (Author/CH)

  17. The Meaning of Cherished Personal Possessions for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Edmund; Newman, Evelyn S.

    1977-01-01

    In this exploratory study, 94 elderly persons, in seven senior service centers and one nursing home, were interviewed to identify and ascertain the meaning of cherished possessions in later years. Lack of cherished possessions was associated with low life satisfaction scores, a suggested indicator of poor adjustment to old age. (Author)

  18. 447 Clothing for Elderly Persons: Management and Caring Strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... so, the need and desire for food, and probably for fashion. The taste and choice of clothing among the elderly is believed to be tied with the individual .... other factors, this disease could cause a person to become so insensitive to ... location of older people and the role of consumer culture in age identities.

  19. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...

  20. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  1. Safety vs. privacy: elderly persons' experiences of a mobile safety alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melander-Wikman, Anita; Fältholm, Ylva; Gard, Gunvor

    2008-07-01

    The demographic development indicates an increased elderly population in Sweden in the future. One of the greatest challenges for a society with an ageing population is to provide high-quality health and social care. New information and communication technology and services can be used to further improve health care. To enable elderly persons to stay at home as long as possible, various kinds of technology, such as safety alarms, are used at home. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of elderly persons through testing a mobile safety alarm and their reasoning about safety, privacy and mobility. The mobile safety alarm tested was a prototype in development. Five elderly persons with functional limitations and four healthy elderly persons from a pensioner's organisation tested the alarm. The mobile alarm with a drop sensor and a positioning device was tested for 6 weeks. This intervention was evaluated with qualitative interviews, and analysed with latent content analysis. The result showed four main categories: feeling safe, being positioned and supervised, being mobile, and reflecting on new technology. From these categories, the overarching category 'Safety and mobility are more important than privacy' emerged. The mobile safety alarm was perceived to offer an increased opportunity for mobility in terms of being more active and as an aid for self-determination. The fact that the informants were located by means of the positioning device was not experienced as violating privacy as long as they could decide how to use the alarm. It was concluded that this mobile safety alarm was experienced as a tool to be active and mobile. As a way to keep self-determination and empowerment, the individual has to make a 'cost-benefit' analysis where privacy is sacrificed to the benefit of mobility and safety. The participants were actively contributing to the development process.

  2. The Healthy Elderly: Case Studies in Persuasive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen van Turnhout

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-care and self-orchestration are focal points for transformations in health care and well-being in the Netherlands. Citizens should live healthily, be active every day and manage their own health. In this context, we explore how persuasive information technology may support older people in developing and maintaining healthy behavior. In two cases (in the Dutch cities Wijchen and Arnhem we designed concepts of services in co-creation with professionals and citizens. These concepts were based on persuasive guidelines and positively tested with professionals and citizens. In this paper, we present these concepts and critically examine them in relation to existing literature on persuasive technology and personal informatics. We argue for backing persuasive interface with genuine support for user needs and for increasing the actionability of personal informatics solutions. The presented solutions also highlight how self-, family-, and professional care can be connected in the design of health support systems

  3. Video Surveillance System for Elderly Person Living Alone by Person Tracking and Fall Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Motonori; Inoue, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yutaro; Oshiro, Osamu

    The detection of accidents on elderly person living alone and the communication between the elderly person and his/her family are very important. This paper describes a new method for tracking and fall detection of elderly person using omni-directional image sensor, and the Itawari-kan communication system that supports their communications and gives alarms for detected accidents on the elderly person. This system tracks the person's head position in real-time by image processing on images captured by some omni-directional image sensor. Then, the system transmits the information of the detected head position to another site. The computer of recipient site generates the computer graphics animation of the tracked person and displays the animation on a monitor. When the system detects an accident from the head position, the system gives an alarm. This method reduces traffic on network and keeps the privacy for the tracked person. We made a prototype system of the Itawari-kan communication system. Experiments on the system showed good feasibility of the proposed system.

  4. Relationships of the Big Five Personality Domains and Facets to Dimensions of the Healthy Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare a new inventory measuring concepts of the "healthy personality" with the most widely used inventory of the Big Five personality traits, the NEO personality inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R). Using adjectives as the stimulus materials, Borgen and Betz (2008) developed a 17-scale inventory called the Healthy personality…

  5. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons among commensal Escherichia coli isolates from infants and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõljalg Siiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to compare the presence of the intI1 gene and its associations with the antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli strains in children with/without previous antibiotic treatments and elderly hospitalized/healthy individuals. Methods One-hundred-and-fifteen intestinal E. coli strains were analyzed: 30 strains from 10 antibiotic-naive infants; 27 from 9 antibiotic-treated outpatient infants; 30 from 9 healthy elderly volunteers; and 28 from 9 hospitalized elderly patients. The MIC values of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were measured by E-test and IntI1 was detected by PCR. Results Out of the 115 strains, 56 (49% carried class 1 integron genes. Comparing persons without medical interventions, we found in antibiotic-naive children a significantly higher frequency of integron-bearing strains and MIC values than in healthy elderly persons (53% versus 17%; p Conclusion The prevalence of integrons in commensal E. coli strains in persons without previous medical intervention depended on age. The resistance of integron-carrying and non-carrying strains is more dependent on influencing factors (hospitalization and antibiotic administration in particular groups than merely the presence or absence of integrons.

  6. Does Cognitive Function Increase over Time in the Healthy Elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ≥ 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ≥ 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults. PMID:24244332

  7. Does cognitive function increase over time in the healthy elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne de Rotrou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. METHOD: A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008-2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ≥ 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. RESULTS: Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ≥ 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults.

  8. Music therapy for institutionalised elderly persons with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Dev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The geriatric population of India accounts more than six per cent of the total population. The number of elderly in Kerala is expected to reach 7.2 million by 2021 and 11.9 millions in 2051. The present study was conducted to (a assess the level of depressive symptom in institutionalised elderly persons before and after the music therapy, and (b to evaluate the effect of music therapy on depressive symptoms in elderly. An experimental research design with a one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. The purposive sample consisted of 40 elderly with depressive symptom. The tools used were (a a proforma to collect socio-demographic data, (b Geriatric Depression Scale, (c Mini Mental Status Examination, and (d Beck’s Depression Inventory. Each of the selected samples was given music therapy through individual walkman for 30 minutes in the evening hours for a regular period of 21 days. Post test was conducted a week after the completion of this exercise. There was a significant reduction in the depressive symptoms before and after the experiment (t=3.65, p<0.001. The study has major implication in the mental health practice, education, administration, and research. It’s a cost-effective and safe nursing intervention proven effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Applying music therapy shall augment the effect of alternative therapies and to apply it, there is no need for the nursing professionals to undergo any additional training.

  9. A mobile phone-based Communication Support System for elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Caldwell, W Morton

    2007-01-01

    A mobile phone-based communication support system has been developed for assisting elderly people to communicate by mobile phone. The system consists of a low power mobile phone (PHS phone) having a large liquid crystal screen. When an elderly person telephones, they then choose a communication person from registered support personnel pictures displayed on the liquid crystal screen. The PHS phone dials that person automatically. The elderly person can therefore easily recognize and verify the person. The newly-developed communication support system assists a significant percentage of elderly people with poor eyesight and memory, which frequently cause communication problems, such as dialing a wrong number.

  10. Elderly people's perceptions of how they want to be cared for: an interview study with healthy elderly couples in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrefors, Christina; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Axelsson, Karin

    2009-06-01

    Many countries encounter a demographic change where the number of elderly people will increase. As a result, the number of very old people needing care, services and medical assistance will increase. Care in the private home is often described as providing the best alternative for many elderly people. The aim of this study was to describe elderly people's perceptions of how they wanted to be cared for, from a perspective of becoming in need of assistance with personal care, in the future. Twelve couples of healthy elderly people living in a couple hood participated in an interview study. They were all 70 years and older and received no kind of professional care or social support. Open individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with the support of written vignettes. The vignettes were formed as scenarios that described three levels of caring needs where the elderly people would become ill. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The findings were interpreted in one main theme: maintaining the self and being cared for with dignity to the end. The theme was built from three categories: at home as long as possible, professional care at nursing home when advanced care is needed and fear of being abandoned. The categories reflect the perception that when minimum help was needed, care and support by the partner and nursing staff were preferred. As the scenarios changed to being totally dependent on care, they preferred care in a nursing home. There was a pervading concern of the risk of not being seen as an individual person and becoming a nobody with no meaningful relations. Thus, there must be a singular goal to support old people, in all stages of their lives, through the recognition and affirmation of self, and providing care with dignity to the end.

  11. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women. PMID:26157257

  12. Effect (Comparison between Elderly Person and Youth) of the Break in the Touch Typing Learning Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi Yumi

    2016-01-01

    The technical education using the information appliance of the old worker is required. However, an elderly person is negative about the utilization of the information appliance. I experimented on, this study about an appropriate break to suppress fatigue of the elderly person, and to learn a touch typing technology effectively and made it clear. The experiment performed two kinds of touch typing learning by the Computer Based Training software. I performed an experiment of elderly person and ...

  13. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes N. Pedersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1, B (n=18, or C (n=4. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than

  14. Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has…

  15. Fostering Insight into Personal Conceptions of the Elderly: A Simulation Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Randall D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a class in human development where students took on roles of the elderly by simulating physical constraints and aging. Depicts their reactions to the conditions and behaviors of the elderly. Allows students to examine their personal conceptions of the elderly. Finds study fostered empathy with senior adults. (Author/NL)

  16. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older......In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show...... persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of...

  17. Signaling proteins that influence energy intake may affect unintentional weight loss in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernette, Catherine M; White, B Douglas; Zizza, Claire A

    2011-06-01

    After age 70 to 75 years, average body weight decreases both in ailing and healthy people because of a loss of appetite that results in reduced energy intake and the loss of body fat and lean muscle tissue. This so-called anorexia of aging predisposes elderly people to continued pathologic weight loss and malnutrition-major causes of morbidity and mortality. Health care professionals must understand the many factors involved in the anorexia of aging to help older adults prevent unintentional weight loss. Psychological, social, and cultural factors are important effectors; however, physiological factors are emphasized here because they are not thoroughly understood and they make it inherently difficult for most people to alter their body weight. Monoamines, steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), endocannabinoids, and proteins all influence body weight. This review is an analysis of proteins from the brain, pancreas, adipose tissue, and gastrointestinal tract that are known to affect energy intake and energy balance, with an attempt to identify those factors that may change with aging. The articles included in this review were obtained by a PubMed database search using the keywords mouse OR rat OR human AND aged OR aging OR older OR elderly AND adult AND anorexia OR "unintentional weight loss," and each of the individual proteins discussed, as well as from the reference lists of those articles. The results reveal that some proteins may be important in the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons, whereas others may not have a significant role. However, many of the proteins that could conceivably have a role in unintentional weight loss have not yet been studied with that question in mind. Preventing unintentional weight loss in older adults is an important goal and further research on the role of proteins important for the maintenance of energy balance and the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons is

  18. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiro Tajima-Pozo; Camila Bayón; Marina Díaz-Marsá; Jose Luis Carrasco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality question...

  19. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Construct validation and the Rasch model: functional ability of healthy elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Kreiner, S; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a measure of functional ability, developed with the intention of achieving a high degree of variability and capacity for discriminating among a group of healthy elderly people. Data were collected from 734 70-year-old people in Denmark...... in the county of Copenhagen. Functional ability was measured with the traditional activities of daily living and with a classification system developed specially for healthy elderly people. Construct validity was tested by the Rasch model for item analysis, addressing specifically the internal validity...

  1. Similar Reference Intervals for Total Testosterone in Healthy Young and Elderly Men. Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, K; Nielsen, Torben Leo;

    2013-01-01

    and 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. MEASUREMENTS: Sex hormones and SHBG were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist......), respectively, in both young and elderly men. CONCLUSION: Reference intervals for TT were comparable in healthy young and elderly men, but reference intervals for FT and BT were lower in elderly men due to higher levels of SHBG. Androgens and SHBG were lower in elderly men with chronic disease and inversely...

  2. Comprehensive assessment of nutritional status and associated factors in the healthy, community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji; Tadaka, Etsuko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2008-03-01

    Malnutrition among the elderly has become a serious problem as their population increases in Japan. To approach the risk of malnutrition in the healthy, community-dwelling elderly is important for early prevention of malnutrition. The nutritional status and mutable associated factors with poor nutritional status specific to the healthy elderly were examined comprehensively. One hundred and thirty healthy elderly people from a senior college in Tokyo, Japan were eligible for this study. Nutritional status was evaluated by Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The demographic status and potential correlates with poor nutritional status, including the physical factors (mobility, cognitive impairment and oral status) and the psychosocial factors (depression, self-efficacy, attitudes toward health, instrumental activities of daily living, public health service knowledge, and difficulty and dissatisfaction with meal preparation) were investigated. The multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise procedure adjusted for demographic status was performed to detect independent associated factors. There were 16 participants (12.6%) at risk of malnutrition. The independent associated factors with lower MNA scores were depression (beta = -0.27, P = 0.005), lower self-efficacy (beta = 0.25, P = 0.009), lower attitudes toward health scores (beta = 0.21, P = 0.02) and difficulty with meal preparation (beta = -0.18, P = 0.03). The prevalence of the healthy elderly at the initial risk of malnutrition was relatively high and should not be overlooked. The comprehensive geriatric screening and intervention including mental health, health management and life-situation will be important for the healthy, community-dwelling elderly.

  3. The association between anger-related personality trait and cardiac autonomic response abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kosuke; Murata, Tetsuhito; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hamada, Toshihiko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Wada, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    Cardiac autonomic response abnormality associated with trait anger has been recognized to elevate blood pressure in daily life, leading to atherosclerotic progression and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the relationship between anger-related personality traits and cardiac autonomic response in healthy elderly subjects, 54 volunteers consisting of 30 male (mean age 62.2+/-5.4) and 24 female (mean age 58.4+/-4.6) subjects underwent testing of heart rate variability (HRV) with head-up tilt. For the evaluation of trait anger, we used a questionnaire corresponding to the trait anger score taken from the State and Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Furthermore, we measured carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) to evaluate atherosclerotic progression in subjects with anger trait. In female subjects, higher trait anger was positively associated with elevated carotid IMT and the suppression of HRV vagal attenuation from the supine to head-up position, and negatively associated with the HRV sympathetic activity in the head-up position and also with the HRV sympathetic response from the supine to head-up position. In male subjects, trait anger was not significantly associated with carotid IMT or any HRV component with or without head-up tilt testing. We conclude that a simple noninvasive measure, short-term HRV with head-up tilt testing, could be a useful method to investigate the association between cardiac autonomic imbalance and increased risk of atherosclerosis associated with trait anger in healthy elderly subjects.

  4. Knowledge and attitude of elderly persons towards dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frauke; Salem, Kamel; Barbezat, Cindy; Herrmann, François R; Schimmel, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Despite their unrivalled place in restorative treatment, dental implants are still scarcely used in elderly patients. The aim of this survey was therefore to identify potential barriers for accepting an implant treatment. Participants were recruited from a geriatric hospital, two long-term-care facilities and a private clinic. The final study sample comprised 92 persons, 61 women and 31 men with an average age of 81.2 ± 8.0 years. In a semi-structured interview, the participants' knowledge of implants and attitude towards a hypothetical treatment with dental implants were evaluated. Twenty-seven participants had never heard of dental implants, and another 13 participants could not describe them. The strongest apprehensions against implants were cost, lack of perceived necessity and old age. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis identified being women, type and quality of denture, having little knowledge on implants and being hospitalised as the risk factors for refusing implants. However, old age as such was not associated with a negative attitude. The acceptance of dental implants in the elderly population might be increased by providing further information and promoting oral health in general. Regardless of the age, dental implants should be placed when patients are still in good health and live independently. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Effects of motor and cognitive dual-task performance in depressive elderly, healthy older adults, and healthy young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairments in dual-task performance can be observed in healthy older adults when motor and cognitive assignments are applied simultaneously. According to the hypofrontality hypothesis, there may be a reduction in frontal cognitive function during exercise. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance changes on cognitive tests of depressive elderly (n=10, healthy older adults (n=10, and healthy young individuals (n=10 during cycle ergometer exercise. Methods: The groups were submitted to a working memory test, a short memory test and a semantic memory test, before and during a 20-minute cycle ergometer exercise at 80% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Results: Significant differences (p=0.04 were observed in scores on the digit backward test during exercise when young individuals were compared to healthy older adults. This result indicates that young subjects, as expected, had better performance than elderly. No significant differences were found among the groups for the digit forward subtest (p=0.40 or the vocabulary test (p=0.69. Conclusion: Data from this study showed that healthy older adults had impaired performance on higher cognitive tasks when these assignments were applied together with motor tasks.

  6. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...... with low QoL. The sample consisted of 101 patients (75 women and 26 men) newly diagnosed with cancer. EORTC QLQ-C30, Nowotny's Hope Scale, Katz ADL and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) were used. The analysis was carried out in four age groups and revealed no significant differences...... in QoL. Compared with the other age groups, those of a high age (80+ years) more often lived alone, used more home-help service and had a smaller social network. Factors associated with low QoL were 'no other incomes than retirement pension', 'low level of hope' and 'lung cancer'. In addition, 'being...

  7. The use of Ginkgo biloba in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Heinrich, Isabel; Lieb, Klaus; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    To promote health-conscious behavior in the aging society and gain insight into the sources of knowledge on which preventive strategies are based, analyzing the behavior of elderly people who are recognized as highly health conscious may be useful. We focused on the use of Ginkgo biloba, which is commonly considered to be effective in preventing cognitive decline and dementia, among elderly adults. A total of 1,672 questionnaires were distributed among geriatric participants (60-94 years) who attended university lectures at 22 universities throughout Germany. Response rate was 36.1 %. We collected data on demographic characteristics, preventive strategies (use of Ginkgo and other supplements), health-conscious behavior, sources of knowledge concerning health behavior, and factors associated with the participants' concept of aging. The prevalence of Ginkgo use was 15.3 %. Ginkgo was assumed to be effective for cognitive enhancement and the treatment of cognitive decline by two thirds of the surveyed participants and one third believed Ginkgo to be effective for preventing dementia. Ginkgo use was significantly higher among participants using natural remedies and herbal and food supplements. The use of Ginkgo was recommended by physicians (57.3 %), chemists (16 %), and healthcare magazines (10.7 %). Food supplements were taken by 65.8 % of the sample: this percentage was significantly higher among subjects who exhibited health-conscious behavior. "Knowledge" about strategies to enhance cognition or prevent cognitive decline among the elderly do not appear to be evidence based. Thus, there is a need to establish reliable and independent sources of scientific information for healthcare professionals and the general public.

  8. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy yo

  9. Health in middle-aged and elderly women : A conceptual framework for healthy menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; Van Dijk, Gabriella M.; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M. Carola; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H.; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the conce

  10. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  11. Does denture-wearing status in edentulous South Korean elderly persons affect their nutritional intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sun Young; Kim, Cheoul Sin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether denture-wearing status in edentulous South Korean elders affected their nutritional intakes, using the 2008-2010 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Good nutritional status is a requirement for healthy aging in the elders. Tooth loss is the key to lead to low masticatory ability and alterative food choice, which may increase the risks of systemic disease. Therefore, denture treatment is important to improve general health of edentulous persons. From KNHANES data, 1168 edentulous older people were selected as the participants of the present study. Nutrient intake data collected via participants' 24-h dietary recalls were used to determine the ratio of nutrient intake to the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Koreans, the percentage of individuals with inadequate nutrient and the effects of denture wearing on the risk of undernourishment. The results showed that compared to denture wearers, edentulous persons without dentures had lower intakes of potassium, niacin and vitamin C. In addition, the distribution of inadequate nutrient intake among participants without dentures was higher than among participants with dentures; the risk of undernourishment was 1.89 times that of denture wearers. [Correction made on 21 March 2014, after first online publication: "[…] participants with dentures was higher than among participants without dentures" was corrected to "[…] participants without dentures was higher than among participants with dentures"] Denture wearing was seen to have a significant effect on the level of nutrient intake in edentulous elders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Association of personality traits with elder self-neglect in a community-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2011-08-01

    Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Population-based study conducted from 1993 to 2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N = 9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N = 1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders.

  13. Association of Personality Traits with Elder Self-Neglect in a Community Dwelling Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Objective Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Methods Population-based study conducted from 1993–2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N=9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N=1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. Results In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Conclusion Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders. PMID:21788924

  14. [Cognitive reserve and linguistic skills in healthy elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Higes, Ramón; Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; Prados, José M; Galindo, Marta

    2013-08-01

    Introduccion. Una estrategia de investigacion en relacion con la reserva cognitiva supone establecer grupos de mayores que difieren en variables clave que afectan a la reserva cognitiva y comparar su rendimiento en pruebas de caracter cognitivo. Objetivo. Determinar que variables de las que influyen en la reserva cognitiva (medidas mediante el cuestionario de reserva cognitiva) se relacionan con el rendimiento en el test de denominacion de Boston, y en las pruebas de vocabulario y comprension gramatical de la bateria ECCO_Senior. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron en el estudio 83 mayores de edades comprendidas entre los 60 y los 75 años. Resultados y conclusiones. La escolaridad, la escolaridad de los padres, la ocupacion laboral y la actividad lectora se relacionan estrechamente con el rendimiento de los mayores en denominacion, comprension gramatical y vocabulario. La escolaridad afecta a la comprension de las oraciones con mayor densidad proposicional, y los habitos de lectura parecen estar estrechamente relacionados con la comprension de oraciones de mayor complejidad sintactica. La escolaridad y la ocupacion laboral afectan al rendimiento obtenido ante los verbos en la prueba de vocabulario.

  15. Improvement in appearance of colors for elderly persons using lightness transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Chiaki; Azetsu, Tadahiro; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    The color of an object appears to be different for elderly and young persons. This is because human visual features vary with on age. In general, the spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens of an elderly person is lower than that of a young person. The low spectral transmittance decreases the brightness of the visual field. This phenomenon affects the color appearance of an image in human visual perception. In this paper, a lightness transform method is proposed to improve the color appearance of images for elderly persons. In the proposed method, colors that are difficult for an elderly person to see are transformed into colors that are easy to see by adding lightness contrast. The performance of the proposed method is confirmed in experiments using digital images.

  16. Improvement in appearance of colors for elderly persons using lightness transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Chiaki; Azetsu, Tadahiro; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    The color of an object appears to be different for elderly and young persons. This is because human visual features vary with on age. In general, the spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens of an elderly person is lower than that of a young person. The low spectral transmittance decreases the brightness of the visual field. This phenomenon affects the color appearance of an image in human visual perception. In this paper, a lightness transform method is proposed to improve the color appearance of images for elderly persons. In the proposed method, colors that are difficult for an elderly person to see are transformed into colors that are easy to see by adding lightness contrast. The performance of the proposed method is confirmed in experiments using digital images.

  17. Relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Hiromichi; Tohara, Haruka; Matsubara, Mariko; Inokuchi, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Nakane, Ayako; Wakasugi, Yoko; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics and resting position in elderly individuals based on gender. Subjects were 36 healthy elderly individuals aged ≥65 years without dysphagia (16 men and 20 women; mean age 75.5 years, range 65-88 years). Videofluorographic images during the swallowing of 10 mL of 40% (w/v) barium sulfate were obtained and the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone and maximum/resting hyoid position were evaluated. Jaw opening force was measured three times using a jaw opening force sthenometer; the mean of these three measurements was used for analysis. In men, there was a positive correlation between jaw opening force and resting hyoid position and negative correlations among all the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone. In women, there was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and any of the measurement items. There was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and maximum hyoid position in either men or women. Our findings suggest that low jaw opening force leads to low resting hyoid position only in elderly men, and a lower hyoid position in healthy elderly men results in a larger total amount of hyoid displacement during swallowing. Moreover, a maximum hyoid position in healthy individuals of either gender does not differ depending on their jaw opening force.

  18. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  20. Neurophysiological basis of creativity in healthy elderly people: a multiscale entropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kanji; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizukami, Kimiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Wada, Yuji

    2015-03-01

    Creativity, which presumably involves various connections within and across different neural networks, reportedly underpins the mental well-being of older adults. Multiscale entropy (MSE) can characterize the complexity inherent in EEG dynamics with multiple temporal scales. It can therefore provide useful insight into neural networks. Given that background, we sought to clarify the neurophysiological bases of creativity in healthy elderly subjects by assessing EEG complexity with MSE, with emphasis on assessment of neural networks. We recorded resting state EEG of 20 healthy elderly subjects. MSE was calculated for each subject for continuous 20-s epochs. Their relevance to individual creativity was examined concurrently with intellectual function. Higher individual creativity was linked closely to increased EEG complexity across higher temporal scales, but no significant relation was found with intellectual function (IQ score). Considering the general "loss of complexity" theory of aging, our finding of increased EEG complexity in elderly people with heightened creativity supports the idea that creativity is associated with activated neural networks. Results reported here underscore the potential usefulness of MSE analysis for characterizing the neurophysiological bases of elderly people with heightened creativity. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect (Comparison between Elderly Person and Youth of the Break in the Touch Typing Learning Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Yumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical education using the information appliance of the old worker is required. However, an elderly person is negative about the utilization of the information appliance. I experimented on, this study about an appropriate break to suppress fatigue of the elderly person, and to learn a touch typing technology effectively and made it clear. The experiment performed two kinds of touch typing learning by the Computer Based Training software. I performed an experiment of elderly person and “Consecutive learning short break models” “Massed practice long break models” which changed the interval of learning and the break by the touch typing software for youths. I performed a questionnaire to a subject to collect the subjective data of fatigue and the learning burden at the same time. As a result, I knew the thing that “the elderly person controlled fatigue by a learning method to put a break in diligently for a short time in this experiment, and could learn a touch typing skill” “having a long it than a youth as for the time to be concerned with the touch typing of the elderly person.” that “the elderly person can learn a touch typing skill early by enjoying CBT learning.”

  2. Mobile Application on Healthy Diet for Elderly based on Persuasive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hidir Mhd Salim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diet was known for many years to play a key role as a risk factor for chronic diseases especially for elderly. The capability to interact effectively on health information application among elderly is becoming essential. A mobile technology can monitor diet and lifestyle of the elderly. We developed Nutrihealth application that comprises information on Body Mass Index (BMI, suggested menus, and calories intake. Persuasive techniques were implemented in the design of Nutrihealth mobile apps, to increase user engagement and behaviour change in healthy diet. The work starts with an initial study to select suitable persuasive techniques for elderly. The aim of this work is to evaluate the mobile application that implements a persuasive design. A technology acceptance model named Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT has been used in the evaluation phase. Nine (9 elderly participants take part in the in-depth usage study in which they were asked to use the mobile apps for 3-days. The findings show majority of participants (90% gave positive opinion on the design of the persuasive mobile apps. There is also an improvement in their calories intake during the 3-days study.

  3. The Effects of Group Work with Institutionalized Elderly Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyan, Veli; Sahin-Kara, Gülay; Camur Duyan, Gülsüm; Özdemir, Burcu; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This research article aims to measure the effects of group therapy on institutionalized elderly in terms of reducing depression and improving psychosocial functioning. Methods: Thirty elderly nursing home residents were recruited, and 16 of them elected to receive group treatment for depression and 14 declined treatment. The…

  4. Caregiver and environmental variables related to difficult behaviors in institutionalized, demented elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, S C; Jirovec, M; Murrell, L; Barton, D

    1992-07-01

    This study describes the relationship between caregiver and elder behavior in institutionalized, cognitively impaired, elderly persons. A repeated-measures design was used to observe interactive behaviors between caregivers and demented elders within three caregiving situations (dressing, toileting, and bathing) and an interpersonal contact in two long-term care facilities. During observations, the caregiver's behaviors were rated using the Interaction Behavior Measure and Health Professional's-Geriatric Patient Behavior Rating scale, whereas the elder's behaviors were rated using a modified version of the Interaction Behavior Measure. The study included 116 subjects (58 elders and 58 caregivers), with each unique caregiver/elder pair being observed in the four situations. All elder behaviors varied according to situation type, with the most difficult elder behaviors occurring during bathing. Ten of the 12 caregiver behaviors included in the analysis varied by situation type. Significant relationships were systematically found between the caregiver's relaxed and smiling behavior and the elder's calm/functional behaviors, r = .42 (dressing) to r = .46 (toileting) for caregiver relaxed behavior and r = .34 (bathing) to r = .58 (dressing) for smiling. The elder's behavior did not vary by type of nursing unit (special dementia unit or general nursing unit), or interruptions to the interaction.

  5. Walking behaviour of healthy elderly: attention should be paid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt André

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported an association between executive function (EF and measures of gait, particularly among older adults. This study examined the relationship between specific components of executive functions and the relative dual task costs of gait (DTC in community-dwelling non-demented older adults, aged 65 years and older. Methods Temporal (stride time, stride velocity and spatial (stride length gait characteristics were measured using a GAITRite®-System among 62 healthy community dwelling older adults while walking with and without backward counting (BC at preferred and fast walking speeds. Specific executive functions divided attention, memory and inhibition were assessed using the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP. Other measures included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, amount of daily medications taken, educational level and sociodemographic characteristics. Adjusted and unadjusted multivariable linear regression models were developed to assess the relations between variables. Results High relative DTC for stride time, stride velocity and stride length were associated with divided attention at fast walking speed. High relative DTC for stride time was associated with divided attention at preferred walking speed. The association between high DTC of stride length and memory was less robust and only observable at preferred walking speed. None of the gait measures was associated with inhibition. Conclusions Spatial and temporal dual task cost characteristics of gait are especially associated with divided attention in older adults. The results showed that the associated DTC differ by executive function and the nature of the task (preferred versus fast walking. Further research is warranted to determine whether improvement in divided attention translates to better performance on selected complex walking tasks.

  6. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is Rather a Reliable and Valid Instrument to Assess Nutritional Status in Iranian Healthy Adults and Elderly with a Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Ladan; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Abbasi Fard, Salman; Sadeghi, Motahhareh; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Lökk, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess nutritional status of Iranian population and to compare its psychometric properties between patients suffering from a chronic disease, healthy elderly and younger adults. As a group of elderly with a chronic disease, 143 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and as the control group, 467 healthy persons were enrolled. The Persian-translated version of MNA was filled-up through interviews together with anthropometric measurements. Cronbach's α coefficient of entire MNA was 0.66 and 0.70 in healthy individuals and PD patients, respectively. The total MNA score could significantly discriminate the ones with BMI ≥ 24kg/m(2) in both groups. In general, MNA was a valid and reliable tool for nutritional assessment. We acknowledge study limitations including lack of serum measurements and a selection bias towards mild-to-moderate PD. MNA is a more reliable tool in older healthy individuals and rather younger elderly with PD.

  7. [Effects of airborne pollution on cardiopulmonary function of healthy person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Song, Xianqiang; Meng, Ziqiang

    2008-07-01

    To understand the effects of airborne pollution on cardiopulmonary function in healthy person. 15 healthy workers were selected from heavily polluted area as the experimental group (EG) and 15 healthy workers were selected from relatively clean area as control group (CG). The blood pressure were measured with sphygmomanometer and the vital capacity (VC) were detected with FHL-II type spirometer at rest status. Cardiopulmonary functions in different exercise states were measured by using the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). It showed that heart rate of EG was more higher than those of the CG at rest status (P VO2, VO2/kg, O2P and METS in CG were more higher than these indexes in EG (P VO2 max, the results of VO2 max, VO2 max/kg, O2P, METS and DT in CG were more higher than these indexes in EG (P < 0.01), and the recovery of heart rate in EG was slow in comparison with CG. Airborne pollution could have adverse effects on the cardiopulmonary function, reserve ability and function potential. The chronic adverse effects of airborne pollution on the health could be easy to reflect at static state. Therefore CPET could roundly evaluate the damage of airborne pollution to cardiorespiratory function.

  8. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  9. Relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics in healthy elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozaki H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiromichi Shinozaki, Haruka Tohara, Mariko Matsubara, Nobuhiro Inokuchi, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Ayako Nakane, Yoko Wakasugi, Shunsuke Minakuchi Department of Gerodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to examine the relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics and resting position in elderly individuals based on gender. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 36 healthy elderly individuals aged ≥65 years without dysphagia (16 men and 20 women; mean age 75.5 years, range 65–88 years. Videofluorographic images during the swallowing of 10 mL of 40% (w/v barium sulfate were obtained and the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone and maximum/resting hyoid position were evaluated. Jaw opening force was measured three times using a jaw opening force sthenometer; the mean of these three measurements was used for analysis. Results: In men, there was a positive correlation between jaw opening force and resting hyoid position and negative correlations among all the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone. In women, there was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and any of the measurement items. There was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and maximum hyoid position in either men or women. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low jaw opening force leads to low resting hyoid position only in elderly men, and a lower hyoid position in healthy elderly men results in a larger total amount of hyoid displacement during swallowing. Moreover, a maximum hyoid position in healthy individuals of either gender does not differ depending on their jaw opening force. Keywords: aging, deglutition disorders, dysphasia, gender differences

  10. Myelodysplastic Syndromes in the Elderly: Treatment Options and Personalized Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Sonja; Wiesinger, Petra; Stauder, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are typical diseases of the elderly, with a median age of 68-75 years at initial diagnosis. Demographic changes producing an increased proportion of elderly in our societies mean the incidence of MDS will rise dramatically. Considering the increasing number of treatment options, ranging from best supportive care to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), decision making is rather complex in this cohort of patients. Moreover, aspects of the aging process also have to be considered in therapy planning. Treatment of elderly MDS patients is dependent on the patient's individual risk and prognosis. Comorbidities play an essential role as predictors of survival and therapy tolerance. Age-adjusted models and the use of geriatric assessment scores are described as a basis for individualized treatment algorithms. Specific treatment recommendations for the different groups of patients are given. Currently available therapeutic agents, including supportive care, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), immune-modulating agents, hypomethylating agents, and HSCT are described in detail and discussed with a special focus on elderly MDS patients. The inclusion of elderly patients in clinical trials is of utmost importance to obtain data on efficacy and safety in this particular group of patients. Endpoints relevant for the elderly should be integrated, including maintenance of quality of life and functional activities as well as evaluation of use of healthcare resources.

  11. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Centurion Cabral

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  12. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep.

  13. Risk factors for ANA positivity in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan-Zhen; Karp, David R; Quan, Jiexia; Branch, Valerie K; Zhou, Jinchun; Lian, Yun; Chong, Benjamin F; Wakeland, Edward K; Olsen, Nancy J

    2011-03-02

    The finding of antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity in a healthy individual is usually of unknown significance and in most cases is benign. However, a subset of such individuals is at risk for development of autoimmune disease. We examined demographic and immunological features that are associated with ANA positivity in clinically healthy persons to develop insights into when this marker carries risk of progression to lupus. Biological samples from healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were obtained from the Dallas Regional Autoimmune Disease Registry (DRADR). Measurements carried out on serum samples included ANA, extractable nuclear antibodies (ENA) and autoantibody profiling using an array with more than 100 specificities. Whole blood RNA samples from a subset of individuals were used to analyze gene expression on the Illumina platform. Data were analyzed for associations of high ANA levels with demographic features, the presence of other autoantibodies and with gene expression profiles. Overall, ANA levels are significantly higher in females than in males and this association holds in patients with the autoimmune diseases lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as in healthy controls (HC). Age was not significantly associated with ANA levels and the elevated ANA values could not be explained by higher IgG levels. Another autoantibody, anti- cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), did not show gender dimorphism in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or healthy individuals. The autoantigen array showed significant elevations of other autoantibodies in high ANA HCs. Some of these autoantibodies were directed to antigens in skin and others were related to autoimmune conditions of kidney, thyroid or joints. Gene expression analyses showed a greater prevalence of significantly upregulated genes in HCs with negative ANA values than in those with significant ANA positivity. Genes upregulated in high ANA HCs included a celiac disease

  14. Healthy Aging and Concerns Among Elderly Japanese: A Text Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yoko; Shida, Naoki; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Machida, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Japan is facing an unprecedented aging society. In 2013, 25.1% of the total population in Japan was 65 years old and over. One third of the population in Japan will be at least 65 years old in 2035; healthy aging is crucial for public health and society in Japan. Under the budget limitations of social security, policies and frequent policy changes have created great uncertainty and concern for the elderly population. Given these circumstances, we conducted questionnaire surveys in 2010 to examine concerns in this age-group. In 2010, we sent questionnaires to university graduates 65 years old and older, randomly selected from a list of an alumni association of 11 universities. The questionnaires were open-ended and asked them to write any concerns that they had about health care, health policy, health systems, and their future. We received 344 responses. Among those who responded, 271 (78.8%) respondents said that they had concerns. We conducted a text analysis (Trend Search-Keyword Associator 2008) and extracted the keywords from their responses. The keywords that were extracted frequently included hospitals, doctors, health-care system, health care, Japanese government policies, government, medical insurance system for the elderly, support, increase, copayment, health (their own), scarcities, and burdens. In this study, many elderly people in Japan are concerned about health-care expenditures, health-care systems, and health policies. This may be caused by frequent health policy changes and uncertainty due to frequent administration changes such as the lack of clarity concerning raising the out of pocket payment rate from 10% to 20% for elderly people under budget constraints in Japan. Correct policy making and determination to eliminate the concerns from this vulnerable population in Japan are necessary for healthy aging.

  15. Association between risk factors for injurious falls and new benzodiazepine prescribing in elderly persons

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to elderly patients' despite concerns about adverse effects leading to injurious falls. Previous studies have not investigated the extent to which patients with pre-existing risk factors for falls are prescribed benzodiazepines. The objective of this study is to assess if some of the risk factors for falls are associated with new benzodiazepine prescriptions in elderly persons. Methods Using provincial administrative databases, eld...

  16. The effects of hippotherapy on elderly persons' static balance and gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gil; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on elderly persons' static balance and gait. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two elderly persons residing in the community were randomly divided into a hippotherapy group and a treadmill group and they conducted exercise for eight weeks. [Results] Step lengths increased significantly, and step time and sway path lengths significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway path lengths after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the hippotherapy group showed larger decreases than the treadmill group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that hippotherapy may improve the static balance and gait of elderly persons residing in the community.

  17. The prevalence and correlates of fear of falling in elderly persons living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Lach, H W; Birge, S J; Miller, J P

    1994-04-01

    Fear of falling has been recognized as a potentially debilitating consequence of falling in elderly persons. However, the prevalence and the correlates of this fear are unknown. Prevalence of fear of falling was calculated from the 1-year follow-up of an age- and gender-stratified random sample of community-dwelling elderly persons. Cross-sectional associations of fear of falling with quality of life, frailty, and falling were assessed. The prevalence of fear increased with age and was greater in women. After adjustment for age and gender, being moderately fearful of falling was associated with decreased satisfaction with life, increased frailty and depressed mood, and recent experience with falls. Being very fearful of falling was associated with all of the above plus decreased mobility and social activities. Fear of falling is common in elderly persons and is associated with decreased quality of life, increased frailty, and recent experience with falls.

  18. Elderly Persons with Intellectual Disability: A Study of Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status, and Sensory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carmeli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Longer life expectancy is resulting in increasing numbers of elderly adults with intellectual disability (ID. There has been the question whether persons with ID demonstrate early signs of aging before the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if persons with ID (with and without Down syndrome showed premature aging changes compared with a control group. Elderly persons (n = 24, average age of 61 from one residential care center in Israel and younger adults from another center (n = 37, average age of 45 were compared with elderly residents without ID in an independent living facility. The study considered demographic data, medical data, anthropometric measurements, body fat and body mass index, flexibility, and sensorimotor function tests. The results showed that the persons with ID had basically similar body composition to that of persons without ID, however, the functional performance of elderly adults with ID was more impaired. We postulate that the slower functioning responses may be explained by a less physically active lifestyle, that may accelerate the onset of disease and result in symptoms associated with aging that are detrimental to health. It is therefore important that persons with ID participate in physical activity and exercises in order to promote health and prevent disease.

  19. Disability and quality of life among elderly persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, Dharitri; Rao, N Suryanarayana; Kalyanasundaram, S

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the level of disability and quality of life of elderly persons with chronic and persistent mental illnesses and to compare it with those who were elderly but well with no illness. For the purpose 200 elderly persons with mental illness (PMI), attending psychiatric services were included in the study. A comparison group of 103 well elderly persons was drawn from the same study area as control group (CG). They were assessed using WHO-DAS and WHOQOL-BREF. Results revealed that PMI experienced higher disability compared to the CG. Deficits in the domain of moving around, getting along with people, engaging in life activities and participation in society contributed most to the high level of disability in the PMI group. PMI from rural area had higher disability compared to the urban group. As for QOL, elderly PMI had a poor quality of life compared to the CG. Quality of life was found to be negatively associated with level of disability. Higher the level of disability, lower was the quality of life. The authors opine that persons with chronic mental illness continue to experience psychiatric disability in old age and this cannot be attributed to normal aging. Level of disability has a negative impact on their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aripiprazole for acute mania in an elderly person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New-onset bipolar disorder is rare in the elderly. Symptom profile is similar to that in young adults but the elderly are more likely to have neurological co-morbidities. There are no case reports of elderly mania being treated with aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic. A 78-year-old gentleman presented to us with symptoms suggestive of mania of 1 month′s duration. He had similar history 3 years ago and a family history of postpartum psychosis in his mother. There were no neurological signs on examination and work-up for an organic etiology was negative except for age-related cerebral atrophy. He improved with aripiprazole and tolerated the medications well. The use of psychotropic medications in the elderly is associated with side-effects of sedation, increased cardiovascular risk, and greater risk of extra-pyramidal side-effects. The use of partial dopaminergic antagonists like aripiprazole may be useful in the balancing of effects and side-effects.

  1. Negative Stereotypes Underlying Other-Person Perceptions of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphrey, Don; Robinson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    When assessing effects of advertisements on themselves and on people in their mid-40s and 70s, more than 30% of respondents drew upon negative stereotypes when making estimates about effects of advertising messages on the elderly. There was no difference between first-year university students and seniors majoring in advertising in the rate of…

  2. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF BRADBURN AFFECT BALANCE SCALE AMONG ELDERLY PERSONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMPEN, GIJM

    Some psychometric properties of the Affect Balance Scale have been tested on a random sample of 354 elderly people in the Netherlands. Internal reliability estimates were comparable with prior ones, and the 8-wk. test-retest reliability is reasonable for these 5-item measures.

  3. Negative Stereotypes Underlying Other-Person Perceptions of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphrey, Don; Robinson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    When assessing effects of advertisements on themselves and on people in their mid-40s and 70s, more than 30% of respondents drew upon negative stereotypes when making estimates about effects of advertising messages on the elderly. There was no difference between first-year university students and seniors majoring in advertising in the rate of…

  4. Criteria for drug selection in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman-Baron, M.; van der Veen, L.; Jansen, P.A.F.; van Roon, E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; van Marum, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients with multiple morbidities and polypharmacy are at an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs). Appropriate prescribing, preserving the balance between drug effectiveness and safety, and treatment adherence may prevent these ADEs. In this study, we investigated which

  5. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  6. Self directed home based electrical muscle stimulation training improves exercise tolerance and strength in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Prendergast, Ann; Rainsford, Gary; Minogue, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in muscle strength, exercise tolerance and subsequent capacity for activities of daily living. It is important that we develop effective strategies to halt this process of gradual decline in order to enhance functional ability and capacity for independent living. To achieve this, we must overcome the challenge of sustaining ongoing engagement in physical exercise programmes in the sedentary elderly population, particularly those who experience barriers to exercise participation. Recent developments in electrical muscle stimulation technology could provide a potential solution. In this pilot case-control study we investigated the effects of a self-directed home based programme of electrical muscle stimulation training on muscle strength and exercise tolerance in a group of 16 healthy elderly volunteers (10f, 6m). Study participants completed 30 separate 1-hour electrical muscle stimulation sessions at home over a 6-week period. We observed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength and 6-minute walk distance, suggesting that this form of electrical muscle stimulation training has promise as an exercise modality in the elderly population.

