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Sample records for healthy controls depression

  1. Defining guilt in depression: a comparison of subjects with major depression, chronic medical illness and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatavi, Kayhan; Nicolson, Rob; MacDonald, Cathy; Osher, Sue; Levitt, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Although guilt is a widely accepted feature of depression, there is limited and inconsistent data defining the nature of this symptom. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specificity and nature of guilt in subjects with major depression as compared to patients with another chronic medical illness and healthy controls. Outpatients with current major depressive episode (MDE; n=34), past-MDE (n=22), chronic cardiac illness (n=20) and healthy controls (n=59) were administered the following measures: The Guilt Inventory (GI), State Shame and Guilt Scale (SSGS), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Overall multivariate analysis of covariance comparing mean scores for the six guilt subscales [state-guilt, trait-guilt, moral standards (from the GI); state-guilt, -pride, and -shame (from the SSGS)] across the four groups was significant (F=9.1, df=6:121, pguilt (GI), current-MDE>past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for trait-guilt (GI), current-MDE=past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for state-shame, -guilt and -pride (SSGS), current-MDE>past-MDE, past-MDE=cardiac, past-MDE>healthy, cardiac=healthy controls. Among depressed patients, there was significant correlation between Ham-D score and all guilt sub-scales (pguilt, shame and low pride distinguish acutely depressed from all other groups, and are highly influenced by severity of depression. Trait-guilt does not differentiate acute from past depressed. Data suggests guilt may represent both an enduring and fluctuating feature of depressive illness over its longitudinal course.

  2. Comparison of personality beliefs between depressed patients and healthy controls.

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    Yucens, Bengu; Kuru, Erkan; Safak, Yasir; Karadere, Mehmet Emrah; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-11-01

    According to the cognitive model, the common mechanism underlying all psychological disorders is distorted or dysfunctional thoughts that affect mood and behaviors. Dysfunctional thoughts predispose an individual to depression and are among the processes that form the basis of personality traits. Elucidating the personality beliefs associated with depression and dysfunctional thoughts is important to understanding and treating depression. The aim of the present study is to determine whether depressed patients exhibited pathological personality beliefs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated which personality beliefs were more common among such depressed patients. A total of 70 patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) and diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, 70 healthy controls matched for age, marital status, and education were included in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Form and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short form (PBQ-SF) were administered to the participants. A comparison of the depression group with the healthy controls revealed higher scores in dependent, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, histrionic, paranoid, borderline, and avoidant personality subscales in the depressive group. These results suggest that personality beliefs at the pathological level are more common in depressive patients and that the detection of these beliefs would be useful for predicting the prognosis of the disease and determining appropriate treatment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls.

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    Salomon, Kristen; Bylsma, Lauren M; White, Kristi E; Panaite, Vanessa; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Prior work has repeatedly demonstrated that people who have current major depression exhibit blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors (e.g., Salomon et al., 2009). A key question regards the psychobiological basis for these deficits, including whether such deficits are depressed mood-state dependent or whether these effects are trait-like and are observed outside of depression episodes in vulnerable individuals. To examine this issue, we assessed cardiovascular reactivity to a speech stressor task and a forehead cold pressor in 50 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD), 25 with remitted major depression (RMD), and 45 healthy controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and impedance cardiography were assessed and analyses controlled for BMI and sex. Significant group effects were found for SBP, HR, and PEP for the speech preparation period and HR, CO, and PEP during the speech. For each of these parameters, only the MDD group exhibited attenuated reactivity as well as impaired SBP recovery. Reactivity and recovery in the RMD group more closely resembled the healthy controls. Speeches given by the MDD group were rated as less persuasive than the RMD or healthy controls' speeches. No significant differences were found for the cold pressor. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery in current major depression may be mood-state dependent phenomena and may be more reflective of motivational deficits than deficits in the physiological integrity of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EEG spectral coherence data distinguish chronic fatigue syndrome patients from healthy controls and depressed patients--a case control study.

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    Duffy, Frank H; McAnulty, Gloria B; McCreary, Michelle C; Cuchural, George J; Komaroff, Anthony L

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies suggest central nervous system involvement in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet there are no established diagnostic criteria. CFS may be difficult to differentiate from clinical depression. The study's objective was to determine if spectral coherence, a computational derivative of spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), could distinguish patients with CFS from healthy control subjects and not erroneously classify depressed patients as having CFS. This is a study, conducted in an academic medical center electroencephalography laboratory, of 632 subjects: 390 healthy normal controls, 70 patients with carefully defined CFS, 24 with major depression, and 148 with general fatigue. Aside from fatigue, all patients were medically healthy by history and examination. EEGs were obtained and spectral coherences calculated after extensive artifact removal. Principal Components Analysis identified coherence factors and corresponding factor loading patterns. Discriminant analysis determined whether spectral coherence factors could reliably discriminate CFS patients from healthy control subjects without misclassifying depression as CFS. Analysis of EEG coherence data from a large sample (n = 632) of patients and healthy controls identified 40 factors explaining 55.6% total variance. Factors showed highly significant group differentiation (p EEG spectral coherence analysis identified unmedicated patients with CFS and healthy control subjects without misclassifying depressed patients as CFS, providing evidence that CFS patients demonstrate brain physiology that is not observed in healthy normals or patients with major depression. Studies of new CFS patients and comparison groups are required to determine the possible clinical utility of this test. The results concur with other studies finding neurological abnormalities in CFS, and implicate temporal lobe involvement in CFS pathophysiology.

  5. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

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    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Brain responses to sound intensity changes dissociate depressed participants and healthy controls.

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    Ruohonen, Elisa M; Astikainen, Piia

    2017-07-01

    Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants. In addition, both depression groups, but not the control group, showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant than standard sounds. Whether these manifestations of sensory over-excitability in depression are directly related to the serotonergic neurotransmission requires further research. The method based on ERPs to sound intensity change is fast and low-cost way to objectively measure brain activation and holds promise as a future diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortisol Modulation by Ayahuasca in Patients With Treatment Resistant Depression and Healthy Controls

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    Ana C. de Menezes Galvão

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder, affecting about 350 million people, and around 30% of the patients are resistant to currently available antidepressant medications. Recent evidence from a randomized controlled trial (RCT supports the rapid antidepressant effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca in treatment-resistant depression. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of ayahuasca on plasma cortisol and awakening salivary cortisol response, in the same group of treatment-resistant patients (MD and in healthy volunteers (C. Subjects received a single dose of ayahuasca or placebo (dosing session, and both plasma and awakening salivary cortisol response were measured at baseline (before dosing session and 48 h after the dosing session. Baseline assessment (D0 showed blunted awakening salivary cortisol response and hypocortisolemia in patients, with respect to healthy controls. Salivary cortisol was also measured during dosing session, and we observed higher increases for both C and MD that ingested ayahuasca than placebo. After 48 h from the dosing session with ayahuasca, patients' awakening salivary cortisol response is similar to the ones detected in controls. No significant changes in plasma cortisol levels were observed 48 h after the sessions. Therefore, these findings point to new evidence on the modulation of salivary cortisol levels as a result of an ayahuasca session, both in healthy and depressive volunteers. Considering that cortisol acts in regulation of distinct physiological pathways, emotional and cognitive processes, it is assumed to be critically involved to the etiology of depression and its regulation seems to be important for the treatment and remission of major depression, ayahuasca use as antidepressant should be further investigated. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of psychedelics in the treatment of human mental disorders.

  8. Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls

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    Stiles Tore C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is suggested to be a manifestation of depression or affective spectrum disorder. We measured the cognitive style of patients with FMS to assess personality styles in 44 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS by comparing them with 43 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 41 healthy controls (HC. Methods Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS. The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity. Results Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC. Conclusion These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.

  9. Episodic memory and executive functioning in currently depressed patients compared to healthy controls.

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    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2015-01-01

    At present, little is still known about the link between depression, memory and executive functioning. This study examined whether there are memory-related impairments in depressed patients and whether the size of such deficits depends on the age group and on specific types of cognitive measures. Memory performances of 215 clinically depressed patients were compared to the data of a matched control sample. Regression analyses were performed to determine the extent to which executive dysfunctions contributed to episodic memory impairments. When compared with healthy controls, significantly lower episodic memory and executive functioning performances were found for depressed patients of all age groups. Effect sizes appeared to vary across different memory and executive functioning measures. The extent to which executive dysfunctions could explain episodic memory impairments varied depending on the type of measure examined. These findings emphasise the need to consider memory-related functioning of depressed patients in the context of therapeutic treatments.

  10. Functional Connectivity Between Anterior Insula and Key Nodes of Frontoparietal Executive Control and Salience Networks Distinguish Bipolar Depression From Unipolar Depression and Healthy Control Subjects.

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    Ellard, Kristen K; Zimmerman, Jared P; Kaur, Navneet; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Roffman, Joshua L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Dougherty, Darin D; Deckersbach, Thilo; Camprodon, Joan A

    2018-05-01

    Patients with bipolar depression are characterized by dysregulation across the full spectrum of mood, differentiating them from patients with unipolar depression. The ability to switch neural resources among the default mode network, salience network, and executive control network (ECN) has been proposed as a key mechanism for adaptive mood regulation. The anterior insula is implicated in the modulation of functional network switching. Differential connectivity between anterior insula and functional networks may provide insights into pathophysiological differences between bipolar and unipolar mood disorders, with implications for diagnosis and treatment. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 98 subjects (35 unipolar, 24 bipolar, and 39 healthy control subjects). Pearson correlations were computed between bilateral insula seed regions and a priori defined target regions from the default mode network, salience network, and ECN. After r-to-z transformation, a one-way multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to identify significant differences in connectivity between groups. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted and Bonferroni corrections were applied. Receiver-operating characteristics were computed to assess diagnostic sensitivity. Patients with bipolar depression evidenced significantly altered right anterior insula functional connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule of the ECN relative to patients with unipolar depression and control subjects. Right anterior insula-inferior parietal lobule connectivity significantly discriminated patients with bipolar depression. Impaired functional connectivity between the anterior insula and the inferior parietal lobule of the ECN distinguishes patients with bipolar depression from those with unipolar depression and healthy control subjects. This finding highlights a pathophysiological mechanism with potential as a therapeutic target and a clinical biomarker for bipolar

  11. Changes in cytokine and chemokine expression distinguish dysthymic disorder from major depression and healthy controls.

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    Ho, Pei-Shen; Yen, Che-Hung; Chen, Chun-Yen; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    2017-02-01

    An important area of uncertainty is the inflammatory degree to which depression occurring as part of dysthymic disorder may differ from major depression. Using a 27-plex cytokine assay, we analyzed the serum of 12 patients with dysthymic disorder, 12 with major depression, and an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control group of 20 healthy volunteers. We observed that patients with dysthymic disorder exhibited aberrant cytokine and chemokine expression compared with healthy controls and patients with major depression. The levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 highly predicted dysthymic disorder. Network analyses revealed that in patients with dysthymic disorder, the vertices were more sparsely connected and adopted a more hub-like architecture, and the connections from neighboring vertices of interleukin 2 and eotaxin-1 increased. After treatment with the same antidepressant, there was no difference between dysthymic disorder and major depression regarding any of the cytokines or chemokines analyzed. For dysthymic disorder, changes in the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α correlated with depression improvement. The findings suggest that the cytokine milieu in dysthymic disorder differs either at the level of individual expression or in network patterns. Moreover, chemokines play an important role in driving the pathophysiology of dysthymic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression......BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  13. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  14. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

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    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  15. The Effects of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Positive and Negative Life Events on a One-Year Course of Depressive Symptoms in Euthymic Previously Depressed Patients Versus Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet; Roelofs, Karin; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    We investigated a) the concurrent impact of positive and negative life events on the course of depressive symptoms in persons remitted from depression and healthy controls, b) whether the impact of life events on symptom course is moderated by the history of depression and the personality traits of

  16. Healthy and unhealthy dependence: implications for major depression.

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    Schulte, Fiona S; Mongrain, Myriam; Flora, David B

    2008-09-01

    To examine the contribution of varying levels of dependency to Axis I and Axis II disorders, and to the recurrence of major depression in a graduate student sample diagnosed with a history of the disorder. At Time 1, participants were interviewed to confirm a current or past episode of major depression along with the presence of Axis II and other current or past Axis I disorders. Various measures of dependency were administered including the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), the 3-Vector Dependency Inventory (3VDI; Pincus & Gurtman, 1995), and the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; Robins et al., 1994). Participants were interviewed 20 months later to determine the recurrence of a depressive episode. A factor analysis conducted on scale scores for each dependency measure resulted in three factors labelled 'unhealthy', 'intermediate', and 'healthy' dependence. Controlling for history of major depression, structural equation modelling found 'unhealthy' dependence to be the only predictor of recurrences of major depression and Axis II disorders, while 'healthy' dependence was related to fewer depressive symptoms. These results have important implications for the conceptualization of the dependency construct.