  7. Ways of healthy aging: a case study of elderly people in a Northern Thai village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyuthasilpe, Chuleekorn; Amnatsatsue, Kwanjai; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Steckler, Allan B

    2009-12-01

    This ethnographic study was conducted to explore ways of healthy aging and the influence of culture on health-related behaviors in a rural community in Northern Thailand. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions, participant observations and field notes were used to understand the lives of seven healthy Thai older adults aged 75 years and over. Data were collected from March 2007 to February 2008, with ongoing ethnographic analysis involving coding, identifying patterns, generalizing and making reflective notes to elucidate the cultural patterns of behavior. All informants perceived health as interrelated with their life styles, which was, in turn, closely related to their cultural roots, suggesting that culture influences the health of all members of smaller, closely knit communities, including the elderly, by integrating physical, social and spiritual health for older adults and their families.

  8. Synbiotic yogurt consumption by healthy adults and the elderly: the fate of bifidobacteria and LGG probiotic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, M; Brandi, G; Borsari, A; Gasbarri, R; Gioia, D Di

    2013-03-01

    Synbiotic dietary supplements are used to modulate the intestinal microbiota in adults; however, studies regarding elderly people are limited. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of regular consumption of yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the fructooligosaccharide (FOS) Actilight(®) both in healthy adults and the elderly suffering from constipation. Yogurt was administered daily for 4 weeks; faecal samples were collected before starting, after 4-week administration and a 15-day wash out period, and analyzed for LGG and bifidobacteria counts. Constipation status in the elderly was recorded by a standardized questionnaire. Bifidobacteria did not increase in either groups; at the end of the intervention trial, LGG was detected in significantly different amount in the faeces of the elderly and adults, being higher in adults (95% vs. 30%). An increased evacuation number in the elderly was evidenced, probably due to the presence of FOS in yogurt.

  9. Beliefs in the paranormal: age and sex differences among elderly persons and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Tipton, S M; Rowe, J L

    1999-12-01

    Beliefs in the paranormal were rated stronger in younger as compared to elderly adults by Emmons and Sobal in 1981, and sex correlates of paranormal beliefs appeared to be stronger in women than in men by Irwin in 1994. This research studied possible linkages between age and sex with a comparative analysis between results of Vitulli and Luper's 1998 survey among undergraduate students and data from elderly men (M = 72 yr., SD = 9.2, n = 21) and women (M = 69.3 yr., SD = 7.7, n = 55). Crawford and Christensen's 1995 12-item Extrasensory Perception Survey was administered to elderly persons living in apartment complexes and private homes, participating in activities in a recreation center, or attending a continuing-education seminar. A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance from responses on the 12-item survey showed that undergraduate men and elderly women had the highest ratings on paranormal beliefs. The self-selecting characteristics of a segment of the elderly sample led to a post hoc univariate analysis of variance by partitioning that sample into those who were attending a continuing-education seminar versus all other elderly persons. Summated ratings (total scores) for this survey showed main effects for these subsamples and for sex. Sex and age differences were discussed in the context of the hypothesis of social marginality.

  10. MR spectroscopy detection of lactate and lipid signals in the brains of healthy elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; den Heijer, T; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Achten, E; Heijboer, RJJ; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB; Oudkerk, M

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess the presence of brain lactate and lipid signals, frequently associated with the presence of pathology, in healthy persons of 60-90 years old (n = 540). Lactate and lipid signals were observed in, respectively, 25 and 6% of women, and 18 and 2% of me

  11. [Baropodometric walking analysis in healthy elderly and in arthritic patients before and after knee prosthesis implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, V; Moretti, B; Patella, V; De Serio, S; Simone, C

    2002-01-01

    Standing and walking are complex activities which require integral skeletal-muscular and central nervous systems. Body is usually, evenly distributed between both the lower limbs with 40% on the ball of the foot and 60% on the heel, therefore, the body's centre of gravity falls between the feet in correspondence to Chopart's articulation. Some diseases can influence standing and walking including cardiovascular diseases (chronic edema, claudication, cardiopathies etc.) neurosensorial ones (cataract, Menière's disease, Parkinson's disease etc.) and orthopedic ones (kyphosis, scoliosis, hallux valgus, metatarsalgia, osteoarthritis etc.). In this study arthritis was considered the main cause of changes in posture and deambulation. An electric baropodometer with a modular platform 240 cm long and 40 cm wide was used which provided the pressure information for each in three distinct phases: static, dynamic and postural Baropodometric step analysis was performed on ten healthy, elderly subjects and ten elderly subjects with arthritis of the knee. The latter group was evaluated both pre- and post prosthetic knee surgery. The data revealed that the ten healthy subjects with arthritis who, prior to surgery presented unequal weight distribution on the diseased side which was slowly redistributed after surgery.

  12. Falls are associated with stroke, arthritis and multiple medications among community-dwelling elderly persons in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Satoshi; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Kusano, Yosuke; Niino, Naoakira; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a major public health problem and the second leading cause of death due to unintentional accidental injury after road traffic accidents. Inactive, older individuals with several chronic illnesses fall more frequently than older individuals who are active and healthy. No population-based study has addressed the association of stroke, arthritis, hypnotic and other prescription medications with falls among the elderly simultaneously in a single population in Japan. We examined the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals, whom we randomly selected from a list of inhabitants aged ≥ 65 years compiled from the resident registration, and the associations between falls and each of stroke, arthritis, and hypnotic and other prescription medications. We interviewed 295 men and 307 women, and collected information about the number of falls during the latest one year, hemiplegia due to stroke, arthritis in the legs, and the number of hypnotic and other medications. We found that 46 men (16%) and 67 women (22%) had fallen at least once during the latest one year. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age showed that hemiplegia due to stroke (p falls in men. Arthritis in the legs (p = 0.05) and taking at least four daily prescription medications (p falls in women. Treatment of fall-related diseases and medication management are important strategies for reducing falls among elderly persons.

  13. Cobalamin Deficiency in Elderly Patients: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Andrès

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency is particularly common in the elderly (>65 years of age but is often unrecognized because its clinical manifestations are subtle; however, they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective. In the elderly, the main causes of cobalamin deficiency are pernicious anemia and food-cobalamin malabsorption. Food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome is a disorder characterized by the inability to release cobalamin from food or its binding proteins. This syndrome is usually caused by atrophic gastritis, related or unrelated to Helicobacter pylori infection, and long-term ingestion of antacids and biguanides. Management of cobalamin deficiency with cobalamin injections is currently well documented but new routes of cobalamin administration (oral and nasal are being studied, especially oral cobalamin therapy for food-cobalamin malabsorption.

  14. Survival strategies – living with an elderly person suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Jette; Suzhen, Liu; Bro Aaen, Karen

    College, School of Nursing, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Background: In China and Denmark the numbers of elderly demented citizens are rising. Therefore the contact between the Primary Health Care nurses and relatives of elderly demented persons has increased, in order to enable the elderly to stay......Jette Lauritzen, Senior Lecturer, MScN, MHA, RNT, DipHE/N, CRNA. Liu Suzhen, Professor, Ph.d., Karen Bro Aaen, lecturer, MSA, RNT, RN. Feng Xianqiong, Associated professor, ph.d. A research collaboration between VIA University College,Department of Nursing in Aarhus, Denmark and West China Medical...... groups of relatives, living in China and Denmark, has been performed. Preliminary Results: A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts identified themes such as the use of strategies in form of harassment of the elderly demented and fighting loneliness as a caregiver by using the Primary Health Care...

  15. [The diet of the elderly person undergoing dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourc, Christophe; Ramade, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly patient undergoing dialysis is often at risk of undernutrition. The condition may already be present at the pre-dialysis stage and can worsen once dialysis starts. Aside from the impact on the patient's quality of life and general health status, undernutrition exposes them to serious risk of complications and can be life-threatening. It is therefore essential that it is diagnosed early. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  17. Predicting personality disorder functioning styles by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality: a preliminary trial in healthy people and personality disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Hongying; Zhu, Qisha; Ma, Guorong; Shen, Chanchan; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. Methods We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Meas...

  18. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe) (the "SABE project") (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9,765 subjects) and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) (1,483 subjects). The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.

  19. Determination of anaerobic threshold through heart rate and near infrared spectroscopy in elderly healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel S. Reis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aging leads to low functional capacity and this can be reversed by safe and adequate exercise prescription. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the anaerobic threshold (AT obtained from the V-slope method as well as visual inspection of oxyhemoglobin ( O2Hb and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb curves and compare findings with the heteroscedastic (HS method applied to carbon dioxide production ( CO2, heart rate (HR, and HHb data in healthy elderly men. A secondary aim was to assess the degree of agreement between methods for AT determination. METHOD: Fourteen healthy men (61.4±6.3 years underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX on a cycle ergometer until physical exhaustion. Biological signals collected during CPX included: ventilatory and metabolic variables; spectroscopy quasi-infrared rays - NIRS; and HR through a cardio-frequency meter. RESULTS: We observed temporal equivalence and similar values of power (W, absolute oxygen consumption (O2 - mL/min, relative O2 ( mL.Kg - 1.min -1, and HR at AT by the detection methods performed. In addition, by the Bland-Altman plot, HR confirmed good agreement between the methods with biases between -1.3 and 3.5 beats per minute. CONCLUSIONS: (i all detection methods were sensitive in identifying AT, including the HS applied to HR and (ii the methods showed a good correlation in the identification of AT. Thus, these results support HR as valid and readily available parameter in determining AT in healthy elderly men.

  20. Adverse associations between visceral adiposity, brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian eIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between central adiposity and cognition has been established by indirect measures such as BMI or waist-hip ratio. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI quantification of central abdominal fat has been linked to elevated risk of cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular disease. However it is not known how quantification of visceral fat correlates with cognitive performance and measures of brain structure. We filled this gap by characterizing the relationships between MRI measures of abdominal adiposity, brain morphometry and cognition, in healthy elderly. Methods: A total of 184 healthy community dwelling elderly subjects without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardio-vascular risk, neuropsychological measurements as well as MRI of the brain and abdomen fat were obtained. Abdominal images were segmented into subcutaneous (SAT and visceral (VAT adipose tissue compartments. Brain MRI measures were analyzed quantitatively to determine total brain volume, hippocampal volume, ventricular volume and cortical thickness. Results: VAT showed negative association with verbal memory (r=0.21, p=0.005 and attention (r=0.18, p=0.01. Higher VAT was associated with lower hippocampal volume (F=5.39, p=0.02 and larger ventricular volume (F=6.07, p=0.02. The participants in the upper quartile of VAT had the lowest hippocampal volume even after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension and BMI (b=-0.28, p=0.005. There was a significant age by VAT interaction for cortical thickness in the left prefrontal region. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, elevated VAT is associated with negative effects on cognition, and brain morphometry.

  1. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  2. The Longitudinal Elderly Person Shadowing Program: Outcomes from an Interprofessional Senior Partner Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basran, Jenny F. S.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Walker, Doreen; MacLeod, Peggy; Allen, Bev; D'Eon, Marcel; McKague, Meredith; Chopin, Nicola S.; Trinder, Krista

    2012-01-01

    The University of Saskatchewan's Longitudinal Elderly Person Shadowing (LEPS) is an interprofessional senior mentors program (SMP) where teams of undergraduate students in their first year of medicine, pharmacy, and physiotherapy; 2nd year of nutrition; 3rd year nursing; and 4th year social work partner with community-dwelling older adults.…

  3. Multidisciplinary team, working with elderly persons living in the community: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gudrun; Eklund, Kajsa; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    As the number of elderly persons with complex health needs is increasing, teams for their care have been recommended as a means of meeting these needs, particularly in the case of elderly persons with multi-diseases. Occupational therapists, in their role as team members, exert significant influence in guiding team recommendations. However, it has been emphasized that there is a lack of sound research to show the impact of teamwork from the perspective of elderly persons. The aim of this paper was to explore literature concerning multidisciplinary teams that work with elderly persons living in the community. The research method was a systematic literature review and a total of 37 articles was analysed. The result describes team organisation, team intervention and outcome, and factors that influence teamwork. Working in a team is multifaceted and complex. It is important to enhance awareness about factors that influence teamwork. The team process itself is also of great importance. Clinical implications for developing effective and efficient teamwork are also presented and discussed.

  4. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Chin A Paw, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was

  5. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six par

  6. Personal Meaning, Optimism, and Choice: Existential Predictors of Depression in Community and Institutional Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the unique, combined, and interactive contribution of existential variables and traditional measures as predictors of depression in institutionalized and community-residing older adults. Results show that choice-responsibleness, social resources, and physical health predicted depression in community elderly; personal meaning, optimism,…

  7. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  8. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Chantal M.; van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Hofman, Albert; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether being metabolically healthy obese (MHO)—defined by the presence of obesity in the absence of metabolic syndrome—is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear and may depend on the participants’ age. We examined the association of being MHO with CVD risk in the elderly. Methods and Findings This study included 5,314 individuals (mean age 68 years) from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We categorized our population in groups according to body mass index (BMI) and presence and absence of metabolic syndrome, and estimated the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for every group by using Cox proportional hazard models. Among 1048 (19.7%) obese individuals we identified 260 (24.8%) MHO subjects. Over 14 years of follow-up there were 861 incident CVD cases. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, we did not observe an increased CVD risk in MHO individuals (HR 1.07, 95%CI 0.75–1.53), compared to normal weight individuals without metabolic syndrome. CVD risk was increased by the presence of metabolic syndrome in normal weight (HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.02–1.80), overweight (HR 1.32, 95%CI 1.09–1.60) and obese (HR 1.33, 95%CI 1.07–1.66) individuals, compared to those with normal weight without metabolic syndrome. In a mediation analysis, 71.3% of the association between BMI and CVD was explained by the presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions In our elderly population, we found that the presence of obesity without metabolic syndrome did not confer a higher CVD risk. However, metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with CVD risk, and was associated with an increased risk in all BMI categories. Therefore, preventive interventions targeting cardiometabolic risk factors could be considered in elderly, regardless of weight status. PMID:27100779

  9. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon Ha; Im, Kiho; Kwon, Hunki; Seo, Sang Won; Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Hojeong; Hwang, Jung Won; Kang, Sue J.; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA) in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior, and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention. PMID:27597826

  10. Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: a 6-month follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Osterlind, Kell; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2007-01-01

    aged (age 65+) recently diagnosed with cancer (74 women, 27 men), but was reduced to 75 (57 women, 18 men) by the 6-month investigation point. EORTC QLQ C30, Katz ADL, Nowotny's Hope Scale and Interview Schedule for Social Interaction were used in structured personal interviews and questionnaires......The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons diagnosed with cancer (65 years and above), in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, activities of daily living, hope, social network and support. The investigation points were...... at time of diagnosis (baseline), and again 3 and 6 months after the diagnosis. The study also aimed to investigate which of the aforementioned factors predicted deteriorated QoL in elderly persons with cancer from baseline to the 6-month investigation. At baseline, the sample consisted of 101 individuals...

  11. Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: a 6-month follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Osterlind, Kell; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons diagnosed with cancer (65 years and above), in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, activities of daily living, hope, social network and support. The investigation points were...... at time of diagnosis (baseline), and again 3 and 6 months after the diagnosis. The study also aimed to investigate which of the aforementioned factors predicted deteriorated QoL in elderly persons with cancer from baseline to the 6-month investigation. At baseline, the sample consisted of 101 individuals...... aged (age 65+) recently diagnosed with cancer (74 women, 27 men), but was reduced to 75 (57 women, 18 men) by the 6-month investigation point. EORTC QLQ C30, Katz ADL, Nowotny's Hope Scale and Interview Schedule for Social Interaction were used in structured personal interviews and questionnaires...

  12. ABHIVYAKTI: A Vision Based Intelligent System for Elder and Sick Persons

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhary, Ankit

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent system ABHIVYAKTI, which would be pervasive in nature and based on the Computer Vision. It would be very easy in use and deployment. Elder and sick people who are not able to talk or walk, they are dependent on other human beings and need continuous monitoring, while our system provides flexibility to the sick or elder person to announce his or her need to their caretaker by just showing a particular gesture with the developed system, if the caretaker is not nearby. This system will use fingertip detection techniques for acquiring gesture and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) will be used for gesture recognition.

  13. Capacity to Vote in Persons with Dementia and the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Irastorza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to vote in patients with mental illness is increasingly questioned. The objective of this study is to evaluate this capacity in a group of subjects with dementia (Alzheimer's disease and other elderly subjects without dementia. With a sample of 68 subjects with dementia and 25 controls living in a senior residence, a transversal study was carried out over 4 months. Subjects were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Competence Assessment Tool for voting (CAT-V. The results were more positive for the Doe criteria (as part of the CAT-V, and a correlation was found with the MMSE in subjects with dementia and, to a lesser degree, in the controls. We conclude that the capacity to vote is related to cognitive deterioration and, within that, is more related to understanding and appreciation.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF GAZE STABILITY EXERCISES ON BALANCE IN HEALTHY ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Bhardwaj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine whether gaze stability exercises are effective in improving the balance disturbance and related confidence in healthy elderly population. Design: Randomized pre-test and post-test experimental design. Setting: Superspeciality hospital setup. Participants: 30 subjects without any definite balance disorder but with history of subjective apprehension attending the outpatient physiotherapy department of BLK Superspeciality hospital, New Delhi, were selected for the study. Intervention: The experimental group (n=15 performed gaze stability exercises (GSE, and the control group (n=15 performed placebo eye movements. Weekly progression of exercise was done as per the designed exercise protocol. Total time for placebo eye exercises was matched to the time the GSE group spent performing gaze stability exercises. The participants performed the exercises 3 times daily over a 6-week period. Outcome measures: Participants were evaluated at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS and the activities-specific balance confidence scale (ABC outcome measures for assessing the balance and subjective confidence of balance respectively. Result: There were no baseline differences (P ≤ .05 between the GSE and CON groups in age and sex, or any outcome measures. GSE group improved significantly in both the outcome measures compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest us that vestibular-specific gaze stability exercises leads to improvement of balance and subjective confidence to carry out the activities of daily life due to adaptation of VOR reflex in age related vestibulo-ocular reflex degeneration (VOR found in healthy elderly population.

  15. Relationship between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenses in community-dwelling elderly persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Eriko; Moriya, Shingo; Murata, Ayumi; Muramatsu, Masumi; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Notani, Kenji; Inoue, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The increasing medical expenses of elderly persons in Japan’s rapidly ageing society have become a major concern. It is therefore important to elucidate the factors associated with such escalation. Here, we focused on the relationship between subjective self-assessment of oral health, as an index of general health, and medical expenses (excluding dental repair) under the hypothesis that oral health contributes to general medical expenses. Several studies have shown that oral health status is correlated with general health status among elderly persons. We speculated that oral health status might show a relation with medical costs among elderly persons. However, few studies have investigated this relationship to date. Materials and Methods Participants were 259 elderly subjects (range: 65–84 years; 120 men, 139 women) residing independently. Subjective assessment of oral health was evaluated by their responses (‘Good’, ‘Not good’ and ‘Not at all good’) on a survey questionnaire. The correlation between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenditure was analysed using Spearman’s rank method, the Mann–Whitney U-test and the Kruskal–Wallis test. Medical expenses were used as the dependent variable in multinomial logistic regression analysis with background and intraoral factors as independent variables. Results A slight yet statistically significant correlation was observed between subjective assessment of oral health and outpatient treatment fees. Conclusion The findings revealed that subjective assessment of oral health is significantly and independently related to the medical expenses of community-dwelling elderly persons after adjusting for social background, living environment and physical factors. PMID:21306431

  16. Recall responses to tetanus and diphtheria vaccination are frequently insufficient in elderly persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weinberger

    Full Text Available Demographic changes and a more active life-style in older age have contributed to an increasing public awareness of the need for lifelong vaccination. Currently many older persons have been vaccinated against selected pathogens during childhood but lack regular booster immunizations. The impact of regular vaccinations when started late in life was analyzed in an open, explorative trial by evaluating the immune response against tetanus and diphtheria in healthy older individuals. 252 persons aged above 60 years received a booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and polio and a subcohort (n=87 was recruited to receive a second booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis 5 years later. The percentage of unprotected individuals at the time of enrollment differed substantially for tetanus (12% and diphtheria (65%. Despite protective antibody concentrations 4 weeks after the first vaccination in almost all vaccinees, antibodies had again dropped below protective levels in 10% (tetanus and 45% (diphtheria of the cohort after 5 years. Protection was restored in almost all vaccinees after the second vaccination. No correlation between tetanus- and diphtheria-specific responses was observed, and antibody concentrations were not associated with age-related changes in the T cell repertoire, inflammatory parameters, or CMV-seropositivity suggesting that there was no general biological "non-responder type." Post-vaccination antibody concentrations depended on pre-existing plasma cells and B cell memory as indicated by a strong positive relationship between post-vaccination antibodies and pre-vaccination antibodies as well as antibody-secreting cells. In contrast, antigen-specific T cell responses were not or only weakly associated with antibody concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that single shot vaccinations against tetanus and/or diphtheria do not lead to long-lasting immunity in many elderly persons

  17. Recall Responses to Tetanus and Diphtheria Vaccination Are Frequently Insufficient in Elderly Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Birgit; Schirmer, Michael; Matteucci Gothe, Raffaella; Siebert, Uwe; Fuchs, Dietmar; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2013-01-01

    Demographic changes and a more active life-style in older age have contributed to an increasing public awareness of the need for lifelong vaccination. Currently many older persons have been vaccinated against selected pathogens during childhood but lack regular booster immunizations. The impact of regular vaccinations when started late in life was analyzed in an open, explorative trial by evaluating the immune response against tetanus and diphtheria in healthy older individuals. 252 persons aged above 60 years received a booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and polio and a subcohort (n=87) was recruited to receive a second booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis 5 years later. The percentage of unprotected individuals at the time of enrollment differed substantially for tetanus (12%) and diphtheria (65%). Despite protective antibody concentrations 4 weeks after the first vaccination in almost all vaccinees, antibodies had again dropped below protective levels in 10% (tetanus) and 45% (diphtheria) of the cohort after 5 years. Protection was restored in almost all vaccinees after the second vaccination. No correlation between tetanus- and diphtheria-specific responses was observed, and antibody concentrations were not associated with age-related changes in the T cell repertoire, inflammatory parameters, or CMV-seropositivity suggesting that there was no general biological “non-responder type.” Post-vaccination antibody concentrations depended on pre-existing plasma cells and B cell memory as indicated by a strong positive relationship between post-vaccination antibodies and pre-vaccination antibodies as well as antibody-secreting cells. In contrast, antigen-specific T cell responses were not or only weakly associated with antibody concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that single shot vaccinations against tetanus and/or diphtheria do not lead to long-lasting immunity in many elderly persons despite

  18. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  19. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process.

  20. Selecting services for a service robot: evaluating the problematic activities threatening the independence of elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc; Syrdal, Dag; Lehmann, Hagen; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Hewson, David

    2013-06-01

    Sustaining independent living for the elderly is desirable both for the individual as well as for societies as a whole. Substantial care interventions are provided to citizens supporting their independent living. Currently, such interventions are primarily based on human care provision, but due to demographic changes the demand for such support is continuously increasing. Assistive Robotics has the potential to answer this growing demand. The notions research towards service robots that support the independence of elderly people has been given increased attention. The challenge is to develop robots that are able to adequately support with those activities that pose the greatest problems for elderly people seeking to remain independent. In order to develop the capabilities of the Care-O-bot 3 in the ACCOMPANY project, problematic activities that may threaten continued independent living of elderly people were studied. Focus groups were conducted in the Netherlands, UK, and France and included three separate user groups: (1) elderly (N=41), (2) formal caregivers (N=40), and (3) informal caregivers (N=32). This resulted in a top 3 of problematic activity domains that received the highest priority: (1) Mobility, (2) Self-care, and (3) Social isolation. The findings inform the further development of the Care-O-bot. In the ACCOMPANY project the Care-O-bot 3 will be developed further to enable it to support independently living older persons in one of these domains.

  1. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Yasui, Tadashi; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force) as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES), left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. The ORF significantly improved trunk alignment and decreased ES activity in healthy

  2. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Lotte [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Buczynska, Anna [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Walgraeve, Christophe [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); Delcloo, Andy [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Van Grieken, Rene [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); De Backer, Hugo [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Nemery, Benoit, E-mail: ben.nemery@med.kuleuven.be [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  3. Personality traits influencing somatization symptoms and social inhibition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai WongpakaranFaculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition.Patients and methods: As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition.Results: Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2. “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should.Conclusion: “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly

  4. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Lobbezoo, F.; Visscher, C.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from demen

  5. Personal and environmental relationships among the elderly living in residential settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, R; Montorio, I; Fernández de Trocóniz, M I

    1998-01-01

    There is strong empirical evidence to support the influence of environmental and social factors in health and behavior among the institutionalized elderly. In order to assess personal and environmental relationships, 32 residential centers for the elderly and 1403 of their inhabitants were assessed using the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (SERA). Our principal findings were as follows: (1) relationships between individual variables (e.g. objective and subjective health, depression) and subjective variables (e.g. satisfaction); (2) the predictive power of the environment characteristics (e.g. policy choice) on the subjects functioning (e.g. level of activity); (3) residential satisfaction is the product of several personal variables (e.g. objective and perceived health), as well as of social environmental factors (e.g. physical comfort); and (4) very weak relationships were found between social climate dimensions and other environmental factors.

  6. Residential moves by elderly persons to U.S. central cities, suburbs, and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golant, S M

    1987-09-01

    The 1975-1980 migration stream and net migration patterns of persons younger than 65 and 65 + were examined using data from the 1980 U.S. Census. Central cities and suburbs of metropolitan areas (SMSAs) and nonmetropolitan areas (NonSMSAs) were distinguished as origins and destinations. Most elderly movers relocated within a fairly limited geographic context and revealed strong preferences for metropolitan living. Suburban locations were more favored than central city locations. Net migration findings may provide misleading interpretations of older movers' locational choices. The migration patterns of the 65 + population were similar to those of the 45- to 64-year-old population but differed from those of the more youthful U.S. populations. These findings highlight migration streams of elderly movers who likely have experienced changed in their life styles or personal resources.

  7. Felt and enacted stigma in elderly persons with epilepsy: A qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Carolyn; Drake, Kendra; Labiner, David M; Chong, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    Stigma is a common psychological consequence of chronic diseases, including epilepsy; however, little research has been done to determine the effect of stigma on persons with epilepsy, especially the elderly. We interviewed 57 older adults with epilepsy to discover the extent and consequences of, and reasons for, epilepsy-related stigma in their lives. Felt stigma was more frequently reported than enacted stigma, with over 70% having experienced this form of stigma. Participants described ignorance and fear of the disease as the foundation of epilepsy-related stigma. The most common response to stigmatizing events was a decrease in epilepsy disclosure to family or friends. Results from this study could inform interventions designed for elderly persons with epilepsy and their support networks, as well as educational campaigns for the general public.

  8. Progressive and imaginal relaxation training for elderly persons with subjective anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, F; Rickard, H C; Keith, S; Wilson, J; McElreath, L

    1992-09-01

    Elders exposed to either progressive or imaginal relaxation procedures reported significant relaxation effects and showed improvement on measures of personal functioning. The results of the Physical Assessment Scale of the Relaxation Inventory indicated that relaxation responses were acquired within and across sessions. Large, consistent changes in relaxation occurred in all 4 sessions. The Symptom Checklist-90-R, which measures self-reported personal adjustment, showed significant positive changes following relaxation training and at 1-month follow-up. Elders who imagined muscle tension release profited as much as those engaged in actual muscle tension-release activities. This finding is of importance for older adults who may experience physical limitations that contraindicate muscle-tension-release procedures.

  9. Ageing and Non-Formal Care for Elderly Persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ageing and depopulation are the fundamental demographic processes in the development of the population of Croatia. In the total population in 2001 the age group encompassing persons 65 years of age and older made up 15.7% of the total population. The age structure of the population is one of the essential determinants of the quality of lives of individuals, especially within the family. Based on an analysis of demographic indicators (the population structure, the ratio of females, the ageing index, the age coefficient, average age, age-dependency ratios, marital status, and a brief review of migration history in the second half of the 20th century, the goal of this paper is to evaluate the quality of non-formal care of the elderly in relation to potential care providers. Due to ageing in the total population of Croatia, due to a reduction in the number of children per family and separate residences of adult children and their elderly parents, the circle of main care providers for the elderly has diminished. With the decrease in the number of family members, increasingly frequent forms of single-parent families and the employment of women, who were traditionally the most important providers of all forms of non-formal care, insufficient care for the elderly within families has become a problem. Despite changes in the way of life, the family is still the basic source of emotional, informational and instrumental support for elderly people. The help and support that the elderly receive from friends is roughly equal in the city and in villages, although neighbourly help is somewhat greater in non-urban areas (for example in Istria and on the islands. However, researches confirm that the social network of support and help among the rural population has changed since the nineties of the last century. To a certain extent the support of friends and neighbours may substitute the lack of care by children, but a weaker network of homes for the elderly and

  10. Prostate cancer radiotherapy in elderly person; Radiotherapie du cancer de la prostate chez la personne agee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serre, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The author discusses the issue of prostate cancer radiotherapy in the case of elderly persons. The choice of the therapeutic strategy (local, hormonotherapy, simple monitoring) is complex. Different aspects must be considered: the carcinologic situation assessment, the patient health condition, the patient life expectancy, and the possible side effects of treatment. Radiotherapy appears to be a major therapeutic asset, but dose levels, toxicity effects must then be considered. Short communication

  11. Original article Personality superfactors and healthy behaviors of professional athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lipowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Personality traits seem to be excellent predictors of starting, continuing and discontinuing physical activity. Moreover, they constitute an important determinant of health-seeking behaviors. Therefore, consideration of personality-related variables may be helpful in explaining either motivation of athletes or the goals they achieve. Participants and procedure The study included 1229 individuals, among them 532 active athletes and 697 persons with no history of competitive sporting activities. The group of sportspersons included 286 team sport athletes, 124 representatives of individual sport disciplines and 125 combat sport athletes. Results The athletes were found to have moderate levels of all analyzed personality dimensions. Multiple regression analysis showed that personality traits explained 46% of variance in the level of Positive Psychological Attitudes (F = 4.0, p = 0.009 and 36% of variance in the level of Health Practices (F = 2.7, p = 0.043 presented by female combat sport athletes. Personality profile explained 30% of variance in the level of Proper Nutrition Habits (F = 7.8, p < 0.001 and 40% of variance in Positive Psychological Attitudes (F = 11.2, p < 0.001 of male combat sport athletes. Personality profile explained 38% of variance in the level of Proper Nutrition Habits (F = 7.2, p < 0.001 and 30% of variance in Positive Psychological Attitudes (F = 5.1, p = 0.001 presented by men who practiced individual sport disciplines. Conclusions Our study confirmed that the personality super-factors are associated with health-seeking behaviors of athletes regarding proper nutrition habits, positive psychological attitudes and health practices.

  12. Reliability of System Identification Techniques to Assess Standing Balance in Healthy Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available System identification techniques have the potential to assess the contribution of the underlying systems involved in standing balance by applying well-known disturbances. We investigated the reliability of standing balance parameters obtained with multivariate closed loop system identification techniques.In twelve healthy elderly balance tests were performed twice a day during three days. Body sway was measured during two minutes of standing with eyes closed and the Balance test Room (BalRoom was used to apply four disturbances simultaneously: two sensory disturbances, to the proprioceptive and the visual system, and two mechanical disturbances applied at the leg and trunk segment. Using system identification techniques, sensitivity functions of the sensory disturbances and the neuromuscular controller were estimated. Based on the generalizability theory (G theory, systematic errors and sources of variability were assessed using linear mixed models and reliability was assessed by computing indexes of dependability (ID, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC.A systematic error was found between the first and second trial in the sensitivity functions. No systematic error was found in the neuromuscular controller and body sway. The reliability of 15 of 25 parameters and body sway were moderate to excellent when the results of two trials on three days were averaged. To reach an excellent reliability on one day in 7 out of 25 parameters, it was predicted that at least seven trials must be averaged.This study shows that system identification techniques are a promising method to assess the underlying systems involved in standing balance in elderly. However, most of the parameters do not appear to be reliable unless a large number of trials are collected across multiple days. To reach an excellent reliability in one third of the parameters, a training session for participants is needed and at least seven trials of two

  13. Reliability of System Identification Techniques to Assess Standing Balance in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Jantsje H; Engelhart, Denise; Maier, Andrea B; Aarts, Ronald G K M; van Gerven, Joop M A; Arendzen, J Hans; Schouten, Alfred C; Meskers, Carel G M; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    System identification techniques have the potential to assess the contribution of the underlying systems involved in standing balance by applying well-known disturbances. We investigated the reliability of standing balance parameters obtained with multivariate closed loop system identification techniques. In twelve healthy elderly balance tests were performed twice a day during three days. Body sway was measured during two minutes of standing with eyes closed and the Balance test Room (BalRoom) was used to apply four disturbances simultaneously: two sensory disturbances, to the proprioceptive and the visual system, and two mechanical disturbances applied at the leg and trunk segment. Using system identification techniques, sensitivity functions of the sensory disturbances and the neuromuscular controller were estimated. Based on the generalizability theory (G theory), systematic errors and sources of variability were assessed using linear mixed models and reliability was assessed by computing indexes of dependability (ID), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC). A systematic error was found between the first and second trial in the sensitivity functions. No systematic error was found in the neuromuscular controller and body sway. The reliability of 15 of 25 parameters and body sway were moderate to excellent when the results of two trials on three days were averaged. To reach an excellent reliability on one day in 7 out of 25 parameters, it was predicted that at least seven trials must be averaged. This study shows that system identification techniques are a promising method to assess the underlying systems involved in standing balance in elderly. However, most of the parameters do not appear to be reliable unless a large number of trials are collected across multiple days. To reach an excellent reliability in one third of the parameters, a training session for participants is needed and at least seven trials of two minutes must be

  14. A shoe insole delivering subsensory vibratory noise improves balance and gait in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, Lewis A; Lough, Matthew; Niemi, James; Travison, Thomas; Howlett, Harold; Manor, Brad

    2015-03-01

    To test whether subsensory vibratory noise applied to the sole of the foot using a novel piezoelectric vibratory insole can significantly improve sensation, enhance balance, and reduce gait variability in elderly people, as well as to determine the optimal level of vibratory noise and whether the therapeutic effect would endure and the user's sensory threshold would remain constant during the course of a day. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study of 3 subsensory noise stimulation levels on 3 days. Balance and gait laboratory. Healthy community-dwelling elderly volunteers (N=12; age, 65-90y) who could feel the maximum insole vibration. A urethane foam insole with the piezoelectric actuators delivering subsensory vibratory noise stimulation to the soles of the feet. Balance, gait, and timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The vibratory insoles significantly improved performance on the TUG test, reduced the area of postural sway, and reduced the temporal variability of walking at both 70% and 85% of the sensory threshold and during the course of a day. Vibratory sensation thresholds remained relatively stable within and across study days. This study provides proof of concept that the application of the principle of stochastic resonance to the foot sole sensory system using a new low-voltage piezoelectric technology can improve measures of balance and gait that are associated with falls. Effective vibratory noise amplitudes range from 70% to 85% of the sensory threshold and can be set once daily. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive plasticity as a modulating variable on the effects of memory training in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, M Dolores; Navarro, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive plasticity is a topic of interest since it allows us to analyse the potential cognitive modifiability of a person. Previous research has demonstrated the existence of plasticity in old age [Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23(5), 611-626] regardless of presence or absence of cognitive deterioration [Calero, M. D., & Navarro, E. (2004). Relationship between plasticity, mild cognitive impairment and cognitive decline. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 653-660]. In this context, the present study was designed to analyse the presence of plasticity in elderly persons who seemed to present cognitive deterioration, and to explore the relation between cognitive plasticity and the results obtained from a memory training programme. One hundred and thirty-three elderly persons participated in the study and were evaluated by means of a cognitive plasticity test (Position test) and various tests for measuring the effects of the training. Part of the elderly population received the memory training, whose effects were measured immediately after the training and again after 9 months. The results demonstrate that the programme significantly improves cognitive performance, while plasticity is shown to be an important modulating variable on the improvement achieved.

  16. Intake and urinary amounts of biotin in Japanese elementary school children, college students, and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Biotin enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase are involved with the most basic metabolism. Thus, it is very important to monitor the biotin nutritional status for maintaining good health. We examined urinary excretion and the intake of biotin in a Japanese sample population of 60 boys and 36 girls (10-12 y), 37 male and 135 female college students (18-27 y), and 35 female elderly persons (70-84 y) living freely. All food consumed, and the corresponding weighing, for 4 consecutive days were recorded. A 24-hour urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urine biotin was measured. The urine biotin at the fourth day was 57.8, 50.9, 81.0, 66.2, and 82.3 nmol/day in boys, girls, male students, female students, and elderly persons, respectively. The average intake of biotin for 4 consecutive days was 35, 31, 28, 26, and 32 μg/day in boys, girls, male students, female students, and elderly persons, respectively.

  17. The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire predicts functioning styles of personality disorder: a trial in healthy subjects and personality-disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyi; He, Wei; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Wenjun; Chen, Wei; Shen, Mowei; Wang, Wei

    2011-04-30

    Normal personality traits, as measured by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), predicted some personality disorders in a sample of healthy volunteers. Whether these predictions could be more pronounced in patients with personality disorders remains unknown. We administered the ZKPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), which describes the functioning styles of personality disorder, in 134 patients with a range of personality disorders and in 268 age-, gender- and education level-matched healthy volunteers. Cluster A patients scored lowest on Sociability, cluster B highest on Impulsive Sensation Seeking and Aggression-Hostility, cluster C1 (Avoidant and Dependent types) highest on Neuroticism-Anxiety, and cluster C2 (Obsessive-Compulsive type) highest on Activity. Most of the predictors were consistent across both the healthy and patient groups. The variances that accounted for predicting most PERM styles by the ZKPQ traits in the patient group were higher than those in the healthy group. Our results showed that the ZKPQ traits could specifically predict the PERM styles in both healthy subjects and personality-disorder patients. This result was more pronounced in the latter group. The most powerful predictions were obtained for Antisocial, Dependent, Borderline and Avoidant styles, and the weakest for the Schizotypal and Schizoid styles in the patient group.

  18. Promoting a healthy lifestyle: towards an improved personalized feedback approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; Cabrita, M.; op den Akker, Harm; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2013-01-01

    Technology supported services for achieving a healthy lifestyle have shown their short term effects and are receiving increasing interest from the research community. However, long term adherence to these services is poor. This paper describes research-in-progress regarding the implementation of aut

  19. Promoting a healthy lifestyle: towards an improved personalized feedback approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, R.; Cabrita, M.; Akker, op den H.; Hermens, H.J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Technology supported services for achieving a healthy lifestyle have shown their short term effects and are receiving increasing interest from the research community. However, long term adherence to these services is poor. This paper describes research-in-progress regarding the implementation of aut

  20. Promoting a healthy lifestyle: towards an improved personalized feedback approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; Cabrita, M.; op den Akker, Harm; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2013-01-01

    Technology supported services for achieving a healthy lifestyle have shown their short term effects and are receiving increasing interest from the research community. However, long term adherence to these services is poor. This paper describes research-in-progress regarding the implementation of

  1. Exploring the within-person coupling of reading vision and cognition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherbee, Sarah R; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Allaire, Jason C

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the within-person relationship between reading vision and cognitive functioning. Analysis was conducted on 36 community-dwelling elderly (age range = 60-87) who completed a reading vision task and three cognitive tests (i.e., Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (AVLT), Letter Series, and Number Comparison) twice a day over 60 consecutive days. Significant within-person variability was found for the reading vision measure. Additionally, a main effect was found for reading vision and performance on the AVLT and Number Comparison task; such that on occasions when reading vision was poor, cognitive performance suffered.

  2. Central Nervous Insulin Administration before Nocturnal Sleep Decreases Breakfast Intake in Healthy Young and Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, João C. P.; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral insulin acts on the brain to regulate metabolic functions, in particular decreasing food intake and body weight. This concept has been supported by studies in humans relying on the intranasal route of administration, a method that permits the direct permeation of insulin into the CNS without substantial absorption into the blood stream. We investigated if intranasal insulin administration before nocturnal sleep, a period of reduced metabolic activity and largely absent external stimulation, affects food intake and energy turnover on the subsequent morning. Healthy participants who were either young (16 men and 16 women; mean age ± SEM, 23.68 ± 0.40 years, mean BMI ± SEM, 22.83 ± 0.33 kg/m2) or elderly (10 men, 9 women; 70.79 ± 0.81 years, 25.27 ± 0.60 kg/m2) were intranasally administered intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo before a night of regular sleep that was polysomnographically recorded. Blood was repeatedly sampled for the determination of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin and total ghrelin. In the morning, energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry and subjects were offered a large standardized breakfast buffet from which they could eat ad libitum. Insulin compared to placebo reduced breakfast size by around 110 kcal (1,054.43 ± 50.91 vs. 1,162.36 ± 64.69 kcal, p = 0.0095), in particular decreasing carbohydrate intake (502.70 ± 25.97 vs. 589.82 ± 35.03 kcal, p = 0.0080). This effect was not dependent on sex or age (all p > 0.11). Sleep architecture, blood glucose and hormonal parameters as well as energy expenditure were not or only marginally affected. Results show that intranasal insulin administered to healthy young and elderly humans before sleep exerts a delayed inhibitory effect on energy intake that is not compensated for by changes in energy expenditure. While the exact underlying mechanisms cannot be derived from our data, findings indicate a long-lasting catabolic effect of central nervous insulin delivery

  3. Cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy elderly after different intensities of dynamic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droguett, Viviane Santos López; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; de Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo; Marques, Douglas Porto; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the heart rate (HR) and its autonomic modulation at baseline and during dynamic postexercise (PEX) with intensities of 40% and 60% of the maximum HR in healthy elderly. Methods This cross-sectional study included ten apparently healthy people who had been submitted to a protocol on a cycle ergometer for 35 minutes. Autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral analysis of HR variability (HRV). Results A relevant increase in HR response was observed at 15 minutes postexercise with intensities of 60% and 40% of the maximum HR (10±2 bpm versus 5±1 bpm, respectively; P=0.005), and a significant reduction in HRV was also noted with 40% and 60% intensities during the rest period, and significant reduction in HRV (RR variance) was also observed in 40% and 60% intensities when compared to the baseline, as well as between the post-exercise intensities (1032±32 ms versus 905±5 ms) (P<0.001). In the HRV spectral analysis, a significant increase in the low frequency component HRV and autonomic balance at 40% of the maximum HR (68±2 normalized units [nu] versus 55±1 nu and 2.0±0.1 versus 1.2±0.1; P<0.001) and at 60% of the maximum HR (77±1 nu versus 55±1 nu and 3.2±0.1 versus 1.2±0.1 [P<0.001]) in relation to baseline was observed. A significant reduction of high frequency component at 40% and 60% intensities, however, was observed when compared to baseline (31±2 nu and 23±1 nu versus 45±1 nu, respectively; P<0.001). Moreover, significant differences were observed for the low frequency and high frequency components, as well as for the sympathovagal balance between participants who reached 40% and 60% of the maximum HR. Conclusion There was an increase in the HR, sympathetic modulation, and sympathovagal balance, as well as a reduction in vagal modulation in the elderly at both intensities of the PEX. PMID:25653509

  4. Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh A Sorond

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Farzaneh A Sorond1,2, Lewis A Lipsitz2,4, Norman K Hollenberg3,5, Naomi DL Fisher31Department of Neurology, Stroke Division; 2Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA; 3Department of Medicine, Endocrine-Hypertension Division; 4Department of Medicine, Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MABackground and Purpose: Cerebral ischemia is a common, morbid condition accompanied by cognitive decline. Recent reports on the vascular health benefits of flavanol-containing foods signify a promising approach to the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Our study was designed to investigate the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa (FRC consumption on cerebral blood flow in older healthy volunteers.Methods: We used transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound to measure mean blood flow velocity (MFV in the middle cerebral artery (MCA in thirty-four healthy elderly volunteers (72 ± 6 years in response to the regular intake of FRC or flavanol-poor cocoa (FPC.Results: In response to two weeks of FRC intake, MFV increased by 8% ± 4% at one week (p = 0.01 and 10% ± 4% (p = 0.04 at two weeks. In response to one week of cocoa, significantly more subjects in the FRC as compared with the FPC group had an increase in their MFV (p < 0.05.Conclusions: In summary, we show that dietary intake of FRC is associated with a significant increase in cerebral blood flow velocity in the MCA as measured by TCD. Our data suggest a promising role for regular cocoa flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.Keywords: cerebral blood flow, flavanol, cocoa, transcranial Doppler ultrasound

  5. Relationship among nutritional status, pro/antioxidant balance and cognitive performance in a group of free-living healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Trotti, R; Opizzi, A; Solerte, S B

    2007-12-01

    Nutrition plays a role in health promotion and well-being, but there is still a lack of knowledge about nutrition-related risk factors in aging cognitive impairment. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the link between nutritional status, cognitive performance and pro/antioxidant balance in healthy elderly subjects residing in a small metropolitan community. The subjects were 69 free-living urban healthy elderly people (41 females and 28 males aged 84+/-7 years, mean +/- standard deviation SD, range 70-89). In this group of elderly subjects an analysis of the diet over the 3 days before the study entry was performed. The nutrients intake for individuals were compared with the Italian Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). We also collected residents' background information, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA), and data on daily nursing routines in institutions, including nutritional care. Plasma malondialdehyde and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity were evaluated in elderly people as compared to a group of healthy young people (control group) as indices of the oxidative balance. The mean vitamin and mineral intake for participants met the RDAs except for calcium and vitamin D. No difference was observed as regards plasma malondialdehyde between young and elderly subjects: 4.5 (3-6.2) mmol/L vs 4.45 (2.4-5.8) mmol/L respectively, median with range, whereas the latter exhibited higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity: 16.0 (9.3-48) U/g hemoglobin (Hb) vs 15 (10-35) U/g Hb, respectively, median with range (Pnutritional factors on cognitive performance in older adults.

  6. A Case of Buccal Abscess from an Impacted Wisdom Tooth in an Elderly Person with Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of buccal abscess caused by an impacted wisdom tooth in an extremely elderly person with malnutrition. The patient was a 94-year-old man, who complained that he had found it hard to open his mouth and that his cheek had been swollen for the previous 2 weeks. He had a shallow oral wound caused by an improperly fitting denture; however, the wound became infected. We performed incisional drainage of the abscess under local anesthesia. The swelling disappeared and he was able to open his mouth 55 mm. The elderly have a high risk of healing failure of injuries and it has been reported that infection in a host in a compromised state is severely intractable. This elderly patient was in a compromised state because of malnutrition. Cases such as this one will increase as the elderly population increases. Dentists need to consider the quality of life of patients with a longer life expectancy and should offer patients several treatment options before their general condition deteriorates.

  7. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Predictors of institutionalization of elderly persons in dependency situation in Andalusia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Pulido, Sandra; Garrido Peña, Francisco; Reyes Alcázar, Víctor; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Raposo Triano, María Fernanda; Martínez Domene, Manuel; Alonso Trujillo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Identifying preferences regarding type of care and risk factors for institutionalization of elderly persons in dependency situations in Andalusia. The data on 200,039 persons registered in the System for Autonomy and Dependency Care over the period 2007-2012 were analysed. The study population was described in terms of: age, dependency situation, preferences, support network and clinical factors at the time of inclusion in the study. Separate analysis was made for men and women. A logistic regression model was designed to determine the risk factors for institutionalization for each sex. 87,4% of women and 85,9% of men expressed their wish to receive care in their own home. The risk of institutionalization is three times higher among men than among women. Among women, the risks of institutionalization are: level of dependency, wishing to move into a residential care home, medium consistency and fragility of support network and being diagnosed with dementia. Among men, the risks are: wishing to move into a residential care home and low or medium consistency of support network. Care in the home is the preferred alternative for elderly persons in dependency situations. The risk of institutionalization is conditioned more by the preferences of the person and their family and the characteristics of the support network than by individual's clinical condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. A person-centred segmentation study in elderly care: towards efficient demand-driven care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissens van der Laan, M R; van Offenbeek, M A G; Broekhuis, H; Slaets, J P J

    2014-07-01

    Providing patients with more person-centred care without increasing costs is a key challenge in healthcare. A relevant but often ignored hindrance to delivering person-centred care is that the current segmentation of the population and the associated organization of healthcare supply are based on diseases. A person-centred segmentation, i.e., based on persons' own experienced difficulties in fulfilling needs, is an elementary but often overlooked first step in developing efficient demand-driven care. This paper describes a person-centred segmentation study of elderly, a large and increasing target group confronted with heterogeneous and often interrelated difficulties in their functioning. In twenty-five diverse healthcare and welfare organizations as well as elderly associations in the Netherlands, data were collected on the difficulties in biopsychosocial functioning experienced by 2019 older adults. Data were collected between March 2010 and January 2011 and sampling took place based on their (temporarily) living conditions. Factor Mixture Model was conducted to categorize the respondents into segments with relatively similar experienced difficulties concerning their functioning. First, the analyses show that older adults can be empirically categorized into five meaningful segments: feeling vital; difficulties with psychosocial coping; physical and mobility complaints; difficulties experienced in multiple domains; and feeling extremely frail. The categorization seems robust as it was replicated in two population-based samples in the Netherlands. The segmentation's usefulness is discussed and illustrated through an evaluation of the alignment between a segment's unfulfilled biopsychosocial needs and current healthcare utilization. The set of person-centred segmentation variables provides healthcare providers the option to perform a more comprehensive first triage step than only a disease-based one. The outcomes of this first step could guide a focused and

  10. Compression or expansion of morbidity? Trends in healthy-life expectancy in the elderly Austrian population between 1978 and 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblhammer, G; Kytir, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of our study is to test the theories of compression or expansion of morbidity on the basis of data on the elderly population of Austria. Our data come from four microcensus surveys for the years 1978, 1983, 1991, and 1998. We use self-perceived health ratings to calculate healthy-life expectancy for the elderly population aged 60-89. Because our data are based on four cross-sectional surveys, we devote the first part of the paper to the consequences of possible sampling and non-sampling errors in our analysis of time trends. We come to the conclusion that, although the absolute number of years lived in good health may be overestimated, the time trend in healthy-life expectancy over the 20 years most probably is unbiased. The second part of the paper describes trends in healthy-life expectancy for the Austrian population. Our results suggest that both healthy-life expectancy and the ratio of healthy years to life expectancy increased between 1978 and 1998. Thus, in Austria ill health seems to be more and more compressed into the later years of life. Contrary to Fries's hypothesis, however, life expectancy does not seem to be approaching a maximum average life span in Austria, as mortality rates at older ages have been continuously decreasing over the last 20 years.

  11. Presence redefined: The reciprocal nature of engagement between elder-clowns and persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia; Miller, Karen-Lee; Mitchell, Gail Joyce; Stirling-Twist, Jan

    2015-04-23

    Elder-clowns are a recent innovation in arts-based approaches to person-centred dementia care. They use improvisation, humour, and empathy, as well as song, dance, and music. We examined elder-clown practice and techniques through a 12-week programme with 23 long-term care residents with moderate to severe dementia in Ontario, Canada. Analysis was based on qualitative interviews and ethnographic observations of video-recorded clown-resident interactions and practice reflections. Findings highlight the reciprocal nature of clown-resident engagement and the capacity of residents to initiate as well as respond to verbal and embodied engagement. Termed relational presence, this was achieved and experienced through affective relationality, reciprocal playfulness, and coconstructed imagination. These results highlight the often overlooked capacity of individuals living with dementia to be deliberately funny, playful, and imaginative. Relational presence offers an important perspective with which to rethink care relationships between individuals living with dementia and long-term care staff.

  12. Worsening diastolic function is associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose and increased left ventricular mass in a supra-additive fashion in an elderly, healthy, Swedish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Gerke, Oke;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were associated with worsening left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, independently of LV mass index (LVMI) in elderly, otherwise healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested cross-sectional associations between...

  13. Dynamic parameters of balance which correlate to elderly persons with a history of falls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse W Muir

    Full Text Available Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4, 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1. Center of pressure (COP was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the elderly with fall history, all measures but one were worse than those taken from young adults (e.g., maximal COP velocity was 2.7× greater in fallers than young adults; p<0.05, while three measures of balance were significantly worse in fallers as compared to older persons with no recent fall history (COP Displacement, Short Term Diffusion Coefficient, and Critical Displacement. Variance of elderly subjects' COP measures from the young adult cohort were weighted to establish a balance score ("B-score" algorithm designed to distinguish subjects with a fall history from those more sure on their feet. Relative to a young adult B-score of zero, elderly "non-fallers" had a B-score of 0.334, compared to 0.645 for those with a fall history (p<0.001. A weighted amalgam of postural sway elements may identify individuals at greatest risk of falling, allowing interventions to target those with greatest need of attention.

  14. Dynamic Parameters of Balance Which Correlate to Elderly Persons with a History of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Jesse W.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian; Magaziner, Jay; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4), 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1). Center of pressure (COP) was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the elderly with fall history, all measures but one were worse than those taken from young adults (e.g., maximal COP velocity was 2.7× greater in fallers than young adults; pbalance were significantly worse in fallers as compared to older persons with no recent fall history (COP Displacement, Short Term Diffusion Coefficient, and Critical Displacement). Variance of elderly subjects' COP measures from the young adult cohort were weighted to establish a balance score (“B-score”) algorithm designed to distinguish subjects with a fall history from those more sure on their feet. Relative to a young adult B-score of zero, elderly “non-fallers” had a B-score of 0.334, compared to 0.645 for those with a fall history (p<0.001). A weighted amalgam of postural sway elements may identify individuals at greatest risk of falling, allowing interventions to target those with greatest need of attention. PMID:23940592

  15. Effect of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota of elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward, Ruth; Montandon, Samantha; Walton, Gemma; Gibson, Glenn R

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbiota undergoes certain age related changes that may affect health. For example, above the age of 55-65 y, populations of bifidobacteria are known to decrease markedly. Bifidobacteria are known inhibitors of pathogenic microbes and a decrease in their activities may increase susceptibility to infections. There is therefore interest in trying to reverse their decline in aged persons. As the gut microbiota responds to dietary intervention, both probiotics and prebiotics have been tested in this regard. Probiotics are live microbes in the diet, whereas prebiotics are fermentable ingredients that specifically target components of the indigenous microbiota seen to be beneficial. We have published a recent paper demonstrating that prebiotic galactooligosaccharides can exert power effects upon bifidobacteria in the gut flora of elderly persons (both in vivo and in vitro). This addendum summarizes research that led up to this study and discusses the possible impact of prebiotics in impacting upon the gut health of aged persons.

  16. American Indian Elders' resilience: Sources of strength for building a healthy future for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Carmella B; Reinschmidt, Kerstin; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Oré, Christina E; Henson, Michele; Attakai, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This study examined American Indian (AI) elders' resilience to support an intervention to build resilience among AI urban youth. A literature review of peer-reviewed articles that address resilience in AI and other Indigenous elders yielded six studies that focused on intergenerational relationships, culture, and self-identity. In addition, a qualitative research project collected narratives with urban AI elders to document perceptions of resilience and resilience strategies. The combined outcomes of the literature search and research project revealed how resilience is exemplified in elders' lives and how resilience strategies are linked to cultural teachings and values, youth activities, and education.

  17. Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive abilities in elderly persons with hearing aids fitted at the initial stages of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Obuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relation between the use of hearing aids at the initial stages of hearing loss and age-related changes in the auditory and cognitive abilities of elderly persons. 12 healthy elderly persons participated in an annual auditory and cognitive longitudinal examination for three years. According to their hearing level, they were divided into 3 subgroups - the normal hearing group, the hearing loss without hearing aids group, and the hearing loss with hearing aids group. All the subjects underwent 4 tests: pure-tone audiometry, syllable intelligibility test, dichotic listening test (DLT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R Short Forms. Comparison between the 3 groups revealed that the hearing loss without hearing aids group showed the lowest scores for the performance tasks, in contrast to the hearing level and intelligibility results. The other groups showed no significant difference in the WAIS-R subtests. This result indicates that prescription of a hearing aid during the early stages of hearing loss is related to the retention of cognitive abilities in such elderly people. However, there were no statistical significant correlations between the auditory and cognitive tasks.

  18. Age-Related Changes in Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Elderly Persons with Hearing Aids Fitted at the Initial Stages of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, C; Harashima, T; Shiroma, M

    2011-05-10

    In this study, we investigated the relation between the use of hearing aids at the initial stages of hearing loss and age-related changes in the auditory and cognitive abilities of elderly persons. 12 healthy elderly persons participated in an annual auditory and cognitive longitudinal examination for three years. According to their hearing level, they were divided into 3 subgroups - the normal hearing group, the hearing loss without hearing aids group, and the hearing loss with hearing aids group. All the subjects underwent 4 tests: pure-tone audiometry, syllable intelligibility test, dichotic listening test (DLT), and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Short Forms. Comparison between the 3 groups revealed that the hearing loss without hearing aids group showed the lowest scores for the performance tasks, in contrast to the hearing level and intelligibility results. The other groups showed no significant difference in the WAIS-R subtests. This result indicates that prescription of a hearing aid during the early stages of hearing loss is related to the retention of cognitive abilities in such elderly people. However, there were no statistical significant correlations between the auditory and cognitive tasks.

  19. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  20. Association Between Extraversion and Exercise Performance Among Elderly Persons Receiving a Videogame Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Kosuke; Nishimura, Yuki; Matsuguma, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Shigekazu

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of an exergame intervention on exercise performance, as well as the influence of players' personality traits on the effects of the intervention. In total, 16 elderly persons (>65 years old) participated in the study for 12 weeks. Participants were required to complete the Big Five Scale. We measured the number of times that the sit-to-stand exercise was performed during the interventions with and without exergames. We compared the average number of times that the sit-to-stand exercise was performed per day in each of the two conditions. The average number of times that exercise was undertaken with exergame use was greater than that without exergame use; however, no significant difference was found. The difference between the average number of times that exercise occurred with and without exergame use was positively correlated with neuroticism, negatively correlated with extraversion, and not associated with conscientiousness. The intervention comprising the use of exergames has a positive motivational influence among less extraverted elderly persons.

  1. Zinc balance of twenty healthy elderly subjects consuming self-selected diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.; Prather, E.S.; Rhodes, D.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Dietary zinc (Zn) intake and balance were determined in ten male and ten female free-living, healthy, elderly subjects on self-selected diets over a period of seven consecutive days. Zn content in the diet, fecal and urine composites for each subject was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean age for the 20 participants was 73.9 years. Mean Zn intakes were 8.9 and 23.3 mg/day for females and males, respectively. Female dietary intakes ranged from 8.2 to 26.8 mg Zn/day. However, three of the males took Zn supplements which extended the total intake range to 64.9 mg/day. Mean Zn balances were +0.1 and +5.1 mg/day for females and males, respectively; ranges for females were {minus}0.1 to +4.3 mg/day and for males were {minus}7.3 to +15.1 mg/day. The 1989 RDAs are 15 mg for males and 12 mg for females. Only three females consumed more than 12 mg Zn/day. Only 2 males consumed more than 15 mg/day from their diet; two other males consumed more than 15 mg due to Zn supplements. Total dietary phytate (TDP) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were calculated from the 7-day weighed food records. Mean TDP intake for females was 1,159 mg/day; mean TDP for the males was 1,661 mg/day. Mean TDF intake for females was 19 g/day; mean TDF for males was 30 g/day.

  2. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  3. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC) and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26) and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23) were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25) but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23). Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions. PMID:21801440

  4. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, S.; Mendes, T.; Maroco, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Schmand, B.A.; de Mendonca, A.; Guerreiro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. Objective: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective M

  5. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment.

  6. Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: a 3-month follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Østerlind, Kell; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the quality of life (QoL) of newly diagnosed persons with cancer aged 65 years at baseline and 3 months after, in relation to age, contact with the healthcare system, activities of daily living, hope, social network and support using the European Organization for Research......-month follow-up. From the perspective of QoL, nurses need to address more specifically the most vulnerable elderly cancer patients: those who are dependent in instrumental activities of daily living, those who perceive reduced economic ability, and those who need assistance to discover new strategies...

  7. Social desirability and the measurement of psychological well-being in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, L L; Cone, J D

    1983-11-01

    The discriminant validity of two commonly used measures of life satisfaction was investigated. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, the Life Satisfaction Index-B, and two theoretically unrelated self-report measures were completed by 60 alumni of West Virginia University, aged 66 to 86 years. Convergent validity of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index-B was established (r = .64, p less than .0001), but both also correlated significantly with a measure of social desirability (r = .70 and .58, respectively, p less than .0001). The need for more basic work on measurement of life satisfaction in elderly persons was discussed.

  8. Art-therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J.M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging can be viewed as a continuation of development and an active interaction with the environment during which regressive changes are combined with progressive new formations. It is believed that the self-determining nature of subjectivity in the elderly mediates self-awareness and favors self-acceptance as an active agent that determines the outcomes of one’s own life at this age as an autonomous self-regulating subject of one’s own activity. A formative experience proved the efficiency of using art therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources during aging.

  9. The effects of Tai Chi on the balance control of elderly persons with visual impairment: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ellen W; Fu, Amy S N; Chan, K M; Tsang, William W N

    2012-03-01

    balance control is a major problem for older individuals with poor vision. There are limitations, however, for visually impaired elderly persons wishing to participate in exercise programmes. The benefits of Tai Chi for balance control, muscle strength and preventing falls have been demonstrated with sighted elderly subjects. This study was designed to extend those findings to elderly persons with visual impairment. to investigate the effects of Tai Chi on the balance control of elderly persons with visual impairment. randomised clinical trial. residential care homes. forty visually impaired persons aged 70 or over. the participants were randomly divided into Tai Chi and control groups and assessed pre- and post-intervention using three tests: (i) passive knee joint repositioning to test knee proprioception; (ii) concentric isokinetic strength of the knee extensors and flexors and (iii) a sensory organisation test to quantify an individual's ability to maintain balance in a variety of complex sensory conditions. after intervention, the Tai Chi participants showed significant improvements in knee proprioception and in their visual and vestibular ratios compared with the control group. practicing Tai Chi can improve the balance control of visually impaired elderly persons.

  10. Comparison of red blood cells from gastric cancer patients and healthy persons using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Su, Qinglong; Sheng, Daping; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare gastric cancer patients' red blood cells (RBCs) with healthy persons' RBCs. IR spectra were acquired with high resolution. The A1653/A1543 (the protein secondary structures), A1543/A2958 (the relative content of proteins and lipids), A1106/A1166 (the structure and content changes of sugars) and A1543/A1106 (the relative content of proteins and sugars) ratios of gastric cancer patients' RBCs were significantly different from those of healthy persons' RBCs. Curve fitting results showed that the protein secondary structures and sugars' structures had differences between gastric cancer patients' and healthy persons' RBCs. Additionally, FTIR spectroscopy could obtain 95% sensitivity, 70% specificity, 84.2% accuracy and 80.9% positive predictive value in combination with canconical discriminant analysis. The above results indicate FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for diagnosing gastric cancer.

  11. Comparison of serum from gastric cancer patients and from healthy persons using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Wu, Yican; Wang, Xin; Huang, Dake; Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun

    2013-12-01

    Since serum can reflect human beings' physiological and pathological conditions, FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare gastric cancer patients' serum with healthy persons' serum in this study. The H2959/H2931, H1646/H1550, H1314/H1243, H1453/H1400 and H1080/H1550 ratios were calculated, among these ratios, the H2959/H2931 ratio might be a standard for distinguishing gastric cancer patients from healthy persons. Then curve fitting was processed using Gaussian curves in the 1140-1000 cm-1 region, and the result showed that the RNA/DNA ratios of gastric cancer patients' serum were obviously lower than those of healthy persons' serum. The results suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  12. A Healthy Person: The Perceptions of Indonesian and Scandinavian Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Sevald; Kvigne, Kari; Aiyub, Ilyas; Gillund, Margrethe V; Hermansyah, Hasan; Nordström, Gun; Rystedt, Ingrid; Suwarni, Abubakar; Trollvik, Anne; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Hov, Reidun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing students in Indonesia and Scandinavia characterize a healthy person. Two hundred thirty-two nursing students from Indonesia, 50 students from Sweden, and 119 students from Norway participated by answering an open-ended question. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns of health in a cultural and national context. The characteristics of a healthy person were summarized in the theme "external and inner balance," which are intertwined because of the wholeness of self-image and appearance. The subcategories were having a strong and positive body image, feeling well and having inner harmony, following the rules of life, coping with challenges, and acting in unison with the environment. There were more similarities than differences between the Indonesian and Scandinavian nursing students' understanding of being a healthy person. The difference is that the Scandinavian students mentioned individuality, whereas the Indonesian students referred to collective values.

  13. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Hendel, Helle W

    2003-01-01

    mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body......The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  14. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body......The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  15. Reactions of healthy persons and persons suffering from allergic rhinitis when exposed to office dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschildt, Pernille; Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives Reactions to airborne office dust among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis were investigated. Methods Twelve healthy and 11 subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis were exposed to clean air [17 (SD 2) mg/m3] and office dust [439 (SD 68) mg/m3] for 245...... exposure, and some of the indications were in biologically unexplainable directions. No difference in the reactions to dust was observed between the healthy subjects and the subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis. Conclusion Dust does not seem to have objective or subjective effects on humans, as only...

  16. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  17. Being healthy: a grounded theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. "Being healthy" (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders' concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non-help seeking and "self" rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.

  18. Association between risk factors for injurious falls and new benzodiazepine prescribing in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvestre Marie-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to elderly patients' despite concerns about adverse effects leading to injurious falls. Previous studies have not investigated the extent to which patients with pre-existing risk factors for falls are prescribed benzodiazepines. The objective of this study is to assess if some of the risk factors for falls are associated with new benzodiazepine prescriptions in elderly persons. Methods Using provincial administrative databases, elderly Quebec residents were screened in 1989 for benzodiazepine use and non-users were followed for up to 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate potential predictors of new benzodiazepine use among patient baseline characteristics. Results In the 252,811 elderly patients who had no benzodiazepine prescription during the baseline year (1989, 174,444 (69% never filled a benzodiazepine prescription and 78,367 (31% filled at least one benzodiazepine prescription. In the adjusted analysis, several risk factors for falls were associated with statistically significant increases in the risk of receiving a new benzodiazepine prescription including the number of prescribing physicians seen at baseline (OR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.11–1.13, being female (OR: 1.20; 95% CI 1.18–1.22 or a diagnosis of arthritis (OR: 1.11; 95% CI 1.09–1.14, depression (OR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.35–1.49 or alcohol abuse (OR: 1.24; 95% CI 1.05–1.46. The strongest predictor for starting a benzodiazepine was the use of other medications, particularly anti-depressants (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.75–1.95. Conclusion Patients with pre-existing conditions that increase the risk of injurious falls are significantly more likely to receive a new prescription for a benzodiazepine. The strength of the association between previous medication use and new benzodiazepine prescriptions highlights an important medication safety issue.

  19. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging.

  20. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The progressively older population in developed countries is reflected in an increase in the number of people suffering from age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart and lung diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and dementia. The heterogeneity in biological aging, chronological age, and aging-associated disorders in humans have been ascribed to different genetic and environmental factors (i.e., diet, pollution, stress) that are closely linked to socioeconomic factors. The common denominator of these factors is the inflammatory response. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation during physiological aging and immunosenescence are intertwined in the pathogenesis of premature aging also defined as 'inflammaging.' The latter has been associated with frailty, morbidity, and mortality in elderly subjects. However, it is unknown to what extent inflammaging or longevity is controlled by epigenetic events in early life. Today, human diet is believed to have a major influence on both the development and prevention of age-related diseases. Most plant-derived dietary phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and regulate metabolic pathways and bioenergetics that can be translated into stable epigenetic patterns of gene expression. Therefore, diet interventions designed for healthy aging have become a hot topic in nutritional epigenomic research. Increasing evidence has revealed that complex interactions between food components and histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and chromatin remodeling factors influence the inflammaging phenotype and as such may protect or predispose an individual to many age-related diseases. Remarkably, humans present a broad range of responses to similar dietary challenges due to both genetic and epigenetic modulations of the expression of target proteins and key genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of the

  1. Chronic disease management: implementation and coordination of healthcare systems for depressed elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsson, Elisabeth; Holm, Anne Lise

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the research-based Chronic Care Model (CCM), discuss methods and summarise research recommendations for improving the care of depressed elderly persons. Interviews were conducted and state-of-the-art reviews employed. Three important areas emerged: (1) barriers to and facilitating factors in the implementation of the CCM; (2) the challenges involved in re-designing the delivery system and interdisciplinary team collaboration; and (3) empirical evidence pertaining to self-management support and how older persons manage to live with depressive ill-health. In conclusion, implementation research requires evidence-based knowledge, staff involvement and familiarity with the context in which development occurs.

  2. Childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles as predictors of anxiety among elderly caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigerson, H G; Shear, M K; Bierhals, A J; Zonarich, D L; Reynolds, C F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.

  3. Comparison of Hemoglobin Transmition Spectrums of Healthy Persons and Patients with Schizophrenia Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vlokh R.; Marsel L.; Vlokh I.; Moroz O.; Dudok K.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the study of human hemoglobin transmission spectrums that were divided into four groups: hemoglobin of healthy persons, patients with schizophrenia, persons and people with and without the prodrome of schizophrenia that are in genetic susceptibility with patients. The change of absorption spectrums of hemoglobin of these groups was determined. The shifting of transmission minimums of the hemoglobin that correspond to electronic transitions in the hemoglobin mol...

  4. [Do practices of learning activities improve the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults? From the viewpoint of a transfer effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hajime; Sun, Qin; Tsuchida, Noriaki; Ohkawa, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined influences of reading aloud and performing simple calculation on the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults, based on the findings that these tasks activated the prefrontal lobe. The elderly adults' memory and inhibitory functions were assesed by Short-Term memory, CST, Stroop, and SRC tasks, before and after intervention for 18 months. The study found that the learning group had significant improvement from the pre- to the post-test for the short-term memory, STM, CST, and Stroop tasks. On the other hand, there was significant decline over the 18 months in the control group which was given only the assessment tasks. These results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of cognitive training.

  5. Work–Life Integration and Workplace Rights for Domestic Workers in Support to Elderly Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our article shows that there is a real challenge in balancing work and family for employees working in support services in domestic work for elderly persons; their workplace rights on this issue are quite limited, and they depend largely on managers’ understanding and support. Given their difficult working conditions, these workers actually find quite a challenge in trying to reconcile work and family. Our article is based on a qualitative research mobilizing 33 semi-structured interviews with employees of the home care sector in the field of the social economy mainly but also in the private sector. We first present the concept of work–family and personal life, then the area of home care and domestic work for the elderly. Then, we present the particular challenges observed in reconciling work and family life, where possible by comparing men and women. The results highlight two major sources of differentiation: age and single parenthood. Those who are older highlight the fact that children have grown up, and they have (finally some time for themselves, even if their working conditions are difficult (broken schedules, etc.. In contrast, single women live a much more difficult situation concerning work–family, partly because of the lack of workplace rights on this issue and because of the poor working conditions for many (broken hours of work, low wages, difficult working conditions. We conclude with some recommendations, including the Right to request, which appears to be the best option, although it would need some further analysis.

  6. THE UNIVERSITY FOR SENIOR, ELDERLY PERSON. -THE STATE OF FUTURE LIFELONG LEARNING-

    OpenAIRE

    白井, 真理子; SHIRAI, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    In the society which an aging society progresses, and elderly people increase in number, elderly people's knowledge of life is property for society. The university of senior is a lifelong learning institution which can return elderly people's knowledge to society.

  7. Quality of private personal care for elderly people with a disability living at home: correlates and potential outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, Claudio; Vergani, Carlo

    2008-07-01

    To investigate correlates of the quality of private personal care for community-dwelling elderly people, this cross-sectional study enrolled 100 elderly outpatients living at home, along with their private aides and 88 informal caregivers, from May 2005 to January 2007. Cases were stratified according to the quality of private care as was described by both elderly participants and informal caregivers. In cases where the elderly person was suffering from overt cognitive impairment, only the opinions of the informal caregivers were taken into account. A comparison was made between the 'poor or fair care' group (n = 16), the 'intermediate care' group (n = 39) and the 'optimal care' group (n = 45). Considering the characteristics of private aides, there was a significant trend across the three groups in terms of language skills (P = 0.002) and level of distress with life conditions (P = 0.020). A statistical analysis performed on elderly participants without an overt cognitive impairment (n = 59) and informal caregivers showed an increase in the European Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale score in the elderly group [mean +/- standard deviation (SD) were, respectively, 45 +/- 23.2, 63.7 +/- 19.7 and 68.8 +/- 21.6; P = 0.007], and a decrease in the Caregiver Burden Inventory score (mean +/- SD were, respectively, 34.9 +/- 25.3, 26 +/- 17.7 and 17.6 +/- 14.6; P = 0.020) across the three groups. We found no significant difference between elderly people in the three groups in terms of social variables, functional and cognitive status, prevalence of depressive disorders and morbidity. Therefore, good language skills and non-distressing life conditions of private aides appeared to be correlates of an optimal quality of care for community-dwelling elderly people with a disability, and also a better quality of life for them and less distress for their informal caregivers appeared to be potential outcomes of the quality of personal care.

  8. Comparison of the static and dynamic balance performance in young, middle-aged, and elderly healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chen, Chia-Ling; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lau, Yiu-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Body sway increases with age. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data and the characteristics of balance performance in different age groups for balance strategy management. Healthy individuals (n = 107) were divided into young, middle-aged, and elderly groups, and assessed by computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) on a Smart Balance Master. The 6 subtests in the sensory organization tests (SOT) for the CDP were as follows: subtest 1, eyes open, fixed support platform; subtest 2, eyes closed, fixed platform; subtest 3, eyes open, fixed platform; subtest 4, eyes open, swaying platform; subtest 5, eyes closed, swaying platform; subtest 6, swaying visual surround, swaying platform. Motor balance control tests included the limit of stability (LOS) test at 75% of LOS in 8 directions and the left/right and forward/backward rhythmic weight shift (RWS) test. In the SOT, the elderly group demonstrated significantly lower average stability and maximal stability scores in subtests 4-6. This group also demonstrated a relatively lower average percentage of ankle strategy in subtests 4-6. In the motor control tests, the elderly group demonstrated a significantly higher overall reactive time and lower overall directional control in the LOS test, lower on-axis velocity during the forward/backward and left/right motor control test and a lower average percentage of forward/backward directional control in the RWS test. The elderly had a higher degree of postural imbalance and used hip strategy to a greater extent to maintain their balance, especially when standing on a swaying support surface in the absence of visual surround or with conflicted visual surround. The elderly required a longer reaction time and demonstrated lower directional control in balance performance.

  9. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the world health organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, N.; Geelen, A.; Streppel, M.T.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Orfanos, P.; Hooven, E.H. van den; Pikhart, H.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulou, A.; Bobak, M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kee, F.; Franco, O.H.; Park, Y.; Hallmans, G.; Tjonneland, A.; May, A.M.; Pajak, A.; Malyutina, S.; Kubinova, R.; Amiano, P.; Kampman, E.; Feskens, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly

  10. Effects of low light on the stability of the head and pelvis of the healthy elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in body stability of the elderly while walking on even surface ground under low light. [Subjects] Ten young males and ten elderly males participated in this experiment. [Methods] Each subject walked along a 7 m walkway five times at their preferred walking speed under normal (>300 lux, NORM) and low light conditions (

  11. Building the Group: Using Personal Affirming to Create Healthy Group Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Denise

    1995-01-01

    Group leaders who offer affirmations to participants in outdoor education encourage healthy relationships and group cohesion and increase individuals' self-esteem. Personal affirming includes actions and statements that make participants feel comfortable in their environment, support capable work, and encourage behavior change in a supportive and…

  12. Longevity candidate genes and their association with personality traits in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Lopez, Lorna M; de Moor, Marleen H M; Harris, Sarah E; Davies, Gail; Nutile, Teresa; Krueger, Robert F; Esko, Tõnu; Schlessinger, David; Toshiko, Tanaka; Derringer, Jaime L; Realo, Anu; Hansell, Narelle K; Pergadia, Michele L; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Sanna, Serena; Terracciano, Antonio; Madden, Pamela A F; Penninx, Brenda; Spinhoven, Philip; Hartman, Catherina A; Oostra, Ben A; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Eriksson, Johan G; Starr, John M; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metspalu, Andres; Wright, Margeret J; Heath, Andrew C; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Bierut, Laura J; Raikkonen, Katri; Martin, Nicholas G; Ciullo, Marina; Rujescu, Dan; Boomsma, Dorret I; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Human longevity and personality traits are both heritable and are consistently linked at the phenotypic level. We test the hypothesis that candidate genes influencing longevity in lower organisms are associated with variance in the five major dimensions of human personality (measured by the NEO-FFI and IPIP inventories) plus related mood states of anxiety and depression. Seventy single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six brain expressed, longevity candidate genes (AFG3L2, FRAP1, MAT1A, MAT2A, SYNJ1, and SYNJ2) were typed in over 1,000 70-year old participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 (LBC1936). No SNPs were associated with the personality and psychological distress traits at a Bonferroni corrected level of significance (P scale scores of 0.25 points, and 0.67 points in the restricted analysis of elderly cohorts (most aged >60 years). Because we selected a specific set of longevity genes based on functional genomics findings, further research on other longevity gene candidates is warranted to discover whether they are relevant candidates for personality and psychological distress traits. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  14. Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Tore C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is suggested to be a manifestation of depression or affective spectrum disorder. We measured the cognitive style of patients with FMS to assess personality styles in 44 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS by comparing them with 43 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 41 healthy controls (HC. Methods Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS. The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity. Results Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC. Conclusion These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.

  15. Associations of the 24-h activity rhythm and sleep with cognition : a population-based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, Annemarie I; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Ikram, M Arfan; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning changes with age, sleep, and the circadian rhythm. We investigated whether these factors are independently associated with different cognitive domains assessed in middle-aged and elderly persons. METHODS: In 1723 middle-aged and elderly persons (age 62 ± 9.4 years,

  16. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhira J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Junji Katsuhira,1 Ko Matsudaira,2 Tadashi Yasui,3 Shinno Iijima,4 Akihiro Ito4 1Department of Nursing and Rehabilitation Science at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare, Odawara, Kanagawa, 2Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Kawamura-Gishi Company, Ltd., Daito-shi, Osaka, 4Graduate School of International University of Health and Welfare, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan Purpose: Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Patients and methods: Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES, left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Results: Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these

  17. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis in an elderly person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Okubo, Yuko; Katano, Azusa; Sano, Ayako; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2015-02-01

    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare but often lethal severe fungal infection, which usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis in an elderly patient. Seven months after the surgical dissection of the involved skin, cutaneous mucormycosis recurred at the peripheral edge of the skin graft. Shortly subsequent to the administration of liposomal amphotericin B, the remaining skin lesion was excised again. M. irregularis is rarely but increasingly reported as a cause of mucormycosis in immunocompetent individuals, especially in Asian farmers. M. irregularis may be largely disseminated in the soils of Asia and thus the trivial trauma at the time of farm work may be a trigger for the onset. These cases tend to leave severe cosmetic damage even in healthy individuals, although the vital prognosis is not affected. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. DFT:B3LYP/3-21G theoretical insights on the confocal Raman experimental observations in skin dermis of healthy young, healthy elderly, and diabetic elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; Pereira, Liliane; dos Santos, Laurita; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Fávero, Priscila; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2016-12-01

    In the confocal Raman spectra of skin dermis, the band area in the spectral region of proline and hydroxyproline varies according to the age and health condition of the volunteers, classified as healthy young women, healthy elderly women, and diabetic elderly women. Another observation refers to the intensity variation and negative Raman shift of the amide I band. To understand these effects, we adopted a model system using the DFT/B3LYP:3-21G procedure, considering the amino acid chain formed by glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine, which interacts with two and six water molecules. Through these systems, polarizability variations were analyzed to correlate its values with the observed Raman intensities of the three groups of volunteers and to assign the vibrational spectra of the skin dermis. As a way to correlate other experimental trends, we propose a model of chemical reaction of water interchange between the bonding amino acids, in which water molecules are attached with glucose by hydrogen bonds. The theoretical results are in accordance with the observed experimental trends.

  19. Latent Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to deficits in goal-directed behavior in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Goal-directed behavior is well-known to show declines in elderly individuals, possibly because of alterations in dopaminergic neural transmission. The dopaminergic system is modulated by a number of other different factors. One of these factors, which has attracted a considerable amount of interest in neurobiology, but has only rarely been examined with respect to its possible modulatory role for cognitive functions in elderly individuals, is latent Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. Latent T. gondii infection may be of relevance to goal-directed behavior as it alters dopaminergic neural transmission. We examine goal-directed behavior in T. gondii IgG positive and negative elderly subjects in auditory distraction paradigm. We apply event-related potentials to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by latent T. gondii infection on a neurophysiological level. We show that latent T. gondii infection compromises the management of auditory distraction in elderly by specifically delaying processes of attentional allocation and disengagement. The results show that latent T. gondii infection is neglected but an important neurobiological modulator of cognitive functions in elderly individuals.

  20. Multiple OPR genes influence personality traits in substance dependent and healthy subjects in two American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Kranzler, Henry; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Shuang; Gelernter, Joel

    2008-10-05

    Personality traits are among the most complex quantitative traits. Certain personality traits are associated with substance dependence (SD); genetic factors may influence both. Associations between opioid receptor (OPR) genes and SD have been reported. This study investigated the relationship between OPR genes and personality traits in a case-control sample. We assessed dimensions of the five-factor model of personality in 556 subjects: 250 with SD [181 European-Americans (EAs) and 69 African-Americans (AAs)] and 306 healthy subjects (266 EAs and 40 AAs). We genotyped 20 OPRM1 markers, 8 OPRD1 markers, and 7 OPRK1 markers, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in these subjects. The relationships between OPR genes and personality traits were examined using MANCOVA, controlling for gene-gene interaction effects and potential confounders. Associations were decomposed by Roy-Bargmann Stepdown ANCOVA. We found that personality traits were associated as main or interaction effects with the haplotypes, diplotypes, alleles and genotypes at the three OPR genes (0.002 CAC/TAC had interaction effects on Openness (P = 0.010) after conservative correction for multiple testing. The present study demonstrates that the genes encoding the mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors may contribute to variation in personality traits. Further, the three OPR genes have significant interaction effects on personality traits. This work provides additional evidence that personality traits and SD have a partially overlapping genetic basis.

  1. Representation of elderly persons and women in published randomized trials of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P Y; Alexander, K P; Hammill, B G; Pasquali, S K; Peterson, E D

    2001-08-08

    Elderly persons and women were underrepresented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) prior to 1990. Since then, efforts have been made to correct these biases, but their effect is unclear. To determine whether the percentage of elderly persons and women in published clinical trials of acute coronary syndromes has increased and how this enrollment compared with disease prevalence. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched for English-language articles from January 1966 to March 2000 regarding myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or acute coronary syndromes. Additional data sources included meta-analyses, review articles, and cardiology textbooks. Estimates of community-based myocardial infarction rates came from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction and the Worcester Heart Study. Published RCTs of acute coronary syndrome patients were included and trials enrolling 50 patients or fewer, those without clinical end points, papers published in a language other than English, and unpublished manuscripts were excluded. Of 7645 studies identified, 593 RCTs were selected for review. The RCTs were abstracted by 2 of the authors for year of publication, source of support (ie, funding), pharmacotherapy, study phase, number of study sites, trial location, number of patients, mean age of the study population, and any age exclusion criteria for enrollment. The number of published RCTs with explicit age exclusions has declined from 58% during 1966-1990 to 40% during 1991-2000. Trial enrollment of patients aged 75 years or older increased from 2% for studies published during 1966-1990 to 9% during 1991-2000, but remains well below their representation among all patients with myocardial infarction (37%) in the United States. Enrollment of women has risen from 20% for studies published between 1966-1990 to 25% during 1991-2000, but remains well below their proportion of all patients with myocardial infarction (43%) in the United States. Attempts at making

  2. General psychiatric or depressive symptoms were not predictive for mortality in a healthy elderly cohort in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Otilia Cerveira

    Full Text Available Abstract General psychiatric symptoms may interfere with the ability of individuals to take care of their health, to get involved with activities and develop social abilities, thereby increasing risk of death. Objective: To evaluate general psychiatric symptoms as predictive factors for mortality in a community elderly cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods: 345 healthy elderly, aged ³60 years, from the catchment area of Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre were followed from 1996. Data for the present study were drawn from the period 1996-2004. General psychiatric symptoms (Self-Reporting Questionnaire - SRQ, depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Asberg depressive rating scale, and Mini Mental State Examination scores at baseline were included in the study. Socio-demographic, medical conditions, and functional capacity were also analyzed. The outcome was vital status at follow-up obtained from family members, hospital records and checked against official death registers. Results: Of the 345 baseline individuals, 246 were followed-up. The global mortality rate over the study period was 36.9% (N=90. Those who deceased during the period were older (73.5±7.5, more dependent overall, and more cognitively impaired than the living elderly (univariate analyses. In the logistic regression, only age (OR=0.93; p=0.003 and functional capacity (OR=0.22; p=0.007 remained significant in the final equation. Conclusion: Psychiatric symptoms presented no association with mortality in the present sample. Older age and functional incapacity were risk factors for mortality.

  3. The spiritual distress assessment tool: an instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalised elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Estelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although spirituality is usually considered a positive resource for coping with illness, spiritual distress may have a negative influence on health outcomes. Tools are needed to identify spiritual distress in clinical practice and subsequently address identified needs. This study describes the first steps in the development of a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods A three-step process was used to develop the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT: 1 Conceptualisation by a multidisciplinary group of a model (Spiritual Needs Model to define the different dimensions characterizing a patient's spirituality and their corresponding needs; 2 Operationalisation of the Spiritual Needs Model within geriatric hospital care leading to a set of questions (SDAT investigating needs related to each of the defined dimensions; 3 Qualitative assessment of the instrument's acceptability and face validity in hospital chaplains. Results Four dimensions of spirituality (Meaning, Transcendence, Values, and Psychosocial Identity and their corresponding needs were defined. A formalised assessment procedure to both identify and subsequently score unmet spiritual needs and spiritual distress was developed. Face validity and acceptability in clinical practice were confirmed by chaplains involved in the focus groups. Conclusions The SDAT appears to be a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in elderly hospitalised persons. Studies are ongoing to investigate the psychometric properties of the instrument and to assess its potential to serve as a basis for integrating the spiritual dimension in the patient's plan of care.

  4. A 7-year follow-up study of obstructive sleep apnoea in healthy elderly: The PROOF cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Hupin, David; Pichot, Vincent; Barthélémy, Jean Claude; Roche, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    Clinical and epidemiological cohort studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common but largely undiagnosed disorder in senior subjects, where progressive deterioration of the pathology would be expected as a consequence of the ageing processes. Our study examines the longitudinal progression of OSA over a 7-year period in a community-based sample of healthy subjects. The sample consisted of 284 volunteers, aged >65 years (52% women, 48% men) accepting clinical and instrumental follow-up at 7 years. OSA was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of ≥15. Between evaluations in the total sample, AHI slightly decreased from 17.8 ± 14 to 16.7 ± 11 with a decrease affecting more the hypopnoea index (P value being the only factor correlated to the degree of AHI decline. In elderlies, the severity and prevalence of OSA decrease progressively with ageing without effect of factors commonly influencing OSA severity. This trend may support the hypothesis that in healthy elderly, OSA is a phenomenon related to ageing. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. The patient as 'teacher': learning in the care of elderly persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, M; Grafström, M; Negussie, B; Winblad, B

    2000-05-01

    In 1996 HM Queen Silvia of Sweden started a non-governmental education programme with an integrated day-care unit devoted to elderly persons with dementia. A total of 18 Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) from various parts of Sweden took part in the year theoretical and practical education in dementia care. The purpose was to develop specialized skills in the particular field and more generally to develop mentor capabilities. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of the trainees, gained from following a single patient during their entire practical training period in the school's integrated day-care unit. The study was based on a combination of participant observations, interviews, diaries and recorded data and used an ethnographic approach. The results showed that themes such as 'personal guide', 'creating a relationship', 'reducing the working pace' and 'investigative mealtimes' were of major importance for the trainees' learning. In their role as 'personal guides', the trainees fell into six categories with different educational focuses. In their relationships with the patients, the trainees were able to form their own impressions of the patients' present and former lives. By training their ability to adapt the pace at which they worked, they had time to observe symptoms and be aware of the patients' needs, as well as the patients' signs of appreciation. The results also indicated that 'investigative mealtimes' can be an important element in the trainee's education in dementia care.