  17. Smaller brain size likely in young adults (<40 years old) with depressive symptoms compared to healthy controls. A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Michito; Sato, Takamichi; Kawaguchi, Etsuko; Shibata, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the brain size of young patients with depressive symptoms is smaller than that of healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively evaluated brain size by calculating the ratio of the brain area to that of the skull (the brain-to-skull ratio) on routine MRI scans including the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained from 19 patients <40 years old with depressive symptoms in 2009. The controls were 12 healthy individuals <40 years old who underwent MRI for medical examinations. The mean brain-to-skull ratio of the control group was 0.850±0.022 (range 0.822-0.889), and that of the patient group was 0.819±0.041 (range 0.756-0.878). An unpaired t-test showed a significant difference in the brain-to-skull ratios between these groups (P=0.011). In particular, in 7 of the 19 patients with longer duration of illness and more severe symptoms, the brain-to-skull ratio was 89%-92% of the mean ratio of the control group. The brain size of young patients with depressive symptoms appears to be smaller than that of healthy controls. (author)

  18. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation.

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    Chandrasekhar Pammi, V S; Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh, Purushothaman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Rappai Mary, Paramban; Seema, Satish; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-04-01

    Neuroeconomics employs neuroscience techniques to explain decision-making behaviours. Prospect theory, a prominent model of decision-making, features a value function with parameters for risk and loss aversion. Recent work with normal participants identified activation related to loss aversion in brain regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the brain network for loss aversion in pathologies such as depression has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study is to employ the value function from prospect theory to examine behavioural and neural manifestations of loss aversion in depressed and healthy individuals to identify the neurobiological markers of loss aversion in economic behaviour. We acquired behavioural data and fMRI scans while healthy controls and patients with depression performed an economic decision-making task. Behavioural loss aversion was higher in patients with depression than in healthy controls. fMRI results revealed that the two groups shared a brain network for value function including right ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right amygdala. However, the neural loss aversion results revealed greater activations in the right dorsal striatum and the right anterior insula for controls compared with patients with depression, and higher activations in the midbrain region ventral tegmental area for patients with depression compared with controls. These results suggest that while the brain network for loss aversion is shared between depressed and healthy individuals, some differences exist with respect to differential activation of additional areas. Our findings are relevant to identifying neurobiological markers for altered decision-making in the depressed. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

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    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

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    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  1. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, psychotic and severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Results of the schizophrenia and affective psychoses (SAP) project.

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    Salokangas, R K R; Cannon, T; Van Erp, T; Ilonen, T; Taiminen, T; Karlsson, H; Lauerma, H; Leinonen, K M; Wallenius, E; Kaljonen, A; Syvälahti, E; Vilkman, H; Alanen, A; Hietala, J

    2002-09-01

    Structural brain abnormalities are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. To study how regional brain volumes and their ratios differ between patients with schizophrenia, psychotic depression, severe non-psychotic depression and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain on first-episode patients and on healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia had a smaller left frontal grey matter volume than the other three groups. Patients with psychotic depression had larger ventricular and posterior sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes than controls. Patients with depression had larger white matter volumes than the other patients. Left frontal lobe, especially its grey matter volume, seems to be specifically reduced in first-episode schizophrenia. Enlarged cerebral ventricles and sulcal CSF volumes are prevalent in psychotic depression. Preserved or expanded white matter is typical of non-psychotic depression.

  2. When paranoia fails to enhance self-esteem: explicit and implicit self-esteem and its discrepancy in patients with persecutory delusions compared to depressed and healthy controls.

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    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Lincoln, Tania M

    2011-04-30

    The hypothesis that persecutory delusions function to enhance self-esteem implies that patients will show normal explicit, but low implicit self-esteem. As evidence for this has been inconsistent, our study assessed delusional state, explicit and implicit self-esteem and depression in a large sample (n=139) of schizophrenia patients with acute persecutory delusions (n=28), patients with remitted persecutory delusions (n=31), healthy controls (n=59), and depressed controls (n=21). Patients with delusions and patients with depression both showed decreased levels of explicit, but normal levels of implicit self-esteem when compared to healthy controls. The direct comparison of levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem within each group revealed that healthy controls had higher explicit than implicit self-esteem, while the converse pattern was found for depressed controls. No discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem was found for acute deluded or remitted patients with schizophrenia. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that delusions serve to enhance self-esteem, they underline the relevance of low self-esteem in patients with persecutory delusions and point to the necessity of enhancing self-esteem in therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating metabolites in patients with major depressive disorder who received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and healthy controls using short echo MRSI at 7 Tesla.

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    Li, Yan; Jakary, Angela; Gillung, Erin; Eisendrath, Stuart; Nelson, Sarah J; Mukherjee, Pratik; Luks, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate differences in metabolite levels between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, to assess changes in metabolites in patients after they completed an 8-week course of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and to exam the correlation between metabolites and depression severity. Sixteen patients with MDD and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied using 3D short echo-time (20 ms) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 Tesla. Relative metabolite ratios were estimated in five regions of interest corresponding to insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. In all cases, MBCT reduced severity of depression. The ratio of total choline-containing compounds/total creatine (tCr) in the right caudate was significantly increased compared to that in healthy controls, while ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/tCr in the left ACC, myo-inositol/tCr in the right insula, and glutathione/tCr in the left putamen were significantly decreased. At baseline, the severity of depression was negatively correlated with my-inositol/tCr in the left insula and putamen. The improvement in depression severity was significantly associated with changes in NAA/tCr in the left ACC. This study has successfully evaluated regional differences in metabolites for patients with MDD who received MBCT treatment and in controls using 7 Tesla MRSI.

  4. Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in patients with major depressive disorder compared to healthy controls before and after antidepressant treatment: results from a meta-analysis.

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    Jiménez-Fernández, Sara; Gurpegui, Manuel; Díaz-Atienza, Francisco; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in depression. We searched the literature without language restrictions through MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Fisterra, and Galenicom from database inception until December 31, 2013, supplemented by a hand search of relevant articles. Search terms included (1) oxidative stress, antioxidant*, nitrosative stress, nitrative stress, nitro-oxidative stress, free radical*, and names of individual oxidative stress markers/antioxidants and (2) depression and related disorders and antidepressant. Included were studies in patients with depression comparing antioxidant or oxidative stress markers with those in healthy controls before and after antidepressant treatment. Two authors independently extracted the data for antioxidant or oxidative stress markers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for results from ≥ 3 studies were calculated. Altogether, 29 studies (N = 3,961; patients with depression = 2,477, healthy controls = 1,484) reported on the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrites, the antioxidants uric acid and zinc, or the antioxidant-enhancing enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). When patients with depression were compared with healthy controls, depression was associated with higher oxidative stress MDA levels (8 studies; n = 916; SMD = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.57 to 2.11; P Depression Rating Scale scores (24.6 ± 0.7 to 16.2 ± 1.6; SMD = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.15; P = .00065), reduced MDA (4 studies; n = 194; SMD = -1.45; 95% CI, -2.43 to -0.47; P = .004) and increased uric acid (3 studies; n = 212; SMD = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.03 to 1.49; P = .040) and zinc levels (3 studies; n = 65; SMD = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.40 to 2.04, P = .004), without differences in MDA (P = .60), uric acid (P = .10), and zinc (P = .163) levels compared to healthy controls. Results suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in depression

  5. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  7. Differences at brain SPECT between depressed females with and without adult ADHD and healthy controls: etiological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsson Hans

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25 and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 and the computerized brain atlas (CBA. Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32 in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in

  8. Hippocampal volume changes in healthy subjects at risk of unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaré, William F C; Vinberg, Maj; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    Unipolar depression is moderately heritable. It is unclear whether structural brain changes associated with unipolar depression are present in healthy persons at risk of the disorder. Here we investigated whether a genetic predisposition to unipolar depression is associated with structural brain...... changes. A priori, hippocampal volume reductions were hypothesized. Using a high-risk study design, magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from 59 healthy high-risk subjects having a co-twin with unipolar depression, and 53 healthy low-risk subjects without a first-degree family history...

  9. Increased blood BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Søndergaard, Mia H Greisen; Koefoed, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. BDNF levels were significantly increased...... in healthy individuals with (n = 76), compared with healthy individuals without (n = 39) a family history of depression and persisted after adjustment for age and gender differences. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute...... to an elevation of peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....

  10. White matter correlates of impaired attention control in major depressive disorder and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mina M; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Keilp, John; Miller, Jeffrey M; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria A; Kamal, Ahmed M; Abdelhameed, Mohamed A; Mann, J John

    2017-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired attention control and alterations in frontal-subcortical connectivity. We hypothesized that attention control as assessed by Stroop task interference depends on white matter integrity in fronto-cingulate regions and assessed this relationship using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MDD and healthy volunteers (HV). DTI images and Stroop task were acquired in 29 unmedicated MDD patients and 16 HVs, aged 18-65 years. The relationship between Stroop interference and fractional anisotropy (FA) was examined using region-of-interest (ROI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses. ROI analysis revealed that Stroop interference correlated positively with FA in left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) in HVs (r = 0.62, p = 0.01), but not in MDD (r = -0.05, p= 0.79) even after controlling for depression severity. The left cACC was among 4 ROIs in fronto-cingulate network where FA was lower in MDD relative to HVs (F (1,41) = 8.87, p = 0.005). Additionally, TBSS showed the same group interaction of differences and correlations, although only at a statistical trend level. The modest sample size limits the generalizability of the findings. Structural connectivity of white matter network of cACC correlated with magnitude of Stroop interference in HVs, but not MDD. The cACC-frontal network, sub-serving attention control, may be disrupted in MDD. Less cognitive control may include enhanced effects of salience in HVs, or less effective response inhibition in MDD. Further studies of salience and inhibition components of executive function may better elucidate the relationship between brain white matter changes and executive dysfunction in MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain perception in major depressive disorder: a neurophysiological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Pistacchi, Michele; Tocco, Pierluigi; Gioulis, Manuela; Fabris, Federico; Brigo, Francesco; Tinazzi, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Depression and pain may sometimes be related conditions. Occasionally, depression may be associated with physical symptoms, such as back pain and headache. Moreover, depression may impair the subjective response to pain and is likely to influence the pain feeling. Conversely, chronic pain may represent an emotional condition as well as physical sensation, and can influence both the mood and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between pain and depression, we therefore assessed the pain threshold and the tolerance pain threshold in patients with depressive disorders. We conducted a case-control study and selected patients who had recently received a diagnosis of major depression (DSM-IV), before treatment, and without any significant pain complaints. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also included. Tactile and pain thresholds were assessed in all subjects through an electrical stimulation test. All results were compared between the groups. 27 patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Tactile, pain and tolerance thresholds were evaluated in all subjects. The pain threshold and pain tolerance were lower in patients with major depression than controls. All differences were statistically significant (pdepressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.

  13. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  14. Body-related social comparison and disordered eating among adolescent females with an eating disorder, depressive disorder, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  15. Changes in self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being in healthy individuals following a Taiji beginner course - Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schitter, Agnes Maria; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Taiji is a mind-body practice being increasingly investigated for its therapeutic benefits in a broad range of mental and physical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential preventive effects of Taiji practice in healthy individuals with regard to their depressive symptomatology and physical well-being. Seventy healthy Taiji novices were randomly assigned to a Taiji intervention group, that is, Taiji beginner course (Yang-Style Taiji, 2 h per week, 12 weeks) or a control group comprised of the waiting list for the course. Self-reported symptoms of depression (CES-D) and physical well-being (FEW-16) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, as well as 2 months later. The included participants had a mean age of 35.5 years. Physical well-being in the Taiji group significantly increased when comparing baseline to follow-up (FEW-16 sum score T(27) = 3.94, P = 0.001, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.55). Pearson's correlation coefficients displayed a strong negative relationship between self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being (P's healthy individuals, with improvements pronouncing over time. Physical well-being was shown to have a strong relationship with depressive symptoms. Based on these results, the consideration of Taiji as one therapeutic option in the development of multimodal approaches in the prevention of depression seems justifiable.