  6. Factors Associated with Teenagers' Willingness to Volunteer with Elderly Persons: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Yehudit; Werner, Perla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with teenagers' willingness to volunteer with elderly persons using an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Participants consisted of 258 ninth-grade students at a large high school in the northern part of Israel. Participants completed a structured…

  7. Associations between delusion proneness and personality structure in non-clinical participants: Comparison between young and elderly samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laroi, F.; Van der Linden, M.; DeFruyt, F.; Van Os, J.; Aleman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prev

  8. Associations between delusion proneness and personality structure in non-clinical participants : Comparison between young and elderly samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laroi, Frank; Van der Linden, Martial; DeFruyt, Filip; van Os, Jim; Aleman, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prev

  9. Factors Associated with Teenagers' Willingness to Volunteer with Elderly Persons: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Yehudit; Werner, Perla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with teenagers' willingness to volunteer with elderly persons using an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Participants consisted of 258 ninth-grade students at a large high school in the northern part of Israel. Participants completed a structured…

  10. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Larissa J; Wunderli, Michael D; Vonmoos, Matthias; Römmelt, Andreas T; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Schaub, Michael P; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH) use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  11. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  12. Comparing Personality Dimensions and coping Strategies in Healthy Individuals and Heart Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heart disease is a psycho-physiological disorder that in addition to physical and biological factors, psychological factors such as stressful events, personality traits and coping strategies play an important role in its occurrence and exacerbation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate personality dimensions and stress-coping strategies within healthy individuals compared with heart patients. Methods: In this analytical-comparative study, 50 patients with heart disease(26 males and 24 females and 50 healthy subjects (28 males and 22 females were selected. The participants were required to respond to the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ-R and Folkman and Lazarus’s stress-coping strategies questionnaire. In order to analyze the studydata, descriptive indicators and independent t-test were applied using SPSS software(ver, 19 and  the significance level was set at α= 0/01. Findings: The study results revealed a significant defference between heart patients and healthy individuals in terms of personality dimensions, neuroticism, and psychoticism, though no significant difference was observed in regard with emotion-focused coping strategies between the two groups. In the present study, the effect of gender was also examined on personality dimensions and coping strategies. Moreover, extraversion features as well as emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies were demonstrated to differ significantly between males and females. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that heart patients seem to be more anxious, fearful, violent, aggressive and fast developing for anxiety, depression and aggression compared to healthy individuals who apply emotion-oriented coping style dealing with the problems.

  13. Effects of low light on the stability of the head and pelvis of the healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in body stability of the elderly while walking on even surface ground under low light. [Subjects] Ten young males and ten elderly males participated in this experiment. [Methods] Each subject walked along a 7 m walkway five times at their preferred walking speed under normal (>300 lux, NORM) and low light conditions (LOW). To compare the changes in body stability, the root mean square of acceleration (RMSacc) at the head and pelvis was used. [Results] The results show that the body stability of young adults showed a similar RMSacc in all directions at the head and pelvis between the normal and low light walking conditions. In contrast, the RMSacc in all directions at the head and pelvis during low light walking by elderly adults was significantly greater than that of normal light walking. [Conclusion] It was confirmed that, despite walking on even ground, low light condition affects the body stability of the elderly. To clearly evaluate the effect of low light with aging on gait pattern, further study will be necessary to perform additional experiments under various environmental conditions to investigate walking speed, multi-tasking, stairs, and uneven walkway performance.

  14. Comparison of performance on three neuropsychological tests in healthy Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate neuropsychological tests for cross-cultural assessment of dementia in elderly ethnic and linguistic minorities are generally lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the Recall of Pictures Test (RPT), Clock Reading Test (CRT...

  15. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and dual HBV-hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in apparently healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehar-Cioflec, D; Claici, C; Roşiu, N; Negrea, D A; Moldovan, R; Coşniţă, M

    1998-01-01

    The main aims of the present study were to evaluate the transfusional risk concerning HBV and HBV-HDV infections and the prevalence of viral serum markers in apparently healthy persons. Our study included 226 apparently healthy persons in whom we performed tests for HBV (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb) and HDV (Delta Ab) serum markers, using the enzyme immunoassay. In 45 (19.9%) subjects we detected serum HBsAg. In the 181 HBsAg-negative apparently healthy persons, our tests detected HBsAb (31 subjects) and HBcAb (49 subjects). Thus, 125 (55.3%) of the 226 apparently healthy persons had serologic evidence of past HBV infections. Delta Ab were detected in 3 (1.3%) of our subjects. We must state that one of the three Delta Ab-positive apparently healthy persons tested negative for both HBsAg and HBcAb.

  16. Personal Genome Sequencing in Ostensibly Healthy Individuals and the PeopleSeq Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderman, Michael D; Nielsen, Daiva E; Green, Robert C

    2016-03-25

    Thousands of ostensibly healthy individuals have had their exome or genome sequenced, but a much smaller number of these individuals have received any personal genomic results from that sequencing. We term those projects in which ostensibly healthy participants can receive sequencing-derived genetic findings and may also have access to their genomic data as participatory predispositional personal genome sequencing (PPGS). Here we are focused on genome sequencing applied in a pre-symptomatic context and so define PPGS to exclude diagnostic genome sequencing intended to identify the molecular cause of suspected or diagnosed genetic disease. In this report we describe the design of completed and underway PPGS projects, briefly summarize the results reported to date and introduce the PeopleSeq Consortium, a newly formed collaboration of PPGS projects designed to collect much-needed longitudinal outcome data.

  17. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-10-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  18. Semantic Behavior Therapy and Psychosocial Variables in the Treatment of Chronic Pain in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    This study explored the efficacy of semantic behavior therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain in elderly patients as well as the relationships among pain, physical health, personality, and social characteristics in this population. The sample consisted of 8 elderly persons who had osteoarthritis of the knee, and 11 healthy elderly…

  19. Short-term practice effects and variability in cognitive testing in a healthy elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Siersma, V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the elderly is a subject of intense focus. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding definition of significant decline in connection with repeated testing and the interpretation of cognitive tests results must take into account the practice effect and variab...... was evaluated on 7 neuropsychological measures and reference values of clinically important changes were calculated according to z-scores above 1.96. RESULTS: Test scores improved significantly (p...

  20. Attentional demands of cued walking in healthy young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, C Lieke E; Oorthuizen, Jolanda K; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2012-07-01

    Acoustic and visual cues are frequently used in gait rehabilitation. Attuning the steps to the cues is attentionally demanding. We examined the attentional demands of walking to two types of cues using a probe reaction time (RT) task. The steps were cued by either metronome beeps or visual stepping stones projected on a treadmill. The coupling between gait and these cues was assessed using a perturbation paradigm. In view of age-related changes in attentional demands of motor control, both elderly and young adults were tested. RTs were determined for walking to the two types of cues, as well as for three control conditions, viz. uncued walking, standing, and sitting. For all conditions, RTs were higher for elderly adults. However, the difference between elderly and young adults did not vary over conditions. Uncued walking required more attention than did standing and sitting. The attentional demands were further elevated during cued walking, with larger RTs for walking to visual stepping stones than to metronome beeps. Because the coupling to the cues was superior in the stepping stones condition, this type of cues seems to aid cued walking by allocating higher levels of attention to task-relevant information (viz. future footfall positions). Hence, the observed differences between the two cueing types may be associated with the natural dependence of gait on visual information.

  1. Yoga reduces perceived stress and exhaustion levels in healthy elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Eric; Tilton, Katherine; Eickholt, Nicole; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether a 7-week yoga intervention could improve physical function, perceived stress, and mental/emotional wellness in elderly participants. 8 participants (66.5 ± 0.3 years) attended 2 60-min Hatha yoga sessions/week for 7 weeks, and performed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Balance was assessed using a 5-test battery. Flexibility was measured by sit-and-reach and shoulder flexibility tests. Functional mobility tests included 8-ft up-and-go, 5 chair stands, and 4-m walk. Participants completed SF-12, exhaustion level, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. SF-12 Mental Component Summary scores, exhaustion levels, and PSS scores improved post-intervention. No differences were found for physical function measures. Yoga participation can improve mental/emotional wellness, exhaustion levels, and stress levels in elderly individuals, even without measurable improvements in physical function. Clinicians and health practitioners who work with the elderly should consider yoga as a potential therapeutic modality for improving important aspects of quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO gene is associated with reduced brain volume in the healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, April J; Stein, Jason L; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Hibar, Derrek P; Leow, Alex D; Dinov, Ivo D; Toga, Arthur W; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Foroud, Tatiana; Pankratz, Nathan; Huentelman, Matthew J; Craig, David W; Gerber, Jill D; Allen, April N; Corneveaux, Jason J; Stephan, Dietrich A; DeCarli, Charles S; DeChairo, Bryan M; Potkin, Steven G; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Raji, Cyrus A; Lopez, Oscar L; Becker, James T; Carmichael, Owen T; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-05-04

    A recently identified variant within the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is carried by 46% of Western Europeans and is associated with an approximately 1.2 kg higher weight, on average, in adults and an approximately 1 cm greater waist circumference. With >1 billion overweight and 300 million obese persons worldwide, it is crucial to understand the implications of carrying this very common allele for the health of our aging population. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with brain atrophy, but it is unknown how the obesity-associated risk allele affects human brain structure. We therefore generated 3D maps of regional brain volume differences in 206 healthy elderly subjects scanned with MRI and genotyped as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We found a pattern of systematic brain volume deficits in carriers of the obesity-associated risk allele versus noncarriers. Relative to structure volumes in the mean template, FTO risk allele carriers versus noncarriers had an average brain volume difference of approximately 8% in the frontal lobes and 12% in the occipital lobes-these regions also showed significant volume deficits in subjects with higher BMI. These brain differences were not attributable to differences in cholesterol levels, hypertension, or the volume of white matter hyperintensities; which were not detectably higher in FTO risk allele carriers versus noncarriers. These brain maps reveal that a commonly carried susceptibility allele for obesity is associated with structural brain atrophy, with implications for the health of the elderly.

  3. A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO gene is associated with reduced brain volume in the healthy elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jason L.; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Hibar, Derrek P.; Leow, Alex D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Foroud, Tatiana; Pankratz, Nathan; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Craig, David W.; Gerber, Jill D.; Allen, April N.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Stephan, Dietrich A.; DeCarli, Charles S.; DeChairo, Bryan M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Raji, Cyrus A.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Thompson, Paul M.; Weiner, Michael; Thal, Leon; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Gamst, Anthony; Potter, William Z.; Montine, Tom; Anders, Dale; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; Bandy, Dan; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Trojanowki, John; Shaw, Les; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Harvey, Danielle; Gamst, Anthony; Kornak, John; Kachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Vorobik, Remi; Quinn, Joseph; Schneider, Lon; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan; Fleisher, Adam S.; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Badger, Beverly; Grossman, Hillel; Tang, Cheuk; Stern, Jessica; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Bach, Julie; Duara, Ranjan; Isaacson, Richard; Strauman, Silvia; Albert, Marilyn S.; Pedroso, Julia; Toroney, Jaimie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; De Santi, Susan M; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Aiello, Marilyn; Clark, Christopher M.; Pham, Cassie; Nunez, Jessica; Smith, Charles D.; Given II, Curtis A.; Hardy, Peter; DeKosky, Steven T.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Porsteinsson, Anton; McCallum, Colleen; Cramer, Steven C.; Mulnard, Ruth A.; McAdams-Ortiz, Catherine; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Laubinger, Mary M.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Lu, Po H.; Fletcher, Rita; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin; Herring, Scott; Hake, Ann M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Bifano, Laurel A.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Graham, Simon; Caldwell, Curtis; Feldman, Howard; Assaly, Michele; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Gitelman, Darren; Johnson, Nancy; Mesulam, Marsel; Sadowsky, Carl; Villena, Teresa; Mesner, Scott; Aisen, Paul S.; Johnson, Kathleen B.; Behan, Kelly E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Ashford, Wes; Sabbagh, Marwan; Connor, Donald; Obradov, Sanja; Killiany, Ron; Norbash, Alex; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni; Wang, Paul; Auchus, Alexander P.; Huang, Juebin; Friedland, Robert P.; DeCarli, Charles; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Kittur, Smita; Mirje, Seema; Johnson, Sterling C.; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Highum, Diane; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre N.; Hendin, Barry A.; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Beversdorf, David Q.; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Gandy, Sam; Marenberg, Marjorie E.; Rovner, Barry W.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Pare, Nadia; Williamson, Jeff D.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Potter, Huntington; Ashok Raj, B.; Giordano, Amy; Ott, Brian R.; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Cohen, Ronald; Wilks, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    A recently identified variant within the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is carried by 46% of Western Europeans and is associated with an ~1.2 kg higher weight, on average, in adults and an ~1 cm greater waist circumference. With >1 billion overweight and 300 million obese persons worldwide, it is crucial to understand the implications of carrying this very common allele for the health of our aging population. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with brain atrophy, but it is unknown how the obesity-associated risk allele affects human brain structure. We therefore generated 3D maps of regional brain volume differences in 206 healthy elderly subjects scanned with MRI and genotyped as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We found a pattern of systematic brain volume deficits in carriers of the obesity-associated risk allele versus noncarriers. Relative to structure volumes in the mean template, FTO risk allele carriers versus noncarriers had an average brain volume difference of ~8% in the frontal lobes and 12% in the occipital lobes—these regions also showed significant volume deficits in subjects with higher BMI. These brain differences were not attributable to differences in cholesterol levels, hypertension, or the volume of white matter hyperintensities; which were not detectably higher in FTO risk allele carriers versus noncarriers. These brain maps reveal that a commonly carried susceptibility allele for obesity is associated with structural brain atrophy, with implications for the health of the elderly. PMID:20404173

  4. Differences in waiting list prioritization preferences of occupational therapists, elderly people and persons with disabilities: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Demers, Louise; Feldman, Debbie E

    2017-08-07

    To compare the preferences of occupational therapists, elderly people and adults with disabilities regarding prioritization criteria for occupational therapy waiting lists in home care. Discrete choice experiment survey. Respondents completed eight choice tasks where they were asked to choose which of two referral scenarios should be prioritized for services. Scenarios varied in terms of four attributes reflecting competing issues that come into play in waiting list prioritization: the person's ability to shower, ability to enter and exit the home, history of falls and time already spent on the waiting list. The survey was mailed to occupational therapists working in home care and community-dwelling elderly or disabled persons. Not applicable. 241 home-based occupational therapists, 226 elderly persons from a bank of research participants and 247 adults with physical disabilities recruited through community organizations. The dependent variable was whether the referral scenario was prioritized or not in each question. Results were analyzed through logistic regression using conditional logit models. Prioritization preferences differed between groups (p Occupational therapists most strongly prioritized people who had had a few falls (OR vs. no falls = 48.9) whereas elderly people and adults with disabilities most strongly prioritized people who were unable to enter and exit the home (OR vs. no difficulty entering and exiting the home = 30.8 for elderly people and 16.9 for persons with disabilities.) CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the gap between the priorities of home-based occupational therapists and their target clientele. Although further inquiry is needed to inform priority-setting, the findings emphasize the importance of public or patient involvement in decisions on waiting list prioritization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  6. Reliable integrative assessment of health care needs in elderly persons : The INTERMED for the Elderly (IM-E)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Beate; Lechner, Sabine; Maatouk, Imad; Wesche, Daniela; Raum, Elke; Mueller, Heiko; Brenner, Hermann; Slaets, Joris; Huyse, Frits; Soellner, Wolfgang; Herzog, W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: With the increasing prevalence of multiple conditions in older age, the high prevalence of mental disorders, and the many social challenges facing elderly people, a high-risk patient group in need of interdisciplinary (biological, psychological, and social) care is emerging. The INTERMED

  7. Spectral analysis of heart rate dynamics in elderly persons with postprandial hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ruthazer, R.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that postprandial hypotension in elderly persons may be due to defective sympathetic nervous system activation. We examined autonomic control of heart rate (HR) after a meal using spectral analysis of HR data in 13 old (89 +/- 6 years) and 7 young (24 +/- 4 years) subjects. Total spectral power, an index of overall HR variability, was calculated for the frequency band between 0.01 and 0.40 Hz. Relatively low-frequency power, associated with sympathetic nervous system and baroreflex activation, was calculated for the 0.01 to 0.15 Hz band. High-frequency power, representing parasympathetic influences on HR, was calculated for the 0.15 to 0.40 Hz band. Mean arterial blood pressure declined 27 +/- 8 mm Hg by 60 minutes after the meal in elderly subjects, compared with 9 +/- 8 mm Hg in young subjects (p less than or equal to 0.0001, young vs old). The mean change in low-frequency HR power from 30 to 50 minutes after the meal was +19.4 +/- 25.3 U in young subjects versus -0.1 +/- 1.5 U in old subjects (p less than or equal to 0.02). Mean change in total power was also greater in young (19.0 +/- 26.6 U) subjects compared with old subjects (0.0 +/- 1.6 U, p greater than or equal to 0.02). Mean ratio of low:high-frequency power increased 3.1 +/- 3.3 U in young subjects vs 0.5 +/- 2.7 U in old subjects (p less than or equal to 0.01). The increase in low-frequency HR power and in the low:high frequency band ratio in young subjects is consistent with sympathetic activation in the postprandial period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Atrial Fibrillation in Chinese Elderly: Results from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choy-Lye Chei; Prassanna Raman; Chi Keong Ching; Zhao-Xue Yin; Xiao-Ming Shi; Yi Zeng; David B Matchar

    2015-01-01

    Background:Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing as the world ages.AF is associated with higher risk of mortality and disease,including stroke,hypertension,heart failure,and dementia.Prevalence of AF differs with each population studied,and research on non-Western populations and the oldest old is scarce.Methods:We used data from the 2012 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey,a community-based study in eight longevity areas in China,to estimate AF prevalence in an elderly Chinese population (n =1418,mean age =85.6 years) and to identify risk factors.We determined the presence of AF in our participants using single-lead electrocardiograms.The weighted prevalence of AF was estimated in subjects stratified according to age groups (65-74,75-84,85-94,95 years and above) and gender.We used logistic regressions to determine the potential risk factors of AF.Results:The overall prevalence of AF was 3.5%; 2.4% of men and 4.5% of women had AF (P < 0.05).AF was associated with weight extremes of being underweight or overweight/obese.Finally,advanced age (85-94 years),history of stroke or heart disease,low high-density lipoprotein levels,low triglyceride levels,and lack of regular physical activity were associated with AF.Conclusions:In urban elderly,AF prevalence increased with age (P < 0.05),and in rural elderly,women had higher AF prevalence (P < 0.05).Further exploration of population-specific risk factors is needed to address the AF epidemic.

  9. Being healthy: A Grounded Theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmi Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. “Being healthy” (the core category with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders’ concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non–help seeking and “self” rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.

  10. Gender differences of disturbed hemostasis related to fasting insulin level in healthy very elderly Japanese aged > or = 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, K; Matsuo, T; Kobayashi, H; Sakata, T; Miyata, T; Shimada, K

    1995-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between fasting insulin level and various hemostatic factors, including fibrinolytic factors (active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA)-PAI-1 complex, plasmin-alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (PIC), and D-dimer), coagulation factors (activated factor VII, factor VII coagulant activity and antigen, factor VIII, factor X, and fibrinogen), coagulation inhibitors (antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, and protein C), and an acute phase marker (sialic acid) in 102 healthy individuals aged > or = 75 years (46 men and 56 women). Active PAI-1 levels had a significant negative correlation with PIC levels (r = -0.342, P = 0.0006), indicating that PAI-1 influences in vivo fibrinolytic activity in the very elderly. Gender differences were found in the relationship between insulin and hemostatic abnormalities, with the insulin level being positively correlated with coagulation factors in men (factor VIII activity: r = 0.422, P sex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Evaluation of the psychoeducation given to the elderly at nursing homes for a healthy lifestyle and developing life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambağ, Hatice; Öz, Fatma

    2013-12-01

    The research was carried out as a pre-test, post-test patterned intervention with one group in order to evaluate the psychoeducation given to older people at nursing homes for a healthy lifestyle and developing life satisfaction. The research was done with 21 female and 21 male older people staying at the state-owned Seyran Bağlari Nursing Home/Elderly Caring Rehabilitation Center and the Ümitköy Nursing Home. In the psychoeducation program, each session was conducted for a duration of 60-90 min in the nursing homes' education classrooms. After the psychoeducation program, the life satisfaction index, the health promotion lifestyle profile total, and the subscale (nutrition, health responsibility, self realization, stress management, interpersonal support, and exercise) mean scores, significantly increased statistically. It is suggested that the nursing homes' health workers, and especially nurses who work full-time, should promote such psychoeducation.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ranitidine and famotidine in healthy elderly subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, C; St-Laurent, M; Michaud, J T; LeBel, M

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ranitidine and famotidine were studied in 13 healthy elderly volunteers. On 3 mornings separated by a 1-week wash-out period, each subject received a single oral dose of ranitidine 300 mg, famotidine 40 mg, and placebo in a crossover, randomized fashion with double-dummy administration. Plasma and urine concentrations of ranitidine and famotidine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intragastric pH was measured for 24-hours with an antimony probe. Famotidine's plasma half-life (4.42 hrs) was significantly longer than ranitidine's (3.14 hrs, p 4) was similar for ranitidine and famotidine, 10.3 and 9.9 hours, respectively (p = 0.713, paired Student's t test). Thus both agents exhibited a similar duration of 24-hour antisecretory response under these study conditions.

  13. Hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy young men and elderly men with normal serum folate concentration is not associated with poor vascular reactivity or oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Sandra; Ronco, Ana María; Vasquez, Marcela; de la Maza, María Pía; Garrido, Argelia; Barrera, Gladys; Gattas, Vivien; Glasinovic, Andrea; Leiva, Laura; Bunout, Daniel

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism by which homocysteine (Hcy) causes endothelial dysfunction is probably mediated by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on endothelial function in young and elderly hyperhomocysteinemic (HHcy) men. A total of 35 HHcy (Hcy > 15 micro mol/L), young (n = 15; 20-40 y) and elderly men (n = 20; > 65 y) and 33 normohomocysteinemic (NHcy; controls) young (n = 14) and elderly (n = 19) men (Hcy < 13 micro mol/L), without classic cardiovascular risk factors were recruited. Serum Hcy, folate, and vitamin B-12, whole-blood glutathione, plasma total antioxidants status, TBARS, and 8-F(2alpha) isoprostanes were determined. Noninvasive ultrasound measurements of endothelium-dependent (EDVR) and -independent dilatation (EIVR) were performed. EDVR, EIVR, and markers of oxidative stress did not differ among the groups. Folate concentrations were higher in elderly than in young men (P < 0.001), independent of Hcy concentrations. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were lower in HHcy than in NHcy elderly men (P < 0.045). EDVR was correlated with folate concentrations in young men (r = 0.40, P = 0.04) and negatively with BMI in elderly men (r = -0.52, P = 0.002). In the present study, HHcy with normal serum folate concentrations was not associated with poor EDVR or oxidative stress in healthy young and elderly men.

  14. Effects of unilateral leg muscle fatigue on balance control in perturbed and unperturbed gait in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Marcel J P; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Dekker, Joost; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed effects of unilateral leg muscle fatigue (ULMF) on balance control in gait during the stance and swing phases of the fatigued leg in healthy elderly, to test the assumption that leg muscle strength limits balance control during the stance-phase. Ten subjects (aged 63.4, SD 5.5 years) walked on a treadmill in 4 conditions: unperturbed unfatigued, unperturbed fatigued, perturbed unfatigued, and perturbed fatigued. The perturbations were lateral trunk pulls just before contralateral heel contact. ULMF was evoked by unilateral squat exercise until task failure. Isometric knee extension strength was measured to verify the presence of muscle fatigue. Between-stride standard deviations and Lyapunov exponents of trunk kinematics were used as indicators of balance control. Required perturbation force and the deviation of trunk kinematics from unperturbed gait were used to assess perturbation responses. Knee extension strength decreased considerably (17.3% SD 8.6%) as a result ULMF. ULMF did not affect steady-state gait balance. Less force was required to perturb subjects when the fatigued leg was in the stance-phase compared to the swing-phase. Subjects showed a faster return to the unperturbed gait pattern in the fatigued than in the unfatigued condition, after perturbations in swing and stance of the fatigued leg. The results of this study are not in line with the hypothesized effects of leg muscle fatigue on balance in gait. The healthy elderly subjects were able to cope with substantial ULMF during steady-state gait and demonstrated faster balance recovery after laterally directed mechanical perturbations in the fatigued than in the unfatigued condition.

  15. Verbal and visuospatial executive functions in healthy elderly: The impact of education and frequency of reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Damiani Branco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the predictive role of education and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH on the cognitive flexibility, inhibition and planning abilities of healthy elderly individuals. Methods: Fifty-seven healthy adults aged between 60 and 75 years with 2 to 23 years of formal education were assessed as to the frequency with which they read and wrote different types of text, as well as their number of years of formal education. Executive functions were evaluated using the Hayling Test and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MWCST. Results: Weak to moderate positive correlations were found between education, FRWH and the number of categories completed in the MWCST, while negative correlations were identified between these variables and the number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors on the task. Only the FRWH was significantly correlated with the number of failures to maintain set. Speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test were only correlated with participant education. Both education and FRWH significantly predicted performance on the MWCST, and the combination of these two variables had a greater predictive impact on performance on this task than either of the two variables alone. Variability in scores on the Hayling Test was best accounted for by participant education. Conclusion: In this sample of elderly subjects, cognitive flexibility was sufficiently preserved to allow for adequate performance on verbal tasks, but may have benefitted from the additional stimulation provided by regular reading and writing habits and by formal education in the performance of more complex non-verbal tasks.

  16. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold hea...

  17. Total hip arthroplasty versus hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in the healthy elderly: A meta-Analysis and systematic review of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.P.W. Burgers (Paul); A.R. van Geene (Arnoud); M.P.J. van den Bekerom (Michel); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); B. Blom (Bastiaan); I.S. Aleem (Ilyas); M. Bhandari (Mohit); R.W. Poolman (Rudolf)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose Displaced femoral neck fractures in healthy elderly patients have traditionally been managed with hemiarthroplasty (HA). Recent data suggest that total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be a better alternative. Methods A systematic review of the English literature was conducted.

  18. Ambulatory recorded ST segment depression on ECG is associated with lower cognitive function in healthy elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sölve Elmståhl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sölve Elmståhl, Linda FuruängDepartment of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, SwedenAbstract: ST segment depression (STDE has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Studies of the relation of ambulatory STDE to cognitive function in elderly persons aged 80 years or above is lacking.Objective: To study the association between STDE and cognition.Design and participants: A cross-sectional cohort study of 88 81-year-old men from the population study “Men born in 1914” investigated in an outpatient research clinic. Measurements included ambulatory 24-hour electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring and a cognitive test battery of six tests. Proportion of lower cognitive function was calculated for each test in relation to STDE during the day and at night-time.Results: Fifty-eight percent of the men had STDE and a higher proportion with low visuospatial cognitive function was found among those with STDE compared to the others (84% vs 59%; p = 0.014. A significant trend was noted for subjects without STDE compared to STDE night-time less than 60 minutes and night-time more than 60 minutes for spatial and verbal cognitive functions (p = 0.022. No trends were noted for STDE daytime. Maximal STDE during night showed similar association to spatial function (Benton Visual Retention test, r = -0.26; p = 0.028. Even when seven subjects with a history of stroke were excluded, the occurrence of STDE was associated to lower visuospatial cognitive function compared to those without STDE (87% vs 57%; p = 0.004.Conclusion: ST segment depression on ECG is common among elderly men and might be a vascular risk factor for cognitive deterioration.Keywords: aged 80 and over, ST segment depression, ambulatory long-term ECG, cognition, cohort study, risk factors

  19. Better than counting seconds: Identifying fallers among healthy elderly using fusion of accelerometer features and dual-task Timed Up and Go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Moacir; Bet, Patricia; Oliveira, Caroline L; Castro, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    Devices and sensors for identification of fallers can be used to implement actions to prevent falls and to allow the elderly to live an independent life while reducing the long-term care costs. In this study we aimed to investigate the accuracy of Timed Up and Go test, for fallers' identification, using fusion of features extracted from accelerometer data. Single and dual tasks TUG (manual and cognitive) were performed by a final sample (94% power) of 36 community dwelling healthy older persons (18 fallers paired with 18 non-fallers) while they wear a single triaxial accelerometer at waist with sampling rate of 200Hz. The segmentation of the TUG different trials and its comparative analysis allows to better discriminate fallers from non-fallers, while conventional functional tests fail to do so. In addition, we show that the fusion of features improve the discrimination power, achieving AUC of 0.84 (Sensitivity = Specificity = 0.83, 95% CI 0.62-0.91), and demonstrating the clinical relevance of the study. We concluded that features extracted from segmented TUG trials acquired with dual tasks has potential to improve performance when identifying fallers via accelerometer sensors, which can improve TUG accuracy for clinical and epidemiological applications.

  20. Better than counting seconds: Identifying fallers among healthy elderly using fusion of accelerometer features and dual-task Timed Up and Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Patricia; Oliveira, Caroline L.; Castro, Paula C.

    2017-01-01

    Devices and sensors for identification of fallers can be used to implement actions to prevent falls and to allow the elderly to live an independent life while reducing the long-term care costs. In this study we aimed to investigate the accuracy of Timed Up and Go test, for fallers’ identification, using fusion of features extracted from accelerometer data. Single and dual tasks TUG (manual and cognitive) were performed by a final sample (94% power) of 36 community dwelling healthy older persons (18 fallers paired with 18 non-fallers) while they wear a single triaxial accelerometer at waist with sampling rate of 200Hz. The segmentation of the TUG different trials and its comparative analysis allows to better discriminate fallers from non-fallers, while conventional functional tests fail to do so. In addition, we show that the fusion of features improve the discrimination power, achieving AUC of 0.84 (Sensitivity = Specificity = 0.83, 95% CI 0.62-0.91), and demonstrating the clinical relevance of the study. We concluded that features extracted from segmented TUG trials acquired with dual tasks has potential to improve performance when identifying fallers via accelerometer sensors, which can improve TUG accuracy for clinical and epidemiological applications. PMID:28448509

  1. Age-specific incidence of hip fracture in the elderly: a healthy decline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Green, C

    2012-02-01

    Hip fractures in the elderly are an important source of morbidity and mortality. The predicted increase in the number of hip fractures due to the increasing elderly population has not been universally observed. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of hip fractures over a twenty year period to determine if this rise is occurring in our region. All hip fractures from the unit over 20 years were identified. Population data for those over 65 in the catchment area of our hospital was acquired. The rate of fractures occurring each year relative to the population was determined. The results were split into age groups. There was a strong correlation between the population rise and number of fractures (p = 0.77). But there was no significant difference in the rate of fracture over time (p = 0.41). However, the average age at which fracture occurred increased by two years. In addition we show the overall trend in the rate of fractures decreases in the younger age groups and increases in the older age groups. Therefore, the predicted rapid increase in rate is not occurring. This probably reflects the strengthening of the economy in Ireland from the 1930\\'s onwards, leading to a healthier population.

  2. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  3. Recognition of facial emotion and perceived parental bonding styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Rongrong; He, Wei; Jiang, Zhengyan; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Wang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Early parental bonding experiences play a role in emotion recognition and expression in later adulthood, and patients with personality disorder frequently experience inappropriate parental bonding styles, therefore the aim of the present study was to explore whether parental bonding style is correlated with recognition of facial emotion in personality disorder patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Matsumoto and Ekman Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) photo set tests were carried out in 289 participants. Patients scored lower on parental Care but higher on parental Freedom Control and Autonomy Denial subscales, and they displayed less accuracy when recognizing contempt, disgust and happiness than the healthy volunteers. In healthy volunteers, maternal Autonomy Denial significantly predicted accuracy when recognizing fear, and maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness. In patients, paternal Care negatively predicted the accuracy of recognizing anger, paternal Freedom Control predicted the perceived intensity of contempt, maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness, and the intensity of disgust. Parenting bonding styles have an impact on the decoding process and sensitivity when recognizing facial emotions, especially in personality disorder patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Differentiation between early rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy persons by conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Ejbjerg, B J; Hetland, M L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameter that best differentiates healthy persons and patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigated responsiveness to treatment of various MRI parameters. METHOD: Conventional MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE......)-MRI of the hand were performed once for 26 healthy persons, and before and after 6 and 12 months of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment for 14 early RA patients, using a 1.0-T MRI unit. One-slice DCE-MRI was analysed using Dynamika version 4.2. The number of enhancing voxels (Nvoxel...... was demonstrated in 61.5% of healthy persons and in 91.7% of RA patients at baseline, with a median Nvoxel of 3 and 362, respectively. At baseline, all parameters were higher for patients than for healthy persons (all p ≤ 0.003). Only one patient had a baseline RAMRIS synovitis score below the 95th percentile...

  5. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Personal meaning in the elderly: sources of meaning, welfare, coping and attitude to death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranst, N V; Marcoen, A

    1996-02-01

    There are many different ways to experience one's life and aging as meaningful. The present study looks for different patterns of personal meaning in the elderly. Respondents were 376 older adults (221 women and 155 men), their mean age was 65.9 years. They completed several standardized questionnaires including measures of sources of meaning (SOMP), ultimate meaning (PMI), life satisfaction (LSIA), depression (SRDS), anxiety (STAI), coping orientations (COAP), and death attitudes (DAP-R). A cluster analysis performed on the sources of meaning revealed three groups each with a different pattern of meaning. The smallest group I (n=23) found most meaning in values that indicate self-preoccupation. Self-transcendent sources of meaning were on the top of the hierarchy of values of the second group II (n=123). The third and largest group III (n=230) valued self-transcendent sources of meaning as well as sources of meaning that indicate self-realisation. The three clusters also differed with regard to ultimate meaning (group I having the highest and group III the lowest score), well-being (group I reporting more depressive feelings and more feelings of anxiety than group II and group III), coping with aging (group III reporting most instrumental coping), and death attitude (group II having the most positive attitude).

  7. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P fitness...

  8. Development and Validation of an Interactive Internet Platform for Older People: The Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongstra, Susan; Beishuizen, Cathrien; Andrieu, Sandrine; Barbera, Mariagnese; van Dorp, Matthijs; van de Groep, Bram; Guillemont, Juliette; Mangialasche, Francesca; van Middelaar, Tessa; Moll van Charante, Eric; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Richard, Edo

    2017-02-01

    A myriad of Web-based applications on self-management have been developed, but few focus on older people. In the face of global aging, older people form an important target population for cardiovascular prevention. This article describes the full development of an interactive Internet platform for older people, which was designed for the Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly (HATICE) study. We provide recommendations to design senior-friendly Web-based applications for a new approach to multicomponent cardiovascular prevention. The development of the platform followed five phases: (1) conceptual framework; (2) platform concept and functional design; (3) platform building (software and content); (4) testing and pilot study; and (5) final product. We performed a meta-analysis, reviewed guidelines for cardiovascular diseases, and consulted end users, experts, and software developers to create the platform concept and content. The software was built in iterative cycles. In the pilot study, 41 people aged ≥65 years used the platform for 8 weeks. Participants used the interactive features of the platform and appreciated the coach support. During all phases adjustments were made to incorporate all improvements from the previous phases. The final platform is a personal, secured, and interactive platform supported by a coach. When carefully designed, an interactive Internet platform is acceptable and feasible for use by older people with basic computer skills. To improve acceptability by older people, we recommend involving the end users in the process of development, to personalize the platform and to combine the application with human support. The interactive HATICE platform will be tested for efficacy in a multinational randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN48151589).

  9. Personalized Coaching Systems to support healthy behavior in people with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, H; op den Akker, H; Tabak, M; Wijsman, J; Vollenbroek, M

    2014-12-01

    Chronic conditions cannot be cured but daily behavior has a major effect on the severity of secondary problems and quality of life. Changing behavior however requires intensive support in daily life, which is not feasible with a human coach. A new coaching approach - so-called Personal Coaching Systems (PCSs) - use on-body sensing, combined with smart reasoning and context-aware feedback to support users in developing and maintaining a healthier behavior. Three different PCSs will be used to illustrate the different aspects of this approach: (1) Treatment of neck/shoulder pain. EMG patterns of the Trapezius muscles are used to estimate their level of relaxation. Personal vibrotactile feedback is given, to create awareness and enable learning when muscles are insufficiently relaxed. (2) Promoting a healthy activity pattern. Using a 3D accelerometer to measure activity and a smartphone to provide feedback. Timing and content of the feedback are adapted real-time, using machine-learning techniques, to optimize adherence. (3) Management of stress during daily living. The level of stress is quantified using a personal model involving a combination of different sensor signals (EMG, ECG, skin conductance, respiration). Results show that Personal Coaching Systems are feasible and a promising and challenging way forward to coach people with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resting brain perfusion and selected vascular risk factors in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    with circulating homocysteine, but not with asymmetric dimethylarginine, dyslipidemia or the carotid intima-media thickness. The relative regional brain perfusion was associated with circulating homocysteine, with a relative parietal hypoperfusion and a frontal hyperperfusion. No effect on regional brain perfusion......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both cerebral hypoperfusion and vascular risk factors have been implicated in early aging of the brain and the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the current knowledge of the importance of cardiovascular health on resting brain perfusion is limited. The aim...... of the present study was to elucidate the relation between brain perfusion variability and risk factors of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in healthy aged subjects. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects aged 50-75 years old were included. Mean global brain perfusion was measured using magnetic...

  11. Cuidadores del adulto mayor residente en asilos Caretakers of elderly persons living in asylums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reitera el incremento que en los últimos años ha tenido la población de adultos mayores, hecho que repercute en el número también cada vez más alto de personas residentes en asilos para ancianos, lugares que por lo regular dependen del estado y cuyas características tanto materiales como su infraestructura en cuanto a personal especializado para atender a las personas que ahí viven, deja mucho que desear. Este último aspecto es el punto cardinal de este trabajo, ya que los cuidadores, trátese de enfermeras, psicólogo, médicos, trabajadoras sociales, entre otros, realizan un papel crucial en el funcionamiento de tales instituciones. El cuidador, al igual que los residentes, es un ser humano, con una carga inherente a la labor que realiza y que, además, transita por todas las emociones o conflictos que implica desempeñar su puesto, al igual que los que cuida, necesita ser cuidado y atendido para el logro del bienestar de ambos.This article underlines the increase in the population of elderly persons that has occurred in recent years and has resulted in ever-increasing numbers of residents living in asylums for the aged, or old people’s homes. Such institutions are generally dependent on the state, and their material characteristics as well as their infrastructure in regard to the specialized personnel for attending to the people residing there leave much to be desired. This last aspect is the central point of this work since the caretakers, be they nurses, psychologists, doctors, social workers or others, perform a crucial role in the functioning of such institutions. The caretaker, like the residents, is a human being with a duty that is inherent in his/her work and who, in addition, is subject to all the emotions or conflicts that the job implies. Just like the persons under his care, he requires care and attention in order to maintain the well-being of all those concerned.

  12. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Influence on the Rheological Properties of Healthy Persons Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marcinkowska-Gapinska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of magnetic field on whole blood rheological properties remains a weakly known phenomenon. An in vitro analysis of the magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of healthy persons blood is presented in this work. The study was performed on blood samples taken from 25 healthy nonsmoking persons and included comparative analysis of the results of both the standard rotary method (flow curve measurement and the oscillatory method known also as the mechanical dynamic analysis, performed before and after exposition of blood samples to magnetic field. The principle of the oscillatory technique lies in determining the amplitude and phase of the oscillations of the studied sample subjected to action of a harmonic force of controlled amplitude and frequency. The flow curve measurement involved determining the shear rate dependence of blood viscosity. The viscoelastic properties of the blood samples were analyzed in terms of complex blood viscosity. All the measurements have been performed by means of the Contraves LS40 rheometer. The data obtained from the flow curve measurements complemented by hematocrit and plasma viscosity measurements have been analyzed using the rheological model of Quemada. No significant changes of the studied rheological parameters have been found.

  13. Analysis of the magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of healthy persons blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska-Gapinska, Anna; Nawrocka-Bogusz, Honorata

    2013-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on whole blood rheological properties remains a weakly known phenomenon. An in vitro analysis of the magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of healthy persons blood is presented in this work. The study was performed on blood samples taken from 25 healthy nonsmoking persons and included comparative analysis of the results of both the standard rotary method (flow curve measurement) and the oscillatory method known also as the mechanical dynamic analysis, performed before and after exposition of blood samples to magnetic field. The principle of the oscillatory technique lies in determining the amplitude and phase of the oscillations of the studied sample subjected to action of a harmonic force of controlled amplitude and frequency. The flow curve measurement involved determining the shear rate dependence of blood viscosity. The viscoelastic properties of the blood samples were analyzed in terms of complex blood viscosity. All the measurements have been performed by means of the Contraves LS40 rheometer. The data obtained from the flow curve measurements complemented by hematocrit and plasma viscosity measurements have been analyzed using the rheological model of Quemada. No significant changes of the studied rheological parameters have been found.

  14. Attitudinal Change in Elderly Citizens Toward Social Robots: The Role of Personality Traits and Beliefs About Robot Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damholdt, Malene F; Nørskov, Marco; Yamazaki, Ryuji; Hakli, Raul; Hansen, Catharina Vesterager; Vestergaard, Christina; Seibt, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes toward robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three parameters: (i) the information provided about robot functionality, (ii) the number of encounters, (iii) personality type. Fourteen elderly residents at a rehabilitation center participated. Pre-encounter attitudes toward robots, anthropomorphic thinking, and personality were assessed. Thereafter the participants interacted with a tele-operated robot (Telenoid) during their lunch (c. 30 min.) for up to 3 days. Half of the participants were informed that the robot was tele-operated (IC) whilst the other half were naïve to its functioning (UC). Post-encounter assessments of attitudes toward robots and anthropomorphic thinking were undertaken to assess change. Attitudes toward robots were assessed with a new generic 35-items questionnaire (attitudes toward social robots scale: ASOR-5), offering a differentiated conceptualization of the conditions for social interaction. There was no significant difference between the IC and UC groups in attitude change toward robots though trends were observed. Personality was correlated with some tendencies for attitude changes; Extraversion correlated with positive attitude changes to intimate-personal relatedness with the robot (r = 0.619) and to psychological relatedness (r = 0.581) whilst Neuroticism correlated negatively (r = -0.582) with mental relatedness with the robot. The results tentatively suggest that neither information about functionality nor direct repeated encounters are pivotal in changing attitudes toward robots in elderly citizens. This may reflect a cognitive congruence bias where the robot is experienced in congruence with initial attitudes, or it may support action-based explanations of cognitive dissonance reductions

  15. Attitudinal change in elderly citizens towards social robots: the role of personality traits and beliefs about robot functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Flensborg Damholdt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes towards robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three parameters: (i the information provided about robot functionality, (ii the number of encounters, (iii personality type. Fourteen elderly residents at a rehabilitation centre participated. Pre-encounter attitudes towards robots, anthropomorphic thinking, and personality were assessed. Thereafter the participants interacted with a tele-operated robot (Telenoid during their lunch (c. 30 min. for up to three days. Half of the participants were informed that the robot was tele-operated (IC whilst the other half were naïve to its functioning (UC. Post-encounter assessments of attitudes towards robots and anthropomorphic thinking were undertaken to assess change. Attitudes towards robots were assessed with a new generic 35-item questionnaire (Attitudes towards social robots scale: ASOR-5, offering a differentiated conceptualization of the conditions for social interaction.There was no significant difference between the IC and UC groups in attitude change towards robots though trends were observed. Personality was correlated with some tendencies for attitude changes; Extraversion correlated with positive attitude changes to intimate-personal relatedness with the robot (r=.619 and to psychological relatedness (r=.581 whilst Neuroticism correlated negatively (r=-.582 with mental relatedness with the robot. The results tentatively suggest that neither information about functionality nor direct repeated encounters are pivotal in changing attitudes towards robots in elderly citizens. This may reflect a cognitive congruence bias where the robot is experienced in congruence with initial attitudes, or it may support action-based explanations of cognitive dissonance

  16. Determination of the optimal walking speed for neural relaxation in healthy elderly women using electromyogram and electroencephalogram analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Shimura, M; Shibata, S; Wakamura, T; Moritani, T

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the walking speed which has the greatest influence on neural relaxation in healthy elderly women as determined by electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) analyses. Seven elderly female volunteers [mean age 68.5 (SD 3.95) years] served as subjects for this study. The EMG signals were recorded from the gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles while walking on a treadmill, starting at 40 m.min-1 and increasing 6 m.min-1 incrementally for 10 min. The turning point of muscle activities (by integrated EMG. iEMGtp) was determined as the walking speed at the point at which the mean rate of change of iEMG (MG + SL + TA) abruptly increased. After the determination of iEMGtp. the treadmill was set at three constant speeds, one corresponding to the speed for the iEMGtp and two others 20% higher or lower than that for the iEMGtp. The subjects then walked for 20 min at each of these speeds on 3 separate days and their EEG power spectrum data were obtained for frequencies from the 8 to 13 Hz (z-wave component, AWC). The mean of iEMGtp for our subjects was at a mean walking speed of 64.7 (SD 7.9) m.min-1. Considering the subjects' age and height, iEMGtp was somewhat faster than their expected self-paced normal walking speed. There were no differences between the mean AWC values of the subjects prior to exercising at each of the three speeds. The mean AWC values after exercise were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than before. The extent of the increase in AWC at iEMGtp was greater than those at slower speeds. Our data would suggest that walking exercise at the speed which corresponds with EMG evidence of iEMGtp may induce the most significant relaxing effects in elderly women.