  16. The Neural Bases of Interoceptive Encoding and Recall in Healthy Adults and Adults With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVille, Danielle C; Kerr, Kara L; Avery, Jason A; Burrows, Kaiping; Bodurka, Jerzy; Feinstein, Justin S; Khalsa, Sahib S; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, W Kyle

    2018-06-01

    Theoretical models assert that the brain's interoceptive network links external stimuli with their interoceptive consequences, thereby supporting later recall of these associations to guide the selection of healthy behaviors. If these accounts are correct, previously reported interoceptive abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) should lead to altered recall of associations between external stimuli and their interoceptive (somatic) consequences. To date, the processes underlying interoceptive recall have never been experimentally investigated. We designed and implemented the Interoceptive Encoding and Recall task to compare interoceptive and exteroceptive recall among subjects with MDD (n = 24) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 21). During the encoding phase, subjects learned to pair neutral visual cues (geometric shapes) with aversive interoceptive and exteroceptive stimuli. Later, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects were prompted to recall the stimulus associated with each shape. Interoceptive recall, relative to exteroceptive recall, was associated with bilateral mid-to-posterior insula activation. Relative to the healthy control participants, participants with depression exhibited marked hypoactivation of the right dorsal mid-insula during interoceptive recall. In healthy control subjects, simply recalling a stimulus associated with a previous interoceptive challenge activated a key region in the brain's interoceptive network. Although previous research has linked MDD with aberrant processing of interoceptive stimuli, the current study is the first to demonstrate that individuals with MDD exhibit decreased insula activity while recalling interoceptive memories. It is possible that insula hypoactivation during interoceptive recall may affect the representation of prior interoceptive experiences in ways that contribute to depressive symptomology and the relationship between depression and systemic health. Copyright

  17. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma : case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letitre, Sarah L.; de Groot, Eric P.; Draaisma, Eelco; Brand, Paulus

    Objective Although asthma has been linked to psychological morbidity, this relationship may be confounded by poor asthma control. We aimed to compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression and low level of self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma with that of healthy peers. Setting

  18. Role of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in anxiety, depression and self-esteem: A controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Giulio; Aria, Massimo; Cepeda-Valdes, Rodrigo; Garcia-Garcia, Sandra Cecilia; Moreno Trevino, Maria Guadalupe; Salas-Alanís, Julio Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The psychological aspect in patients with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is poorly documented. We sought to determine the role of DEB in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 27 DEB patients and 26 healthy individuals. DEB patients and healthy controls completed three different psychometric scales for anxiety and depression and one scale for self-esteem. DEB patients and healthy controls were homogeneous for age and sex (P > 0.05), but not for employment, marital status and economic level (P depression (P = 0.037) and slightly significant for Zung Scale for anxiety (P = 0.048) with no difference between DEB patients with dominant versus recessive form in all scales (P > 0.05). Among DEB patients, only employment showed a significant difference in all scales (P depression, whereas self-esteem seemed to be affected by marriage (P = 0.04) and education (P = 0.016). DEB patients apparently are not more anxious and/or depressed and do not have less self-esteem than healthy individuals. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Twelve-Month Effects of the COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN Program on Overweight and Depressive Symptoms in High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled…

  20. Sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression in patients with oral lichen planus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, D; Ruoppo, E; Leuci, S; Aria, M; Amato, M; Mignogna, M D

    2015-02-01

    The psychological factors and their association with chronic inflammatory disease, aren't well recognized, yet their importance in oral lichen planus is still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and their association in patient with oral lichen planus. 50 patients with oral lichen planus vs. equal number of age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Questionnaires examining insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness (Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Epworth aleepiness scale) depression and anxiety (The Hamilton rating scale for Depression and Anxiety) were used. The patients with oral lichen planus had statistically higher scores in all items of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, the Hamilton rating scale for depression and anxiety and Epworth sleepiness scale than the healthy controls. The median and inter-quartile range of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index was 5-2 and for the oral lichen planus patients and 4-2 for the healthy controls (P Oral lichen planus patients report a greater degree of sleep problems, depressed mood and anxiety as compared with controls. We suggest to screen sleep disturbances in patients with oral lichen planus because they could be considered a prodromal symptoms of mood disorders. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letitre, Sarah L; de Groot, Eric P; Draaisma, Eelco; Brand, Paul L P

    2014-08-01

    Although asthma has been linked to psychological morbidity, this relationship may be confounded by poor asthma control. We aimed to compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression and low level of self-esteem in children with well-controlled asthma with that of healthy peers. Dedicated asthma clinic in a general hospital. 70 patients with mostly well-controlled asthma and 70 matched healthy controls. Comprehensive asthma education, management and follow-up for asthma patients. Validated Dutch versions of the Childhood Depression inventory (CDI), Revised Fear Survey for Children (RFSC), Self Perception Profile for Children (SPC-C) and Adolescents (SPC-A) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Asthma control assessed by asthma control questionnaire. No significant differences were found in total scores between asthmatics and controls (95% CI for difference -0.2 to 2.9 for CDI, -5.9 to 11.2 for RFSC, -19.9 to 6.3 for SPC-C, -24.1 to 5.0 for SPC-A and -2.7 to 0.01 for STAIC). There were also no significant differences between asthmatics and controls in the prevalence of scores exceeding cut-off levels for clinically relevant anxiety (13.3 vs 13.0%, p=0.605), depression (12.9 vs 5.7%, p=0.243) or low self-esteem (21.4 vs 12.9%, p=0.175). A significant correlation was found between poorer asthma control and CDI (p=0.012) and anxiety trait symptoms (pChildren with well-controlled asthma enrolled in a comprehensive asthma management programme do not have an increased risk of anxiety, depression and poor self-esteem. Earlier reports of psychological comorbidity in asthma may have been related to inadequately controlled asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Patients with OCD report lower quality of life after controlling for expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Fadaei, Vahid; Sajadi, Arezoo; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Matinnia, Nasrin; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lang, Undine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-12-02

    One to three percent of the adult population suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Previous studies have also shown that, compared to controls, patients with OCD report a lower QoL. The latter is associated with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life of OCD patients with that of healthy controls, while introducing expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety as covariates. Gender was also taken into account as an additional associated factor. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with OCD (mean age: 32 years; 64% females) and healthy 100 controls (mean age: 31 years; 59% females; no discernible psychiatric disorder) took part in the present cross-sectional study. All participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and dimensions of QoL. Experts rated participants' symptoms of OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) and depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD reported a lower QoL, and had higher symptoms of depression and anxiety. This pattern was particularly pronounced among female patients with OCD. QoL was lower in patients with OCD, even when controlling for depression and anxiety. Results from binary logistic regressions showed that female gender, low QoL and higher symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety together predicted status as patient with OCD. Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD have a poorer quality of life and this is independent of depression or anxiety, and is particularly pronounced among female patients. Thus, treatment of OCD might take into account patients' comorbidities and gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolomic biosignature differentiates melancholic depressive patients from healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yashu; Yieh, Lynn; Yang, Tao; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Peeters, Pieter; Steckler, Thomas; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Wittenberg, Gayle; Ye, Jieping

    2016-08-23

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous disease at the level of clinical symptoms, and this heterogeneity is likely reflected at the level of biology. Two clinical subtypes within MDD that have garnered interest are "melancholic depression" and "anxious depression". Metabolomics enables us to characterize hundreds of small molecules that comprise the metabolome, and recent work suggests the blood metabolome may be able to inform treatment decisions for MDD, however work is at an early stage. Here we examine a metabolomics data set to (1) test whether clinically homogenous MDD subtypes are also more biologically homogeneous, and hence more predictiable, (2) devise a robust machine learning framework that preserves biological meaning, and (3) describe the metabolomic biosignature for melancholic depression. With the proposed computational system we achieves around 80 % classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for melancholic depression, but only ~72 % for anxious depression or MDD, suggesting the blood metabolome contains more information about melancholic depression.. We develop an ensemble feature selection framework (EFSF) in which features are first clustered, and learning then takes place on the cluster centroids, retaining information about correlated features during the feature selection process rather than discarding them as most machine learning methods will do. Analysis of the most discriminative feature clusters revealed differences in metabolic classes such as amino acids and lipids as well as pathways studied extensively in MDD such as the activation of cortisol in chronic stress. We find the greater clinical homogeneity does indeed lead to better prediction based on biological measurements in the case of melancholic depression. Melancholic depression is shown to be associated with changes in amino acids, catecholamines, lipids, stress hormones, and immune-related metabolites. The proposed computational framework can be adapted

  4. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  5. Success/failure condition influences attribution of control, negative affect, and shame among patients with depression in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Si-Ning; Zainal, Hani; Tang, Catherine S; Tong, Eddie M; Ho, Cyrus S; Ho, Roger C

    2017-08-02

    There remains a paucity of research on control attribution and depression within Asian populations. This study examines: (1) Success/Failure condition as a moderator between depression and negative affect or shame, and (2) differences in control attribution between patients with depression and healthy controls in Singapore. Seventy one patients with depression and 71 healthy controls went through a digit-span memory task where they were randomized into either the Success or Failure condition. Participants in the Success condition had to memorize and recall 5-digit strings, while participants in the Failure condition did the same for 12-digit strings. They then completed self-report measures of negative affect, shame, and attribution of control. One-way ANCOVA was performed to examine task condition as a moderator of association between mental health status and post-task negative affect or shame. Test of simple effects was carried out on significant interactions. Sign test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed to investigate differences in attribution of control. Mental health status and Success/Failure condition had significant effects on reported negative affect and shame. Healthy controls reported less post-task negative affect and shame in the Success than in the Failure condition while patients with depression reported similar levels of post-task negative affect and shame in both conditions. However, these differences were not significant in the test of simple effects. In addition, healthy controls felt a stronger sense of personal control in success than in failure and were more likely to blame external factors in failure than in success. Conversely, patients with depression were more inclined to credit external factors in success than in failure and ascribed greater personal control in failure than in success. The results suggest that successful conditions may not necessitate the reduction of negative affect in Asians with depression, indicating possible

  6. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  7. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  8. Qualitative Characteristics of Depression in Parkinson's Patients and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzinger, Cleo; Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Hückelheim, Katja; Lorwin, Anne; Graf, Julia; Tunc, Sinem; Klein, Christine; Kasten, Meike

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common in Parkinson's disease (PD); in light of typical PD pathology it may differ phenomenologically from depression in the general population. To assess depressive symptoms in PD patients and control groups and compare symptom profiles. After postal screening of 10,000 citizens of Lübeck, 642 participants were examined and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was sufficiently answered by 477 subjects. Based on motor examinations, we distinguished PD patients, Healthy Controls (HC, no motor impairment), and Disease Controls (DC, motor impairment other than PD). The sample comprised 331 men and 311 women, aged 65 ± 8 years. Out of the overall sample, 198 (41.5%) had a BDI score ≥9. BDI results above 9 points occurred in 34.5% of HC, 50.3% of DC, and 42.4% of PD patients. Compared to the control groups (HC, DC) the PD patients endorsed more "dissatisfaction" and "loss of appetite" but less "feelings of guilt," "self-hate," and "loss of libido." Depressive symptoms are more frequent in PD patients compared to HC but not DC. Interestingly, the distribution of individual symptoms of the BDI differs between groups with an emphasis on loss of pleasure/enjoyment in the PD group, a symptom typically considered to be dopaminergically transmitted.

  9. Development, acceptability and efficacy of a standardized healthy lifestyle intervention in recurrent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracci, A; Rucci, P; Forgione, R N; Campinoti, G; Valdagno, M; Casolaro, I; Carretta, E; Bolognesi, S; Fagiolini, A

    2016-05-15

    Research evidence on the effects of integrated multifaceted lifestyle interventions for depression is scanty. The aim of the present study is to report on the development, acceptability and efficacy of a standardized healthy lifestyle intervention, including exercise, eating habits, sleep hygiene and smoking cessation in preventing relapses. One hundred-sixty outpatients with recurrent unipolar depression or bipolar disorder were recruited after achieving full remission or recovery from the most recent depressive episode. Patients were randomized to 3-months of usual care or to an intervention aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle (HLI), as an augmentation of pharmacological maintenance treatment. Usual care consisted of clinical management visits. At the end of the intervention, follow-up visits were scheduled at 3,6,9 and 12 months. During the intervention phase, 1 relapse occurred in the HLI group and 4 in the control group. Over the 12 months of follow-up, relapses were 5 in the HLI group and 16 in control group. Using an intent-to-treat approach, the overall percentage of relapses was 6/81 (7.4%) in the HLI group vs. 20/79 (25.3%) in the control group.. In a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis the risk of relapse was significantly lower in patients receiving the HLI intervention (log-rank test, p=0.003) over the 60 weeks of observation. The majority of patients assigned to HLI adhered to the program, and were highly motivated throughout the intervention. The retention rate was low because patients were recruited during the maintenance phase and the 1-year follow-up was relatively short to detect a long-term effect of HLI. The HLI program proved to be efficacious in preventing relapses. Given the absence of contraindications and its cost-effectiveness in routine practice, the use of HLI should be encouraged to promote the well-being of patients with recurrent depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual discrimination among patients with depression and schizophrenia and healthy individuals using semiquantitative color-coded fast spin-echo T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke; Narumi, Shinsuke; Shibata, Eri; Ohtsuka, Kotaro; Endoh, Jin; Sakai, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T, which is sensitive to neuromelanin-related contrast, can quantitatively detect signal alterations in the locus ceruleus (LC) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of depressive and schizophrenic patients; however, its qualitative diagnostic performance remains unknown. We investigated whether visual interpretation of semiquantitative color maps can be used for discriminating between depressive and schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals. We retrospectively examined 23 patients with major depression, 23 patients with schizophrenia, and 23 age-matched healthy controls by using a FSE-T1W MRI technique. Semiquantitative color maps of sections through the LC and SNc were visually interpreted by nine raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az), which reflects the performance in differentiating between depressive patients and controls, was 0.88, and the sensitivity and specificity at the maximum likelihood were 76% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, the Az value, sensitivity, and specificity values between schizophrenics and controls and between depressives and schizophrenics were 0.66 and 0.69, 42% and 48%, and 82% and 84%, respectively. Semiquantitative, color-coded FSE-T1W MRI at 3T can be used for visually differentiating depressive patients from healthy individuals with a substantially high likelihood, but this technique cannot be applied to distinguish schizophrenic patients from the other two groups. (orig.)

  11. Visual discrimination among patients with depression and schizophrenia and healthy individuals using semiquantitative color-coded fast spin-echo T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke; Narumi, Shinsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Shibata, Eri; Ohtsuka, Kotaro; Endoh, Jin; Sakai, Akio [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T, which is sensitive to neuromelanin-related contrast, can quantitatively detect signal alterations in the locus ceruleus (LC) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of depressive and schizophrenic patients; however, its qualitative diagnostic performance remains unknown. We investigated whether visual interpretation of semiquantitative color maps can be used for discriminating between depressive and schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals. We retrospectively examined 23 patients with major depression, 23 patients with schizophrenia, and 23 age-matched healthy controls by using a FSE-T1W MRI technique. Semiquantitative color maps of sections through the LC and SNc were visually interpreted by nine raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az), which reflects the performance in differentiating between depressive patients and controls, was 0.88, and the sensitivity and specificity at the maximum likelihood were 76% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, the Az value, sensitivity, and specificity values between schizophrenics and controls and between depressives and schizophrenics were 0.66 and 0.69, 42% and 48%, and 82% and 84%, respectively. Semiquantitative, color-coded FSE-T1W MRI at 3T can be used for visually differentiating depressive patients from healthy individuals with a substantially high likelihood, but this technique cannot be applied to distinguish schizophrenic patients from the other two groups. (orig.)

  12. Activation of the attachment system and mentalization in depressive and healthy individuals: An experimental control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fizke Ella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.

  13. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Overdorf EdD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  14. Regional homogeneity and functional connectivity patterns in major depressive disorder, cognitive vulnerability to depression and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Luo, Lizhu; Yuan, Xinru; Zhang, Lu; He, Yini; Yao, Shuqiao; Wang, Jiaojian; Xiao, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns. Significant ReHo differences were found in right posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left lingual gyrus (LG) and precuneus. Compared to HC, CVD subjects showed increased ReHo in the PLC, which was similar to the difference found between MDD and HC. Compared to MDD patients, CVD subjects showed decreased ReHo in PLC, LG, and precuneus. R-FC analyses found increased functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in CVD compared to both HC and MDD. Moreover, Regional mean ReHo values were positively correlated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. These analyses revealed that PLC and functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be a potential marker for CVD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Ecological Micro-Expression Recognition in Patients with Depression and Healthy Individuals

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    Chuanlin Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of ordinary facial expressions in patients with depression, and have not investigated the processing characteristics of ecological micro-expressions (MEs, i.e., MEs that presented in different background expressions in these patients. Based on this, adopting the ecological MEs recognition paradigm, this study aimed to comparatively evaluate facial ME recognition in depressed and healthy individuals. The findings of the study are as follows: (1 background expression: the accuracy (ACC in the neutral background condition tended to be higher than that in the fear background condition, and the reaction time (RT in the neutral background condition was significantly longer than that in other backgrounds. The type of ME and its interaction with the type of background expression could affect participants’ ecological MEs recognition ACC and speed. Depression type: there was no significant difference between the ecological MEs recognition ACC of patients with depression and healthy individuals, but the patients’ RT was significantly longer than that of healthy individuals; and (2 patients with depression judged happy MEs that were presented against different backgrounds as neutral and judged neutral MEs that were presented against sad backgrounds as sad. The present study suggested the following: (1 ecological MEs recognition was influenced by background expressions. The ACC of happy MEs was the highest, of neutral ME moderate and of sadness and fear the lowest. The response to the happy MEs was significantly shorter than that of identifying other MEs. It is necessary to conduct research on ecological MEs recognition; (2 the speed of patients with depression in identifying ecological MEs was slower than of healthy individuals; indicating that the patients’ cognitive function was impaired; and (3 the patients with depression showed negative bias in the ecological MEs recognition task, reflecting

  16. A case-control study assessing depression in patients with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyamali Sundararajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the tooth. One of the important non-oral risk factors for periodontitis is psychosocial stress and depression. Depression affects oral health by affecting the immune system through its effects on hypothalamic pituitary axis system. Periodontal inflammatory surface area (PISA is a system used to assess inflammatory burden in the periodontal tissue. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between PISA and depression. Settings and Design: The design of the study is case-control study. Materials and Methods: The study design is a case-control study with forty patients each in case and control groups. The periodontal inflammatory level was assessed by PISA system and the levels of depression was assessed by using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test was used to compare PISA and BDI scores. The BDI score (mean ± standard deviation [SD] for controls was 12.75 ± 6.82 compared to 22.73 ± 4.40 for the cases. The comparison (t = 7.78 was statistically significant at P < 0.0001. The PISA score (mean ± SD for controls was 210.47 ± 76.80 compared to the PISA score of 1069.50 ± 204.21 for cases which was statistically significant (t = 24.90; P < 0.0001. Results: Significantly higher BDI scores were observed in patients with chronic periodontitis than healthy controls. Conclusion: This study clearly reveals a significant association between the severity of depression and inflammatory burden.

  17. Association between Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI and Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudies region of Middle-East. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by AHEI, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, the frequency of anxiety and depression was 15.2% and 30.0%, respectively. After taking potential confounders into account, participants with greater adherence to AHEI had 48% lower odds of depression compared with those in the bottom quartile (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39-0.70. Those in the highest quartile of AHEI had a 29% lower odds of anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94; however, adjustment for dietary intakes and body mass index attenuated the association (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.52-1.09. Conclusion Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of depression in Iranian adults. Further studies, especially with prospective design, are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  18. The association between depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and inflammation in major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all...... subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed...... patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6...

  19. Different neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in healthy monozygotic twins at risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C; Harmer, C J; Reinecke, A; Macoveanu, J; Siebner, H R; Kessing, L V; Vinberg, M

    2015-05-01

    Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. Thirty healthy, never-depressed monozygotic (MZ) twins with a co-twin history of depression (high risk group: n = 13) or without co-twin history of depression (low-risk group: n = 17) were enrolled in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. High-risk twins showed increased neural response to happy and fearful faces in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), pre-supplementary motor area and occipito-parietal regions compared to low-risk twins. They also displayed stronger negative coupling between amygdala and pregenual ACC, dmPFC and temporo-parietal regions during emotional face processing. These task-related changes in neural responses in high-risk twins were accompanied by impaired gender discrimination performance during face processing. They also displayed increased attention vigilance for fearful faces and were slower at recognizing facial expressions relative to low-risk controls. These effects occurred in the absence of differences between groups in mood, subjective state or coping. Different neural response and functional connectivity within fronto-limbic and occipito-parietal regions during emotional face processing and enhanced fear vigilance may be key endophenotypes for depression.

  20. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Emotions Control among Substance Abusers and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Bagyan Kouleh Marz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare Alexithymia and emotional control among substance abusers and healthy people. Method: The research design was causal-comparative research design which is categorized as descriptive research method. The population included of all people who were referred to addiction treatment centers in Noor-Abad city (Delfan. The participants of the study comprised of 50 addicts under treatment and 50 healthy participants who were matched based on age, education level, social-economical status, and number of children selected by available sampling method. The alexithymia (TAS-20 and emotions control scales administered among both groups. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between addicts and non-addicts groups in terms of alexithymia and emotional control. In addition, difficulty in identifying of feelings, depression, anxiety and anger were the most important predictors of addiction severity. Conclusion: These results show that any difficulty in expressing emotions and disability in controlling of negative emotions (anger, depression, and anxiety are risk factors for substance abuse.

  1. Qualitative Characteristics of Depression in Parkinson’s Patients and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Kritzinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD; in light of typical PD pathology it may differ phenomenologically from depression in the general population. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms in PD patients and control groups and compare symptom profiles. Methods. After postal screening of 10,000 citizens of Lübeck, 642 participants were examined and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was sufficiently answered by 477 subjects. Based on motor examinations, we distinguished PD patients, Healthy Controls (HC, no motor impairment, and Disease Controls (DC, motor impairment other than PD. Results. The sample comprised 331 men and 311 women, aged 65 ± 8 years. Out of the overall sample, 198 (41.5% had a BDI score ≥9. BDI results above 9 points occurred in 34.5% of HC, 50.3% of DC, and 42.4% of PD patients. Compared to the control groups (HC, DC the PD patients endorsed more “dissatisfaction” and “loss of appetite” but less “feelings of guilt,” “self-hate,” and “loss of libido.” Conclusion. Depressive symptoms are more frequent in PD patients compared to HC but not DC. Interestingly, the distribution of individual symptoms of the BDI differs between groups with an emphasis on loss of pleasure/enjoyment in the PD group, a symptom typically considered to be dopaminergically transmitted.

  2. Evaluating the efficacy of an integrated motivational interviewing and multi-modal exercise intervention for youth with major depression: Healthy Body, Healthy Mind randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasstasia, Yasmina; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Hides, Leanne; Lewin, Terry J; Kelly, Brian J; Callister, Robin

    2018-03-01

    Recent meta-analytic reviews suggest exercise can reduce depression severity among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD); however, efficacy studies with depressed youth are limited. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions in this population, addressed treatment engagement, or explored the differential effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. This paper describes the study protocol and recruitment pattern for an assessor blinded, two-arm randomised controlled trial investigating the efficacy of an integrated motivational interviewing (MI) and multi-modal exercise intervention in youth diagnosed with MDD. Associations between depressive symptom profiles (cognitive, somatic and affective) and psychological, physiological (fitness), and biological (blood biomarker) outcomes will also be examined. Participants aged 15-25 years with current MDD were recruited. Eligible participants were randomised and stratified according to gender and depression severity to either an immediate or delayed (control) group. The immediate group received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week small group exercise intervention (3 times per week for 1 h), all delivered by personal trainers. The delayed control group received the same intervention 12-weeks later. Both groups were reassessed at mid-treatment or mid-control, post-treatment or post-control, and follow-up (12 weeks post-treatment). 68 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group. This trial will increase our understanding of the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions for depression and the specific effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. It also offers a novel contribution by addressing treatment engagement in exercise efficacy trials in youth with MDD.

  3. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  4. Social support networks and depression of women suffering from early-stage breast cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Cristina; Vespa, Anna; Papa, Roberta; Mariotti, Carlo; Cascinu, Stefano; Rossini, Simonetta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the areas of depression, anxiety, and social support using the structural model of the social network. By comparing the networks of two samples of breast cancer sufferers and healthy control participants, it was possible to identify differences in their relationships, in the shape of the networks themselves, and in the levels of depression and anxiety. Women with breast cancer described smaller and denser networks, including mainly kins whereas the healthy women included more friends, coworkers, and leisure companions. The levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women with breast cancer. Social network and social support measure correlated differently with depression and anxiety in the two groups.

  5. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Knorr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUC(total for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Change in CorAUC(total showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUC(total, rho = -0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUC(total. CONCLUSION: The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00386841.

  6. "Depressive Realism" assessed via Confidence in Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, J A

    1996-08-01

    There are two currently influential views regarding the link between cognitive distortions and depression. The first states that depressed individuals perceive the world and themselves with a strong negative bias or distortion, and that mentally healthy individuals perceive the word with relative accuracy. The second ''depressive realism'' camp argues that healthy individuals are positively biased and the depressed are relatively unbiased and hence, more realistic. In the present investigation, subjects suffering from major depression, subjects recovered from major depression, and a group of healthy controls were examined with regard to their confidence in answering each of 99 general knowledge questions. Confidence ratings were analysed separately according to correct or incorrect responses. There were no significant differences in performance (i.e. accuracy of answer between the three groups). When answering correctly, depressed subjects were significantly less confident than healthy control subjects. On answering incorrectly, none of the three groups were significantly different in their confidence ratings. These findings support the cognitive distortion view of depression and provide no evidence of ''depressive realism''.

  7. Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces depression-like changes of sleep electroencephalogram in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler, P; Kluge, M; Gamringer, W; Wetter, T C; Yassouridis, A; Uhr, M; Rupprecht, R; Steiger, A

    2016-12-01

    We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women. After CRH compared to placebo, intermittent wakefulness increased during the total night and the sleep efficiency index decreased. During the first third of the night, REM sleep and stage 2 sleep increased and sleep stage 3 decreased. Cortisol concentration was elevated throughout the night and during the first and second third of the night. GH secretion remained unchanged. Our data suggest that after CRH some sleep and endocrine activity parameters show also depression-like changes in healthy women. These changes are more distinct in women than in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....