  17. Functional evaluation distinguishes MCI patients from healthy elderly people--the ADCS/MCI/ADL scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, H; De Sa, A; Guerreiro, M; Maroco, J; Simoes, M R; Galasko, D; de Mendonca, A

    2010-10-01

    Patients with MCI may present minor impairments in activities of daily living (ADL). The main objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of two versions of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living scale adapted for MCI patients (ADCS/MCI/ADL18 and ADCS/MCI/ADL24) to distinguish patients with MCI from healthy control subjects. Participants were 60 years or older and community dwelling: 31 control subjects, 30 aMCI patients and 33 AD patients. A protocol of neuropsychological tests, global evaluation scales, functional scales, and depressive symptoms assessment was used. Activities of balancing the cheque book, using a telephone, going shopping, taking medication regularly, finding objects, talking about current events, watching television, initiating complex activities, keeping appointments or meetings, reading, getting around outside the home and driving a car were impaired in aMCI patients. The ADCS/MCI/ADL24 scale was better than the ADCS/MCI/ADL18 scale in distinguishing aMCI patients from healthy controls (sensitivity=0.87, specificity=0.87, ROC c=0.887, cut-off point=52/53). The detection of initial functional changes with appropriate scales may contribute to the early diagnosis of MCI and the development of targeted interventions to improve everyday function or prolong independence.

  18. Training of executive functions in healthy elderly: Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Bento Lima-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Executive functions (EF refer to the cognitive skills necessary to formulate a goal, plan, execute plans effectively, and to perform self-monitoring and self-correction. Several aspects of EF change during the normal aging process. Objectives: To train skills associated with executive functions in the elderly and to detect possible impact on objective EF tests and self-reports of functional status. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving an intervention and pre and post testing was carried out. Study participants included 26 seniors assigned to an experimental group (EG and given six sessions of cognitive intervention, and 17 seniors assigned to a control group (CG who completed pre and post testing only. All participants were enrolled in an Open University for the Third Age. The following tests were used to measure outcome: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, the Story subtest of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT (versions A and B, semantic verbal fluency fruit category, and verbal fluency with phonological constraints (FAS, WAIS-III Digit Span, Clock Drawing Test (CDT, Trail Making Part A and the Pfeffer Functional Assessment Questionnaire (PFAQ. Delta scores were calculated (post-test score minus pretest score to assess the impact of the intervention. Results: In the post test, the CG showed significant improvement on the RBMT Story recall and Digit Span but a decline in verbal fluency. The EG remained stable in terms of pre and post test scores. Conclusions: The intervention did not enhance performance on the EF tests. It is noteworthy that the EG received only a small number of sessions which may not have been sufficient to generate improvement. Alternatively, the lack of group differences observed could be associated to participation in other workshops offered at the university.

  19. [Dietary factors associated with daytime somnolence in healthy elderly of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Sánchez Reyes, Hugo; Díaz Narváez, Víctor; Araya Pérez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mild and excessive somnolence and the associated factors with the presence of daytime sleepiness in the elderly. A total of 1780 independent individuals 60 years and older of both sexes (70.9±7.9 years old; females 62%), were included, of which 1704 of them completed all the information. All of them were assessed using an Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE), an Pittsburgh sleep quality index, plus information of cigarettes smoking, dinner time, and an anthropometric evaluation. An ESE score>10 was considered drowsiness and scores>15 excessive or severe drowsiness. Among the population under 80 years, 5.3% showed ESE score>15 and 26.2% an ESE score>10. For over 80 years, the prevalence of sleepiness was 6.3% for an ESE score>15 and 32.5% for an ESE score>10. In the adjusted model, the factors associated with increased risk of sleepiness (ESE>10) were age older than 80 years (OR=1.58; 95% CI=1.14 to 2.19) and dinner after 21 hours (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.01 to 1.68). By contrast, only age older than 80 years was independently associated with severe sleepiness (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.01 to 3.29). Meals after 21 hours and age above 80 years are associated with increased likelihood of daytime sleepiness. Instead, only older than 80 years is associated with severe daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Attributional style in healthy persons: its association with 'theory of mind' skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Im Hong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Mikyung; Jo, Hye Hyun; Koo, Se Jun; Jeong, Yu Jin; Song, Yun Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun; An, Suk Kyoon

    2013-03-01

    Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind skills, neurocognition and emotional factors in healthy persons. Total 263 participants (133 male and 130 female) were recruited. The attributional style was measured by using the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ). Participants were requested to complete a Brüne's Theory of Mind Picture Stories task, neurocognitive task including Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and digit span, and other emotional dysregulation trait scales including Rosenberg's self-esteem, Spielberg's trait anxiety inventory, and Novaco anger scale. Multiple regression analysis showed that hostility perception bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with theory of mind questionnaire score and emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale. Also, composite blame bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale and Spielberg's trait anxiety scale. The main finding was that the attributional style of hostility perception bias might be primarily contributed by theory of mind skills rather than neurocognitive function such as attention and working memory, and reasoning ability. The interpretations and implications would be discussed in details.

  1. Left atrial and ventricular function during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress in healthy young and elderly as evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe phasic volume changes of the left atrium (LA) in healthy young and elderly subjects at rest and during pharmacological stress (PS). LA maximum size is related to cardiovascular mortality. LA has passive, active, and conduit function for left ventricular (LV...... imaging at rest and during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress. We identified LA minimum, maximum, and middiastolic volumes and the volume before atrial contraction. LA emptying volumes were calculated as LA passive and active emptying volumes and LA conduit volume. We also calculated LV peak filling...... rates (LVPFRs). Both at rest and during PS, LA maximum and minimum volumes were similar in the groups, whereas middiastolic volume was higher in the elderly. During PS, a marked decrease in LA passive emptying function and a corresponding increase in LA active emptying function were seen in the elderly...

  2. Communication between the elderly person and the Family Health Team: is there integrality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Tereza de Almeida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify the forms of communication used in four Primary Health Units with Family Health Program teams in Porto Feliz, São Paulo, and how they impact in the care and control of the health of elderly people. METHOD: this qualitative study sought to capture the communication between elderly people and healthcare professionals. Interviews were conducted with 20 elderly people of both sexes. RESULTS: from the discourses and observations, assertive communication and blocked communication emerged as the central analysis themes, the verbal and nonverbal elements of which, unveiled subjectivity of the communication process, of the local culture and of the psychosocial factors positively and negatively contributing to the healthcare for elderly people. The nursing teams of the Family Health Strategy showed forms of communication that favored the adherence of the elderly people to the care and control of their health. Negatives aspects did not have completely prejudicial consequences, however, should be avoided, in order to facilitate integral care to elderly people. CONCLUSION: it is worth reinforcing the need for improvement of the nursing team and other healthcare professionals regarding health communication as an innovative technology, bringing credibility to the health promotion and prevention programs with elderly users.

  3. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan Staffan PE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present prospective study was conducted from 2003–2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area. The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. Results In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31% received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11% were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34% individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21% the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39% individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28% the pneumococcal vaccine. Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine. Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age. For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75–84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza

  4. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a risk factor for readmission for pneumonia in the very elderly persons: observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Mateu; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Force, Ll; Almirall, Jordi; Palomera, Elisabet; Clavé, Pere

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether oropharyngeal dysphagia is a risk factor for readmission for pneumonia in elderly persons discharged from an acute geriatric unit. Observational prospective cohort study with data collection based on clinical databases and electronic clinical notes. All elderly individuals discharged from an acute geriatric unit from June 2002 to December 2009 were recruited and followed until death or December 31, 2010. All individuals were initially classified according to the presence of oropharyngeal dysphagia assessed by bedside clinical examination. Main outcome measure was readmission for pneumonia. Clinical notes were reviewed by an expert clinician to verify diagnosis and classify pneumonia as aspiration or nonaspiration pneumonia. A total of 2,359 patients (61.9% women, mean age 84.9 y) were recruited and followed for a mean of 24 months. Dysphagia was diagnosed in 47.5% of cases. Overall, 7.9% of individuals were readmitted for pneumonia during follow-up, 24.2% of these had aspiration pneumonia. The incidence rate of hospital readmission for pneumonia was 3.67 readmissions per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.0-4.4) in individuals without dysphagia and 6.7 (5.5-7.8) in those with dysphagia, with an attributable risk of 3.02 readmissions per 100 person-years (1.66-4.38) and a rate ratio of 1.82 (1.41-2.36). Multivariate Cox regression showed an independent effect of oropharyngeal dysphagia, with a hazard ratio of 1.6 (1.15-2.2) for hospitalization for pneumonia, 4.48 (2.01-10.0) for aspiration pneumonia, and 1.44 (1.02-2.03) for nonaspiration pneumonia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a very prevalent and relevant risk factor associated with hospital readmission for both aspiration and nonaspiration pneumonia in the very elderly persons.

  5. Familiarity-based recognition in the young, healthy elderly, mild cognitive impaired and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, Salvador; Escudero, Joaquín; Mazón, José Francisco; Pitarque, Alfonso; Fuentes, Manuel; Peset, Vicente; Lacruz, Laura

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the possible existence of deficits in familiarity in five samples of participants spanning a broad range of ages and cognitive states. Five groups of 16 participants with a diagnosis of multi-domain cognitive impairment with a slight or no deficit in memory, 16 multi-domain amnestic, and 16 Alzheimer's disease patients were compared in a recognition test with equivalent samples of old and young healthy participants. In one of the tests, participants studied words extracted from a restricted set of letters of the alphabet that were later mixed with new words from a different set. The unconscious use of the fluency produced by the repeated use of the set of letters was compared with a condition in which the same letter set did not play a role. Results indicated that amnestic mild cognitive impaired and Alzheimer's patients were unable to use letter fluency to improve recognition. However, young and old controls did not differ among themselves, whereas the multi-domain sample, whose memory performance was almost at the same level as that of controls showed slight levels of deficit in familiarity in the forced choice test but not in the recognition test. These results contrast sharply with those reported by Westerberg et al. [Westerberg, C. E., Paller, K. E., Holdstock, J. S., Mayes, A. R., & Reber, p. J. (2006). When memory does not fail: Familiarity-based recognition in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 20, 193-205] and Anderson et al. [Anderson, N. D., Ebert, P. L., Jennings, J. M., Grady, C. L., Cabeza, R., & Graham, S. J. (2008). Recollection- and familiarity-based memory in healthy aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 22, 177-187], who concluded that there were no deficits in familiarity in these types of pre-dementia and dementia patients.

  6. The Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HN019 on Cellular Immune Function in Healthy Elderly Subjects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Miller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B. animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019 supplementation on cellular immune activity in healthy elderly subjects. We conducted a systematic review of Medline and Embase for controlled trials that reported polymorphonuclear (PMN cell phagocytic capacity or natural killer (NK cell tumoricidal activity following B. lactis HN019 consumption in the elderly. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence interval between probiotic and control groups for each outcome. A total of four clinical trials were included in this analysis. B. lactis HN019 supplementation was highly efficacious in increasing PMN phagocytic capacity with an SMD of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 1.11, p < 0.001 and moderately efficacious in increasing NK cell tumoricidal activity with an SMD of 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.78, p = 0.02. The main limitations of this research were the small number of included studies, short-term follow-up, and assessment of a single probiotic strain. In conclusion, daily consumption of B. lactis HN019 enhances NK cell and PMN function in healthy elderly adults.

  7. Age-related changes in resting-state networks of a large sample size of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Chao; Hsieh, Wen-Jin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Huang, Jon-Kway; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-10-01

    Population aging is burdening the society globally, and the evaluation of functional networks is the key toward understanding cognitive changes in normal aging. However, the effect of age on default mode subnetworks has not been documented well, and age-related changes in many resting-state networks remain debatable. The purpose of this study was to propose more precise results for these issues using a large sample size. We used group-level meta-ICA analysis and dual regression approach for identifying resting-state networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 430 healthy elderly participants. Partial correlation was used to observe age-related correlations within and between resting-state networks. In the default mode network, only the ventral subnetwork negatively correlated with age. Age-related decrease in functional connectivity was also noted in the auditory, right frontoparietal, sensorimotor, and visual medial networks. Further, some age-related increases and decreases were observed for between-network correlations. The results of this study suggest that only the ventral default mode subnetwork had age-related decline in functional connectivity and several reverse patterns of resting-state networks for network development. Understanding age-related network changes may provide solutions for the impact of population aging and diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and goal-directed behavior in healthy elderly - evidence from auditory distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Aging affects the ability to focus attention on a given task and to ignore distractors. These functions subserve response control processes for which fronto-striatal networks have been shown to play an important role. Within these networks, the brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF), which is known to underlie aging effects, plays a pivotal role. We investigated how cognitive subprocesses constituting a cycle of distraction, orientation and refocusing of attention are affected by the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism using event-related potentials (ERPs) in 122 healthy elderly. Using an auditory distraction paradigm we found that the Val/Val genotype confers a disadvantage to its carriers. This disadvantage was partly compensated by intensified attentional shifting mechanisms. It could be based on response selection processes being more vulnerable against interference from distractors in this genotype group. Processes reflecting transient sensory memory processes, or the re-orientation of attention were not affected by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, suggesting a higher importance of BDNF for mechanisms related to response control, than stimulus processing. The results add on recent literature showing that the Met allele confers some benefit to its carriers. We suggest an account for unifying different results of BDNF Val66Met association studies in executive functions, based on the role of BDNF in fronto-striatal circuits.

  9. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power.

  10. BACE1 Dynamics Upon Inhibition with a BACE Inhibitor and Correlation to Downstream Alzheimer's Disease Markers in Elderly Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Maarten; Barão, Soraia; Van Broeck, Bianca; Tesseur, Ina; Slemmon, John; De Waepenaert, Katja; Bogert, Jennifer; Shaw, Leslie M; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Moechars, Dieder; Mercken, Marc; Van Nueten, Luc; Tritsmans, Luc; de Strooper, Bart; Streffer, Johannes Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The β-site amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is the rate limiting enzyme in the generation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) from AβPP, one of the major pathways in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Increased BACE1 levels and activity have been reported in the brain of patients with sporadic AD. Therefore, changes of BACE1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have also been investigated as a possible biomarker of the disease. We analyzed BACE1 levels in CSF of elderly healthy participants before and after chronic treatment with a BACE inhibitor (BACEi) and evaluated the correlation between BACE1 levels and downstream AD markers. Overall, BACE1 CSF levels showed strong correlations to all downstream AD markers investigated. This is the first reported finding that shows BACE1 levels in CSF were well correlated to its end product Aβ1 - 42. As previously described, BACE1 levels were strongly correlated to total-tau and phosphorylated tau levels in CSF. Generally, chronic BACE inhibition did not influence BACE1 CSF protein levels. Follow-up studies including early-stage AD pathophysiology and prodromal AD patients will help to understand the importance of measuring BACE1 routinely in daily clinical practice and AD clinical trials.

  11. Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.J.M.J.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in improving cognitive functioning is evaluated in elderly people. Methods. The authors systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation with a placebo treatment. Trials were identified from a

  12. A longitudinal study of emotional experience, expressivity, and psychopathology in psychotherapy inpatients and psychologically healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Grande, Tilman; Faber, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    The authors investigated changes of emotional experience and expressivity in 34 inpatients undergoing psychodynamic therapy and in 29 healthy persons who were assessed at parallel time intervals. Participants completed 2 measures of psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64) and took part in relationship episode interviews. The emotional experiences they reported and their nonverbal emotional expressivity during the interviews were assessed by independent raters. Regardless of when they were assessed, the patients reported a greater number of emotions and a greater variety of emotions. Psychopathology in the patient group decreased in the course of treatment, but there were no systematic changes in the emotional domain. The findings challenge the common notion of psychopathology being associated with impaired awareness and expression of emotions.

  13. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Supaporn Muchimapura; Terdthai Tong-Un; Narisara Saenghong; Wipawee Thukhum-Mee; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or...

  14. Lifestyle, socioeconomic characteristics, and medical history of elderly persons who receive seasonal influenza vaccination in a tax-supported healthcare system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Baggesen, Lisbeth Munksgård

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational studies on effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly are thought to be biased by healthier lifestyles and higher socioeconomic status among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated persons. We examined this hypothesis in a uniform tax-supported health care system with free......-of-charge influenza vaccination to the elderly. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among Danes aged 65–79 years participating in a survey. We compared elderly persons with and without a recent (within six months) influenza vaccination in terms of (i) lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics obtained from...... completing the survey, 1718 (41%) had received an influenza vaccination. Vaccinated persons had more comorbidity than unvaccinated persons (aPR for high comorbidity level: 1.51 95% CI 1.24–1.84), were less likely to never have smoked (aPR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97), and had a higher prevalence of physical...

  15. Pilot Test of a New Personal Health System Integrating Environmental and Wearable Sensors for Telemonitoring and Care of Elderly People at Home (SMARTA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, Lucia; Bovi, Gabriele; Panzarino, Claudia; Gower, Valerio; Ferratini, Maurizio; Andreoni, Giuseppe; Sassi, Roberto; Rivolta, Massimo W; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy is accompanied by a growing number of elderly subjects affected by chronic comorbidities, a health issue which also implies important socioeconomic consequences. Shifting from hospital or community dwelling care towards a home personalized healthcare paradigm would promote active aging with a better quality of life, along with a reduction in healthcare-related costs. The aim of the SMARTA project was to develop and test an innovative personal health system integrating standard sensors as well as innovative wearable and environmental sensors to allow home telemonitoring of vital parameters and detection of anomalies in daily activities, thus supporting active aging through remote healthcare. A first phase of the project consisted in the definition of the health and environmental parameters to be monitored (electrocardiography and actigraphy, blood pressure and oxygen saturation, weight, ear temperature, glycemia, home interaction monitoring - water tap, refrigerator, and dishwasher), the feedbacks for the clinicians, and the reminders for the patients. It was followed by a technical feasibility analysis leading to an iterative process of prototype development, sensor integration, and testing. Once the prototype had reached an advanced stage of development, a group of 32 volunteers - including 15 healthy adult subjects, 13 elderly people with cardiac diseases, and 4 clinical operators - was recruited to test the system in a real home setting, in order to evaluate both technical reliability and user perception of the system in terms of effectiveness, usability, acceptance, and attractiveness. The testing in a real home setting showed a good perception of the SMARTA system and its functionalities both by the patients and by the clinicians, who appreciated the user interface and the clinical governance system. The moderate system reliability of 65-70% evidenced some technical issues, mainly related to sensor integration, while the patient

  16. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and diet in a healthy elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, P L; Garry, P J; Goodwin, J S; Hooper, E M; Leonard, A G

    1982-01-01

    This study examined how high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) correlated with a 3-day food record of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol consumption in a group of 270 healthy subjects over age 60. HDL-C concentrations correlated with alcohol consumption (expressed as grams/day) (r = + .25, P less than .001), and inversely with total carbohydrate (r = - .18, P less than .01) and refined carbohydrate (r = - .17, P less than .01) ingestion (expressed as a percent of total caloric intake). Subjects consuming diets low in either total carbohydrate or refined carbohydrate had 10 to 20% higher HDL-C levels than did those consuming diets high in these food substances. The relationships between HDL-C levels and alcohol and carbohydrate ingestion were independent of other variables which correlated with HDL-C levels. Dietary fat (total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and cholesterol) did not correlate with HDL-C. LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not correlate with any dietary variable measured.

  17. A point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person supermarket education impacts healthy food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase (POP) intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention to usual care (no treatment). Setting A supermarket in a socioeconomically diverse region of Phoenix, Arizona. Participants One-hundred fifty-three adult shoppers were recruited on-site. Intervention The intervention consisted of brief shopping education by a nutrition educator and an explanation and promotion of a supermarket POP healthy shopping program that included posted shelf signs identifying healthy foods, sample shopping lists, tips, and signage. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included purchases of total, saturated, and trans fat (g/1000 kcals), and fruits, vegetables, and dark green and bright yellow vegetables (servings/1000 kcals) derived through nutritional analysis of participant shopping baskets. Analysis Analysis of covariance compared the intervention and control groups on food purchasing patterns while adjusting for household income. Results The intervention resulted in greater purchasing of fruit and green and yellow vegetables. No other group differences were observed. Conclusions and Implications Long-term evaluations of supermarket interventions should be conducted to improve the evidence base, and to determine the potential for impact on food choices associated with decreased chronic disease. PMID:22104016

  18. Study of Neurocognitive correlates of Schizotypy Personality Clusters in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Aguilera Ruíz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Inconsistencies in the relationship between schizotypy dimensions and neurocognitive functions found in correlational studies may be clarified with the use of alternative methodological approaches. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of different profiles of schizotypal traits and their neurocognitIve correlates in non-clinical subjects by means of cluster analysis. Methods: We examined seventy six healthy adults from the general population with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery and a schizotypal personality self-report. Results: Four neurocognitive factors were extracted: visuospatial, semantic evocation, verbal memory, and set-shifting. A three cluster model yielded the following clusters: "lowschizotypy", "positive schizotypy", and "negative/disorganized schizotypy". The positive and negative/disorganized schizotypy clusters showed poorer performance on semantic evocation compared with the low schizotypy cluster. Conclusions: We found different patterns of specific schizotypy features in a healthy adult community sample and these clusters presented differential performance in relation with the ability to evoke semantic information.

  19. Impact of age and basic heart rate on heart rate turbulence in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jörg Otto; Eichner, Gerrit; Shlevkov, Nikolay; Schrickel, Jan; Yang, Alexander; Balta, Osman; Lewalter, Thorsten; Lüderitz, Berndt

    2005-01-01

    Postextrasystolic acceleration of heart rate (HR), known as HR turbulence (HRT) is attenuated in patients with coronary artery disease at increased risk of adverse events. The influence of age and basic HR on HRT have not been evaluated in a large cohort of persons. In 95 healthy individuals, HRT onset (TO) and slope (TS) were calculated from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms, as well as the turbulence timing (TT). Gender specific differences in TO and TS were compared in simple, linear, weighted regression model. The influence of age and the basic HR preceding ventricular premature contractions on HRT were examined. We found that, in men and women, TO decreases as basic HR increases (P men, TS decreased as basic HR increases, whereas in women, basic HR influenced TS only slightly (P linear regression model revealed a decrease in HRT with increasing age in men. In conclusion, physiological acceleration of the HR within the first 11 beats after premature ventricular complex (VPC) was observed in >75% of healthy individuals. An accelerating HR preceding the VPC influenced HRT in men. An increasing age was associated with a decrease in HRT in men and a decrease in TO in women. These results illustrate the importance of physiological modulations of HRT when used for risk stratification, especially in older populations.

  20. Reliability of Isometric Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements of Healthy Elderly Subjects Made with a Hand-held Dynamometer and a Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Munenori; Isozaki, Koji

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of three isometric knee extension strength measurements (IKE) made with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and a belt of healthy elderly living in the community as subjects. [Subjects] The subject cohort consisted of 186 healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 79 years, living in local communities. [Methods] IKE of the leg subjects used to kick a ball was measured. IKE of each subject was measured three times using an HHD-belt at intervals of 30 seconds. The reliability of the larger of the first two measurements (LV2) as well as the third measurement (3V) was investigated. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (1, 1)] for LV2 and 3V were 0.955. Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from -5.6 to 4.6. [Conclusion] The ICC results show that the test-retest reproducibility of IKE measurements of healthy elderly subjects using an HHD-belt is high. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed a fixed bias, suggesting the need for three measurements.

  1. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac

  2. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa G. Machado-Vidotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results: Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower. RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively. In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions: Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population.

  3. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF HEALTHY EATING INDEXES IN ADULTS AND ELDERLY: APPLICABILITY AND VALIDITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Dalila; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Lopes Duarte, Maria Sônia; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los índices de alimentación saludable evalúan la combinación de diferentes tipos de alimentos, nutrientes y componentes de la dieta. Estos indicadores han sido adaptados en algunos países considerando las directrices dietéticas locales. Objetivo: esta revisión sistemática identifica todos los índices de alimentación saludable publicados hasta el momento; así mismo, discute la validez, aplicabilidad y limitaciones de los mismos. Métodos: para ello se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en PubMed, Science Direct, BVS y SciELO utilizando los siguientes términos: Healthy Eating Index, Index of Diet Quality, Quality of diet y Diet surveys con diferentes combinaciones e idiomas. Resultados: un total de 11 estudios fueron seleccionados y analizados críticamente: entre ellos, un estudio que desarrolla el primer índice, seis estudios en los que se proponen ajustes en la metodología utilizada, dos estudios que evaluan la validez y la fiabilidade, así como dos de revisión y actualización. Los datos muestran que los índices de alimentación saludable son buenas herramientas para valorar la calidad de la dieta, pero la falta de estandarización en la metodología hace difícil la comparación entre los resultados de las diferentes poblaciones.

  4. Enhanced 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' in borderline personality disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertuck, E A; Jekal, A; Song, I; Wyman, B; Morris, M C; Wilson, S T; Brodsky, B S; Stanley, B

    2009-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is partly characterized by chronic instability in interpersonal relationships, which exacerbates other symptom dimensions of the disorder and can interfere with treatment engagement. Facial emotion recognition paradigms have been used to investigate the bases of interpersonal impairments in BPD, yielding mixed results. We sought to clarify and extend past findings by using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a measure of the capacity to discriminate the mental state of others from expressions in the eye region of the face. Thirty individuals diagnosed with BPD were compared to 25 healthy controls (HCs) on RMET performance. Participants were also assessed for depression severity, emotional state at the time of assessment, history of childhood abuse, and other Axis I and personality disorders (PDs). The BPD group performed significantly better than the HC group on the RMET, particularly for the Total Score and Neutral emotional valences. Effect sizes were in the large range for the Total Score and for Neutral RMET performance. The results could not be accounted for by demographics, co-occurring Axis I or II conditions, medication status, abuse history, or emotional state. However, depression severity partially mediated the relationship between RMET and BPD status. Mental state discrimination based on the eye region of the face is enhanced in BPD. An enhanced sensitivity to the mental states of others may be a basis for the social impairments in BPD.

  5. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  6. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in atherosclerosis. Limited information is available on whether serum total bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis {for example, intima-media thickness (IMT, plaque} measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasonography only among elderly persons. The study subjects were 325 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± standard deviation years and 509 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients aged ≥ 60 years in the medical department. Carotid IMT and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in men age (β = 0.199, p = 0.002, smoking status (β = 0.154, p = 0.006, GGT (β = -0.139, p = 0.039, and GGT (β = -0.133, p = 0.022 were significantly and independently associated with carotid IMT, and in women age (β = 0.186, p < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (β = 0.104, p = 0.046, diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.148, p = 0.004, prevalence of antihypertensive medication (β = 0.126, p = 0.004, fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.135, p = 0.003, GGT (β = -0.104, p = 0.032, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum bilirubin (β = -0.119, p = 0.006, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD (β = 0.103, p = 0.017 were also independently associated with carotid IMT. The odds ratios (ORs {95% confidence interval (CI} of increasing serum bilirubin category were negatively associated with carotid IMT ≥ 1.0 mm and plaque in both genders. Compared to subjects with a serum bilirubin of Quartile-1, the multivariate-OR (95% CI of carotid plaque was 0.25 (0.11-0.57 in the Quartile-4 male group, and 0.41 (0.21-0.78 in the Quartile-2 female group, 0.51 (0.26-0.98 in the Quartile-3 female group, and 0.46 (0.24-0.89 in the Quartile-4 female group. Our data demonstrated an independently negative association between serum bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis in both genders.

  8. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Augusta Boeckh Haebisch

    Full Text Available In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided and systemic (right sided reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (ΔmAP = -2.9%, increased heart rate (ΔHR = +7,4% and QTc prolongation (ΔQTc = +4,9% in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (ΔmAP = +12% and increased heart rate (ΔHR = + 10.4% mainly in supine position was observed in 11 % of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN with its active component nitric oxide (NO depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

  9. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....

  10. Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2008-01-01

    Background: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain...... regions of relevance for affective disorders. Methods: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [F-18]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding...... remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (r = .35, p = .009). Conclusions: In healthy subjects the personality dimension neuroticism and particularly its constituent trait, vulnerability, are positively associated with frontolimbic serotonin 2A binding. Our findings point...

  11. Automatic and effortful memory processes in elderly persons with organic brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, M L; Ellis, N R; Scogin, F

    1991-07-01

    This study investigated the automatic and effortful memory encoding model of Hasher and Zacks (1979) and the potential it may hold for aiding in the differentiation between aging-related memory decline and dementia. College students, normal elders, and dementia patients were compared on a 96-item picturebook task utilizing measures of free recall, recognition accuracy, memory for location, and memory for frequency. There were no differences between students and elders on any of the dependent measures. However, differences were found between elders and patients on each measure, and a discriminant function correctly classified the two groups with 93.3% accuracy. Subsequent discriminant analysis found patients could be correctly classified into diagnostic subgroups, i.e., dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Korsakoff's disease (KD) with 80.8% accuracy. The model holds promise as a guide for clinicians who are asked to make differential diagnoses of memory-impaired individuals.

  12. Legal protection of elderly persons and risk of their victimization by criminal acts with elements of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Filip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process is inevitable. It follows the individual from birth until death. Due to the inability of people to influence it, there is a greater obligation of society to provide the people in the „third age“ a dignified life, without any form of victimization. The author defines which people are considered old according to positive legal acts of the Republic of Serbia. The subject of this paper are the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly within the family, taking into account the physical, psychological, sexual and economic violence against the elderly, as well as mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, as one of the most effective tools of the state and society in general for protection of this particularly vulnerable social group. Relevant provisions of the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Serbia with a critical analysis of the incrimination of offenses with elements of domestic violence where the victim is usually an old person will be analyzed. From the subject defined in this manner, stems the paper‘ s mainly descriptive goal of describing the phenomenon through the analysis of the major forms of violence to which the elderly within the family are exposed (physical, psychological, economic and sexual violence. The purpose of the paper is also to analyze the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly and the mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, point out the harm of this type of violence and thus contribute to combating this negative social phenomenon.

  13. Self-awareness of cognitive efficiency: Differences between healthy elderly and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Stella; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikolaos; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2016-12-01

    Self-estimation of performance implies the ability to understand one's own performance with relatively objective terms. Up to date, few studies have addressed this topic in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare objective measures of performance with subjective perception of specific performance on cognitive tests and investigate differences in assessment between MCI patients and healthy elderly. Thirty-five participants diagnosed with MCI (women = 16, men = 19, mean age = 65.09 years ±SD = 7.81, mean education = 12.83 years ±SD = 4.32) and 35 control subjects similar in terms of age and education (women = 20, men = 15, mean age = 62.46 years ± SD = 9.35, mean education = 14.26 ± SD = 2.84) were examined with an extended battery of neuropsychological tests. After every test they were asked to self-evaluate their performance by comparing it to what they considered as average for people of their age and educational level. This self-evaluation was reported on a scale ranging from -100 to +100. Significant differences were found in the self-assessment patterns of the two groups in memory measures of verbal and visual delayed recall, visuospatial perception, and tests of attention. MCI patients overestimated their performance on every cognitive domain while control participants underestimated their performance on measures of verbal memory. The present results indicate that accuracy of self-report is not uniform across groups and functional areas. The discrepancies in the MCI patients indicate unawareness of their memory deficits, which is contradictory to subjective memory complaints as being an important component for clinical diagnosis.

  14. Intrinsic Brain Activity of Cognitively Normal Older Persons Resembles More That of Patients Both with and at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease Than That of Healthy Younger Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tonch, Annika; Plant, Claudia; Zherdin, Andrew; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Wohlschäger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Alzheimer's disease (AD), recent findings suggest that amyloid-β (Aβ)-pathology might start 20–30 years before first cognitive symptoms arise. To account for age as most relevant risk factor for sporadic AD, it has been hypothesized that lifespan intrinsic (i.e., ongoing) activity of hetero-modal brain areas with highest levels of functional connectivity triggers Aβ-pathology. This model induces the simple question whether in older persons without any cognitive symptoms intrinsic activity of hetero-modal areas is more similar to that of symptomatic patients with AD or to that of younger healthy persons. We hypothesize that due to advanced age and therefore potential impact of pre-clinical AD, intrinsic activity of older persons resembles more that of patients than that of younger controls. We tested this hypothesis in younger (ca. 25 years) and older healthy persons (ca. 70 years) and patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD-dementia (ca. 70 years) by the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, distinct measures of intrinsic brain activity, and different hierarchical clustering approaches. Independently of applied methods and involved areas, healthy older persons' intrinsic brain activity was consistently more alike that of patients than that of younger controls. Our result provides evidence for larger similarity in intrinsic brain activity between healthy older persons and patients with or at-risk for AD than between older and younger ones, suggesting a significant proportion of pre-clinical AD cases in the group of cognitively normal older people. The observed link of aging and AD with intrinsic brain activity supports the view that lifespan intrinsic activity may contribute critically to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24689864

  15. Systemic exposure to armodafinil and its tolerability in healthy elderly versus young men: an open-label, multiple-dose, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Hellriegel, Edward T; Yang, Ronghua; Robertson, Philmore

    2011-02-01

    Armodafinil (Nuvigil(®), Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA), the longer-lasting isomer of racemic modafinil, is a nonamphetamine, wakefulness-promoting medication. In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder, treated obstructive sleep apnoea, or narcolepsy, armodafinil has been found to improve wakefulness throughout the shift or day. In addition, while not approved for this indication, armodafinil has been found to improve excessive sleepiness associated with jet-lag disorder. This study evaluated systemic exposure to armodafinil and its two major circulating metabolites, R-modafinil acid and modafinil sulfone, and assessed the tolerability profile of armodafinil in elderly and young subjects. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of armodafinil were assessed in an open-label, multiple-dose, parallel-group study in two groups (n = 25 in each group) of healthy men (elderly group aged ≥65 years and young group aged 18-45 years) who received armodafinil 50 mg on day 1, 100 mg on day 2 and 150 mg once daily on days 3 through 7. Plasma concentrations of armodafinil and its metabolites were quantified over 72 hours following the last dose on day 7. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including area under the plasma drug concentration-versus-time curve during a dosing interval (AUC(τ)) and maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), and tolerability were assessed. All 50 subjects enrolled in the study were evaluable for tolerability and 49 were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. One elderly subject was excluded from the pharmacokinetic analyses because of apparent noncompliance with armodafinil dosing. Systemic exposure following administration of armodafinil, as measured by steady-state AUC(τ) and C(max) values, was approximately 15% greater in elderly subjects compared with young subjects. Geometric mean ratios for AUC(τ) and C(max) in the two groups were 1.14 (95% CI 1.03, 1.25; p = 0.0086) and 1.15 (95% CI 1

  16. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  17. [THE EROTICISM OF PERSONS WITH DEMENTIA IN NURSING HOMES FOR THE ELDERLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacub, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the models used by the Residences for Elderly People to organize the eroticism of their residents, especially for people with dementia. It will be shown the different institutional models and their theoretical perspectives over the eroticism of demented people to define the possible interventions with these people.

  18. Watching elderly and disabled person's physical condition by remotely controlled monorail robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Yasunori; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Fukaya, Yasutoshi; Takahashi, Tomoichi; Takeshita, Toru

    2001-10-01

    We are developing a nursing system using robots and cameras. The cameras are mounted on a remote controlled monorail robot which moves inside a room and watches the elderly. It is necessary to pay attention to the elderly at home or nursing homes all time. This requires staffs to pay attention to them at every time. The purpose of our system is to help those staffs. This study intends to improve such situation. A host computer controls a monorail robot to go in front of the elderly using the images taken by cameras on the ceiling. A CCD camera is mounted on the monorail robot to take pictures of their facial expression or movements. The robot sends the images to a host computer that checks them whether something unusual happens or not. We propose a simple calibration method for positioning the monorail robots to track the moves of the elderly for keeping their faces at center of camera view. We built a small experiment system, and evaluated our camera calibration method and image processing algorithm.

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Valued Activities to the Life Satisfaction of Elderly Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Gail Hills

    1983-01-01

    Describes a survey that collected information about perceived activity participation levels, health status, income, social supports, and life satisfaction of participants in a nutritional lunch program for the elderly. Results showed that perceptions of the above factors were significant predictors of life satisfaction. (NJ)

  20. Correlates of Changes in Desired Control Scores and in Life Satisfaction Scores among Elderly Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Michael; Reid, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the correlates of life satisfaction and desired control among 79 elderly residents by assessing residents at three points in time. Both life satisfaction and desired control were intercorrelated and related to other indices of psychological well-being at all three points in time. (Author/RC)

  1. [The availability of particular types of medical social care to persons of elderly and senile age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigabutdinov, A F

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of sociological survey of respondents of elderly and senile age living with their families or in senior centers. The comparative analysis was applied to availability of particular types of medical social care of contingent of interest depending on place of its residence. The age and ability of self-support of respondents were taken into account.

  2. Care of the elderly persons in the system of social protection in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepir Ljubo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of the elderly in the overall population is increasing, which poses a need to seek an adequate model of organizing social care of the elderly. Most of them get social safety through the social welfare system. A functional and sustainable social welfare system requires application of efficient management and technique models based on the theoretical premises of contemporary management. The role and the importance of old people's protection in a social welfare system is becoming a topic of great importance both for theoreticians and the practitioners in the social sector area. This research analyzes the management functions and the roles of managers in running social protection of the elderly in the example of the social welfare system in the Republic of Srpska. A decentralized system, such as the one existing in the Republic of Srpska, brings along a number of organizational problems which points out to a need to apply the theoretical bases of managerial processes. The results obtained via empirical analyses indicate a number of deficiencies and obstacles in the implementation of social protection of the elderly in the social welfare system of the Republic of Srpska which are result of the insufficient and inconsistent application of the basic managerial elements. The obstacles emerging from this analysis indicate that there are chances and opportunities to improve the system and enhance the development of new forms of protection by applying managerial theories. .

  3. The Attribution of Universal or Personal Helplessness in Nondepressed and Depressed Elderly Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Robert J.

    The potential for feelings of hopelessness and depression in the aged is well documented. Although studies have examined the role of perceived control in ameliorating depression in the institutionalized elderly, no research has actually measured the perceived causal attributions among depressed, hopeless and/or institutionalized elderly…

  4. Four weeks of combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Previous reports have described that long-term combination exercise training improves cognitive functions in healthy elderly people. This study investigates the effects of 4 weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions of elderly people. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. Sixty-four healthy older adults were assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group participated in the combination exercise training (aerobic, strength, and stretching exercise trainings) 3 days per week during 4 weeks (12 workouts total). The waiting list control group did not participate in the combination exercise training. Measures of the cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, working memory, reading ability, attention, and processing speed) were conducted before and after training. Results showed that the combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed compared to those attributes of the waiting list control group. This report was the first of a study demonstrating the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions of elderly people. Our study provides important evidence of the short-term combination exercise's effectiveness.

  5. Neuroendocrine responses of healthy volunteers to 'techno-music': relationships with personality traits and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Franchini, D; Palladino, M; Giucastro, G; Reali, N; Maestri, D; Caccavari, R; Delsignore, R; Brambilla, F

    1998-01-01

    A variety of studies reported psychological and physiological effects of music. Different types of music have been found to induce different neuroendocrine changes. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the possible combination of emotional and endocrine changes in response to techno-music and to define personality variables as predictors of respective changes. Sixteen psychosomatically healthy subjects (18- to 19-year-olds, eight males and eight females) were exposed, in random order, to techno-music or to classical music (30 min each). Plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cortisol (CORT), beta-endorphin (beta-EP) concentrations and changes of emotional state were measured in basal conditions and after the experimental trials with two different types of music. Techno-music was associated with a significant increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and significant changes in self-rated emotional states. A significant increase was observed in beta-EP, ACTH, NE, GH and CORT after listening to techno-music. Classical music induced an improvement in emotional state, but no significant changes in hormonal concentrations. No differences between male and female subjects' responses to music have been found. Plasma levels of PRL and EPI were unaffected by techno- and classical music. Changes in emotional state and NE, beta-EP and GH responses to techno-music correlated negatively with harm avoidance scores and positively with the novelty-seeking temperament score on the Cloninger scale. Listening to techno-music induces changes in neurotransmitters, peptides and hormonal reactions, related to mental state and emotional involvement: personality traits and temperament may influence the wide inter-individual variability in response to music.

  6. Parental Encouragement of Healthy Lifestyles for Their Children and Personally Caring about Healthy Lifestyles Is Positively Associated with Children Using Vitamin D Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Yuan, Yan; Faught, Erin L; Willows, Noreen D; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-09-24

    Supplement users have better vitamin D status, and parenting is key to promoting a child's healthy behaviours. We examined the association of parental encouragement of and caring about healthy lifestyles with children's use of vitamin D supplements and multivitamins. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (n = 2686; 10-11 years) and their parents across the province of Alberta, Canada, was surveyed in 2014. Students were asked about use of multivitamins and/or vitamin D supplements. Parents were asked whether they cared about and encouraged healthy lifestyles. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression identified the association of parental responses with children's use of supplements; 29% and 54% of children took vitamin D supplements and multivitamins, respectively. They were more likely to take vitamin D supplements if their parents cared 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about eating healthy foods (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.89), cared 'quite a lot' (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and 'very much' (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.21) vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about physical activity, and encouraged 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' their children to eat healthy foods (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.17). Children whose parents personally cared for eating healthy foods were more likely to take multivitamins ('quite a lot' and 'very much' compared to 'not at all/a little bit' (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.28 and OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.06, respectively). Education and parental encouragement of healthy lifestyles should be part of the public health initiatives to promote supplementation of vitamin D among children.