  9. Cardiac Vagal Control and Depressive Symptoms in Response to Negative Emotional Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonhajzerova, I; Visnovcova, Z; Mestanikova, A; Jurko, A; Mestanik, M

    We aimed to study complex cardiovagal control using heart rate variability (HRV), linear and nonlinear analyses at rest and during negative emotional stress in healthy students with varying depressive symptoms. ECG recording in 20 students was performed at baseline, negative emotional stress, and recovery period. The HRV parameters evaluated were the following: RR interval, spectral power in high-frequency band (HF-HRV), and symbolic dynamics index 2LV%. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the score of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) - normal mood (BDI: 0.6 ± 0.2) and mild mood disturbance (BDI: 14.3 ± 1.4). We found significantly lower logHF-HRV during emotional stress in mild mood disturbance compared with normal mood (p = 0.047). No significant differences were found in the remaining parameters. We conclude that negative emotional stress attenuated the cardiovagal control during mood disturbance, which points to discrete abnormalities in the neurocardiac reflex system associated with depressive symptoms. Hampered cardiovagal control could represent a potential pathomechanism leading to depression-linked cardiovascular complications.

  10. Mother-child interactions in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J; Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E; Silk, Jennifer S; Dahl, Ronald E; Axelson, David A; Ehmann, Mary; Ryan, Neal D

    2008-05-01

    To compare mother-child interactions and parenting styles in families of children with major depressive disorder, youths at high risk for depression, and healthy controls. Currently depressed (n = 43), high-risk (n = 28), and healthy control (n = 41) youths and their mothers engaged in a standardized videotaped problem-solving interaction. Measures of affect and behavior for both mothers and children were obtained, in addition to global measures of parenting. Depressed children demonstrated more negativity and less positivity in dyadic interactions than did children at high risk and control children. Mothers of depressed children were more disengaged than control mothers. Exploratory repeated-measures analyses in a subgroup of depressed children (n = 16) suggested mother-child interactions do not significantly change when children recover from depression. Children at high risk demonstrated less positivity in dyadic interactions than did controls. Mothers with a history of major depressive disorder and mothers with higher current depressive symptoms demonstrated patterns of disengagement and low control in interactions with children. Mother-child interactions in depressed youths are marked by maternal disengagement and low child positivity that may not improve when children recover. The bidirectional effects of maternal disengagement and low levels of child positivity may precede onset of major depressive disorder in children and serve as risk factors for recurrent depression in youths.

  11. Serotonin transporter binding with [123I]β-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhe, Henricus G.; Booij, Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). More specifically the serotonin transporter (SERT) serves as a major target for antidepressant drugs. There are conflicting results about SERT availability in depressed patients versus healthy controls. We aimed to measure SERT availability and study the effects of age, gender and season of scanning in MDD patients in comparison to healthy controls. We included 49 depressed outpatients (mean±SD 42.3 ± 8.3 years) with a Hamilton depression rating scale score above 18, who were drug-naive or drug-free for ≥4 weeks, and 49 healthy controls matched for age (±2 years) and sex. Subjects were scanned with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using [ 123 I]β-CIT. SERT availability was expressed as specific to nonspecific binding ratios (BP ND ) in the midbrain and diencephalon with cerebellar binding as a reference. In crude comparisons between patients and controls, we found no significant differences in midbrain or diencephalon SERT availability. In subgroup analyses, depressed males had numerically lower midbrain SERT availability than controls, whereas among women SERT availability was not different (significant diagnosis x gender interaction; p = 0.048). In the diencephalon we found a comparable diagnosis x gender interaction (p = 0.002) and an additional smoking x gender (p = 0.036) interaction. In the midbrain the season of scanning showed a significant main effect (p = 0.018) with higher SERT availability in winter. Differences in SERT availability in the midbrain and diencephalon in MDD patients compared with healthy subjects are affected by gender. The season of scanning is a covariate in the midbrain. The diagnosis x gender and gender x smoking interactions in SERT availability should be considered in future studies of the pathogenesis of MDD. (orig.)

  12. Internet Use, Depression, and Anxiety in a Healthy Adolescent Population: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Robyn Pauline; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Psychiatric disorders, including conduct disturbances, substance abuse, and affective disorders, emerge in approximately 20% of adolescents. In parallel with the rise in internet use, the prevalence of depression among adolescents has increased. It remains unclear whether and how internet use impacts mental health in adolescents. We assess the association between patterns of internet use and two mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) in a healthy adolescent population. A total of 126 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years were recruited. Participants reported their typical computer and internet usage patterns. At baseline and one-year follow-up, they completed the Beck Depression Index for primary care (BDI-PC) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for Primary Care (BAI-PC). Individual linear regressions were completed to determine the association between markers of internet use at baseline and mental health outcomes at one-year follow-up. All models controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity. There was an inverse correlation between minutes spent on a favorite website per visit and BAI-PC score. No association was found between internet use and BDI-PC score. There is no relationship between internet use patterns and depression in adolescents, whereas internet use may mitigate anxiety in adolescents with higher levels of baseline anxiety. ©Robyn Pauline Thom, David S Bickham, Michael Rich. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 22.05.2018.

  13. Levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients Self-correlation factor analysis and comparison with healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanxin Wang; Bin Wang; Aihua Yin; Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data indicate that the levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients are higher than those in normal subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of serum homocysteine in patients with major depressive disorder, to determine whether serum homocysteine levels differ with sex, family history, or drug treatment, and to compare depressive patients with normal subjects. DESIGN: Non-randomized concurrent control trial.SETTING: Mental Heath Center of Shandong Province.PARTICIPANTS: Forty in-patients (23 males and 17 females, 18-63 years old) with major depressive disorder were selected from the Mental Health Center of Shandong Province from January to October 2006. All selected patients met the depressive diagnostic standard of Chinese Classification of Mental Disorder (3rd Edition, CCMD-3), and total scores evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were ≥ 20. Meanwhile, 36 healthy subjects (20 males and 16 females, 18-60 years old) were enrolled as controls; their total 17-item HRSD scores were ≤ 7. All selected subjects provided consent, and the study was approved by the local ethics committee. METHODS: Fasting venous blood (3 mL) was drawn in both groups at 8:00 in the morning. The levels of serum homocysteine were determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The 17-item HRSD was also compiled from the patients when entering groups. The higher the scores were, the more severe the depression was. Enumeration data for both groups were compared by Chi-square test, measurement data were compared by t-test, and correlations were detected using Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Levels of serum homocysteine; ② incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy); ③ correlation between HRSD17 scores and levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients.RESULTS: Forty depressive patients and 36 control subjects were included in the final analysis without any loss of participants.

  14. Sexual dysfunction is more than twice as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Lotte; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare sexual dysfunction in Danish female predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 with age-matched healthy women in Denmark. METHODS: Twenty-seven adult female predialysis patients (CKD stage 4-5 ~ creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min) without.......1, respectively, p = 0.180). CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction was found to be more than two times as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients with CKD stage 4-5 compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls, and this result emphasizes the need for attention towards sexual function in the treatment...... diagnosed depression and 54 randomly assigned healthy female controls completed the questionnaires Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Major Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Predialysis patients reported lower Female Sexual Function Index scores compared to the controls (14...

  15. Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J

    2012-04-30

    Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serotonin transporter binding with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Henricus G. [University of Amsterdam, Program for Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schene, Aart H. [University of Amsterdam, Program for Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The serotonin system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). More specifically the serotonin transporter (SERT) serves as a major target for antidepressant drugs. There are conflicting results about SERT availability in depressed patients versus healthy controls. We aimed to measure SERT availability and study the effects of age, gender and season of scanning in MDD patients in comparison to healthy controls. We included 49 depressed outpatients (mean{+-}SD 42.3 {+-} 8.3 years) with a Hamilton depression rating scale score above 18, who were drug-naive or drug-free for {>=}4 weeks, and 49 healthy controls matched for age ({+-}2 years) and sex. Subjects were scanned with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT. SERT availability was expressed as specific to nonspecific binding ratios (BP{sub ND}) in the midbrain and diencephalon with cerebellar binding as a reference. In crude comparisons between patients and controls, we found no significant differences in midbrain or diencephalon SERT availability. In subgroup analyses, depressed males had numerically lower midbrain SERT availability than controls, whereas among women SERT availability was not different (significant diagnosis x gender interaction; p = 0.048). In the diencephalon we found a comparable diagnosis x gender interaction (p = 0.002) and an additional smoking x gender (p = 0.036) interaction. In the midbrain the season of scanning showed a significant main effect (p = 0.018) with higher SERT availability in winter. Differences in SERT availability in the midbrain and diencephalon in MDD patients compared with healthy subjects are affected by gender. The season of scanning is a covariate in the midbrain. The diagnosis x gender and gender x smoking interactions in SERT availability should be considered in future studies of the pathogenesis of MDD. (orig.)

  17. No Evidence for the Association between a Polymorphism in the PCLO Depression Candidate Gene with Memory Bias in Remitted Depressed Patients and Healthy Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijsen, J.N.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Becker, E.S.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van

    2014-01-01

    The PCLO rs2522833 candidate polymorphism for depression has been associated to monoaminergic neurotransmission. In healthy and currently depressed individuals, the polymorphism has been found to affect activation of brain areas during memory processing, but no direct association of PCLO with memory

  18. Sleep quality and cognitive function in healthy old age: the moderating role of subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy older adults, and to evaluate the moderating role of subclinical depression on this relationship. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep quality in 107 participants (age ≥ 61 years). A broad battery of neuropsychological tests measured basic cognitive processes, executive functions, and memory processes. Subclinical depression moderated the link between sleep quality and cognitive performance. More precisely, poorer sleep quality was associated with lower performance in reasoning, semantic fluency, and shifting in those with high versus low levels of subclinical depression. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality might affect higher order cognitive processes, particularly in those reporting higher levels of subclinical depression. Findings on the relationships between sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptomatology are discussed in relation to neurobehavioral theories of sleep. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Sleep quality predicts positive and negative affect but not vice versa. An electronic diary study in depressed and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hoenders, H J Rogier; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The exact nature of the complex relationship between sleep and affect has remained unclear. This study investigated the temporal order of change in sleep and affect in participants with and without depression. 27 depressed patients and 27 pair-matched healthy controls assessed their sleep in the morning and their affect 3 times a day for 30 consecutive days in their natural environment. Daily sleep quality and average positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were used to examine whether changes in sleep quality preceded or followed changes in PA and NA, and whether this was different for patients and healthy controls. Second, presumptive mediating factors were investigated. We hypothesized that fatigue mediated the effect of changes in sleep quality on subsequent PA/NA, and that rumination mediated the effect of changes in PA/NA on subsequent sleep quality. Multilevel models showed that changes in sleep quality predicted changes in PA (B=0.08, paffect the following day, partly mediated by fatigue. Treatment of sleep symptoms would benefit affect in clinical care and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  1. Prediction of pediatric unipolar depression using multiple neuromorphometric measurements: a pattern classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Wu, Hanjing Emily; Mwangi, Benson; Sanches, Marsal; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Soares, Jair C

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression is largely based on clinical judgment - without objective biomarkers to guide diagnostic process and subsequent therapeutic interventions. Neuroimaging studies have previously reported average group-level neuroanatomical differences between patients with pediatric unipolar depression and healthy controls. In the present study, we investigated the utility of multiple neuromorphometric indices in distinguishing pediatric unipolar depression patients from healthy controls at an individual subject level. We acquired structural T1-weighted scans from 25 pediatric unipolar depression patients and 26 demographically matched healthy controls. Multiple neuromorphometric indices such as cortical thickness, volume, and cortical folding patterns were obtained. A support vector machine pattern classification model was 'trained' to distinguish individual subjects with pediatric unipolar depression from healthy controls based on multiple neuromorphometric indices and model predictive validity (sensitivity and specificity) calculated. The model correctly identified 40 out of 51 subjects translating to 78.4% accuracy, 76.0% sensitivity and 80.8% specificity, chi-square p-value = 0.000049. Volumetric and cortical folding abnormalities in the right thalamus and right temporal pole respectively were most central in distinguishing individual patients with pediatric unipolar depression from healthy controls. These findings provide evidence that a support vector machine pattern classification model using multiple neuromorphometric indices may qualify as diagnostic marker for pediatric unipolar depression. In addition, our results identified the most relevant neuromorphometric features in distinguishing PUD patients from healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of major depressive disorder among hemodialysis patients compared with healthy people in Japan using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Ogasawara, Kohei; Katagai, Koki; Saito, Hisao; Sawada, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of depression in hemodialysis (HD) patients using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition (SCID) and compared the rates with those of community dwelling people in Japan. A total of 99 patients undergoing HD were recruited. Blood sampling was performed no later than 2 weeks prior to assessment. As a reference group for SCID and CES-D evaluation, 404 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who had participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included in this study. The SCID and the CES-D scale were administered to all participants to diagnose their depression. Participants who met the criteria of a major depressive episode according to the SCID were classified as SCID depression and the participants whose CES-D score was 16 or higher were classified as CES-D depression. Ninety-nine HD patients completed the evaluation and data collection. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or CES-D scores between HD patients and controls. There were 12 cases of SCID depression in HD patients and four cases in controls. There was a significant difference between HD patients and controls in the prevalence of SCID depression. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to demographic or clinical data. There were 19 HD patients and 24 controls who showed CES-D depression. There was no significant difference between HD patients and controls in the prevalence of CES-D depression. There was a significant difference in potassium level between the two groups, but there were no significant differences in any of the other items. There were significantly more HD patients showing SCID depression than controls in the present study. In clinical settings, the SCID might be useful in surveying cases of depression detected by screening tools among HD patients.

  3. Health Locus of Control in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandarsyah, A.; de Klerk, C.; Suardi, D.R.; Sadarjoen, S.S.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Indonesian women with breast cancer havea higher external health locus of control (HLC) than healthy women, and to explore the association between HLC and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this study, 120 consecutive women with breast cancer were

  4. Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Linn K; Wolf, Oliver T; Driessen, Martin; Schlosser, Nicole; Fernando, Silvia Carvalho; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Mood congruent alterations in information processing such as an impaired memory bias for emotional information and impaired inhibitory functions are prominent features of a major depressive disorder (MDD). Furthermore, in MDD patients hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunctions are frequently found. Impairing effects of stress or cortisol administration on memory retrieval as well as impairing stress effects on cognitive inhibition are well documented in healthy participants. In MDD patients, no effect of acute cortisol administration on memory retrieval was found. The current study investigated the effect of acute cortisol administration on memory bias in MDD patients (N = 55) and healthy controls (N = 63) using the Directed Forgetting (DF) task with positive, negative and neutral words in a placebo controlled, double blind design. After oral administration of 10 mg hydrocortisone/placebo, the item method of the DF task was conducted. Memory performance was tested with a free recall test. Cortisol was not found to have an effect on the results of the DF task. Interestingly, there was significant impact of valence: both groups showed the highest DF score for positive words and remembered significantly more positive words that were supposed to be remembered and significantly more negative words that were supposed to be forgotten. In general, healthy participants remembered more words than the depressed patients. Still, the depressed patients were able to inhibit intentionally irrelevant information at a comparable level as the healthy controls. These results demonstrate the importance to distinguish in experimental designs between different cognitive domains such as inhibition and memory in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adjunctive yoga v. health education for persistent major depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, L A; Tremont, G; Gillette, L T; Epstein-Lubow, G; Strong, D R; Abrantes, A M; Tyrka, A R; Tran, T; Gaudiano, B A; Miller, I W

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether hatha yoga is an efficacious adjunctive intervention for individuals with continued depressive symptoms despite antidepressant treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of weekly yoga classes (n = 63) v. health education classes (Healthy Living Workshop; HLW; n = 59) in individuals with elevated depression symptoms and antidepressant medication use. HLW served as an attention-control group. The intervention period was 10 weeks, with follow-up assessments 3 and 6 months afterwards. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity assessed by blind rater at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms over the entire intervention and follow-up periods, social and role functioning, general health perceptions, pain, and physical functioning. At 10 weeks, we did not find a statistically significant difference between groups in depression symptoms (b = -0.82, s.e. = 0.88, p = 0.36). However, over the entire intervention and follow-up period, when controlling for baseline, yoga participants showed lower levels of depression than HLW participants (b = -1.38, s.e. = 0.57, p = 0.02). At 6-month follow-up, 51% of yoga participants demonstrated a response (⩾50% reduction in depression symptoms) compared with 31% of HLW participants (odds ratio = 2.31; p = 0.04). Yoga participants showed significantly better social and role functioning and general health perceptions over time. Although we did not see a difference in depression symptoms at the end of the intervention period, yoga participants showed fewer depression symptoms over the entire follow-up period. Benefits of yoga may accumulate over time.

  6. A comparative study of negative life events and depressive symptoms among healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Gao, Tingting; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Wang, Ruimei; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to study internal relations and functionary mechanism between social support, coping style, negative life events and depressive symptoms and compare these relations in healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. In total, 1,264 older adults with chronic disease and 749 healthy older adults participated in this investigation which consist of socio-demographic characters, negative life events, social support, coping style and depressive symptoms. The path and direction of variable function in healthy older adults were inconsistent with older adults with chronic disease. Older adults with chronic disease had more severe depressive symptoms and negative life events, and lower social support and positive coping style. Negative life events, subjective support, positive coping style and negative coping style were significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Objective support may weaken the influence of negative life events on depressive symptoms in chronic disease group. Utilization of support and positive coping style worsen the effect of negative life events on depressive symptoms in healthy older adults. This study implied that to improve their mental health, attention should be paid to the role of biological, psychological and social stress factors and its inherent law of interaction.

  7. Plasma galanin is a biomarker for severity of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Yu-Tao; Li, Hui; Liu, Po-Zi; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between plasma galanin level and depression severity. The severity of depression symptoms of 79 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; 52 women and 27 men, 71 patients in onset, 8 in remission) was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Venous fasting blood samples (5 mL) were taken from the 79 MDD patients, 35 healthy siblings, and 19 healthy controls, and plasma samples were prepared. Galanin levels in the plasma were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma galanin in MDD patients was significantly higher than that of remission patients, healthy siblings, or healthy controls (P 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between plasma galanin levels and depression severity in women MDD patients (r = 0.329, df = 42, P = 0.020), but not in men patients. Plasma galanin levels may be an important biomarker for depression severity, especially in female patients.

  8. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome have low internal locus of control and poor psychological functioning compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disturbing sensorimotor disorder negatively influencing both sleep and psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess RLS patients with respect to locus of control, sleep-related personality traits, quality of life, and sleep as compared to healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients (18 females and 20 males; mean age: 56.06 years) diagnosed with RLS and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 42) were recruited. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to locus of control, personality traits, quality of life, and sleep. Compared to healthy controls, RLS patients had a lower internal locus of control, unfavourable sleep-related personality traits such as low self-confidence and higher mental arousal, poorer quality of life, and more depressive symptoms. Sleep was also affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that a low internal and a high external locus of control were predicted by RLS. The pattern of results suggests that RLS is associated with a low locus of control, negative personality traits, and poor quality of life as compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder - an experimental medicine blinded controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla Benedichte

    2012-01-01

    .37). In univariate analyses, no statistically significant correlations were found between change in the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively, and the covariates age, sex, Hamilton depression score 17-items, and plasma escitalopram levels. In conclusion, the present trial does not support an effect......The mechanisms of action for selective serotonin re-uptake in-hibitors (SSRI) in depressed patients remain widely unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system may interact. Further, the serotonergic neurotransmitter system seems closely...... linked to personality and cognition. It is not known if SSRIs have a direct effect on the HPA system, personality or cognition that is independent of their effect on depression. Thus, healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating...

  10. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Noone, Martha; Carton, Mary; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6-12 months...... and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Adjusted for age and gender, PTGDS mRNA expression was down-regulated in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients in a euthymic, depressive, and manic/hypomanic state compared with healthy control subjects. No difference in PTGDS m...

  12. DEPRESSED-PATIENTS PARENTAL REPRESENTATIONS - STABILITY ACROSS CHANGES IN DEPRESSED MOOD AND SPECIFICITY ACROSS DIAGNOSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; DAS, J; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    Parental representations of a Dutch sample of psychiatric patients with diagnoses of dysthymia and unipolar depression were compared with those of a matched sample of non-depressed patients and a matched sample of healthy controls. No differences in recalled parental rearing styles were found

  13. Effect of Chronic Escitalopram versus Placebo on Personality Traits in Healthy First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Depression: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gether, Ulrik; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD). Methods The trial used a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group design. We examined the effect of four weeks escitalopram 10 mg daily versus matching placebo on personality in 80 people who had a biological parent or sibling with a history of MD. The outcome measure on personality traits was change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ) from entry until end of four weeks of intervention. Results When compared with placebo, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported NEO-PI-R and EPQ neuroticism and extroversion, EPQ psychoticism, NEO-PI-R openness, or NEO-PI-R conscientiousness (p all above 0.05). However, escitalopram increased NEO-PI-R agreeableness scores significantly compared with placebo (mean; SD) (2.38; 8.09) versus (−1.32; 7.94), p = 0.046), but not following correction for multiplicity. A trend was shown for increased conscientiousness (p = 0.07). There was no significant effect on subclinical depressive symptoms (p = 0.6). Conclusion In healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MD, there is no effect of escitalopram on neuroticism, but it is possible that escitalopram may increase the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00386841

  14. The Healthy Activity Program (HAP), a lay counsellor-delivered brief psychological treatment for severe depression, in primary care in India: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Weobong, Benedict; Weiss, Helen A; Anand, Arpita; Bhat, Bhargav; Katti, Basavraj; Dimidjian, Sona; Araya, Ricardo; Hollon, Steve D; King, Michael; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Park, A-La; McDaid, David; Wilson, Terry; Velleman, Richard; Kirkwood, Betty R; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2017-01-14

    Although structured psychological treatments are recommended as first-line interventions for depression, only a small fraction of people globally receive these treatments because of poor access in routine primary care. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a brief psychological treatment (Healthy Activity Program [HAP]) for delivery by lay counsellors to patients with moderately severe to severe depression in primary health-care settings. In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited participants aged 18-65 years scoring more than 14 on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) indicating moderately severe to severe depression from ten primary health centres in Goa, India. Pregnant women or patients who needed urgent medical attention or were unable to communicate clearly were not eligible. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to enhanced usual care (EUC) alone or EUC combined with HAP in randomly sized blocks (block size four to six [two to four for men]), stratified by primary health centre and sex, and allocation was concealed with use of sequential numbered opaque envelopes. Physicians providing EUC were masked. Primary outcomes were depression symptom severity on the Beck Depression Inventory version II and remission from depression (PHQ-9 score of better results than did EUC alone for the secondary outcomes of disability (adjusted mean difference -2·73 [-4·39 to -1·06]; p=0·001), days out of work (-2·29 [-3·84 to -0·73]; p=0·004), intimate partner physical violence in women (0·53 [0·29-0·96]; p=0·04), behavioural activation (2·17 [1·34-3·00]; pbetter than EUC alone was for patients with moderately severe to severe depression in routine primary care in Goa, India. HAP was readily accepted by this previously untreated population and was cost-effective in this setting. HAP could be a key strategy to reduce the treatment gap for depressive disorders, the leading mental health disorder worldwide. Wellcome Trust

  15. Differential associations between types of verbal memory and prefrontal brain structure in healthy aging and late life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca; Zhang, Aifeng; Kumar, Anand

    2012-07-01

    Verbal memory deficits attributed to late life depression (LLD) may result from executive dysfunction that is more detrimental to list-learning than story-based recall when compared to healthy aging. Despite these behavioral dissociations, little work has been done investigating related neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in LLD. We compared list-learning to story-based memory performance in 24 non-demented individuals with LLD (age ~ 66.1 ± 7.8) and 41 non-demented/non-depressed healthy controls (HC; age ~ 67.6 ± 5.3). We correlated significant results of between-group analyses across memory performance variables with brain volumes of frontal, temporal and parietal regions known to be involved with verbal learning and memory. When compared to the HC group, the LLD group showed significantly lower verbal memory performance for spontaneous recall after repeated exposure and after a long-delay but only for the list-learning task; groups did not differ on story-based memory performance. Despite equivalent brain volumes across regions, only the LLD group showed brain associations with verbal memory performance and only for the list-learning task. Specifically, frontal volumes important for subjective organization and response monitoring correlated with list-learning performance in the LLD group. This study is the first to demonstrate neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in individuals with LLD. Results provide structural evidence for the behavioral dissociations between list-learning and story-based recall in LLD when compared to healthy aging. More specifically, it points toward a network of predominantly anterior brain regions that may underlie the executive contribution to list-learning in older adults with depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What does brain response to neutral faces tell us about major depression? evidence from machine learning and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leticia; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Phillips, Mary L; Brammer, Michael; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of previous studies have shown abnormalities in the processing of emotional faces in major depression. Fewer studies, however, have focused specifically on abnormal processing of neutral faces despite evidence that depressed patients are slow and less accurate at recognizing neutral expressions in comparison with healthy controls. The current study aimed to investigate whether this misclassification described behaviourally for neutral faces also occurred when classifying patterns of brain activation to neutral faces for these patients. TWO INDEPENDENT DEPRESSED SAMPLES: (1) Nineteen medication-free patients with depression and 19 healthy volunteers and (2) Eighteen depressed individuals and 18 age and gender-ratio-matched healthy volunteers viewed emotional faces (sad/neutral; happy/neutral) during an fMRI experiment. We used a new pattern recognition framework: first, we trained the classifier to discriminate between two brain states (e.g. viewing happy faces vs. viewing neutral faces) using data only from healthy controls (HC). Second, we tested the classifier using patterns of brain activation of a patient and a healthy control for the same stimuli. Finally, we tested if the classifier's predictions (predictive probabilities) for emotional and neutral face classification were different for healthy controls and depressed patients. Predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to neutral faces in both groups of patients were significantly lower in comparison to the healthy controls. This difference was specific to neutral faces. There were no significant differences in predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to sad faces (sample 1) and happy faces (samples 2) between depressed patients and healthy controls. Our results suggest that the pattern of brain activation to neutral faces in depressed patients is not consistent with the pattern observed in healthy controls subject to the same stimuli. This difference in