  7. Age-associated changes in pulmonary function: a comparison of pulmonary function parameters in healthy young adults and the elderly living in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wei-ying; LI Li; ZHAO Rong-ya; ZHU Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background The respiratory system changes with age and a better understanding of the changes contribute to detect and prevent respiratory dysfunctions in old population.The purpose of this study was to observe age-associated changes of pulmonary function parameters in healthy young adults and the elderly.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 male and female subjects aged 19 to 92 years.The subjects were divided into three groups by age:young adult (19-39 years),middle-aged adult (40-59 years),and the elderly (≥60 years).The pulmonary function was measured with routine examination methods and 13 parameters including vital capacity (VC),residual volume (RV),functional residual capacity (FRC),total lung capacity (TLC),RV/TLC,forced vital capacity (FVC),forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1),FEV1/FVC,peak expiratory flow (PEF),forced expiratory flow at 25% of FVC exhaled (FEF25),forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC exhaled (FEF50),diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO),and specific diffusion capacity of CO (KCO) were collected and analyzed.Changes in pulmonary function parameters among the pre-elderly and elderly subjects,especially the aging influence on FEV1/FVC and RV were studied further.Results Ten pulmonary function parameters including VC,FVC,FEV1,FEV1/FVC,PEF,FEF25,FEF50,TLC,DLCO and KCO decreased significantly with age in both male and female subjects (P <0.01).RV and RV/TLC were increased with age (P <0.01).FRC remained stable during aging.Except FRC,the linear relationship was significant between age and other pulmonary function parameters.In the pre-elderly and elderly subjects,RV had a non-significantly increasing tendency with age (P >0.05),and FEV1/FVC did not change significantly with age (P >0.05).Conclusion Total pulmonary function was declined with advancing age,but FRC was stable,and the increasing tendency of RV and decreasing tendency of FEV1/FVC obviously slowed down in the pre-elderly and

  8. Endocrine correlates of personality traits: a comparison between emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, L; Wedekind, D; Pilz, J; Weniger, G; Huether, G

    1997-01-01

    An initial sample of 120 healthy young men was screened by a personality questionnaire and 15 subjects each with highest and lowest scores respectively on emotionality (emotionally labile, EL subjects and emotionally stable, ES subjects) were recruited for a study on the relationship between the degree of emotionality and the basal secretion of stress-sensitive hormones during night-time. The nocturnal urinary excretion of cortisol, testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin was measured over a period of 5 consecutive nights. The average amounts of each hormone excreted per night were not different between the two extreme groups. The variability of the excretion during the 5 nights of cortisol and testosterone, but not of adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin, was significantly higher in EL compared to ES subjects. The larger fluctuations in the nocturnal secretion of these two (and no other) hormones in EL subjects indicate that emotional lability is associated with a more labile regulation of cortisol and testosterone secretion. The observed intraindividual variability of basal stress hormone secretion may contribute to the vast interindividual variability noticed in psychoneuroendocrine stress research, especially in emotionally labile subjects.

  9. Lexical use in emotional autobiographical narratives of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kai; Nenkova, Ani; March, Mary E; Parker, Amber P; Verma, Ragini; Kohler, Christian G

    2015-01-30

    Language dysfunction has long been described in schizophrenia and most studies have focused on characteristics of structure and form. This project focuses on the content of language based on autobiographical narratives of five basic emotions. In persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls, we employed a comprehensive automated analysis of lexical use and we identified specific words and semantically or functionally related words derived from dictionaries that occurred significantly more often in narratives of either group. Patients employed a similar number of words but differed in lower expressivity and complexity, more self-reference and more repetitions. We developed a classification method for predicting subject status and tested its accuracy in a leave-one-subject-out evaluation procedure. We identified a set of 18 features that achieved 65.7% accuracy in predicting clinical status based on single emotion narratives, and 74.4% accuracy based on all five narratives. Subject clinical status could be determined automatically more accurately based on narratives related to anger or happiness experiences and there were a larger number of lexical differences between the two groups for these emotions compared to other emotions.

  10. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  11. Longitudinal assessment of cerebral 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in healthy elderly volunteers: an [{sup 18}F]-altanserin PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Haugboel, Steven [University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Neurobiology Research Unit, N9201, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Holm, Soeren [Rigshospitalet, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Baare, William [Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hasselbalch, Steen G. [University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Neurobiology Research Unit, N9201, Copenhagen O (Denmark)]|[Memory Disorders Research Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT{sub 2A}) receptor is of interest in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the present study we investigated the longitudinal stability of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors and the stability of the quantification procedure in the elderly in order to be able to study elderly patients with neuropsychiatric diseases on a longitudinal basis. [{sup 18}F]-Altanserin PET was used to quantify 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in 12 healthy elderly individuals at baseline and at 2 years in six volumes of interest. A bolus/infusion protocol was used to achieve the binding potential, BP{sub P}. The reproducibility as assessed in terms of variability and the reliability as assessed in terms of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to compare inter- and intraobserver stability and to evaluate the effects of increasing complexity of partial volume (PV) corrections. We also compared the stability of our measurements over 2 years with the stability of data from an earlier study with 2-week test-retest measurements. BP{sub P} was unaltered at follow-up without the use of PV correction and when applying two-tissue PV correction, test-retest reproducibility was 12-15% and reliability 0.45-0.67 in the large bilateral regions such as the parietal, temporal, occipital and frontal cortices, while orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortical regions were less stable. The use of PV correction decreased the variability but also decreased the between-subject variation, thereby worsening the reliability. In healthy elderly individuals, brain 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding remains stable over 2 years, and acceptable reproducibility and reliability in larger regions and high intra- and interobserver stability allow the use of [{sup 18}F]-altanserin in longitudinal studies of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  12. Correlation between physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life in elderly persons

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, DeokJu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to assess the quality of life of elderly people related to physical function, cognitive function, and health, and devised methods to enhance their health-related quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in 140 people over 65 registered at welfare centers. Those with a functional psychological disorder or difficulty communicating were excluded. Data were collected for physical function, cognitive function, an...

  13. Four-week short chain fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion leads to increasing fecal bifidobacteria and cholesterol excretion in healthy elderly volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attar Alain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS are increasingly used in human diet for their prebiotic properties. We aimed at investigating the effects of scFOS ingestion on the colonic microflora and oro-fecal transit time in elderly healthy humans. Methods Stools composition, oro-fecal transit time, and clinical tolerance were evaluated in 12 healthy volunteers, aged 69 ± 2 yrs, in three consecutive periods: basal period (2 weeks, scFOS (Actilight® ingestion period (8 g/d for 4 weeks and follow-up period (4 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, with time and treatment as factors, was used to compare the main outcome measures between the three periods. Results Fecal bifidobacteria counts were significantly increased during the scFOS period (9.17 ± 0.17 log cfu/g vs 8.52 ± 0.26 log cfu/g during the basal period and returned to their initial values at the end of follow-up (8.37 ± 0.21 log cfu/g; P Conclusion Four-week 8 g/d scFOS ingestion is well tolerated and leads to a significant increase in fecal bifidobacteria in healthy elderly subjects. Whether the change in cholesterol metabolism found in our study could exert a beneficial action warrants further studies.

  14. Fractal scale-invariant and nonlinear properties of cardiac dynamics remain stable with advanced age: A new mechanistic picture of cardiac control in healthy elderly

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Daniel T

    2007-01-01

    We analyze heartbeat interval recordings from two independent databases: (a) 19 healthy young (avg. age 25.7 years) and 16 healthy elderly subjects (avg. age 73.8 years) during 2h under resting conditions from the Fantasia database; and (b) 29 healthy elderly subjects (avg. age 75.9 years) during $\\approx{}8$h of sleep from the SHHS database, and the same subjects recorded 5 years later. We quantify: (1) The average heart rate ; (2) the SD $\\sigma_{RR}$ and $\\sigma_{\\Delta{}RR}$ of the heartbeat intervals RR and their increments $\\Delta{}RR$; (3) the long-range correlations in RR as measured by the scaling exponent $\\alpha_{RR}$ using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis; (4) fractal linear and nonlinear properties as represented by the scaling exponents $\\alpha^{sign}$ and $\\alpha^{mag}$ for the time series of the sign and magnitude of $\\Delta{}RR$; (5) the nonlinear fractal dimension $D(k)$ of $RR$ using the Fractal Dimension Analysis. We find: (1) No significant difference in $\\left$ (P>0.05); (2) a signific...

  15. Loss of oxidative defense and potential blockade of satellite cell maturation in the skeletal muscle of patients with cancer but not in the healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeszczyńska, Joanna; Johns, Neil; Schilb, Alain; Degen, Simone; Degen, Martin; Langen, Ramon; Schols, Annemie; Glass, David J; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Greig, Carolyn A; Jacobi, Carsten; Fearon, Kenneth Ch; Ross, James A

    2016-08-01

    Muscle wasting in old age or cancer may result from failed myofiber regeneration and/or accelerated atrophy. This study aimed to determine from transcriptomic analysis of human muscle the integrity of the cellular stress response system in relation to satellite cell differentiation or apoptosis in patients with cancer (weight-stable (CWS) or weight-losing (CWL)) or healthy elderly (HE) when compared with healthy middle-aged controls (HMA). 28 patients with cancer (CWS: 18 and CWL: 10), HE: 21 and HMA: 20 underwent biopsy of quadriceps muscle. The expression of transcription factors for muscle regeneration (Pax3, Pax7 and MyoD) was increased in CWS and HE compared with HMA (p≤0.001). In contrast, the expression of the late myogenic differentiation marker MyoG was reduced in CWS and CWL but increased in HE (p≤0.0001). Bax was significantly increased in CWS, CWL and HE (p≤0.0001). Expression of the oxidative defense genes SOD2, GCLM, and Nrf2 was decreased in CWS and CWL but increased in HE (p≤0.0001). There is evidence for blockade of satellite cell maturation, upregulation of apoptosis and reduced oxidative defense in the muscle of cancer patients. In the healthy elderly the potential for differentiation and oxidative defense is maintained.

  16. 大学生健康人格培养探析%Cultivation of Healthy Personality of University Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘新民

    2012-01-01

    If the students' personality does not health, it will cause many negative effect. At first, personality will affect learning, secondly, their study and life may appear problems, and it often makes students do some errors, so the cultivation of students' health personality has became the important thing at this stage. In cultivation of personality, we should note many things, such as, to capture the law of the personality cultivation, pay attention to playing the role of nurturing. The healthy personality should be considered as the essential condition for success, but also should be considered as a healthy habit in real life, to really achieve healthy personality in everywhere and real life.%大学生如果人格不健康,那么造成的负面影响是众多的,首先人格会影响到学习上的方方面面,其次就是生活上的,当学习和生活上都出现问题时,往往就会使得学生们作出一些不该做的错误的事情,所以对大学生健康人格的培养已经成为现阶段社会上所非常重视的事情,在培养人格时要注意很多事情,比如要把握人格培育的规律,注重发挥熏陶的作用,要把健康的人格看做是成才的必要条件,而且在现实生活中也要把培养健康人格当做是一种习惯来看待,真正达到让健康人格无处不在,让健康人格融到现实生活中.

  17. Nutritional status and self-reported and performance-based evaluation of physical function of elderly persons in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Razzaque, Abdur; Wahlin, Ake; Nahar Kabir, Zarina

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the impact of nutritional status on self-reported as well as performance-based indicators of physical function in a rural elderly population in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, included 457 randomly selected community-living elderly persons aged 60 years or more (60-92 years; 69 +/- 7 years). Mobility, activities of daily living (ADL), performance tests, handgrip strength, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and a structured questionnaire were used to assess physical function, nutritional status, socioeconomic status and health status, respectively. Descriptive and linear hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Seven per cent of the participants reported limitations in mobility, and 8% reported limitations in ADL. However, more than half of the participants had difficulties in performing one or more items in the performance tests. According to the MNA, 26% of the participants were undernourished and 62% were at risk of malnutrition. More undernourished participants than well-nourished participants reported limited mobility, impaired ADL and difficulties in the performance tests. A corresponding reduction in grip strength was observed in the undernourished group. Accordingly, higher MNA scores, indicating better nutritional status, were significantly associated with higher mobility index, higher ADL index, higher performance tests index, and higher scores in handgrip strength. These associations remained after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health status differences. Good nutritional status is important for the physical function of elderly people, even after controlling for possible confounders. Performance tests indicated a higher degree of functional impairment than that observed by self-reported estimation.

  18. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This study uses a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males completed an MRI at 1.5T, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001 and 32% in females (p < 0.01. Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05. In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD.

  19. Comparison of Personality Trait, Negative Experienced Emotions and Coping Styles Between Healthy Women and Those Suffering From Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamzeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of cancer as one of the main causes of mortality in the world and the role of various factors, including psychological ones in its onset. In this study we compared some of these factors such as personality traits, negative experienced emotions and coping styles in healthy women and those with cancer. Methods: In this study, 83 women with cancer(referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran in a one- month period and 85 healthy subjects(selected by using available sampling method and matched with the first group. Then Personality inventory of Eysenck and inventory type D(DS14 and Folkman and Lazarus coping styles on were studied in both groups. Data analysis was performed by T Hoteling test and multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA. Results: Two groups of women(cancer- healthy were significantly different for personality trait of extraversion, negative emotion experiences and emotional-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping. Conclusion: Women with cancer compared to healthy women experienced more negative emotions and had lower score in extraversion and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles

  20. New Results in Magnitude and Sign Correlations in Heartbeat Fluctuations for Healthy Persons and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosdado, A. Muñoz; Cruz, H. Reyes; Hernández, D. Bueno; Coyt, G. Gálvez; González, J. Arellanes

    2008-08-01

    Heartbeat fluctuations exhibit temporal structure with fractal and nonlinear features that reflect changes in the neuroautonomic control. In this work we have used the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to analyze heartbeat (RR) intervals of 54 healthy subjects and 40 patients with congestive heart failure during 24 hours; we separate time series for sleep and wake phases. We observe long-range correlations in time series of healthy persons and CHF patients. However, the correlations for CHF patients are weaker than the correlations for healthy persons; this fact has been reported by Ashkenazy et al. [1] but with a smaller group of subjects. In time series of CHF patients there is a crossover, it means that the correlations for high and low frequencies are different, but in time series of healthy persons there are not crossovers even if they are sleeping. These crossovers are more pronounced for CHF patients in the sleep phase. We decompose the heartbeat interval time series into magnitude and sign series, we know that these kinds of signals can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign and the magnitude series relates to nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. Magnitude series are long-range correlated, while the sign series are anticorrelated. Newly, the correlations for healthy persons are different that the correlations for CHF patients both for magnitude and sign time series. In the paper of Ashkenazy et al. they proposed the empirical relation: αsign≈1/2(αoriginal+αmagnitude) for the short-range regime (high frequencies), however, we have found a different relation that in our calculations is valid for short and long-range regime: αsign≈1/4(αoriginal+αmagnitude).

  1. Breath isoprene concentrations in persons undergoing general anesthesia and in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Zagler, Armin; Dolch, Michael E; Wiepcke, Dirk; Praun, Siegfried; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Weis, Florian; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav

    2012-12-01

    Human breath contains an abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analysis of breath VOC may be used for diagnosis of various diseases or for on-line monitoring in anesthesia and intensive care. However, VOC concentrations largely depend on the breath sampling method and have a large inter-individual variability. For the development of breath tests, the influence of breath sampling methods and study subject characteristics on VOC concentrations has to be known. Therefore, we investigated the VOC isoprene in 62 study subjects during anesthesia and 16 spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers to determine (a) the influence of artificial and spontaneous ventilation and (b) the influence of study subject characteristics on breath isoprene concentrations. We used ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry for high-resolution breath-by-breath analysis of isoprene. We found that persons during anesthesia had significantly increased inspiratory and end-expiratory isoprene breath concentrations. Measured isoprene concentrations (median [first quartile-third quartile]) were in the anesthesia group: 54 [40-79] ppb (inspiratory) and 224 [171-309] ppb (end-expiratory), volunteer group: 14 [11-17] ppb (inspiratory) and 174 [124-202] ppb (end-expiratory). Higher end-tidal CO(2) concentrations in ventilated subjects were associated with higher expiratory isoprene levels. Furthermore, inspiratory and end-expiratory isoprene concentrations were correlated during anesthesia (r = 0.603, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that men had significantly higher end-expiratory isoprene concentrations than women. Rebreathing of isoprene from the anesthesia machine possibly accounts for the observed increase in isoprene in the anesthesia group.

  2. Construct validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator established in a large sample of home-dwelling elderly persons : Evidence of stability across age and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L. L.; Boter, H.; Burgerhof, J. G. M.; Slaets, J. P. J.; Buskens, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the Groningen frailty Indicator (GFI) in a sample of Dutch elderly persons participating in LifeLines, a large population-based cohort study. Additional aims were to assess differences between frail and non-frail

  3. Motivation to take part in integrated care – an assessment of follow-up home visits to elderly persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, U; Hendriksen, Carsten; Hansen, K

    2011-01-01

    persons. Theory and methods: The analysis is based on inter-organizational network theory in an attempt to explain the role of motivation in network formation between organizational systems. The empirical findings are based on focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital staff, general practitioners...... to implement because of a number of organizational obstacles, including co-ordination between the organizations involved in the process. In this paper we look at the factors that affect motivation to participate in a cross-sectoral programme in Copenhagen, Denmark, implementing follow-up home visits to elderly......, and district nurses. Results: Care providers are motivated to collaborate by a number of factors. The focus of collaboration needs to be clearly defined and agreed upon, there needs to be a high degree of equality between the professionals involved, and there has to be a will to co-operate based on a shared...

  4. A posture recognition based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Rhuma, Adel; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Wang, Liang; Chambers, Jonathon

    2012-11-01

    We propose a novel computer vision based fall detection system for monitoring an elderly person in a home care application. Background subtraction is applied to extract the foreground human body and the result is improved by using certain post-processing. Information from ellipse fitting and a projection histogram along the axes of the ellipse are used as the features for distinguishing different postures of the human. These features are then fed into a directed acyclic graph support vector machine (DAGSVM) for posture classification, the result of which is then combined with derived floor information to detect a fall. From a dataset of 15 people, we show that our fall detection system can achieve a high fall detection rate (97.08%) and a very low false detection rate (0.8%) in a simulated home environment.

  5. Knowledge, uptake and availability of health and social services among Asian Gujarati and white elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindesay, J; Jagger, C; Hibbett, M J; Peet, S M; Moledina, F

    1997-01-01

    To investigate factors affecting the uptake of health and social services by elderly Asian Gujarati. Four hundred and five Hindu Gujaratis and 381 whites aged 65 years and over residing in Leicester were randomly sampled from the Leicestershire District FHSA list by a computerized method based on linguistic analysis of the patient's name. One hundred and fifty Hindu Gujaratis and 152 whites were interviewed with response rates of 72% for the Asian Gujaratis and 80% for the white groups. The outcome measures were the activities of daily living (ADLs), incontinence, auditory/ visual deficits, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment (measured by the Mini-mental State Examination), depression, use of GP and hospital services, knowledge of community health and social services, willingness to use, suitability and cultural accessibility. The poorer uptake of services by elderly Asian Gujarati could not be explained by better health. They were significantly more likely to be dependent in six of the 14 ADLs and had higher rates of diabetes and impaired vision. Significantly more Asian Gujaratis than whites lived with others (84 versus 52%, p Gujarati group; fewer Asian Gujaratis knew how to apply for services and of those applying, fewer had been successful. Where services had been obtained, the levels of dissatisfaction were higher in the Gujarati group. The literacy rates were low in the Gujarati sample with 79% being unable to read or write in English and 27% unable to read or write in their mother tongue. The lower uptake of services by elderly Asian Gujarati is not the result of better health but may be explained by greater family support together with a lack of knowledge of and dissatisfaction with what is available. Health services will need to reappraise and revise some of their practices if they are to cater adequately for this growing population with many needs as yet unmet.

  6. A person-centred segmentation study in elderly care : Towards efficient demand-driven care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissens-van der Laan, Monique; van Offenbeek, Marjolein; Broekhuis, Manda; Slaets, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Providing patients with more person-centred care without increasing costs is a key challenge in healthcare. A relevant but often ignored hindrance to delivering person-centred care is that the current segmentation of the population and the associated organization of healthcare supply are based on di

  7. Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: a 3-month follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Østerlind, Kell; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2006-01-01

    and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Katz ADL, Nowotny's Hope Scale, and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction. Participation at baseline was 101 (74 women, 27 men), and after 3 months was 85(66 women, 19 men). Fatigue was the most reported symptom both at baseline and 3 months after. No significant changes......-month follow-up. From the perspective of QoL, nurses need to address more specifically the most vulnerable elderly cancer patients: those who are dependent in instrumental activities of daily living, those who perceive reduced economic ability, and those who need assistance to discover new strategies...

  8. Public Open Space Development for Elderly People by Using the DANP-V Model to Establish Continuous Improvement Strategies towards a Sustainable and Healthy Aging Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wei Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the global trend of population aging, how to integrate the health needs of elderly people into public open space (POS development while taking into account public interest is a major challenge in the 21st century. Although the issues of elderly people’s health and their POS needs are receiving increasing attention, research on continuous improvement strategies for POS for healthy aging societies is still limited. Hence, this study explored continuous improvement strategies thoroughly and systematically by using the DANP-V model. The findings revealed cognitive differences between expert and elderly groups. Moreover, water features, waste management, and co-maintenance spaces were the three criteria with the largest gap value. POS improvement has previously been implemented based on a priority order ranked from the criterion with largest gap value to the criterion with the smallest one. However, an alternative approach based on the cause–effect relationship is proposed in this paper. The study findings have both theoretical and practical implications for POS planners and designers.

  9. The significance of healthy aging for older persons who participated in health education groups

    OpenAIRE

    Valer, Daiany Borghetti; Bierhals, Carla Cristiane Becker Kottwitz; Aires,Marinês; Paskulin, Lisiane Manganelli Girardi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Different terms have been used to describe the aging process while avoiding the negative consequences of advanced age. In this context healthy aging assumes a more extensive meaning than the absence of disease, and includes a process of adapting to the changes that occur throughout life, related to the maintenance of a healthy old age. Objective : To describe the meaning of healthy aging for older adults who participated in health education groups in the Basic Health Care Servi...

  10. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts among elderly persons in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlin, Åke; Palmer, Katie; Sternäng, Ola; Hamadani, Jena D; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2015-12-01

    Depression, if broadly defined, is the commonest late-life mental disorder. We examined the distribution of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts, across age, sex, literacy, and marital status, among elderly individuals residing in rural Bangladesh and participating in a population-based study on health and aging. Prevalence figures of depressive symptoms were assessed with SRQ20 (n = 625), and possible social network and economic associations were examined. Morbidity accounts of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts were examined for a subsample that also underwent complete medical examination (n = 471). We selected for analyses the items that corresponded to DSM-IV criteria and constructed a dichotomous variable. The prevalence was 45%, and most pronounced among the oldest women (70%). The overall prevalence of suicidal thoughts was 23%. Being a woman, illiterate or single were all risk factors for depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. These associations remained unaccounted for by the social network and economic variables. Co-residing with a child and having a high quality of contact were protective of both depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The main findings were replicated in the subsample, where it was found that morbidities were also associated with the outcomes, independently of the four main predictors. Prevalence figures for depressive symptoms among elderly in rural Bangladesh are high. Demographic, social network, and morbidity factors are independently associated with both depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. This is the first study to report prevalence figures for depressive symptoms in this population.

  11. Effects of a Visual Distracter Task on the Gait of Elderly versus Young Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otmar Bock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seniors show deficits of dual-task walking when the second task has high visual-processing requirements. Here, we evaluate whether similar deficits emerge when the second task is discrete rather than continuous, as is often the case in everyday life. Subjects walked in a hallway, while foot proprioception was either perturbed by vibration or unperturbed. At unpredictable intervals, they were prompted to turn their head and perform a mental-rotation task. We found that locomotion of young subjects was not affected by this distracter task with or without vibration. In contrast, seniors moved their legs after the distraction at a slower pace through smaller angles and with a higher spatiotemporal variability; the magnitude of these changes was vibration independent. We conclude that the visual distracter task degraded the gait of elderly subjects but completely spared young ones, that this effect is not due to degraded proprioception, and that it rather might reflect the known decline of executive functions in the elderly.

  12. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengmei; Huo, Yajun; Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Jiang; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Huafu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  13. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  14. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing familiar songs from long ago in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit....... My hopotheses are - that singing has an influence on persons with dementia - that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics - that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system...

  15. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing long familiar songs in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit. My...... hypotheses are …  … that singing has an influence on persons with dementia, and that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics.  … that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system of communicative...

  16. The role of personal values in Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. A case study of healthy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pui Yee; Lusk, Karen; Mirosa, Miranda; Oey, Indrawati

    2014-02-01

    Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors' knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n=6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz's 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz's personal values influencing Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist

  17. A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tih-Shih Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n = 15 and waitlist control arms (n = 16. Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simon's randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn = 4.0; p<0.001. Specifically, there were significant improvements in immediate memory (p = 0.038, visuospatial/constructional (p = 0.014, attention (p = 0.039, and delayed memory (p<0.001 scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise in improving memory and attention in healthy

  18. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  19. Grey matter volume and resting-state functional connectivity of the motor cortex-cerebellum network reflect the individual variation in masticatory performance in the healthy elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shu eLin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have consistently identified brain activation in the motor area and the cerebellum during chewing. In this study, we further investigated the structural and functional brain signature associated with masticatory performance, which is a widely used index for evaluating overall masticatory function in the elderly. Twenty-five healthy elderly participants underwent oral examinations, masticatory performance tests, and behavioral assessments, including the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale. Masticatory performance was assessed with the validated colorimetric method, using color-changeable chewing gum. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and resting-state function MRI were performed. We analyzed alterations in grey matter volume (GMV using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC between brain regions using the seed-based method. The structural and functional MRI analyses revealed the following findings: (1 the GMV change in the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (2 The rsFC between the cerebellum and the premotor cortex was positively correlated with masticatory performance. (3 The GMV changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, as well as the rsFC between the cerebellum and the DLPFC, was positively correlated with masticatory performance. The findings showed that in the premotor cortex, a reduction of GMV and rsFC would reflect declined masticatory performance. The positive correlation between DLPFC connectivity and masticatory performance implies that masticatory ability is associated with cognitive function in the elderly. Our findings highlighted the role of the central nervous system in masticatory performance and increased our understanding of the structural and functional brain signature underlying individual variations in masticatory performance in the elderly.

  20. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD.

  1. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  2. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 polymorphism interaction with spirulina immunomodulatory effects in healthy Korean elderly: A 16 week, double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Spirulina is a known a functional food related to lipid profiles, immune functions, and antioxidant capacity. Circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) level is associated with inflammation markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the MCP-1 promoter region -2518 have been identified and shown to affect gene transcription. Gene variation may also impact functional food supplementary effects. The current study investigated the interaction of MCP-1 -2518 polymorphism with spirulina supplements on anti-inflammatory capacity in Korean elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS After genotyping, healthy elderly subjects (n = 78) were included in a randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled study. Baseline characteristic, body composition, and dietary intake were measured twice (baseline vs. week 16). For 16 weeks, subjects consumed 8 g either spirulina or placebo daily. Plasma MCP-1, interleukin (IL) -2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, complement (C) 3, immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and Ig A concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR) were analyzed as inflammatory markers. RESULTS In the placebo group with A/A genotype, MCP-1 level was significantly increased, but the spirulina group with A/A genotype was unchanged. IL-2 was significantly increased only in subjects with spirulina supplementation. TNF-α was significantly reduced in subjects with the G carrier. C3 was significantly increased in the placebo group, particularly when A/A increased more than G, but not when spirulina was ingested. LPR was significantly different only in subjects with A/A genotype; there was a significant increase in phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide induced LPR in the spirulina group. CONCLUSION In healthy Korean elderly, spirulina supplementation may influence different inflammatory markers by the MCP-1 genotype. These results may be useful for customized dietary guidelines to improve immune function in Koreans. PMID:28765775

  3. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    . My hopotheses are - that singing has an influence on persons with dementia - that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics - that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system...... of communicative signs - that music therapy has an influence on aspects in residential daily life for the person with dementia. Data collection has been based on video recording, heart rate measurements, day-to-day questionnaires, case descriptions and music therapist's log.......The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing familiar songs from long ago in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit...

  4. Differences in Trunk Accelerometry Between Frail and Nonfrail Elderly Persons in Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Transitions Based on a Mobile Inertial Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2013-08-16

    Clinical frailty syndrome is a common geriatric syndrome, which is characterized by physiological reserve decreases and increased vulnerability. The changes associated to ageing and frailties are associated to changes in gait characteristics and the basic functional capacities. Traditional clinical evaluation of Sit-to-Stand (Si-St) and Stand-to-Sit (St-Si) transition is based on visual observation of joint angle motion to describe alterations in coordination and movement pattern. The latest generation smartphones often include inertial sensors with subunits such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect acceleration. Firstly, to describe the variability of the accelerations, angular velocity, and displacement of the trunk during the Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit transitions in two groups of frail and physically active elderly persons, through instrumentation with the iPhone 4 smartphone. Secondly, we want to analyze the differences between the two study groups. A cross-sectional study that involved 30 subjects over 65 years, 14 frail and 16 fit subjects. The participants were classified with frail syndrome by the Fried criteria. Linear acceleration was measured along three orthogonal axes using the iPhone 4 accelerometer. Each subject performed up to three successive Si-St and St-Si postural transitions using a standard chair with armrest. Significant differences were found between the two groups of frail and fit elderly persons in the accelerometry and angular displacement variables obtained in the kinematic readings of the trunk during both transitions. The inertial sensor fitted in the iPhone 4 is able to study and analyze the kinematics of the Si-St and St-Si transitions in frail and physically active elderly persons. The accelerometry values for the frail elderly are lower than for the physically active elderly, while variability in the readings for the frail elderly is also lower than for the control group.

  5. Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Seon-Rye; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of riding exercise on hormone levels in normal elderly people who were taught horseback riding for 8 weeks. [Subjects] Subjects were classified into an exercise group (n=10) and control group (n=10). [Methods] The two groups, horseback riding exercise group of 10 and control group of 10, were each tested for 15 minutes, 3 times, over 8 weeks. Post-exercise tests were implemented in both groups in the same way as pre-study tests. [Results] The horseback riding group showed a significant difference in the pre- and post-exercise serotonin and cortisol levels. Additionally, serotonin and cortisol levels showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Serotonin and cortisol levels significantly increased in the experimental group, suggesting that horseback riding exercise is effective for improving the levels of these hormones. PMID:26311966

  6. The role of the DRD2 C957T polymorphism in neuroticism in persons who stutter and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2012-03-07

    The present study investigates for the first time the influence of the DRD2 C957T polymorphism on personality in persons who stutter. In a recent study, the CC genotype of this single nucleotide polymorphism has been associated with stuttering, which could not be replicated in a follow-up study. Here, we demonstrate, in N=105 persons who stutter, that carriers of the CC and the CT genotype significantly have the highest neuroticism scores. This shows that the inclusion of personality measures in the investigation of the biological underpinnings of stuttering represents an important new avenue. In healthy control persons, a sex by C+/- allele interaction effect could be demonstrated. Female but not male carriers of the C+ variant report the highest neuroticism scores. Because neuroticism has been reported to be associated with stuttering before, the present data support the idea that this personality trait acts as an endophenotype for stuttering, contributing towards bridging the gap from gene variation to the complex pathology. This idea is supported by an additional path model showing that the polymorphism DRD2 C957T influences the self-reported severity of stuttering mainly by its influence on neuroticism (independent of the variable sex).

  7. Neuronal correlates of the five factor model (FFM) of human personality: Multimodal imaging in a large healthy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B; Grydeland, Håkon; Torgersen, Svenn; Westlye, Lars T

    2013-01-15

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques have recently provided glimpse into the neurobiology of complex traits of human personality. Whereas some intriguing findings have connected aspects of personality to variations in brain morphology, the relations are complex and our current understanding is incomplete. Therefore, we aimed to provide a comprehensive investigation of brain-personality relations using a multimodal neuroimaging approach in a large sample comprising 265 healthy individuals. The NEO Personality Inventory was used to provide measures of core aspects of human personality, and imaging phenotypes included measures of total and regional brain volumes, regional cortical thickness and arealization, and diffusion tensor imaging indices of white matter (WM) microstructure. Neuroticism was the trait most clearly linked to brain structure. Higher neuroticism including facets reflecting anxiety, depression and vulnerability to stress was associated with smaller total brain volume, widespread decrease in WM microstructure, and smaller frontotemporal surface area. Higher scores on extraversion were associated with thinner inferior frontal gyrus, and conscientiousness was negatively associated with arealization of the temporoparietal junction. No reliable associations between brain structure and agreeableness and openness, respectively, were found. The results provide novel evidence of the associations between brain structure and variations in human personality, and corroborate previous findings of a consistent neuroanatomical basis of negative emotionality.

  8. Cognitive Improvement and Brain Changes after Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Elderly and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hohenfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCognitive decline is characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and also for healthy ageing. As a proof-of-concept study, we examined whether this decline can be counteracted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback training. Visuospatial memory and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG were targeted.MethodsSixteen healthy elderly subjects (mean age 63.5 years, SD = 6.663 and 10 patients with prodromal AD (mean age 66.2 years, SD = 8.930 completed the experiment. Four additional healthy subjects formed a sham-feedback condition to validate the paradigm. The protocol spanned five examination days (T1–T5. T1 contained a neuropsychological pre-test, the encoding of a real-world footpath, and an anatomical MRI scan of the brain. T2–T4 included the fMRI neurofeedback training paradigm, in which subjects learned to enhance activation of the left PHG while recalling the path encoded on T1. At T5, the neuropsychological post-test and another anatomical MRI brain scan were performed. The neuropsychological battery included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; the Visual and Verbal Memory Test (VVM; subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS; the Visual Patterns Test; and Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B.ResultsHealthy elderly and patients with prodromal AD showed improved visuospatial memory performance after neurofeedback training. Healthy subjects also performed better in a working-memory task (WMS backward digit-span and in the MoCA. Both groups were able to elicit parahippocampal activation during training, but no significant changes in brain activation were found over the course of the training. However, Granger-causality-analysis revealed changes in cerebral connectivity over the course of the training, involving the parahippocampus and identifying the precuneus as main driver of activation in both groups. Voxel-based morphometry showed increases in grey matter volumes in the precuneus and frontal cortex. Neither cognitive

  9. Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2016-05-01

    Early inadequate attachment experiences are relevant co-factors in the development of obesity and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which often concurs with obesity. The relationship of parental bonding with personality and psychopathology may influence treatment strategies for obese subjects, either affected or not with BED. In this study, 443 obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), including 243 with and 200 without BED, and 158 female controls were assessed with regards to attachment, personality and eating psychopathology measures. Clusters obtained using the scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were compared with each other and with a control subjects' group. Lower scores of parental bonding distinguished obese subjects with respect to healthy controls. The cluster analysis revealed two clusters of parenting among obese subjects. The larger one displayed intermediate care and overprotection between controls and the smaller cluster, with the exception of paternal overprotection which is similar to controls. This larger cluster was characterized by low persistence and levels of psychopathology which are intermediate between healthy controls and the smaller cluster. The smaller cluster displayed lower care and higher overcontrol from both parents. It also displays more extreme personality traits (high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) and more severe eating and general psychopathology. Different parenting dynamics relate to different personality patterns and eating psychopathology of obese subjects, but not to binge eating conducts. Personality differences between parenting clusters are more extensive than those between BED and non-BED subgroups. The two different typologies of obese subjects based on parenting may be relevant for treatment personalization.

  10. Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Influenza А(H1n1pdm during 2015–2016 Epidemic Period in Elderly Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Domashenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate clinical progression of influenza A(H1N1, influenzal pneumonia, pathomorphological pulmonary changes in the lungs in elderly persons in 2015–2016. Materials and methods. During 2015–2016 epidemic period 36 patients suffering from influenza А(H1N1 aged of 60–84 years old (24 male and 12 female patients were attended to the Donetsk Central Municipal Clinical Hospital № 1. Influenza with pneumonia was diagnosed in 24 patients (66.7 %. In 33.3 % the diagnosis of influenza А(H1N1 was confirmed by viral serology testing (hemagglutination-inhibition test, in 63.9 % — by the polymerase chain reaction method, including 87.5 % of deceased patients. Research findings. During 5 years prior to the disease there was no history of influenza vaccination in all patients. On the 5–9th sick day 66.7 % of the patients were hospitalized, 1 female patient (2.8 % was admitted to the department in 2 weeks after the disease onset. Apparent intoxication syndrome was observed from the first day of the disease in 41.7 % of patients with uncomplicated influenza. The duration of fever was 8.7 ± 2.6 days. All elderly patients with uncomplicated influenza recovered. Influenza complicated by pneumonia was diagnosed in 24 patients (66.7 %. In 36.1 % of patients pneumonia was total or subtotal, complicated by respiratory failure of II–III degree of severity. Patients suffering from influenza and influenzal pneumonia did not receive antiviral treatment with oseltamyvirum (Tamiflu due to the lack of this medicinal product in the pharmacy network under the conditions of the local armed conflict. Antibacterial therapy included intravenous meropenum, protected 3rd generation cephalosporins, respiratory fluoroquinolones, macrolides in usual dosages. Oxygen therapy was an indispensable condition for the complex treatment of patients with influenzal pneumonia via a facemask, airtight reservoir bag mask, airtight

  11. Health care provision for older persons: the interplay between ageism and elder neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the link between neglect and ageism in health care provision for older persons. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 registered nurses with at least 2 years' experience in 10 long-term care facilities in Israel. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was performed according to the qualitative method. Three main themes emerged: ageism and neglect as the everyday routine (neglect is built into institution life on the platform of ageism); how the institutional system promotes neglect--between institutional and personal ageism (the ways institutions promote neglect in the shadow of ageism); from vision to reality--how neglect can be prevented in an ageist reality. The attempt to demonstrate the link between ageism and neglect and suggesting how to include them as interrelated phenomena in health care provision programs could promote older persons' quality of life.

  12. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  13. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  14. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  15. Distance to achieve steady state walking speed in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, U.; Najafi, B.; Zijlstra, W.; Hauer, K.; Muche, R.; Becker, C.; Aminian, K.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to determine the length of the gait initiation phase before achieving steady state walking in frail older people. Based on body fixed sensors, habitual walking was analysed in 116 community-dwelling older persons (mean age 83.1 years, 84% women). The start of steady state walking was

  16. Fear of Crime and the Elderly: Personal, Social, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.; And Others

    Despite low levels of criminal victimization, older people often express greater fear of crime than others. To examine the causes and consequences of such fear, 1,185 adults aged 60 and over, were interviewed about their personal characteristics, social resources, environment, subjective well-being, and lifestyle. Results showed that older people…

  17. Dilemmas in Decision Making for Caregivers of Cognitively Impaired Elderly Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensee, Mary G.; Kjervik, Diane K.

    1989-01-01

    The decision-making dilemmas faced by caregivers of older persons, coordination necessary among decision makers, legal criteria for incompetency, and caregiver stress are examined. The need for clarification of incompetency criteria for improved coordination among caregivers is suggested. (Author/MLW)

  18. Transtorno de personalidade na terceira idade Personality disorders in an elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Speggiorin Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Dificuldades interpessoais, instabilidade afetiva, distorções da relação médico-paciente e respostas imprevisíveis às intervenções são características centrais aos transtornos de personalidade que são encontradas tanto em pacientes jovens, como em adultos idosos. RELATO DE CASO: Encontra-se aqui descrito um caso de transtorno de personalidade em paciente de 68 anos de idade, com transtorno de personalidade do tipo histriônica e outras comorbidades psiquiátricas. CONCLUSÃO: Transtorno de personalidade é um diagnóstico raramente aventado no tratamento psiquiátrico no paciente idoso de difícil manejo. Deve-se nestes casos fazer uma investigação mais aprofundada do funcionamento da personalidade, pois a presença e a severidade do transtorno de personalidade têm implicações no plano da assistência de ambos os tratamentos psicológico e farmacológico.CONTEXT: Interpersonal difficulties, affective instability, distortions of the clinician-patient relationship, and unpredictable responses to clinical interventions, are characteristics found in older adults as well as in younger patients with personality disorders. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 68 years old patient with histrionic personality disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Personality disorders are frequently overlooked in the diagnostic workout of complex psychogeriatric syndromes, and require a comprehensive assessment of personality traits. The correct identification of personality disorders and their subtypes is critical for planning the therapeutic approach, including pharmacotherapy and psychological management.

  19. Comparison of Lower Extremity Strength, Power and Muscle Area between Healthy Subjects and Mobility-Limited Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared muscle strength, power and cross sectional area (CSA) in healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.3 +/- 5 yrs, n = 26), healthy older adults (73.8 +/- 4 yrs, n = 21), and older adults with mobility impairments (77.1 +/- 5 yrs, n = 21). One repetition maximum strength (1RM) and pe...

  20. Fear-avoidance beliefs, physical activity, and disability in elderly individuals with chronic low back pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Luckmann, Judith; Wolf, Udo; Quint, Sabine

    2008-09-01

    Research studies focussing on the fear-avoidance beliefs model (FABM) have expanded considerably during the last years, however, there has been very little research directed at the elderly. The objective of the present study was to investigate the validity of the FABM in older patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). In a cross-sectional study, a group of elderly patients with CLBP (N=103) was compared with an age-matched group of pain-free individuals (N=59) to test the constructs inherent in the FABM. Constructs include fear avoidance beliefs (FABs), disability, disuse, and physical activity. In addition, the relationship of these constructs was also investigated in the patient group. CLBP-patients had an average age of 71.41 years (SD=5.2) and pain-free individuals of 71.19 years (SD=4.73). Individuals participated in a photographed series of physical activities adapted to the age group (Photograph Series of Daily Activities-German version for the elderly) for the assessment of FAB, in the Hannover Disability Questionnaire, in the Freiburg Physical Activity Questionnaire, and in an ultrasound measurement to evaluate lumbar flexion. In addition, they completed an activity diary for 1 week. Before computation, the physical activity measurements were converted into metabolic units that characterize energy expenditure. In the patient group, FAB, pain intensity, and age predicted functional capacity, but not physical activity. Lumbar flexion was predicted by FAB and age. Patients were more fear-avoidant, reported more disability, and displayed less lumbar flexion than the pain-free individuals. No differences between the groups could be detected in regard to energy expenditure measured either by the questionnaire or by diary data. The findings are consistent with results reported in the literature for younger age groups and confirm the assumption that the FABM is also valid for the elderly.

  1. The association between Colombian medical students' healthy personal habits and a positive attitude toward preventive counseling: cross-sectional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiento Francisco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician-delivered preventive counseling is important for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Data from the U.S. indicates that medical students with healthy personal habits have a better attitude towards preventive counseling. However, this association and its correlates have not been addressed in rapidly urbanized settings where chronic disease prevention strategies constitute a top public health priority. This study examines the association between personal health practices and attitudes toward preventive counseling among first and fifth-year students from 8 medical schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods During 2006, a total of 661 first- and fifth-year medical students completed a culturally adapted Spanish version of the "Healthy Doctor = Healthy Patient" survey (response rate = 78%. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between overall personal practices on physical activity, nutrition, weight control, smoking, alcohol use (main exposure variable and student attitudes toward preventive counseling on these issues (main outcome variable, stratified by year of training and adjusting by gender and medical training-related factors (basic knowledge, perceived adequacy of training and perception of the school's promotion on each healthy habit. Results The median age and percentage of females for the first- and fifth-year students were 21 years and 59.5% and 25 years and 65%, respectively. After controlling for gender and medical training-related factors, consumption of ≥ 5 daily servings of fruits and/or vegetables, not being a smoker or binge drinker were associated with a positive attitude toward counseling on nutrition (OR = 4.71; CI = 1.6–14.1; p = 0.006 smoking (OR = 2.62; CI = 1.1–5.9; p = 0.022, and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.61; CI = 1.3–5.4; p = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion As for U.S. physician and medical students, a positive association was found between the

  2. Fear of falling in elderly persons: association with falls, functional ability, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong; Fisher, K John; Harmer, Peter; McAuley, Edward; Wilson, Nicole L

    2003-09-01

    This study examined heterogeneity in response patterns of the participants of the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE) and their relationships to falls, functional ability, quality of life, and activity restriction measures in a cohort of 256 older people (mean age = 77.5 years). Participants recruited from local primary care clinics were administered the SAFFE instrument, an activity restriction measure, a combination of self-reported and performance-based functional ability tests, and quality-of-life measures. Latent class analyses identified two classes: Class 1 (n = 209), which had a low SAFFE fear of falling, and Class 2 (n = 47), which had a high SAFFE fear of falling. Subsequent analyses of variance indicated that the two-class (low fear and high fear) SAFFE fear of falling profiles discriminated fallers from nonfallers, and low and high levels of functional ability, activity restriction, and quality of life. The findings from this study suggest that variations in the SAFFE response patterns on a single dimension of fear of falling and that high levels of fear of falling measured by the SAFFE are linked to a range of adverse health consequences.