  17. What does brain response to neutral faces tell us about major depression? evidence from machine learning and fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Oliveira

    Full Text Available A considerable number of previous studies have shown abnormalities in the processing of emotional faces in major depression. Fewer studies, however, have focused specifically on abnormal processing of neutral faces despite evidence that depressed patients are slow and less accurate at recognizing neutral expressions in comparison with healthy controls. The current study aimed to investigate whether this misclassification described behaviourally for neutral faces also occurred when classifying patterns of brain activation to neutral faces for these patients.TWO INDEPENDENT DEPRESSED SAMPLES: (1 Nineteen medication-free patients with depression and 19 healthy volunteers and (2 Eighteen depressed individuals and 18 age and gender-ratio-matched healthy volunteers viewed emotional faces (sad/neutral; happy/neutral during an fMRI experiment. We used a new pattern recognition framework: first, we trained the classifier to discriminate between two brain states (e.g. viewing happy faces vs. viewing neutral faces using data only from healthy controls (HC. Second, we tested the classifier using patterns of brain activation of a patient and a healthy control for the same stimuli. Finally, we tested if the classifier's predictions (predictive probabilities for emotional and neutral face classification were different for healthy controls and depressed patients.Predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to neutral faces in both groups of patients were significantly lower in comparison to the healthy controls. This difference was specific to neutral faces. There were no significant differences in predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to sad faces (sample 1 and happy faces (samples 2 between depressed patients and healthy controls.Our results suggest that the pattern of brain activation to neutral faces in depressed patients is not consistent with the pattern observed in healthy controls subject to the same stimuli. This

  18. Major depression in mothers predicts reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye; Herman, Levi; Pane, Heather; Reuter, Tyson; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for MDD. One way of studying vulnerability is through a high-risk design. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether reward-related activation of the ventral striatum is reduced in nondepressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk) similarly to currently depressed adolescent girls, compared with healthy controls. By directly comparing groups with a shared risk profile during differing states, we aimed to shed light on the endophenotypic nature of reduced reward processing for adolescent depression. We compared reward-related neural activity through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between three groups of female biological offspring (N = 52) of mothers with differential MDD status: (a) currently depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (MDD group; n = 14), (b) age- and socioeconomic status (SES)-matched never-depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk group; n = 19), and (c) age- and SES-matched control daughters of mothers with no past or current psychopathology in either the mother or the daughter (healthy control group; n = 19). For the outcome phase of the reward task, right-sided ventral striatum activation was reduced for both currently depressed and high-risk girls compared with healthy controls. This ventral striatal activity correlated significantly with maternal depression scores. These findings provide further evidence of aberrant functioning for the United States Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)-defined domain of positive valence systems as a vulnerability factor for MDD and a

  19. Implicit Associations in Social Anxiety Disorder: The Effects of Comorbid Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit associations of the self to concepts like “calm” have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n = 47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n = 44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. PMID:24983794

  20. Implicit associations in social anxiety disorder: the effects of comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Judy; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-08-01

    Implicit associations of the self to concepts like "calm" have been shown to be weaker in persons with social anxiety than in non-anxious healthy controls. However, other implicit self associations, such as those to acceptance or rejection, have been less studied in social anxiety, and none of this work has been conducted with clinical samples. Furthermore, the importance of depression in these relationships has not been well investigated. We addressed these issues by administering two Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998), one examining the implicit association of self/other to anxiety/calmness and the other examining the association of self/other to rejection/acceptance, to individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=85), individuals with generalized SAD and a current or past diagnosis of major depressive disorder or current dysthymic disorder (n=47), and non-anxious, non-depressed healthy controls (n=44). The SAD and SAD-depression groups showed weaker implicit self-calmness associations than healthy controls, with the comorbid group showing the weakest self-calmness associations. The SAD-depression group showed the weakest implicit self-acceptance associations; no difference was found between non-depressed individuals with SAD and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses revealed that differences appeared to be driven by those with current depression. The SAD-only and SAD-depression groups did not differ in self-reported (explicit) social anxiety. The implications of these findings for the understanding of SAD-depression comorbidity and for the treatment of SAD are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing depression during the menopausal transition with health coaching: Results from the healthy menopausal transition randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Marsh, Kylie; Murray, Karen; Hickey, Martha; Sim, Moira; Ford, Andrew; Flicker, Leon

    2016-10-01

    To determine if health coaching (HC) decreases the incidence of depression, reduces the severity of symptoms, and increases quality of life during the menopausal transition (MT). Parallel, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 6 sessions of phone-delivered HC compared with usual care. Participants were 351 community-dwelling women free of major depression going through the MT, of whom 180 were assigned the intervention and 171 usual care. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of clinically significant depressive symptoms over 52 weeks. Other study measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, quality of life (SF-12), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), diet, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking and physical activity. We considered that women with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores between 5 and 14 (inclusive) had sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Nine women developed clinically significant symptoms of depression during the study-2 had been assigned HC (odds ratio, OR=0.26, 95%CI=0.05, 1.29; p=0.099). Intention-to-treat showed that, compared with usual care, the intervention led to a greater decline in depressive scores, most markedly for participants with sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Similar, but less pronounced, benefits were noticed for anxiety scores and the mental component summary of the SF-12. The intervention led to a decline in MRS scores by week 26 and subtle improvements in body mass, consumption of vegetables and smoking. HC addressing relevant risk factors for depression during the MT improves mental health measures. Our findings indicate that women with sub-threshold depressive symptoms may benefit the most from such interventions, and suggest that HC could play a useful role in minimizing mental health disturbance for women going through the MT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parenting Self-Efficacy, Parent Depression, and Healthy Childhood Behaviors in a Low-Income Minority Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Wallston, Kenneth A; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Childhood obesity prevention and treatment depends, in part, on parents acting as agents of change for their children. Our objective was to measure the associations between parenting self-efficacy, parent depressive symptoms, and preschool child behaviors that support healthy growth. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Parenting self-efficacy was measured using a 5-item version of the Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC-5) scale (α= 0.8). Parent depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CESD) scale. Child outcomes included diet (24 h diet recall), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (parent-report), and media use during meals (parent-report). We performed separate multiple linear regressions for each outcome controlling for other covariates. Results The sample consisted of 601 parent-child pairs. Median child age was 4.3 (IQR 3.6-5.1) years; median child body mass index (BMI) percentile was 79.1% (IQR 66.8-88.5%); 90% of children were Hispanic/Latino, and 6% of children were non-Hispanic Black. Median parent age was 31.5 (IQR 27.6-36.0) years; 22% of parents met criteria for depression. Parenting self-efficacy (median PSOC-5 25; IQR 24-28) was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (ρ = -0.16; p self-efficacy was associated with duration of child's sleep and fewer meals eaten in front of a TV (p self-efficacy and parental depressive symptoms on child sleep duration (p self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with child physical activity or child diet. Conclusions In this minority population, higher parenting self-efficacy was associated with longer child sleep and fewer meals in front the TV, but parent depressive symptoms mitigated that protective effect for child sleep duration.

  3. Impaired Working Memory Updating for Emotional Stimuli in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Xie, Hui; He, Zhenhong; Wei, Zhaoguo; Gu, Ruolei

    2018-01-01

    Although two previous studies have demonstrated that depressed individuals showed deficits in working memory (WM) updating of both negative and positive contents, the effects were confounded by shifting dysfunctions and the detailed neural mechanism associated with the failure in N-back task is not clear. Using a 2-back task, the current study examined the WM updating of positive, negative and neutral contents in depressed patients. It is found that depressed patients performed poorer than healthy controls only when updating positive material. Using event-related potential (ERP) technique, the current study also investigated the neural correlates of updating deficits in depression. According to previous studies, the n-back task was divided into three sub-processes, i.e., encoding, matching and maintaining. Our ERP results showed that depressed patients had smaller occipital P1 for positive material compared to healthy controls, indicating their insensitivity to positive items on early encoding stage. Besides, depressed patients had larger frontal P2 and parietal late positive potential (LPP) than healthy controls irrespective of the valence of the words, reflecting that patients are inefficient during matching (P2) and maintaining (LPP) processes. These two mechanisms (insufficient attention to positive stimuli and low efficiency in matching and maintaining) together lead to the deficits of WM updating in depression.

  4. Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew H; Quintana, Daniel S; Felmingham, Kim L; Matthews, Slade; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in major depressive disorder (MDD), although there is debate about whether this effect is caused by medication or the disorder per se. MDD is associated with a two to fourfold increase in the risk of cardiac mortality, and HRV is a robust predictor of cardiac mortality; determining a direct link between HRV and not only MDD, but common comorbid anxiety disorders, will point to psychiatric indicators for cardiovascular risk reduction. To determine in physically healthy, unmedicated patients whether (1) HRV is reduced in MDD relative to controls, and (2) HRV reductions are driven by MDD alone, comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, characterized by anxious anticipation), or comorbid panic and posttraumatic stress disorders (PD/PTSD, characterized by anxious arousal). A case-control study in 2006 and 2007 on 73 MDD patients, including 24 without anxiety comorbidity, 24 with GAD, and 14 with PD/PTSD. Seventy-three MDD and 94 healthy age- and sex-matched control participants were recruited from the general community. Participants had no history of drug addiction, alcoholism, brain injury, loss of consciousness, stroke, neurological disorder, or serious medical conditions. There were no significant differences between the four groups in age, gender, BMI, or alcohol use. HRV was calculated from electrocardiography under a standardized short-term resting state condition. HRV was reduced in MDD relative to controls, an effect associated with a medium effect size. MDD participants with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder displayed the greatest reductions in HRV relative to controls, an effect associated with a large effect size. Unmedicated, physically healthy MDD patients with and without comorbid anxiety had reduced HRV. Those with comorbid GAD showed the greatest reductions. Implications for cardiovascular risk reduction strategies in otherwise healthy patients with psychiatric illness are discussed.

  5. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G

    1995-04-04

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays.

  6. RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Clift, April; Bolden, Sarah; Salomon, Kristen

    2007-05-01

    Cardiac vagal control, as measured by indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has been investigated as a marker of impaired self-regulation in mental disorders, including depression. Past work in depressed samples has focused on deficits in resting RSA levels, with mixed results. This study tested the hypothesis that depression involves abnormal RSA fluctuation. RSA was measured in depressed and healthy control participants during rest and during two reactivity tasks, each followed by a recovery period. Relative to controls, depressed persons exhibited lower resting RSA levels as well as less RSA fluctuation, primarily evidenced by a lack of task-related vagal suppression. Group differences in RSA fluctuation were not accounted for by differences in physical health or respiration, whereas group differences in resting RSA level did not survive covariate analyses. Depression may involve multiple deficits in cardiac vagal control.

  7. Confidence judgment in depression and dysphoria: the depressive realism vs. negativity hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu-Ting Fu, Tiffany; Koutstaal, Wilma; Poon, Lucia; Cleare, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    According to the negativity hypothesis, depressed individuals are over-pessimistic due to negative self-concepts. In contrast, depressive realism suggests that depressed persons are realistic compared to their nondepressed controls. However, evidence supporting depressive realism predominantly comes from judgment comparisons between controls and nonclinical dysphoric samples when the controls showed overconfident bias. This study aimed to test the validity of the two accounts in clinical depression and dysphoria. Sixty-eight participants, including healthy controls (n = 32), patients with DSM-IV major depression (n = 20), and dysphoric participants with CDC-defined chronic fatigue syndrome (n = 16) performed an adjective recognition task and reported their item-by-item confidence judgments and post-test performance estimate (PTPE). Compared to realistic PTPE made by the controls, patients with major depression showed significant underconfidence. The PTPE of the dysphoric participants was relatively accurate. Both the depressed and dysphoric participants displayed less item-by-item overconfidence as opposed to significant item-by-item overconfidence shown by the controls. The judgment-accuracy patterns of the three groups need to be replicated with larger samples using non-memory task domains. The present study confirms depressive realism in dysphoric individuals. However, toward a more severe depressive emotional state, the findings did not support depressive realism but are in line with the prediction of the negativity hypothesis. It is not possible to determine the validity of the two hypotheses when the controls are overconfident. Dissociation between item-by-item and retrospective confidence judgments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence for increased glutamatergic cortical facilitation in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Husain, Mustafa M; Melton, Tabatha; Buyukdura, Jeylan S; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Kozel, F Andrew; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-03-01

    Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls. Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms. University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory. Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition. Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.