  3. Emerging Burden of Frail Young and Elderly Persons in Oman; For whom the bell tolls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Al-Sinawi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements in health and an increased standard of living in Oman have led to a reduction in environment-related and infectious diseases. Now the country is experiencing an epidemiological transition characterised by a baby boom, youth bulge and increasing longevity. Common wisdom would therefore suggest that Omanis will suffer less ill health. However, a survey of literature suggests that chronic non-communicable diseases are unexpectedly becoming common. This is possibly fuelled by some socio-cultural patterns specific to Oman, as well as the shortcomings of the ‘miracle’ of health and rapid modernisation. Unfortunately, such new diseases do not spare younger people; a proportion of them will need the type of care usually reserved for the elderly. In addition, due to their pervasive and refractory nature, these chronic non-communicable diseases seem impervious to the prevailing ‘cure-oriented’ health care system. This situation therefore calls for a paradigm shift: a health care system that goes beyond a traditional cure-orientation to provide care services for the chronically sick of all ages.

  4. Unmasking the 'elderly mystique': Why it is time to make the personal political in ageing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia

    2015-12-01

    This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people.

  5. Ten-year stability of self-reported schizotypal personality features in patients with psychosis and their healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Fañanás, Lourdes; Rosa, Araceli; Salvatore, Paola; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-06-30

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms or features are common in patients with psychosis and their healthy relatives. However, the long-term stability of these SPD features and therefore their constituting enduring traits underlying vulnerability to psychosis remain to be clarified. Thirty-two patients with psychotic disorders and 29 of their healthy siblings were included from the long-term follow-up study of 89 nuclear families. Participants were clinically assessed by means of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, whereas the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was applied for the self-assessment of SPD symptoms. The assessments were carried out upon admission to the study and at follow-up, about 10 years later. The patients had higher scores than their siblings on the SPQ-B both at baseline and follow-up. In addition, self-reported SPD symptoms remained stable over time in total scores and in all the SPQ-B subscores, except for the SPQ-B Disorganization subscale. Self-reported SPD symptoms were stable over the long term among patients with psychotic disorders and their healthy siblings. This finding provides new support for including the SPD construct as a trait measure for studies addressing both vulnerability to psychosis in first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and long-term persistence of symptoms in patients suffering from psychosis.

  6. Staging of mobility, transfer and walking functions of elderly persons based on the codes of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Jiro; Takahashi, Tai; Takamuku, Kiyoshi; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2013-02-15

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was introduced by the World Health Organization as a common taxonomy to describe the burden of health conditions. This study focuses on the development of a scale for staging basic mobility and walking functions based on the ICF. Thirty-three ICF codes were selected to test their fit to the Rasch model and their location. Of these ICF items, four were used to develop a Guttman- type scale of "basic mobility" and another four to develop a"walking" scale to stage functional performance in the elderly. The content validity and differential item functioning of the scales were assessed. The participants, chosen at random, were Japanese over 65 years old using the services of public long-term care insurance, and whose functional assessments were used for scale development and scale validation. There were 1164 elderly persons who were eligible for scale development. To stage the functional performance of elderly persons, two Guttman-type scales of "basic mobility" and "walking" were constructed. The order of item difficulty was validated using 3260 elderly persons. There is no differential item functioning about study location, sex and age-group in the newly developed scales. These results suggested the newly developed scales have content validity. These scales divided functional performance into five stages according to four ICF codes, making the measurements simple and less time-consuming and enable clear descriptions of elderly functioning level. This was achieved by hierarchically rearranging the ICF items and constructing Guttman-type scales according to item difficulty using the Rasch model. In addition, each functional level might require similar resources and therefore enable standardization of care and rehabilitation. Illustrations facilitate the sharing of patient images among health care providers. By using the ICF as a common taxonomy, these scales could be used internationally as

  7. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Elderly Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    To forget your keys, the name of your neighbour, where you put your glasses, or even forgetting your password, is annoying, - but well, it happens to all of us. But when you forget where you live, fail to recognise a close friend, forget what things around you are called, even your own name, then......, then you have a serious problem! The article describes a Ph.D.-research with focus on music therapy with persons suffering from dementia....

  8. Hematological and nutritional parameters in apparently healthy elderly individuals Parâmetros hematológicos e nutricionais em idosos aparentemente saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza D'Agord Schaan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-probabilistic study in an elderly free living community was performed. The first analysis was cross-sectional in design and the additional analysis, a case-control design. In the first analysis, 745 subjects were enrolled. Additional analyses, made in 46 apparently healthy elderly subjects (AHE and 33 young adults (YA included: clinical, hematological and biochemical analyses, 24-hours nutritional recall and diet frequency questionnaire. The AHE were selected using the Senieur test protocol. To avoid selection bias in the AHE sample, additional analysis comparing cultural, socioeconomic, and health variables were compared between AHE and non-selected elderly with same dysfunction or morbidity (DE. The prevalence of AHE was 6.17% (n=46 among whom 4.3% were anemic. There were no statistically differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocytes and vitamin B12 levels between AHE and YA groups. Mean values of MCV, RDW, eosinophils, folate and ferritin were higher in the AHE than the YA group. On the other hand, platelets were higher in the YA group. No statistically significant difference occurred between the AHE and DE groups when nutritional indicators were compared. The comparison between nutritional indicators of anemic and non-anemic apparently healthy elderly people showed statistically significant differences in vitamin B12 and protein intake, which were lower in the anemic elderly. The results suggest independent biological differences between hematological parameters of elderly and young individuals.Foi realizado um estudo não probabilístico em idosos que vivem na comunidade. A primeira análise teve um delineamento transversal e análises adicionais um delineamento caso-controle. Na primeira análise foram incluídos 745 indivíduos. Análises adicionais foram feitas em 46 idosos saudáveis (HE e em 33 adultos jovens (YA incluindo: análises clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas, recordatório nutricional de 24 horas e question

  9. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a phase I open label study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Hibberd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines. METHODS: Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66-80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions. RESULTS: There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1-7 per volunteer, 39 (83% of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70% of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea, 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038 while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598.

  10. Big 5 personality traits and interleukin-6: evidence for "healthy Neuroticism" in a US population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Moynihan, Jan; Chapman, Benjamin P

    2013-02-01

    The current study investigated if the Big 5 personality traits predicted interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in a national sample over the course of 5years. In addition, interactions among the Big 5 were tested to provide a more accurate understanding of how personality traits may influence an inflammatory biomarker. Data included 1054 participants in the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) biomarkers subproject. The Big 5 personality traits were assessed in 2005-2006 as part of the main MIDUS survey. Medication use, comorbid conditions, smoking behavior, alcohol use, body mass index, and serum levels of IL-6 were assessed in 2005-2009 as part of the biomarkers subproject. Linear regression analyses examined personality associations with IL-6. A significant Conscientiousness*Neuroticism interaction revealed that those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism had lower circulating IL-6 levels than people with all other configurations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Adjustment for health behaviors diminished the magnitude of this association but did not eliminate it, suggesting that lower comorbid conditions and obesity may partly explain the lower inflammation of those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Our findings suggest, consistent with prior speculation, that average to higher levels of Neuroticism can in some cases be associated with health benefits - in this case when it is accompanied by high Conscientiousness. Using personality to identify those at risk may lead to greater personalization in the prevention and remediation of chronic inflammation.

  11. Clinical Relevance of Specific Cognitive Complaints in Determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a Study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Villanueva, Marina; Rebollo-Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M.; Valentí, Meritxell; Medina, Miguel; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI. Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely Forgetfulness of Immediate Information (FII), Executive Functions (EF) and Prospective Memory (PM) proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10). Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to use the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints. PMID:27757082

  12. Clinical Relevance of Specific Cognitive Complaints in Determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a Study of Healthy Elderly Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Villanueva, Marina; Rebollo-Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Valentí, Meritxell; Medina, Miguel; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI. Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely Forgetfulness of Immediate Information (FII), Executive Functions (EF) and Prospective Memory (PM) proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10). Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to use the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  13. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required.

  14. Positive Modulation Effect of 8-Week Consumption of Kaempferia parviflora on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Oxidative Status in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Saenghong, Narisara; Thukhum-Mee, Wipawee; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2012-01-01

    Health-related physical fitness declines as the age advances. Oxidative stress is reported to contribute the crucial role on this phenomenon. This condition is also enhanced by antioxidant. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Kaempferia parviflora, a plant reputed for antifatigue, longevity promotion, and antioxidant effects, on health-related quality physical fitness and oxidative status of the healthy elderly volunteers. Total 45 subjects had been randomized to receive placebo or K. parviflora extract at doses of 25 or 90 mg once daily for 8 weeks. They were determined baseline data of physical performance using 30 sec chair stand test, hand grip test, 6 min walk test, and tandem test. Serum oxidative stress markers including malondialdehde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also assayed. All assessments were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 8-week study period. The results showed that K. parviflora increased performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6 min walk test together with the increased all scavenger enzymes activities and the decreased MDA level. Therefore, K. parviflora can enhance physical fitness partly via the decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, K. parviflora is the potential health supplement for elderly. However, further study is required.

  15. Convergent validity and sex differences in healthy elderly adults for performance on 3D virtual reality navigation learning and 2D hidden maze tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, William J; Lee, Jang-Han; Mraz, Richard; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Snyder, Peter J; Black, Sandra E; Graham, Simon J

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed the convergent validity of a virtual environment (VE) navigation learning task, the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT), and selected traditional neuropsychological tests performed in a group of healthy elderly adults (n = 24). The cohort was divided equally between males and females to explore performance variability due to sex differences, which were subsequently characterized and reported as part of the analysis. To facilitate performance comparisons, specific "efficiency" scores were created for both the VE navigation task and the GMLT. Men reached peak performance more rapidly than women during VE navigation and on the GMLT and significantly outperformed women on the first learning trial in the VE. Results suggest reasonable convergent validity across the VE task, GMLT, and selected neuropsychological tests for assessment of spatial memory.

  16. An outbreak of calicivirus associated gastroenteritis in an elderly persons home. A possible zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, T. J.; Cruickshank, J. G.; Cubitt, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by calicivirus began amongst residents and staff of an old persons home 24 hours after the proprietor's dog had been sick. Serological evidence suggests that the calicivirus isolated from one of the cases may be capable of infecting dogs as well as man. The virus strain responsible for this outbreak differs antigenically from those associated with two other outbreaks in the U.K. and one in Japan. The characteristic morphology of calicivirus is lost if stool is stored at -70 degrees C. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6094667

  17. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Miguel Antônio; Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Andrusaitis, Felix Ricardo; Rodrigues, Thuam Silva; Speciali, Danielli Souza; Greve, Júlia Maria D Andréa; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master¯ force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance) and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test). In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test.

  18. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antônio Rahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master¯ force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test. RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test.

  19. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: Resting distal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Most patients referred to our department for distal blood pressure (DBP) determination on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd) are more than 60 years of age, whereas the only available reference data for resting pressure are based on data from healthy individuals aged....... Material and methods. Group I comprised 31 healthy persons aged between 61 and 87 years and group II 14 healthy middle-aged hospital staff members aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results. For group I, significantly greater gradients (DBPtoe - systolic arm blood...... pressure and DBPtoe - DBPankle) were found in the new reference data compared to the old. No significant difference between the mean values of the gradient (DBPankle - systolic arm blood pressure) was found between the old and new reference data, although the variation was significantly wider in the new...

  20. Self-maintenance Habits and Preferences in Elderly (SHAPE): reliability of reports of self-care preferences in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Jensen, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Self-care preferences can be used in designing programs of care. Yet little has been documented concerning the self-care habits and preferences of older adults. This study assessed the reliability of reports of self-care preferences and their importance among older adults using the Self-maintenance Habits and Preferences in Elderly (SHAPE) instrument. Twenty community-dwelling seniors completed the SHAPE questionnaire twice within a one- to two-week interval. Percent agreement, both exact and close/partial, was computed to assess the reliability of preference content, and intra-class correlations (ICCs) were used for preference importance. Test and subject factors affecting reliability were also investigated. Exact agreement rate for item content was 73%, and that for close/partial agreement was 93%. Mean ICC for item importance was 0.72. Reliability was greater for dichotomous items than for either ordinal or categorical questions. Reliability of item content varied with number of response options and importance reliability varied with age and IADL status. Information from SHAPE about self-care preferences can be used to plan services for seniors and to individualize care for older persons, especially those transitioning to new living environments or those receiving home care.

  1. Micronutrients supplementation and nutritional status in cognitively impaired elderly persons: a two-month open label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arnim, Christine A F; Dismar, Stephanie; Ott-Renzer, Cornelia S; Noeth, Nathalie; Ludolph, Albert C; Biesalski, Hans K

    2013-11-15

    Malnutrition is a widespread problem in elderly people and is associated with cognitive decline. However, interventional studies have produced ambiguous results. For this reason, we wanted to determine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on blood and tissue levels and on general nutritional status in persons with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. We performed a 2-month, open-label trial, administering a daily micronutrient supplement to 42 memory clinic patients with mild cognitive deficits. Blood levels of antioxidants, zinc, and B vitamins were determined before and after supplementation. In addition, we assessed metabolic markers for B vitamins and intracellular (buccal mucosa cell [BMC]) antioxidant levels. Nutritional status was assessed by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Blood levels of B vitamins, folic acid, lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol increased significantly. Decreases in homocysteine levels and the thiamine pyrophosphate effect and an increase in holotranscobalamin were observed. We found no increase in intracellular antioxidant levels of BMC. The MNA score in subjects at risk for malnutrition increased significantly, mainly owing to better perception of nutritional and overall health status. Micronutrient supplementation improved serum micronutrient status, with improved metabolic markers for B vitamins but not for intracellular antioxidant status, and was associated with improved self-perception of general health status. Our data underline the necessity of determining micronutrient status and support the use of additional assessments for general health and quality of life in nutritional supplementation trials.

  2. A comparative study of carrier state of Candida and its speciation in oral flora – Among healthy individuals, persons with DM and HIV sero positive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bharathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine colonization rate of candida in oral cavity of healthy individuals, diabetics and HIV seropositive individuals.Material and methods: Samples were collected from oral cavity of 50 HIV sero positive individuals, 50 diabetics and 50 healthy individuals by swabbing palatal mucosa, dorsum of tongue and buccal mucosa with a sterile swab. Samples were processed by inoculating on Hi Chrome Agar and speciation was done by growth on Hi Chrome agar, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on CMA, pellicle formation in SDA broth and growth at 45ºc.Results: 27 HIV sero positive individuals (54% carried candida in their oral cavities (single strain in 44% and combination of strains in 10%. Whereas it was 44% in diabetics (single species in 38% and a combination of species in 6% and 24% in healthy individuals (only single species. Candida albicans accounts for 41.66% in healthy individuals, 68% in diabetics and 42.42% in HIV seropositive persons. other species isolated were Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata in all 3 groups in addition to Candida dubliniensis in healthy and HIV seropositive individuals and C.krusei in HIV seropositive persons only. P value- less than 0.05 between healthy persons & diabetics and between healthy persons & HIV seropositives (significant.Conclusion: candidal carriage was higher in diabetics and HIV seropositive individuals. Candida albicans was the commonest species in all three groups. Candida krusei was seen only in HIV positive persons.

  3. Healthy aging persons and their brains: promoting resilience through creative engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Susan H; Basting, Anne D

    2010-02-01

    Creative engagement, as an expression of and a support for resilience, may have a neuroprotective effect among older adults, contributing to retention of cognitive capacity. Recent research on creative activities shows that they strengthen social networks and give persons a sense of control; both outcomes have been associated with brain health. The authors cite evidence suggesting that positive social interactions can nurture resilience and creative engagement among older persons, including those living with dementia. The motivational, attentional, affective, and social components of creative activities combine to offer older persons meaningful opportunities to express and strengthen their resilience, regardless of their cognitive status, despite the biopsychosocial challenges of aging. The article addresses implications for future research, clinical practice, and public policy, and suggests how gaps in current research on resilience and creativity might be addressed.

  4. Vital Sign and Location/Attitude Monitoring with Sensor Networks for the Proposed Rescue System for Disabled and Elderly Persons Who Need a Help in Evacuation from Disaster Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Method and system for vital sign (Body temperature, blood pressure, bless, Heart beat pulse rate, and consciousness and location/attitude monitoring with sensor network for the proposed rescue system for disabled and elderly persons who need a help in evacuation from disaster areas is proposed. Experimental results show that all of vital signs as well as location and attitude of the disabled and elderly persons are monitored with the proposed sensor networks.

  5. Effects of a 12-Month Multicomponent Exercise Program on Physical Performance, Daily Physical Activity, and Quality of Life in Very Elderly People With Minor Disabilities: An Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Naoto; Higaki, Yasuki; Inoue, Shinichi; Kimura, Hiromi; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although studies suggest that exercise training improves physical performance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among elderly people, most of these studies have investigated relatively healthy persons. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a 12-month multicomponent exercise program on physical performance, daily physical activity, and HRQOL among very elderly people with minor disabilities. Methods The subjects consisted of 65 elders (median ag...

  6. Structural brain changes after traditional and robot-assisted multi-domain cognitive training in community-dwelling healthy elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Ha Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly.ClnicalTrials.gov NCT01596205.

  7. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M.; Hsiung, Chao A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index. We used baseline measurements (2009–2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years). In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35–0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33–0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA. A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly. PMID:28178143

  8. Engagement in elderly persons with dementia attending animal-assisted group activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-09-02

    The need for meaningful activities that enhance engagement is very important among persons with dementia (PWDs), both for PWDs still living at home, as well as for PWDs admitted to a nursing home (NH). In this study, we systematically registered behaviours related to engagement in a group animal-assisted activity (AAA) intervention for 21 PWDs in NHs and among 28 home-dwelling PWDs attending a day care centre. The participants interacted with a dog and its handler for 30 minutes, twice a week for 12 weeks. Video-recordings were carried out early (week 2) and late (week 10) during the intervention period and behaviours were categorized by the use of an ethogram. AAA seems to create engagement in PWDs, and might be a suitable and health promoting intervention for both NH residents and participants of a day care centre. Degree of dementia should be considered when planning individual or group based AAA.

  9. Associations between human rights environments and healthy longevity: the case of older persons in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bethany L; Qiu, Li; Gu, Danan

    2012-12-15

    Individual health can deteriorate through neglect or violation of human rights or can improve through favorable health policies and programs on human rights. Yet quantitative associations between human rights and health are insufficiently studied. Based on a nationwide dataset of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) with more than 18,800 adults aged 65 and older in mainland China interviewed in 2002 and 2005 and their follow-ups three years later, we examine how an individual's longevity and health are associated with some domains of human rights. We use three individual-level variables in early life stages (whether a respondent went to bed hungry, accessed adequate medical services, and years of schooling), three individual-level variables at present (whether a respondent has adequate housing; whether a respondent has adequate economic resources to support his/her daily subsistence, and whether a respondent gets adequate medical services when in need), and one community-level variable (air quality) as proxies to measure several fundamental domains of human rights in terms of access to adequate food/nutrition, housing/shelter, education, social security, health care, and clean-air environments. An indicator of healthy survival is introduced to measure survivors at sequent follow-ups with a good health condition. Our results demonstrate that better conditions of proxy measures of human rights at different life stages, especially at present, are associated with a higher likelihood of healthy survival after taking various confounding variables into consideration, suggesting the possibility of a significant linkage between good environments in human rights and healthy longevity. These findings may have important implications for promoting better environments in human rights, especially in the context of population aging.

  10. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  11. A pilot randomized controlled trial using EEG-based brain–computer interface training for a Chinese-speaking group of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee TS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tih-Shih Lee,1 Shin Yi Quek,1 Siau Juinn Alexa Goh,1 Rachel Phillips,2 Cuntai Guan,3 Yin Bun Cheung,4 Lei Feng,5 Chuan Chu Wang,3 Zheng Yang Chin,3 Haihong Zhang,3 Jimmy Lee,6 Tze Pin Ng,5 K Ranga Rama Krishnan1 1Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 2Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore; 3Institute for Infocomm Research, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; 4Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 5Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 6Department of General Psychiatry/Department of Research, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore Background: There is growing evidence that cognitive training (CT can improve the cognitive functioning of the elderly. CT may be influenced by cultural and linguistic factors, but research examining CT programs has mostly been conducted on Western populations. We have developed an innovative electroencephalography (EEG-based brain–computer interface (BCI CT program that has shown preliminary efficacy in improving cognition in 32 healthy English-speaking elderly adults in Singapore. In this second pilot trial, we examine the acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of our BCI CT program in healthy Chinese-speaking Singaporean elderly.Methods: Thirty-nine elderly participants were randomized into intervention (n=21 and waitlist control (n=18 arms. Intervention consisted of 24 half-hour sessions with our BCI-based CT training system to be completed in 8 weeks; the control arm received the same intervention after an initial 8-week waiting period. At the end of the training, a usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered. Efficacy was measured using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, which was translated and culturally adapted for the Chinese-speaking local population. Users were asked

  12. Analysis of ochratoxin A blood levels in bladder cancer cases and healthy persons from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Rivzi, S Abidul Hassan; Beg, Anwer Ejaz; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H

    2012-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), a well-known human nephrotoxic and carcinogenic agent, is a public health concern in many countries. Exposure is assessed by means of mycotoxin analysis in food commodities and by human biomonitoring of OTA in blood samples. Data available from several European countries and some studies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas indicate frequent detection of OTA. Thus far, data from developing countries that compare blood levels in healthy and diseased individuals are scarce. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine OTA levels in blood samples of bladder cancer patients (n = 96) and healthy controls (n = 31) from Pakistan. OTA in blood plasma was analyzed after extraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Among samples of 87 cancer patients and 30 controls, 92% in total contained quantifiable amounts of OTA. In bladder cancer cases the median OTA concentration was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.296; range: 0.03 to 3.41 ng/ml), and in healthy controls the median OTA was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.3; range: 0.04 to 1.24 ng/ml). The OTA levels found in the Pakistanian cohorts were comparable to those reported previously for the general population in the European Union. In conclusion, OTA is not likely to play a major role in the etiology of bladder cancer in the Karachi cohort, at least as the sole risk factor.

  13. Personalized Coaching Systems to support healthy behavior in people with chronic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, H.; Akker, op den H.; Tabak, M.; Wijsman, J.; Vollenbroek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic conditions cannot be cured but daily behavior has a major effect on the severity of secondary problems and quality of life. Changing behavior however requires intensive support in daily life, which is not feasible with a human coach. A new coaching approach – so-called Personal Coaching Syst

  14. Impulsive personality traits in male pedophiles versus healthy controls: is pedophilia an impulsive-aggressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; McGeoch, Pamela G; Poznansky, Olga; Itskovich, Yelena; Murphy, Sean; Klein, Erik; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Despite the extensive literature documenting the pervasive and pernicious effects of childhood sexual abuse, there is surprisingly little psychiatric literature on pedophilia and its etiology remains enigmatic. In recent years, the psychiatric literature on the phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment of impulsive-aggressive disorders has grown significantly. As some investigators have conceptualized pedophilia as an impulsive-aggressive disorder, it is of interest whether recent advances in the study of impulsive-aggressive disorders might shed light on pathological mechanisms underlying pedophilia. In the following study, 20 male subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of pedophilia, heterosexual type were recruited from an outpatient facility for sexual offenders and compared to 24 demographically similar control subjects. Groups were compared on three personality instruments--the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment-Questionnaire (DAPI-Q)--to assess for select impairment in impulsive-aggressive personality traits. Pedophiles showed severe and pervasive personality impairment relative to controls. Although there was evidence of impulsivity, the findings do not suggest a predominance of impulsive-aggressive traits, and in fact provide evidence of inhibition, passive-aggression, and harm avoidance. The notion of "compulsive-aggression" in pedophilia is proposed.

  15. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with increased risk of depression, vital exhaustion, social alienation, a higher number of reinfarctions, and higher mortality rates in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional biomedical risk factors. The construct ...... controls, and to investigate whether Type D is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)....

  16. The effects of an active-assisted stretching program on functional performance in elderly persons: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian C Stanziano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Damian C Stanziano1,2, Bernard A Roos1,2,3,4, Arlette C Perry1, Shenghan Lai5, Joseph F Signorile1,31Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2Stein Gerontological Institute, Miami Jewish Home and Hospital, Miami, FL, USA; 3Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Miami VA Healthcare System, Miami, FL, USA; 4Departments of Medicine and Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 5Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: This study examined the impact of an eight-week active-assisted (AA stretching program on functionality, mobility, power, and range of motion (ROM in elderly residents of a residential retirement community. Seventeen volunteers (4 male, 13 female; 88.8 ± 5.36 years were randomly assigned to an AA or control group. The AA group performed 10 different AA stretches targeting the major joints of the body twice weekly for eight weeks. Controls attended classes requiring limited physical activity. All participants were assessed using four fl exibility and six functional tests, one week before and after the eight-week training period. A fully randomized repeated-measures ANCOVA with pretest scores as a covariate was used to detect differences between groups across time. The AA group demonstrated significant increases in ROM for most of the joints evaluated (p < 0.05 and significant increases in all performance measures (p < 0.05. Controls showed no improvements in functional or ROM measures (α = 0.05. Additionally, the AA group showed significantly better performance outcomes across the training period than controls. We conclude that our eight-week flexibility program effectively reduces age-related losses in ROM and improves functional performance in elderly persons with insufficient physical reserves to perform higher-intensity exercises.Keywords: proprioceptive neuromuscular

  17. Healthy Aging in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution-,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence.

  18. The Effects of Practice on the Concurrent Performance of a Speech and Postural Task in Persons with Parkinson Disease and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bo Foreman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Persons with Parkinson disease (PD demonstrate deficits in motor learning as well as bidirectional interference (the performance of one task concurrently interferes with the performance of another task during dual-task performance. Few studies have examined the practice dosages necessary for behavioral change in rehabilitation relevant tasks. Therefore, to compare the effects of age and PD on motor learning during dual-task performance, this pilot study examined persons with PD as well as neurologically healthy participants during concurrent performance of postural and speaking tasks. Methods. Seven persons with PD and 7 healthy age-matched and 10 healthy young control subjects were tested in a motion capture facility. Task performances were performed concurrently and recorded during 3 time periods (acquisition (beginning and ending, 48-hour retention, and 1-week retention. Postural control and speech articulatory acoustic variables were measured. Results. Healthy young participants consistently performed better than other groups on all measured postural and speech variables. Healthy young participants showed decreased variability at retention, while persons with PD and healthy age-matched controls were unable to consistently improve their performance as a result of practice. No changes were noted in the speech variables. Conclusion. The lack of consistent changes in motor performance in any of the tasks, except in the healthy young group, suggests a decreased efficiency of motor learning in the age-matched and PD groups and argues for increased practice dosages during balance training.

  19. The tridimensional personality theory and pain: harm avoidance and reward dependence traits correlate with pain perception in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pud, Dorit; Eisenberg, Elon; Sprecher, Elliot; Rogowski, Zeev; Yarnitsky, David

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of personality traits in determining the variability of pain perception among individuals. More specifically, it was intended to test whether or not the three personality dimensions suggested by Cloninger in 1987 - mainly harm avoidance (HA), but also reward dependence (RD), and novelty seeking (NS), can predict interpersonal differences in responsiveness to experimental pain. Seventy healthy volunteers participated in the study. Their personality traits were evaluated through Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ). Pain threshold (latency to pain onset), pain magnitude (VAS), and pain tolerance (time to withdrawal) were measured by using the cold pressor test. Bonferroni-adjusted correlations were found between HA and the pain parameters as follows: a negative correlation between HA and threshold (rho=-0.297, P(adj)=0.039); no significant correlation between HA and tolerance (rho=-0.219, P(adj)=0.207); and a trend for a positive correlation between HA and VAS (rho=0.266, P(adj)=0.081). Possible correlations between pain perception and the various possible combinations of high and low scoring for each of the three traits were also investigated. Correlations were found only for the combinations of high/low HA and high/low RD. The low HA/low RD combination demonstrated the lowest responsiveness to pain (VAS 65.2+/-21.4; tolerance 107.6+/-71.8 s), whereas the high HA/low RD combination was correlated with the highest responsiveness (VAS 83.3+/-10.8; tolerance 30.8+/-28.4 s). The results indicate that HA personality trait correlates best with pain responsiveness. As such, a high HA are likely to predict a heightened pain response. RD may modify this pattern. The possible relevant behavioral and neuro-chemical mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  1. Normal macular thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes of adult Chinese persons: the Handan Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xin Rong; Liang, Yuan Bo; Friedman, David S; Sun, Lan Ping; Wong, Tien Yin; Tao, Qiu Shan; Bao, Lingzhi; Wang, Ning Li; Wang, Jie Jin

    2010-08-01

    To describe macular thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in healthy eyes of adult Chinese persons. Population-based cross-sectional study. Chinese adults aged 30+ years who were residents of Handan, North China. The Handan Eye Study is a population-based study of eye disease in Chinese persons. Eligible residents underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including OCT (Stratus OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany). Fast macular thickness scans were performed over maculae within 6 mm in diameter, divided into 3 regions (central, inner, and outer, with a diameter of 1, 3, and 6 mm, respectively) and 9 quadrants (1 in the central region and 4 each in the inner and outer regions). Retinal thickness (means and standard deviations) was calculated by OCT mapping software, presented for foveal minimum, central macula (within 1 mm diameter), and inner and outer regions divided by 8 quadrants. Macular thickness measured by OCT. Of the 6830 participants (90.4% response rate) examined, 2230 eyes of healthy subjects with high-quality OCT scans were selected (32.7% of participants; mean age, 46.4+/-9.9 years, 58.4% were women). The mean foveal minimum, central, inner, and outer macular thicknesses were 150.3 (18.1) microm, 176.4 (17.5) microm, 255.3 (14.9) microm, and 237.7 (12.4) microm, respectively (overall differences, Pregion, the nasal quadrant was thinner than the superior and inferior quadrants, and in the outer region, the nasal quadrant was the thickest (Pmeasurements using OCT in a large population-based sample of adult Chinese persons aged 30 to 85 years were generally thinner in the foveal and central macular areas than measurements reported in other populations. Age and axial length were positively correlated with macular thickness. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Long term persistence of yellow fever neutralising antibodies in elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulange Bodilis, H; Benabdelmoumen, G; Gergely, A; Goujon, C; Pelicot, M; Poujol, P; Consigny, P H

    2011-10-01

    The activity of the yellow fever virus is reemerging in areas without recent transmission history, such as northern Argentina and Paraguay, and persists in an epidemic mode in other countries in Africa and Latin America. Thus more and more travelers are at risk of being exposed to this disease. The population is becoming older, sometimes suffering from multiple pathologies. Moreover, the risk of serious adverse events associated with live-attenuated YF17D vaccine, such as multiple organ failure (YEL-AVD), reaches 1/50,000 vaccines in people over 65 versus 1/200,000 in the general population. We analyzed, in a retrospective study, the results of neutralizing antibody titers against yellow fever in people aged 60 and older, who had been previously vaccinated against yellow fever and had visited the International Vaccination Centre of the Institut Pasteur between January 2005 and February 2009. In this population of 84 persons (median age 69 years), the date of the last vaccination was always more than 10 years: it was precisely known in 68 subjects and alleged in 16 subjects. The median time since the previous vaccination was 14 years, with a maximum of 60 years. The indications of serology were: immunosuppressive therapy (19% of cases), cancer (32%), hemopathy (10.7%), HIV infection (3.6%), chronic hepatitis/chronic renal failure/dialysis (2.4%), autoimmune diseases (2.4%), and in 29.8% of cases, age alone was the indication of serology. The antibody titer was at a protective level in 95.2% of cases. The four individuals with negative serology had no formal documented proof of a previous vaccination against yellow fever. This serological study was able to show a persistent protective antibody titer, after a previous vaccination, even going back 60 years, allowing patients to travel in a yellow-fever endemic area despite a contraindication, and without requiring any vaccine booster.

  3. A three-dimensional digital visualization model of cervical nerves in a healthy person*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaming Cao; Dong Fu; Sen Li

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction nerve models are classically obtained from two-dimensional ages of “visible human” frozen sections. However, because of the flexibility of nerve tissues and smal color differences compared with surrounding tissues, the integrity and validity of nerve tissues can be impaired during mil ing. Thus, in the present study, we obtained two-dimensional data from a healthy volunteer based on continuous CT angiography and magnetic resonance myelography. Semi-automatic segmentation and reconstruction were then conducted at different thresholds in different tissues using Mimics software. Smal anatomical structures such as muscles and cervical nerves were reconstructed using the medical computer aided design module. Three-dimensional digital models of the cervical nerves and their surrounding structures were successful y developed, which al owed visualization of the spatial relation of anatomical structures with a strong three-dimensional effect, distinct appearance, clear distribution, and good continuity, precision, and integrality. These results indicate the validity of a three-dimensional digital visualization model of healthy human cervical nerves, which overcomes the disadvantages of mil ing, avoids data loss, and exhibits a realistic appearance and three-dimensional image.

  4. A three-dimensional digital visualization model of cervical nerves in a healthy person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiaming; Fu, Dong; Li, Sen

    2013-07-15

    Three-dimensional reconstruction nerve models are classically obtained from two-dimensional ages of "visible human" frozen sections. However, because of the flexibility of nerve tissues and small color differences compared with surrounding tissues, the integrity and validity of nerve tissues can be impaired during milling. Thus, in the present study, we obtained two-dimensional data from a healthy volunteer based on continuous CT angiography and magnetic resonance myelography. Semi-automatic segmentation and reconstruction were then conducted at different thresholds in different tissues using Mimics software. Small anatomical structures such as muscles and cervical nerves were reconstructed using the medical computer aided design module. Three-dimensional digital models of the cervical nerves and their surrounding structures were successfully developed, which allowed visualization of the spatial relation of anatomical structures with a strong three-dimensional effect, distinct appearance, clear distribution, and good continuity, precision, and integrality. These results indicate the validity of a three-dimensional digital visualization model of healthy human cervical nerves, which overcomes the disadvantages of milling, avoids data loss, and exhibits a realistic appearance and three-dimensional image.

  5. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  6. Association between muscular strength and inflammatory markers among elderly persons with cardiac disease: results from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volaklis, K A; Halle, M; Koenig, W; Oberhoffer, R; Grill, E; Peters, A; Strasser, B; Heier, M; Emeny, R; Schulz, H; Ladwig, K H; Meisinger, C; Thorand, B

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the association between muscle strength and inflammation in diseased individuals and particularly in cardiac patients. Thus, our purpose was to examine the association of muscular strength with the inflammatory status in older adults with and without cardiac disease. The cross-sectional analysis was based on 1079 adults aged 65-94 years, who participated in the KORA-Age study. Participants underwent an interview and extensive physical examinations including anthropometric measurements, registration of diseases and drug intake, determination of health-related behaviors, collection of blood samples for measurements of interleukin-6 and hs-CRP and muscle strength measurement using hand-grip dynamometry. Cardiac patients (n = 323) had higher levels of IL-6 and poorer muscle strength compared with older adults without cardiac disease. Among persons with cardiac diseases, muscle strength in the lower tertile compared to the upper tertile was significantly associated with increased odds of having elevated IL-6 levels (OR 3.53, 95 % CI 1.18-10.50, p = 0.024) after controlling for age, gender, body fat, alcohol intake, smoking status, diseases, medications and physical activity, whereas the association between muscle strength and hs-CRP remained borderline significant (OR 2.80, 95 % CI 0.85-9.24, p = 0.092). The same trends, with slightly lower odds ratios, were also observed in older adults without cardiac disease. Lower levels of muscular strength are associated with higher concentrations of IL-6 and hs-CRP in elderly individuals with and without cardiac disease suggesting a significant contribution of the muscular system in reducing low-grade inflammation that accompanies cardiac disease and aging.

  7. Motivation to take part in integrated care - an assessment of follow-up home visits to elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Hjelmar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of follow-up visits by the general practitioner and district nurse (within a week after discharge from hospital is to reduce hospital readmissions and improve the overall wellbeing of the patient. There is strong evidence that these programmes are effective, but are difficult to implement because of a number of organizational obstacles, including co-ordination between the organizations involved in the process. In this paper we look at the factors that affect motivation to participate in a cross-sectoral programme in Copenhagen, Denmark, implementing follow-up home visits to elderly persons. Theory and methods: The analysis is based on inter-organisational network theory in an attempt to explain the role of motivation in network formation between organizational systems. The empirical findings are based on focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital staff, general practitioners, and district nurses. Results: Care providers are motivated to collaborate by a number of factors. The focus of collaboration needs to be clearly defined and agreed upon, there needs to be a high degree of equality between the professionals involved, and there has to be a will to co-operate based on a shared understanding of values and learning potentials. Conclusions: The study concludes that we need to focus on specific care fields and actors to reduce complexity in the area and more fully understand what motivates care providers to participate in cross-sectoral activities such as a follow-up home visit programme. One lesson for current policy is that motivational factors need to be addressed in future collaborative programs in order to fully exploit the potential health benefits.

  8. Motivation to take part in integrated care - an assessment of follow-up home visits to elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Hjelmar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of follow-up visits by the general practitioner and district nurse (within a week after discharge from hospital is to reduce hospital readmissions and improve the overall wellbeing of the patient. There is strong evidence that these programmes are effective, but are difficult to implement because of a number of organizational obstacles, including co-ordination between the organizations involved in the process. In this paper we look at the factors that affect motivation to participate in a cross-sectoral programme in Copenhagen, Denmark, implementing follow-up home visits to elderly persons.Theory and methods: The analysis is based on inter-organisational network theory in an attempt to explain the role of motivation in network formation between organizational systems. The empirical findings are based on focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital staff, general practitioners, and district nurses.Results: Care providers are motivated to collaborate by a number of factors. The focus of collaboration needs to be clearly defined and agreed upon, there needs to be a high degree of equality between the professionals involved, and there has to be a will to co-operate based on a shared understanding of values and learning potentials.Conclusions: The study concludes that we need to focus on specific care fields and actors to reduce complexity in the area and more fully understand what motivates care providers to participate in cross-sectoral activities such as a follow-up home visit programme. One lesson for current policy is that motivational factors need to be addressed in future collaborative programs in order to fully exploit the potential health benefits.

  9. Motivation to take part in integrated care-an assessment of follow-up home visits to elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Hendriksen, Carsten; Hansen, Kirsten

    2011-07-01

    The aim of follow-up visits by the general practitioner and district nurse (within a week after discharge from hospital) is to reduce hospital readmissions and improve the overall wellbeing of the patient. There is strong evidence that these programmes are effective, but are difficult to implement because of a number of organizational obstacles, including co-ordination between the organizations involved in the process. In this paper we look at the factors that affect motivation to participate in a cross-sectoral programme in Copenhagen, Denmark, implementing follow-up home visits to elderly persons. The analysis is based on inter-organizational network theory in an attempt to explain the role of motivation in network formation between organizational systems. The empirical findings are based on focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital staff, general practitioners, and district nurses. Care providers are motivated to collaborate by a number of factors. The focus of collaboration needs to be clearly defined and agreed upon, there needs to be a high degree of equality between the professionals involved, and there has to be a will to co-operate based on a shared understanding of values and learning potentials. The study concludes that we need to focus on specific care fields and actors to reduce complexity in the area and more fully understand what motivates care providers to participate in cross-sectoral activities, such as a follow-up home visit programme. One lesson for current policy is that motivational factors need to be addressed in future collaborative programmes in order to fully exploit the potential health benefits.

  10. Self-selected resistance training intensity in healthy women: the influence of a personal trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the influence of resistance training with a personal trainer versus unsupervised resistance training on the self-selected intensities used by women during resistance exercise. Forty-six resistance-trained women (age = 26.6 +/- 6.4 years; body mass = 64.2 +/- 10.9 kg) who either trained individually (n = 27; No PT) or with a personal trainer (n = 19; PT) were carefully instructed to select a weight they used in their own resistance training workouts that enabled the completion of 10 repetitions for the chest press (CP), leg press (LP), seated row (SR), and leg extension (LE) exercises. Each participant was subsequently tested for one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength on each exercise, and the self-selected intensity was calculated based on a percent of each 1RM value. For self-selected relative intensity, the PT group selected significantly greater intensities for LP (50% vs. 41%), CP (57.4% vs. 48%), and SR (56% vs. 42%) whereas a trend (p = 0.10) was observed for LE (43% vs. 38%) compared with No PT. Overall, the average self-selected intensity for all exercises was approximately 51.4% in PT group and approximately 42.3% in the No PT group. 1RM values for LP, LE, and SR were greater in the PT than No PT group. Ratings of perceived exertion values were significantly greater in the PT compared with the No PT group for CP, LE, and SR but not LP. These results indicate that resistance training under the supervision of a personal trainer leads to greater initial 1RM strength values, self-selection of greater workout intensities, and greater ratings of perceived exertion values during resistance exercise.

  11. Externalizing personality traits, empathy, and gray matter volume in healthy young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Judith; Dzemidzic, Mario; West, John; Oberlin, Brandon G; Eiler, William J A; Saykin, Andrew J; Kareken, David A

    2016-02-28

    Externalizing psychopathology has been linked to prefrontal abnormalities. While clinically diagnosed subjects show altered frontal gray matter, it is unknown if similar deficits relate to externalizing traits in non-clinical populations. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to retrospectively analyze the cerebral gray matter volume of 176 young adult social to heavy drinkers (mean age=24.0±2.9, male=83.5%) from studies of alcoholism risk. We hypothesized that prefrontal gray matter volume and externalizing traits would be correlated. Externalizing personality trait components-Boredom Susceptibility-Impulsivity (BS/IMP) and Empathy/Low Antisocial Behaviors (EMP/LASB)-were tested for correlations with gray matter partial volume estimates (gmPVE). Significantly large clusters (pFWEyoung adults, antisocial behavior/low empathy corresponded with reduced prefrontal and occipital gray matter, while impulsivity correlated with increased inferior frontal and anterior insula cortical volume. These findings add to a literature indicating that externalizing personality features involve altered frontal architecture.

  12. Thromboelastography on plasma reveals delayed clot formation and accelerated clot lyses in HIV-1 infected persons compared with healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönsholt, Frederikke Falkencrone; Gerstoft, Jan; Ullum, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    in the hemostatic system in a pro-coagulant direction based on measurements of isolated components of the coagulation pahways. In disease conditions, the flowing blood may change from "normal" to hyper- or hypocoagulant or to hyper- or hypofibrinolytic. A balance may exist in the flowing blood, i.e. between blood......BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic events among HIV infected persons are a recognized clinical problem but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To assess whether coagulation and fibrinolysis differ between long-term treated HIV infected individuals (HIV+) and healthy controls (CON), we...... =-0.651, p = 0.012). DISCUSSION: No previous studies have examined plasma coagulation by TEG in HIV, however, we have previously demonstrated that HIV+ display hypocoagulability in whole blood by TEG in accordance with the results of this study. Others have reported of HIV associated changes...

  13. Prevalence of Osteoarthritis of Knee Among Elderly Persons in Urban Slums Using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of osteoarthritis among elderly is high and it majorly affects the quality of life. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis. Timely diagnosis using clinical criteria and effective intervention is of utmost importance.

  14. Can sleep quality and wellbeing be improved by changing the indoor lighting in the homes of healthy, elderly citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Birgit; Markvart, Jakob; Kessel, Line

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of bright blue-enriched versus blue-deprived indoor light on sleep and wellbeing of healthy participants over 65 years. Twenty-nine participants in 20 private houses in a uniform settlement in Copenhagen were exposed over 3 weeks to blue-enriched (280 Lux) and 3...... weeks to blue-deprived (240 Lux) indoor light from 8 to 13 pm in a randomized cross-over design. The two light epochs were separated by one week neutral indoor light. Participants were examined at baseline and at the end of each light epoch. The primary endpoint was sleep duration during the last week...

  15. Cerebral Microbleeds and White Matter Hyperintensities in Cognitively Healthy Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study Evaluating the Effect of Arterial Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Märta Gustavsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial stiffness reflects the ageing processes in the vascular system, and studies have shown an association between reduced cognitive function and cerebral small vessel disease. Small vessel disease can be visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH and lacunar infarcts but also as cerebral microbleeds on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We aimed to investigate if arterial stiffness influences the presence of microbleeds, WMH and cognitive function in a population of cognitively healthy elderly. Methods: The study population is part of the Swedish BioFinder study and consisted of 208 individuals without any symptoms of cognitive impairment, who scored >27 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. The participants (mean age, 72 years; 59% women underwent MRI of the brain with visual rating of microbleeds and WMH. Arterial stiffness was measured with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV. Eight cognitive tests covering different cognitive domains were performed. Results: Microbleeds were detected in 12% and WMH in 31% of the participants. Mean (±standard deviation, SD cfPWV was 10.0 (±2.0 m/s. There was no association between the presence of microbleeds and arterial stiffness. There was a positive association between arterial stiffness and WMH independent of age or sex (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.40, p 0.05. Cognitive performance was not associated with microbleeds, but individuals with WMH performed slightly worse than those without WMH on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (mean ± SD, 35 ± 7.8 vs. 39 ± 8.1, p Conclusions: Arterial stiffness was not associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds or cognitive function in cognitively healthy elderly. However, arterial stiffness was related to the presence of WMH, but the association was attenuated when multiple adjustments were made. There was a weak negative association between WMH and performance in one specific test of attention

  16. The effects of different sensory augmentation on weight-shifting balance exercises in Parkinson's disease and healthy elderly people: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Thrasher, Timothy A; Fisher, Stanley P; Layne, Charles S

    2015-09-02

    Earlier versions of biofeedback systems for balance-related applications were intended primarily to provide "alarm" signals about body tilt rather than to guide rehabilitation exercise motion. Additionally, there have been few attempts to evaluate guidance modalities for balance rehabilitation exercises. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study is to evaluate the effects of guidance modalities during common dynamic weight-shifting exercises used in clinical settings. A motion guidance system providing visual biofeedback, vibrotactile biofeedback, or both, was used during weight-shifting exercises. Eleven people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and nine healthy elderly people participated. Each participant wore a six-degree-of-freedom inertial measurement unit (IMU) located near the sacrum and four linear vibrating actuators (Tactors) attached to the skin over the front, back, and right and left sides of the abdomen. The IMU measured angular displacements and velocities of body tilt in anterior-posterior (A/P) and medial-lateral (M/L) directions. Participants were instructed to follow a slow moving target by shifting their weight in either the A/P or M/L direction up to 90 % of their limits of stability (LOS). Real-time position error was provided to participants in one of three sensory modalities: visual, vibrotactile, or both. Participants performed 5 trials for each biofeedback modality and movement direction (A/P and M/L) for a total of 30 trials in a random order. To characterize performance, position error was defined as the average absolute difference between the target and participant movements in degrees. Simultaneous delivery of visual and vibrotactile biofeedback resulted in significantly lower position error compared to either visual or vibrotactile biofeedback alone regardless of the movement direction for both participant cohorts. The pairwise comparisons were not significantly different between visual and vibrotactile biofeedback. The study

  17. Emotional valence and semantic relatedness differentially influence false recognition in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, Katja; Moritz, Steffen

    2009-03-01

    This study examined whether patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are at higher risk for later Alzheimer disease (AD) display deficits comparable to patients with diagnosed dementia. We assessed 27 patients with MCI, 36 patients with AD, and 20 healthy older adults with an emotional variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-paradigm. Participants studied four lists that were semantically related to a nonpresented critical theme word. These theme words were either depression-related (i.e., loneliness) or delusion-related (betrayal) or had a positive (holidays) or neutral (window) valence. Despite a normal overall emotional memory and a normal corrected overall false recognition, patients with MCI, as predicted, produced as many false memories as patients with AD. On closer examination, both patient groups showed enhanced false memories to unrelated stimuli and a significant bias to falsely remember stimuli with a positive valence. We conclude that although patients with MCI are not distinguishable from healthy older adults in terms of their overall emotional recognition, positively valenced memories and more specifically false positive memories may represent the signature of a breakdown of emotional memory along the continuum between normal aging and AD.

  18. Investigation of the quadriceps muscle function in healthy elderly%老年健康人股四头肌功能的调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨春蓉; 陈荣昌

    2013-01-01

    目的 检测健康老年人股四头肌的功能,分析其相关因素,建立老年人股四头肌功能的正常值. 方法 60例老年人纳入研究,股四头肌功能测试包括三项指标:磁刺激股神经诱发的最大肌颤搐张力(TwQmax)、最大主动收缩力(QMVC)、耐力时间.对受试者的日常运动(PA)进行量化分析并评分,对身高、体质量、肌肉体积等进行人体学测量. 结果 股四头肌功能3项检测结果在男女组均呈正态分布.TwQmax、QMVC和耐力时间的均值及正常范围在男性组分别为[13.86(10.53~17.65)]kg、[42.06 (34.45~49.67)]kg、[81.08(58.52~103.66)]s,在女性组分别为[7.41(6.02~9.52)]kg、[29.40 (24.66~33.82)]kg、[83.44(60.81~106.67)]s.回归分析结果显示,股四头肌功能与受试者的性别、PA评分、身高、体质量及肌肉体积等因素相关. 结论 老年健康者股四头肌功能在人群中呈正态分布,其与受试者的性别、体质量等多因素有关,而肌肉运动情况是影响肌肉功能的最主要因素.%Objective Backgrounds and Objectives Skeletal muscle dysfunction is an important systemic manifestation of several diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure.Quadriceps function assessment was used in majority of the studies for assessment of peripheral skeletal muscle function as it is readily accessible and is a primary locomotor muscle.Appropriate evaluation of the prevalence and severity of quadriceps dysfunction relies on the proper control data from the age-matched normal subject.So,the present study was aimed to measure the quadriceps function in healthy elderly,to investigate the multiple factors related to quadriceps functions,and to establish the normal ranges for quadriceps functional performance in healthy elderly.Methods Sixty healthy volunteers were recruited for the study.Quadriceps function was assessed by measurement of the following 3 items:maximum of twitch tension (Tw

  19. Survey of Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in the Patients with Brucellosis and Comparing with Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Eini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection. Metabolism of trace elements such as zinc and copper can influence the response of immunity system and can activate host 's immunochemical mechanisms against the organism. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in serum levels of Zn and Cu in patients with brucellosis in pre and post treatment compared with healthy persons. Methods: In this individual matched case-control study, 26 patients participated who were admitted to infectious unit of Farshchian Hospital with brucellosis. Moreover, 26 healthy individuals were included in the control group. 5mL of venous blood was taken from all cases in pre-treatment as well post-treatment. Then, the serum samples were diluted with deionized water, and Cu and Zn levels were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: In this study, 26 patients with brucellosis were enrolled, who were 13 men (50% and 13 women (50%. No significant difference was observed between the patients and the control group in regard with their age and sex. Serum level of Cu in patients with brucellosis was found to be 100.31µg/dl and 92.81µg/dl, respectively before and after the treatment (P=0.495. Serum level of Cu in healthy individuals was reported to be 97.96µg/dl. In addition, serum level of Zn in the patients and controls was 93 µg/dl and 96.38 µg/dl, respectively (P= 0.625. Patients' Zn Serum level was found to be 90.27µg/dl after the treatment. Conclusion: In this study, no significant changes were observed in serum levels of copper and zinc in the patients with brucellosis in comparison with the control group. Besides, no significant changes were reported in serum levels of these elements in the patients in the end of treatment.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  1. 当代大学生健康人格培养途径研究%On the means of cultivating healthy personality of contemporary college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红霞

    2015-01-01

    通过对大学生健康人格的阐述,证实健康人格的培养对于大学生的培养至关重要。分析了当代大学生健康人格培养的阻碍因素,并且在以人为本的基础上,提出了一系列的培养途径。%Through elaboration of the college students' healthy personality, this article proves the cultivation of healthy personality is very important for the cultivation of College students. Then, this article embarks from the reality, analyzes the factors that hinder the cultivation of contemporary college students' healthy personality. On a human-oriented basis, it puts forward a series of cultivation means.

  2. Comportamiento del riesgo de caídas en el hogar en adultos mayores Behavior of falls risk at home of the elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Salas Mainegra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, en la población de adultos mayores atendidos por el Consultorio del Médico de Familia # 4, perteneciente al policlínico "Ramón González Coro", del municipio Marianao, durante 2008. Objetivo: se realizó el análisis del comportamiento del riesgo de caídas de los adultos mayores en el hogar. Métodos: estudio de investigación descriptiva, en cuyo desarrollo se utilizó un modelo cualicuantitativo, y en su ejecución se emplearon métodos teóricos, empíricos y procedimientos estadísticos. Resultados: hubo un predomino del sexo femenino, el mayor por ciento de los adultos mayores presentó algún grado de dependencia, y tuvieron un mediano riesgo de sufrir una caída en su hogar.Introduction: a descriptive study was conducted in the elderly person population seen in the # 4 Family Physician Consulting Room of the "Ramón González Coro" polyclinic from the Marianao municipality during 2008. Objective: an analysis of the falls risk behavior of elderly persons at home was made. Methods: a descriptive research study was conducted using the qualitative and quantitative model and in its implementation theoretical, empirical methods as well as statistic procedures were used. Results: there was predominance of female sex, the higher percentage of elderly persons had some degree of dependence and also had a middle risk of suffering a fall at home.

  3. Global fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity together with segmented brain volumes assemble a predictive discriminant model for young and elderly healthy brains: a pilot study at 3T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Becerra-Laparra, Ivonne; Cortez-Conradis, David; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Several parameters of brain integrity can be derived from diffusion tensor imaging. These include fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Combination of these variables using multivariate analysis might result in a predictive model able to detect the structural changes of human brain aging. Our aim was to discriminate between young and older healthy brains by combining structural and volumetric variables from brain MRI: FA, MD, and white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 young (mean age, 25.71±3.04 years; range, 21–34 years) and 10 elderly (mean age, 70.20±4.02 years; range, 66–80 years) healthy volunteers. Multivariate discriminant analysis, with age as the dependent variable and WM, GM and CSF volumes, global FA and MD, and gender as the independent variables, was used to assemble a predictive model. The resulting model was able to differentiate between young and older brains: Wilks’ λ = 0.235, χ2 (6) = 37.603, p = .000001. Only global FA, WM volume and CSF volume significantly discriminated between groups. The total accuracy was 93.5%; the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 91.30%, 100%, 100% and 80%, respectively. Global FA, WM volume and CSF volume are parameters that, when combined, reliably discriminate between young and older brains. A decrease in FA is the strongest predictor of membership of the older brain group, followed by an increase in WM and CSF volumes. Brain assessment using a predictive model might allow the follow-up of selected cases that deviate from normal aging. PMID:27027893

  4. The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German E

    2017-06-21

    Iron deficiency is the most widespread and frequent nutritional disorder in the world. It affects a high proportion of children and women in developing countries and is also significantly prevalent in the industrialised world, with a clear predominance in adolescents and menstruating females. Iron is essential for optimal cognitive function and physical performance, not only as a binding site of oxygen but also as a critical constituent of many enzymes. Therefore iron deficiency at all its levels - nonanaemic iron deficiency, iron deficiency with microcytosis or hypochromia and iron deficiency anaemia - should be treated. In the presence of normal stores, however, preventative iron administration is inefficient, has side effects and seems to be harmful. In symptomatic patients with fatigue or in a population at risk for iron deficiency (adolescence, heavy or prolonged menstruation, high performance sport, vegetarian or vegan diet, eating disorder, underweight), a baseline set of blood tests including haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes and serum ferritin levels are important to monitor iron deficiency. To avoid false negative results (high ferritin levels in spite of iron deficiency), an acute phase reaction should be excluded by history and measurement of C-reactive protein. An algorithm leads through this diagnostic process and the decision making for a possible treatment. For healthy males and females aged >15 years, a ferritin cut-off of 30 µg/l is appropriate. For children from 6-12 years and younger adolescents from 12-15 years, cut-offs of 15 and 20 µg/l, respectively, are recommended. As a first step in treatment, counselling and oral iron therapy are usually combined. Integrating haem and free iron regularly into the diet, looking for enhancers and avoiding inhibitors of iron uptake is beneficial. In order to prevent reduced compliance, mainly as a result of

  5. A Comparative Study of Vitamin D Levels in Persons with Hair Loss and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Eshghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Alopecia or hair loss is defined as the loss of hair on the head or body. Despite the benign prognosis of hair loss, it has a clear impact on the quality of life of the patients who are involved. There are many reasons to explain the pathophysiology of hair loss. Among many nutritional factors, vitamin D deficiency may play a role in hair loss too. Active vitamin D or 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D has an effect on the expression of some genes in normal differentiation of epidermal cells and hair follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of vitamin D in patients with hair loss compared with healthy controls. Materials & Methods: From 2014 to 2015, 70 patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Including 40 women and 30 men, the mean age was 31.2 ± 0.82 years in the case group, 33.8 ± 0.92 years in the control group. Groups were matched by sex, age and season of review. In the both groups, there were 20 women (57.1% and 15 men (42.5%. After the clinical diagno-sis of hair loss by the physician, patient's blood samples were sent for testing vitamin D levels by kits of a laboratory center. Results: Patients, compared with controls, had lower levels of vitamin D and there was signifi-cant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (16.188±6.91 vs 20.37±7.47, and P=0.04. Female patients had lower levels of vitamin D, compared with controls and there was significant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (14.14±5.8 vs 18.74±7.08 and P=0.03. The group of male patients had lower levels of vitamin D, but in comparison with the control group, no significant relationship was found. Conclusion: This study showed that, there is a relationship between vitamin D levels and hair loss in women. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:71-75

  6. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men: a cardiac magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T; Madsen, Per L; Engstrøm, Thomas; Vejlstrup, Niels G

    2013-10-01

    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout the cardiac cycle by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at rest, during dobutamine stress (15 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 15 min after termination (T15), and 30 min after termination (T30) of dobutamine stress. We calculated LV ejection fractions, LV stroke volumes, LV peak filling rates, and LA passive, active, and conduit volumes. Sex differences were not observed at rest or during dobutamine stress. Compared with prestress values, at T15 a rebound decrease in LV peak filling rate was observed in women (-22 ± 3%, P causes greater stress to the female heart. This is revealed after termination of dobutamine stress where the left heart recovers in men, whereas women experience rebound LV stiffening with reduced diastolic relaxation. This is the first report of a sex-specific transient rebound phenomenon in cardiovascular response to catecholamines.

  7. BACE1 Dynamics Upon Inhibition with a BACE Inhibitor and Correlation to Downstream Alzheimer’s Disease Markers in Elderly Healthy Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Maarten; Barão, Soraia; Van Broeck, Bianca; Tesseur, Ina; Slemmon, John; De Waepenaert, Katja; Bogert, Jennifer; Shaw, Leslie M.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Moechars, Dieder; Mercken, Marc; Van Nueten, Luc; Tritsmans, Luc; de Strooper, Bart; Streffer, Johannes Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The β-site amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is the rate limiting enzyme in the generation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) from AβPP, one of the major pathways in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Increased BACE1 levels and activity have been reported in the brain of patients with sporadic AD. Therefore, changes of BACE1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have also been investigated as a possible biomarker of the disease. We analyzed BACE1 levels in CSF of elderly healthy participants before and after chronic treatment with a BACE inhibitor (BACEi) and evaluated the correlation between BACE1 levels and downstream AD markers. Overall, BACE1 CSF levels showed strong correlations to all downstream AD markers investigated. This is the first reported finding that shows BACE1 levels in CSF were well correlated to its end product Aβ1 - 42. As previously described, BACE1 levels were strongly correlated to total-tau and phosphorylated tau levels in CSF. Generally, chronic BACE inhibition did not influence BACE1 CSF protein levels. Follow-up studies including early-stage AD pathophysiology and prodromal AD patients will help to understand the importance of measuring BACE1 routinely in daily clinical practice and AD clinical trials. PMID:28157093

  8. Performance of a sample of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer's Disease (AD and healthy elderly on a lexical decision test (LDT as a measure of pre-morbid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Trunkl Serrao

    Full Text Available Objective:The objective of this study was to describe the performance of healthy elderly patients with aging-related pathologies (MCI and patients with AD on a lexical decision test.Methods:The study included 38 healthy elderly subjects, 61 MCI and 26 AD patients from the Neurology Department of the Hospital das Clinicas, Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Group. The neuropsychological instruments included the episodic memory test (RAVLT, subtests from the WAIS-III (Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary to determine estimated IQ, the Boston naming test (BNT and Lexical Decision Test (LDT.Results:All groups differed on the MMSE, as expected according to their pathologies, memory tests, naming and estimated IQ. For the vocabulary and the LDT - measures of crystalized intelligence no differences were found.Conclusion:The LDT demonstrated that lexical decision can be used as a measure of pre-morbid IQ among the individuals assessed in a Brazilian sample.

  9. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  10. [Sense of coherence and ways of coping in the relationship with brother or sister in healthy siblings of mentally ill persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuchowska-Kościjańska, Anna; Charzyńska, Katarzyna; Chadzyńska, Małgorzata; Drozdzyńska, Anna; Kasperek-Zimowska, Beata; Bednarek, Agata; Sawicka, Maryla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate sense of coherence in healthy siblings of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their ways of coping in the relationship with ill brother or sister. 40 healthy brothers and sisters of persons with ICD- 10 diagnosis of F20 to F29 participated in the present study. Orientation to Life Scale (SOC- 29) was used to assess sense of coherence and Ways of Coping with Stress questionnaire (SRSS) was used to examine stress coping strategies. Mean global score of siblings of persons with schizophrenia was 111 points. Subjects used coping strategies focused on problem significantly more often than those focused on emotions. Therapeutic work with healthy siblings should focus on strengthening sense of personal competence, development of personal resources and different ways of coping with stress, investigation of emotions that healthy siblings experience in the relationship with ill brother or sister as well as supporting the process of accepting changes in the relationship with the ill sibling.

  11. Significant changes in circulating microRNA by dietary supplementation of selenium and coenzyme Q10 in healthy elderly males. A subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehagen, Urban; Johansson, Peter; Aaseth, Jan; Alexander, Jan; Wågsäter, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Selenium and coenzyme Q10 is essential for important cellular functions. A low selenium intake is reported from many European countries, and the endogenous coenzyme Q10 production is decreasing in the body with increasing age. Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 in elderly have shown reduced cardiovascular mortality and reduced levels of markers of inflammation. However, microRNA analyses could give important information on the mechanisms behind the clinical effects of supplementation. Out of the 443 healthy elderly participants that were given supplementation with 200 μg Se/day as organic selenium yeast tablets, and 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 capsules, or placebo for 4 years, 25 participants from each group were randomized and evaluated regarding levels of microRNA. Isolation of RNA from plasma samples and quantitative PCR analysis were performed. Volcano- and principal component analyses (PCA)-plots were used to illustrate the differences in microRNA expression between the intervention, and the placebo groups. Serum selenium concentrations were measured before intervention. On average 145 different microRNAs out of 172 were detected per sample. In the PCA plots two clusters could be identified indicating significant difference in microRNA expression between the two groups. The pre-treatment expression of the microRNAs did not differ between active treatment and the placebo groups. When comparing the post-treatment microRNAs in the active and the placebo groups, 70 microRNAs exhibited significant differences in expression, also after adjustment for multiple measurements. For the 20 microRNAs with the greatest difference in expression the difference was up to more than 4 fold and with a P-value that were less than 4.4e-8. Significant differences were found in expression of more than 100 different microRNAs with up to 4 fold differences as a result of the intervention of selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined. The changes in microRNA could be a part of

  12. Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-09-01

    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N = 24, Mage = 67 years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N = 18, Mage = 83 years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly.

  13. Interactive effects of physical activity and APOE-ε4 on white matter tract diffusivity in healthy elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J Carson; Lancaster, Melissa A; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Seidenberg, Michael; Durgerian, Sally; Sakaie, Ken; Rao, Stephen M

    2016-05-01

    Older adult apolipoprotein-E epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) allele carriers vary considerably in the expression of clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that lifestyle or other factors may offer protection from AD-related neurodegeneration. We recently reported that physically active APOE-ε4 allele carriers exhibit a stable cognitive trajectory and protection from hippocampal atrophy over 18months compared to sedentary ε4 allele carriers. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions between genetic risk for AD and physical activity (PA) on white matter (WM) tract integrity, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI, in this cohort of healthy older adults (ages of 65 to 89). Four groups were compared based on the presence or absence of an APOE-ε4 allele (High Risk; Low Risk) and self-reported frequency and intensity of leisure time physical activity (PA) (High PA; Low PA). As predicted, greater levels of PA were associated with greater fractional anisotropy (FA) and lower radial diffusivity in healthy older adults who did not possess the APOE-ε4 allele. However, the effects of PA were reversed in older adults who were at increased genetic risk for AD, resulting in significant interactions between PA and genetic risk in several WM tracts. In the High Risk-Low PA participants, who had exhibited episodic memory decline over the previous 18-months, radial diffusivity was lower and fractional anisotropy was higher, compared to the High Risk-High PA participants. In WM tracts that subserve learning and memory processes, radial diffusivity (DR) was negatively correlated with episodic memory performance in physically inactive APOE-ε4 carriers, whereas DR was positively correlated with episodic memory performance in physically active APOE-ε4 carriers and the two Low Risk groups. The common model of demyelination-induced increase in radial diffusivity cannot directly explain these results. Rather, we hypothesize that PA may protect APOE-ε4 allele

  14. The survey of quality of care for disabled elderly persons in ethnic areas%民族地区残疾老人照顾质量的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何作顺; 李鸿; 张迪; 张态; 刘建园

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the quality of care for disabled elderly persons in ethnic areas and its influencing factors.Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out using multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method for the disabled elderly persons in ethnic minority areas,and the relevant factors affecting the quality of care were analyzed.Results The object with different regions,ethnicity,marital status,residence and social support condition,education degrees,health status,the degree of disabilities affecting their life,occupations,income showed different scores in each dimension of care quality.Multiple linear regression analysis showed that other ethnic people with disabilities,unmarried,unemployed/laidoff people with disabilities,disabilities extremely influenced the quality of life affected the total score of care quality.Conclusions To improve the financial aid for disabled elderly people in ethnic areas,attach great importance to the physical and mental care of unmarried disabled elderly people,perfect and establish effective handicapped rehabilitation mechanism,can improve the care quality of disabled elderly people.%目的 了解民族地区残疾老人的照顾质量及其影响因素.方法 采用多阶段分层随机整群抽样对该民族地区残疾老人进行问卷调查,并分析影响照顾质量的相关因素.结果 不同地区、民族、婚姻状况、居住和社会支持情况、文化程度、健康状况、残疾影响生活程度、职业、收入、健康状况的调查对象间照顾质量维度的得分比较差异有统计学意义;多因素逐步回归分析显示,其他民族、未婚、失业/下岗和待业中、残疾极严重影响生活对残疾老人照顾质量总分有影响.结论 提高对民族地区残疾老人的经济补助,重视未婚残疾老人的身心照护,完善并建立有效的残疾老人康复机制,可以提高残疾老人的照顾质量.

  15. Serum free and total insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels in healthy elderly individuals - Relation to self-reported duality of health and disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of the free insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGF-I/IGFBP) system on the quality of health and on disability in the elderly population. Design: In a cross-sectional population based study of 218 healthy elderly

  16. Risk of falling among elderly persons living in the community: assessment by the Timed up and go test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretan, Onivaldo; Silva Júnior, José Elias; Ribeiro, Odilon R; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The risk of falling in elderly can be analyzed by a simple mobility test. To assess the balance of elderly subjects through the 'Timed up and go' test. Subjects were timed for the moment they got up from a chair, walked for three meters, and came back to the chair. They also answered questions on imbalance, dizziness, and falls. Approximately 69% of the subjects completed the test in up to 19 seconds. There was a significant correlation between imbalance, time spent in the test, dizziness, and falls. Most of the elderly subjects performed well in the test, thus attesting to their good level of functional mobility. However, a significant number of poor-performers is probably more prone to falling and to depending on others to perform activities of daily living.

  17. A longitudinal study of the relationship between personality traits and the annual rate of volume changes in regional gray matter in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether personality traits affect the rate of decline of gray matter volume, we analyzed the relationships between personality traits and the annual rate of changes of gray matter volume in 274 healthy community dwelling subjects with a large age range by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years, using brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) at baseline. Brain MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry with a custom template by applying the DARTEL diffeomorphic registration tool. For each subject, we used NEO-PI-R to evaluate the five major personality traits, including neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The results show that the annual rate of change in regional gray matter volume in the right inferior parietal lobule was correlated significantly and negatively with a personality of openness, which is known to be related to intellect, intellectual curiosity, and creativity adjusting for age, gender, and intracranial volume. This result indicates that subjects with a personality trait of less openness have an accelerated loss of gray matter volume in the right inferior parietal lobule, compared with subjects with a personality trait of more openness. Because the right inferior parietal lobule is involved in higher cognitive function such as working memory and creativity, a personality trait of openness is thought to be important for preserving gray matter volume and cognitive function of the right inferior parietal lobule in healthy adults.

  18. V(H)3 antibody response to immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; Valayam, Josemon; Musher, Daniel M; Rossen, Roger D; Pirofski, Liise-anne; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C

    2011-03-01

    Pneumococcal disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Older adults may have high levels of anticapsular antibody after vaccination, but their antibodies show decreased functional activity. In addition, the protective effect of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) seems to cease as early as 3 to 5 years postvaccination. Recently, it was suggested that PPV elicits human antibodies that use predominantly V(H)3 gene segments and induce a repertoire shift with increased V(H)3 expression in peripheral B cells. Here we compared V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects receiving PPV as initial immunization or revaccination. We studied pre- and postvaccination sera from 36 (18 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) middle-aged and 40 (22 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) elderly adults who received 23-valent PPV. Concentrations of IgGs to four individual serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and of V(H)3-idiotypic antibodies (detected by the monoclonal antibody D12) to the whole pneumococcal vaccine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPV elicited significant IgG and V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects, regardless of whether they were vaccine naïve or undergoing revaccination. Age did not influence the magnitude of the antibody responses, as evidenced by similar postvaccination IgG and V(H)3 antibody levels in both groups, even after stratifying by prior vaccine status. Furthermore, we found similar proportions (around 50%) of elderly and middle-aged subjects experiencing 2-fold increases in V(H)3 antibody titers after vaccination. Age or repeated immunization does not appear to affect the V(H)3-idiotypic immunogenicity of PPV among middle-aged and elderly adults.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MEASURING FACTORS OF SIGNIFICANCE OF AN ELDERLY PERSON AS ANOTHER FOR THE YOUNGER GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    KHALINA Natalia V.; Stanislav A. POZDNIAKOV

    2015-01-01

    Social and political processes of the present time, actualize in the minds of the younger generation of Russians importance for the development of the country. But it would be wrong to assume no significant experience in the elderly and to consider identity apart from family ties. Relevance to this key acts the process of intergenerational transmission, when the younger generation can assimilate the experience of close, meaningful elderly. The paper drew attention to the dedicated A.V. Petrov...

  20. Riskiness in the Elderly: Attitudes of Young and Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara

    Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…

  1. 北京市某社区老年人跌倒风险及其影响因素分析%Analysis of factors influencing fall risk of elderly persons living in a community in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆来; 张慧; 金娜; 李增辉; 张莹; 耿建春

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the fall risk of elderly persons living in one community in Beijing and analyze the factors influencing fall risk of the elderly persons. Methods: A questionnaire (FRQ) survey to 221 elderly persons was conducted. Results: The average score of FRQ is 28.12±7.47; 43.44% elderly persons have fell risk with the score above 30. Old female have much more risks than male; elderly persons with more urinary frequency and urgent urination have higher risk than others; the elderly people using walkers have higher risk than those with none; elderly persons with chronic disease have much more risk than those without chronic disease; doing physical exercise is a protection factor, elderly people had falls before have a higher fall risk. Conclusion: The elderly persons living in the community have higher fall risk. The prevention and intervention should focus on the relevant factors for falls.%目的:调查北京市某社区老年人跌倒风险现状,并对社区老年人跌倒风险的相关因素进行分析,为采取有效的预防和干预措施提供依据.方法:采用“跌倒风险评估量表”对北京市某社区221名老年人进行跌倒风险的评估.结果:该社区老年人跌倒风险评估量表平均得分为(28.12±7.47)分,有跌倒风险的老年人(得分≥30分者)占该人群的43.44%.性别、是否有尿频尿急等情况、是否使用助行器、是否患慢性疾病、是否进行体育锻炼、是否有跌倒史等因素与跌倒风险相关(P<0.05).结论:该社区老年人跌倒风险较高,应针对跌倒风险的相关因素采取有效的预防和干预措施,并在今后的研究中加大对跌倒风险的评估以预防跌倒的发生.

  2. 城市社区老年高血压患者抑郁状况及影响因素分析%Analysis of depression rates among elderly hypertensive patients and healthy residents and its risk factors in Fuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽娜; 庄海林; 陈越; 林欲静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the rates of depression and its risk factors in elderly hypertensive patients and healthy residents in Fuzhou.Methods 882 elderly primary hypertensive patients aged 60 years and over and 1230 healthy elderly residents were assessed by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) and a self-made general information questionnaire, and SPSS 16.0 was used to analyze data.Results The average score of depression and the incidence of depression were higher in elderly hypertensive patients than in healthy elderly residents [(12.43±5.01) vs.(11.53±5.13), 64.4% vs.55.3%, t=-3.849, x2=16.386, P<0.01].Compared with healthy controls, scores of depression were higher for all age groups in elderly married male patients, with low levels of education (junior middle school or below), a monthly income less than 2000 yuan, and partial or no medical insurance coverage (P< 0.05 for all).Scores of depression were higher in elderly hypertensive patients who had smoking or drinking habits, social activity, hobby, or physical exercise than in healthy controls, (P<0.05 for all).Scores of depression were also higher in elderly hypertensive patients who had family support, barely enough or adequate family expenses or family support than in healthy controls, regardless of living conditions (P<0.05 for all).Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that risk factors for depression in elderly hypertensive patients were family support, age, medical insurance coverage, family expenses, living conditions, hobbies, and gender, while risk factors for depression in healthy elderly residents were family support, interests, medical insurance coverage, and age.Conclusions The incidence of depression is higher in elderly hypertensive patients than in health elderly people in communityin Fuzhou.Family support, hobbies, medical insurance coverage and age are the common risk factors for depression in both elderly hypertensive patients and healthy residents.Family expenses

  3. Circulating VEGF as a biological marker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Preanalytical and biological variability in healthy persons and in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Lottenburger, Tine

    2008-01-01

    -analytical factors were investigated. A reference interval for VEGF was established in serum and plasma from 306 healthy persons. Diurnal, day-to-day, week-to-week, long-term variability, and impact of exercise were evaluated. RESULTS: Delayed processing time, room temperature, low centrifugal force...

  4. Breast cancer in elderly person: which role for radiotherapy; Cancer du sein chez la personne agee: place de la radiotherapie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Lille (France); Cutuli, B. [ICC Reims, Reims (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors briefly discuss the issue and practices of treatment of elderly women suffering from breast cancer. Even if radiotherapy is sometimes forgotten in such cases, disease characteristics and the tolerance capacity of the patient must be considered before implementing treatment protocols. Short communication

  5. Aquatic physical therapy as a treatment modality in healthcare for non-institutionalized elderly persons: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele da Silveira Sarmento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review scientific literature pertaining to aquatic physical therapy in the elderly and institutionalized population. Methods: A qualitative systematic review of electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS, with the topic index terms: “hydrotherapy”, “homes for the aged or residential facilities”, and “aged. In light of the lack of studies carried out on the institutionalized population, we opted for reviewing literature on the effectiveness of this modality of physical therapy treatment on the non-institutionalized elderly population in order to produce knowledge that can be critically analyzed according to its potential applicability for the institutionalized population. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Delphi listing. Results: Of the 27 studies analyzed by their abstracts, 10 studies were excluded since they did not correspond to the eligibility criteria. We analyzed the subject characteristics of each study, as well as the quality of the methods (good methodological quality in 47% of the studies, the result measurements considered, the intervention strategies, the sites where they took place, and the professionals involved (76% by physical therapists. Conclusion: Although a large part of the studies demonstrated good results with aquatic physical therapy practice, none of them had been applied on long-stay institution for the elderly. Therefore, more studies are needed in this area for a model of assistance to long-stay institution for the elderly to be proposed.

  6. Polymorphism of genes associated with increased cardiovascular risk and cognitive function in patients with chronic heart failure and in healthy persons: the pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Martynovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the relationship between polymorphic variants of APOC3 (rs2854117, PON1 (rs854560, rs662, AGT (rs4762, rs699 and AGTR1 (rs5186 genes with the results of cognitive tests in patients with chronic heart failure (СHF of ischemic genesis and healthy persons. The general group included 50 patients with CHF of II-IV functional classes, the control group - 50 healthy volunteers. Cognitive functions were estimated by 5th and 7th subtests of Wexler and Burdon's test. There was revealed statistically significant correlation between the polymorphism of APOC3, PON1, AGT, AGTR1 genes and the results of cognitive tests in patients with CHF and healthy persons. These data suggest that the polymorphism of the studied genes may be important in the genetic susceptibility to the formation and progression of cognitive disorders.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MEASURING FACTORS OF SIGNIFICANCE OF AN ELDERLY PERSON AS ANOTHER FOR THE YOUNGER GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. KHALINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social and political processes of the present time, actualize in the minds of the younger generation of Russians importance for the development of the country. But it would be wrong to assume no significant experience in the elderly and to consider identity apart from family ties. Relevance to this key acts the process of intergenerational transmission, when the younger generation can assimilate the experience of close, meaningful elderly. The paper drew attention to the dedicated A.V. Petrovsky importance of interpersonal factors: credibility (reference, attraction (emotional state, institutionalized role (power status. On the basis of the three-factor model proposed by the author's questionnaire for measuring factors like the importance of an elderly as a significant Another for the younger generation. The authors conducted a tested methodology for determining the significance of an old man for youth. The statistical analysis survey was conducted using a Rasch model, which is an important feature of the subjective objectivity of assessments. It shows the process of correction of the questionnaire based on the theory of measurement of latent variables. Designed questionnaire contains twenty-four judgments, respondents were asked to express the degree of agreement with these judgments in four grades. Thus, twenty-four indicator variables actually measure the latent variable "importance of the elderly as a significant Another for the younger generation", and are compatible with each other, enabling them to measure the factors, the importance of the elderly as a significant Another for the younger generation: the authority of the (reference, attraction (emotional status institutionalized the role of (status of power.

  8. Comparison of personality traits in pedophiles, abstinent opiate addicts, and healthy controls: considering pedophilia as an addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Grebchenko, Yuli F; Steinfeld, Matthew; Frenda, Steven J; Galynker, Igor I

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the model of pedophilia as a disorder of addictive behavior, pedophiles and chemically addicted individuals were compared on personality traits potentially associated with impaired behavioral inhibition. Twenty-nine pedophiles, 25 opiate addicts (OA's), and 27 healthy controls were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II. OA's scored higher than either pedophiles or controls on the Barratt. Pedophiles and OA's scored higher than controls on all 3 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores but OA's scored marginally higher than pedophiles on factor 2 (behavioral) and total scores. On Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II, pedophiles scored higher than controls on paranoid and schizoid scores whereas OA's did so on paranoid scores. Thus, both pedophiles and OA's may have elevated psychopathic traits and propensity toward cognitive distortions, as reflected in cluster A traits. Such similarities support the conceptualization of pedophilia as a behavioral addiction. Pedophiles may be less impulsive than OA's, however, and more prone toward cognitive distortions.

  9. An analyse of quality of life of elderly person in community and influencing factors%社区老人生命质量及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤军克; 李惠英; 陈林利; 尤佳恺; 赵耐青

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the quality of life of elderly person living at community,and to find out the related influencing factors and thus to provide references for policies makers to improve the of life quality of the elderly person.Methods To investigate quality of life for elderly person living at community in Minhang district of Shanghai by adopting SF-36 form. Meanwhile,to find out the principal influencing factors on quality of life by adopting both single-factor and multiple-factor analysis.Results The score of life quality of senior citizen in local was as following 71.94±23.29(Physical Function),73.64±43.03(Role Physical),80.24±20.25(Bodily Pain),53.20±19.07(General Health),70.40±15.67(Vitality),83.79±20.24(Social Function),81.13±37.16(Role Emotional),78.14±15.43(Mental Health),74.06±17.49(Weighted average).There were two aspects of the factors that influencing elderly persons' the quality of life:disease-related (coronary heart disease,arthritis,diabetes mellitus,cerebrovascular accident,cataract,gall-stone and chronic bronchitis) and non-disease-related (habitation,physical exercise,age,gender,entertainment and record of employment). Conclusions The controllable factors that impact on quality of life of elderly living at community is habitation,physical exercise,entertainment and disease.%目的 了解社区老人生命质量及其影响因素,为有关部门提高老年人生命质量提供决策依据.方法 采用健康状况调查问卷中文版(SF-36)调查上海市闵行区社区老人生命质量,采用单因素、多因素统计方法进行数据处理.结果 老年人生命质量情况为:躯体功能(71.94±23.29)分,躯体角色(73.64±43.03)分,肌体疼痛(80.24±20.25)分,一般健康状况(53.20±19.07)分,生命力(70.40±15.67)分,社会功能(83.79±20.24)分,情感角色(81.13±37.16)分,心理健康(78.14±15.43)分,加权平均分为(74.06±17.49)分.影响社区老人生命质量的因素有疾病(冠心病、关节炎、

  10. Memory training in healthy elders: outcomes and possible mechanisms of improvement / Treino de memória no idoso saudável: benefícios e mecanismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sanches Yassuda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies document a change in memory during the process of aging. However, studies report the possibility of improvement after training. OBJECTIVE: To replicate international findings regarding the effects of memory training with a sample of Brazilian elders and to investigate mechanisms, such as the use of strategies, that can explain its benefits. METHODS: 69 healthy Brazilian elders were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG and a control group (CG, and received four sessions of training (CG received training after pos-test. Training included information on memory and the process of aging, instruction and practice in organizing grocery lists and the underlining of main ideas in short texts. RESULTS: There was superior improvement for prose recall and greater use of strategies (organizing lists and underlining texts for the EG at post-test. Both groups reported fewer memory complaints (assessed with the MAC-Q and faster information processing (WAIS-R Digit Symbols sub-test. CONCLUSIONS: After training, elders intensify the use of strategies, however, this fact does not guarantee a better performance (there was no significant improvement in list recalls. List recall results suggest the presence of the utilization deficiency: elders used the strategy but failed to benefit from it.

  11. Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial and Assessment of Fermentation Product of Cordyceps Sinensis (Cs-4) in Enhancing Aerobic Capacity and Respiratory Function of The Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖毅; 黄席珍; 朱佳石

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is a popular natural Chinese herbal medicine for invigoration, health preservation and reducing fatigue. Its natural substance has been prepared as a fermentation product of a specific strain of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-4). Our objective was to assess the effect of Cs-4 on the exercise capacity of the healthy elderly people in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Methods; Thirty-seven healthy, elderly Chinese subjects were randomly assigned to receive either Cs-4 (3 g/day) or identical placebo capsules. Their exercise performance was tested before and after 6 weeks of treatment with a symptom-limited, incremental work rate protocol on a cycle ergometer. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured using a metabolic chart. Anaerobic thresholds (VO2θ) were identified by two observers using plots of both VCO2 vs VO2 and VE/VO2 vs time. Results: After taking Cs-4 for 6 weeks,VO2max (1. 88±0.13 to 2. 00±0.14 L/min; P=0.050) and VO2θ (1. 15±0.07 to 1. 30±0.09 L/min; P=0. 012) were significantly increased, whereas after placebo application they were unchanged. Conclusion:These findings support the belief held in China that Cs-4 could improve oxygen uptake or aerobic capacity and ventilation function and resistance to fatigue of elderly people in exercise.

  12. Analysis of the Contemporary College Student Healthy Personality Cultivation%当代大学生健全人格的培养途径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓霞

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of students' healthy personality of college education is an urgent task. The paper definite the personality,discussing the connotation of healthy personality and characteristics, based on the investigation of contemporary college student's current situation. There are so many reasons that current family education, school education; social environment influenced the personality defect of contemporary college students. The personality of the contemporary college students can be cultivated from the socialist core values; the personality charm of teachers; the Confucian "moral" as the idea, way of family education, culture atmospheres respectively.%大学生健全人格的培养是高校教育的一项紧迫的任务.本文通过对人格的界定,探讨了健全人格的内涵和特征,在对当代大学生的人格现状进行了考察的基础上,认为在当前的家庭教育、学校教育、社会环境等方面都存在着导致当代大学生人格缺陷的原因.当代大学生健全人格的培养可以从社会主义核心价值观、教师的人格魅力、儒家“修身为本”的思想、家庭教育方式、文化氛围等方面着手.

  13. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Knorr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD. METHODS: The trial used a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group design. We examined the effect of four weeks escitalopram 10 mg daily versus matching placebo on personality in 80 people who had a biological parent or sibling with a history of MD. The outcome measure on personality traits was change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ from entry until end of four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: When compared with placebo, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported NEO-PI-R and EPQ neuroticism and extroversion, EPQ psychoticism, NEO-PI-R openness, or NEO-PI-R conscientiousness (p all above 0.05. However, escitalopram increased NEO-PI-R agreeableness scores significantly compared with placebo (mean; SD (2.38; 8.09 versus (-1.32; 7.94, p = 0.046, but not following correction for multiplicity. A trend was shown for increased conscientiousness (p = 0.07. There was no significant effect on subclinical depressive symptoms (p = 0.6. CONCLUSION: In healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MD, there is no effect of escitalopram on neuroticism, but it is possible that escitalopram may increase the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT

  14. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  15. Comparative Analysis between the Urban and Rural Elderly Persons in Southern Jiangsu Area by Physique Test%苏南地区城市与农村的中老年人体质测试比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海波; 姚唯众

    2011-01-01

    运用体质测试法以苏南地区城市与农村三个不同年龄段的中老年1500人为研究对象,对其进行了体质测试与比较分析。结果表明城市中老年人呈现出随着年龄的增长皮褶厚度随之增厚的趋势;60-64岁城市男性中老年人和65-69岁城市男、女性以及农村男性中老年人的测试均值已接近临界高血压值的水平;4项身体素质指标的比较,无论是男性中老年人还是女性中老年人,均呈现出身体素质指标农村好于城市的趋势。%1500 urban and rural elderly persons in southern Jiangsu area which are distinguished in three age groups are physique tested and comparative analyzed as the object of study.The result indicated that the urban elderly people present the tendency that skin fold increased along with age growth;the average blood pressure test index of the 60-64 years old of urban masculine elderly people,65-69 years old of urban male,feminine as well as rural male elderly persons has already been close to critical hypertension value level test average value.Besides it is also demonstrated that whatever the male or the female elderly persons,the fitness Index of the rural elderly people are better than the urban elderly people by the comparison of the four item of physical quality target.

  16. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    ) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed......GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...... by additional GH administration. In the RT + GH group, there was a significant decrease in MHC 1 and 2X isoforms, whereas MHC 2A increased. RT, therefore, seems to overrule the changes in MHC composition induced by GH administration alone. Changes in body composition confirmed previous reports of decreased fat...

  17. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3......-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2......) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed...

  18. Share A Fare: a user-side subsidy transportation program for elderly and handicapped persons in Kansas City, Missouri. Final report, May 1977-December 1978