  9. Depression, anxiety, and heart rate variability: A case-control study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV has been reported in persons with major depressive disorder (MDD, but the results obtained are inconsistent. Little is known about the impact of comorbid anxiety disorders on HRV in MDD patients. Both issues necessitate further investigation. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine unmedicated, physically healthy, MDD patients without comorbidity, 21 MDD patients with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, 24 MDD patients with comorbid panic disorder (PD, and 81 matched controls were recruited. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale are employed to assess the severity of depression and anxiety, respectively. The cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring the HRV parameters. The frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained. Results: MDD patients without comorbidity had lower high-frequency (HF-HRV (which reflected vagal control of HRV than controls. Any comorbid anxiety disorder (GAD or PD was associated with significantly faster heart rates, relative to the controls, and caused greater reductions in HF-HRV among MDD patients. MDD participants with comorbid GAD displayed the greatest reductions in HF-HRV, relative to controls. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of both depression and anxiety were significantly associated with the mean R wave to R wave (R-R intervals, variance, low-frequency (LF-HRV, and HF-HRV. Conclusion: The present results show decreased HRV in MDD patients, suggesting that reduction in HRV is a psychophysiological marker of MDD. MDD patients with comorbid GAD had the greatest reductions in HRV. Further investigation of the links between MDD and comorbid GAD, HRV, and cardiovascular disease is warranted.

  10. Occipital bending in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  12. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  13. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  14. Nursing interventions in depressed children with low serum levels of BDNF

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qingrong; Cui, Chuanying; Fu, Yanxia; Ma, Shumei; Li, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and depression in children, and explore the effects of different nursing protocols on patients with low levels of BDNF. We recruited 128 children with depression and 50 healthy subjects. Compared with healthy controls, the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in serum were lower in children with depression (p

  15. The paediatric wrist revisited - findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenarius, Derk M.F.; Eldevik, Petter; Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Owens, Catherine M.; Rosendahl, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The presence of erosions is used for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Assessment of carpal bone erosions in children is challenging due to lack of normal references. To define normal appearances of bony depressions in the wrist on radiographs and MRI. MRI and radiography of the wrist were performed in 88 healthy children, 5-15 years of age. We assessed the number of bony depressions within the carpals/proximal metacarpals on both modalities, separately and combined. A total of 75 carpal depressions were identified on radiography compared to 715 on MRI. The number of bony depressions identified radiographically showed no statistically significant difference across age-groups. Within the metacarpals, there was no significant difference between bony depressions identified by MRI or radiography, except at the bases of the second metacarpal. Bony depressions that resemble erosions are normal findings in the wrist in children. MRI identifies more depressions than radiographs in the carpus. Some bony depressions occur at typical locations and should be accounted for when assessing the wrist in JIA to avoid overstaging. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive symptoms between high cardiovascular risk and healthy community elderly groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Amanda Lucas; Varela, Juliana Santos; Mazetti, Osmar; Restelatto, Luciane; Costa, Andry Fitterman; Godinho, Claudia; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Picon, Paulo D.; Chaves, Márcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The aging of the population is a universal phenomenon with direct consequences upon the public health system. One of the main repercussions of the growth in this sector of the population is the increased prevalence of disorders such as dementia and depression which are very frequent among the elderly. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, dementia and depression have been addressed in many recent investigations. Objectives To evaluate the relationship of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Methods 94 high cardiovascular risk elderly patients and 160 healthy community elderly were evaluated cross-sectionally. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used as the main measures. The cutoff for presence of depression was 6 on the GDS. Results The high cardiovascular risk elderly group showed significantly lower scores on the MMSE (p<0.001) and was significantly associated to depression (p<0.001), independently of education. The logistic regression analysis for depression as the dependent variable, age and group (healthy community or high cardiovascular risk elderly) were kept in the final equation. Higher age (Odds Ratio=0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98) and high cardiovascular risk elderly (OR=2.99; 95% CI 1.36–6.59) were associated to depression. Conclusions The present findings corroborate the different cognitive performance of elderly with high cardiovascular risk factors and the association of depressive symptoms with this group. PMID:29213588

  17. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Is Associated With Enhanced Cognitive Control Network Activity in Major Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Oathes, Desmond J.; Linn, Kristin A.; Bruce, Steven E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Cook, Philip A.; Satchell, Emma K.; Shou, Haochang; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by depressive symptoms, abnormalities in brain regions important for cognitive control, and response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, whether a common neural mechanism underlies CBT response across diagnoses is unknown. METHODS Brain activity during a cognitive control task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 104 participants: 28 patients with MDD, 53 patients with PTSD, and 23 healthy control subjects; depression and anxiety symptoms were determined on the same day. A patient subset (n = 31) entered manualized CBT and, along with controls (n = 19), was rescanned at 12 weeks. Linear mixed effects models assessed the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms and brain activity before and after CBT. RESULTS At baseline, activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores across all participants; this brain–symptom association did not differ between MDD and PTSD. Following CBT treatment of patients, regions within the cognitive control network, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed a significant increase in activity. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that dimensional abnormalities in the activation of cognitive control regions were associated primarily with symptoms of depression (with or without controlling for anxious arousal). Furthermore, following treatment with CBT, activation of cognitive control regions was similarly increased in both MDD and PTSD. These results accord with the Research Domain Criteria conceptualization of mental disorders and implicate improved cognitive control activation as a transdiagnostic mechanism for CBT treatment outcome. PMID:29628063

  18. Depressive symptoms and diabetes control in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Abbott, Gina L; Heapy, Alicia; Yong, Lynne

    2009-02-01

    This study of African Americans with diabetes investigated: (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; (2) the relationship between depressive symptoms and long-term diabetes complications; (3) the relationship between depressive symptoms and medication usage; and (4) the effects of demographic and diabetes variables on these relationships. One-hundred twenty five African American diabetic adults who were attending health fairs reported demographic and medical history and provided blood samples for A1c assessment of glycemic control. They also completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire, and the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory. After controlling for confounders, higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher A1c, more long-term diabetes complications, and more diabetes medications. Diabetes self-care did not fully account for these relationships. The relationship between depression and poor diabetes control exists in African Americans as it does in Whites. Providers are encouraged to attend to depression in their African American patients with diabetes.

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Depressed Women and Its Relationship with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Bolat KONUKÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: Schemas are deep enduring cognitive structures that are the source of dysfunctional cognitions, emotions and behaviors, activate after critical incidents in depression. A subset of schemas called Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS which are hyphotised to arise from early traumatic and adverse life events are also claimed to be related with not only personality disorders but also mood disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression and relationship between schema scores and depression severity in depressed women and compare it with non-depressed controls.Methods: 40 women attending to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and 30 healthy controls participated. All participants were assessed with SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: All except one (enmeshment/undeveloped self maladaptive schema scores of depressed women were higher than controls. BDI was correlated to some schema and schema domain scores in both depressed and control groups but the correlations were stronger in control group. Mean emotional deprivation, negativism, abandonment and instability, failure EMS scores showed the highest difference between two groups. The schema domains most related to depression symptom severity were disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance.Conclusions: Almost all early maladaptive schemas are related to depression, and some schemas are related to depression symptom severity but these correlations are weaker in control group. This may mean that EMS are stable and mood independent structures. Although other schemas are related to depression, mostly related EMS in women might be emotional deprivation schema. These schemas may also overlap with Beck’s unlovability core belief or sociotropy dimension

  20. Does a short self-compassion intervention for students increase healthy self-regulation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Binder, Per Einar; Hansen, Tia G.B.

    2017-01-01

    negative self-directed thinking; as well as for self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Concluding, a short self-compassion course seems an effective method of increasing self-compassion and perceived control over one's life for university students, as well as increasing mental health.......The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of a two-week self-compassion course on healthy self-regulation (personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse control) and unhealthy self-regulation (self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking) in university students. We...... also examined the effects on self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Students (N = 158, 85% women, mean age = 25 years) were randomized to an intervention group and a waiting-list control group in a multi-baseline randomized control trial. Healthy self-control was measured by the Personal Growth...

  1. Eye Movement Indices in the Study of Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Xu, Yangyang; Xia, Mengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Junjie; Liu, Xu; He, Yongguang; Wang, Jijun

    2016-12-25

    Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms. Sixty patients with depressive disorder and sixty healthy controls (who were matched by gender, age and years of education) were recruited, and completed eye movement tests including three tasks: fixation task, saccade task and free-view task. The EyeLink desktop eye tracking system was employed to collect eye movement information, and analyze the eye movement indices of the three tasks between the two groups. (1) In the fixation task, compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed more fixations, shorter fixation durations, more saccades and longer saccadic lengths; (2) In the saccade task, patients with depressive disorder showed longer anti-saccade latencies and smaller anti-saccade peak velocities; (3) In the free-view task, patients with depressive disorder showed fewer saccades and longer mean fixation durations; (4) Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the pro-saccade amplitude and anxiety symptoms, and a positive correlation between the anti-saccade latency and anxiety symptoms. The depression symptoms were negatively correlated with fixation times, saccades, and saccadic paths respectively in the free-view task; while the mean fixation duration and depression symptoms showed a positive correlation. Compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed significantly abnormal eye movement indices. In addition

  2. Neural correlates of depressive realism--an fMRI study on causal attribution in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Eva-Maria; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C; Wolf, Daniel H; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2012-05-01

    Biased causal attribution is a critical factor in the cognitive model of depression. Whereas depressed patients interpret events negatively, healthy people show a self-serving bias (internal attribution of positive events and external attribution of negative events). Using fMRI, depressed patients (n=15) and healthy controls (n=15) were confronted with positive and negative social events and made causal attributions (internal vs. external). Functional data were analyzed using a mixed effects model. Behaviourally, controls showed a self-serving bias, whereas patients demonstrated a balanced attributional pattern. Analysis of functional data revealed a significant group difference in a fronto-temporal network. Higher activation of this network was associated with non self-serving attributions in controls but self-serving attributions in patients. Applying a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we observed reduced coupling between a dorsomedial PFC seed region and limbic areas during self-serving attributions in patients compared to controls. Results of the PPI analysis are preliminary given the liberal statistical threshold. The association of the behaviourally less frequent attributional pattern with activation in a fronto-temporal network suggests that non self-serving responses may produce a self-related response conflict in controls, while self-serving responses produce this conflict in patients. Moreover, attribution-modulated coupling between the dorsomedial PFC and limbic regions was weaker in patients than controls. This preliminary finding suggests that depression may be associated with disturbances in fronto-limbic coupling during attributional decisions. Our results implicate that treatment of major depression may benefit from approaches that facilitate reinterpretation of emotional events in a more positive, more self-serving way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression and anxiety mediate the relationship between temperament and character and psychotic-like experiences in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Gawęda, Łukasz

    2016-12-30

    In this study we examined the hypothesis that depression and anxiety may mediate the relationship between personality traits and both positive and negative psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy adults. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to 492 healthy individuals. Multiple stepwise regression and mediation analyses were performed to examine whether depressive and anxiety symptoms influence the relationship between the TCI dimensions and positive and negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, persistence, novelty-seeking and self-directedness significantly predicted positive PLEs; self-directedness and harm avoidance were predictable for negative PLEs. Self-transcendence, self-directedness, persistence and harm avoidance also predicted the distress caused by positive PLEs, whereas self-directedness and harm avoidance predicted distress raised by negative PLEs. Depressive symptoms and the state of anxiety partially mediated the linkage between self-directedness and positive PLEs, and between self-directedness, harm avoidance and negative PLEs. Our findings confirm that the personality pattern influences both positive and negative PLEs as well as distress caused by experiencing positive and negative PLEs, and they indicate that certain personality traits may influence the development of PLEs via the emotional pathway of heightened depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Major depressive disorder, antidepressant use, and subsequent 2-year weight change patterns in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson-Smith, Deborah; Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Twisk, Jos W; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    BACKGROUND: Although depression and obesity are bidirectionally associated, little is known about weight changes following major depressive disorder (MDD). This study compared 2-year weight changes between patients with current MDD (cMDD), patients with remitted MDD (rMDD), and healthy controls.

  5. Prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with airway obstruction using hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS in different localities of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira H. Allam

    2017-10-01

    Summary at a glance: This study included 420 subjects divided into three groups: Group I asthmatic (150 patients, group II COPD patients (150 and control group contain (120 healthy subjects. All patients and healthy subjects were instructed to answer the questionnaire of HADS. Anxiety and depression scales were calculated with prevalence of each. Anxiety and depression were more common in people with asthma and COPD.

  6. [Anxiety, depression, health-related control beliefs, and their association with health behavior in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Beatrix; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Kovács, Péter; Balog, Piroska

    2015-05-17

    Psychological and lifestyle factors affect the development and outcome of heart disease considerably. The aims of the authors were to examine health control, level of anxiety and depression and to analyse their relationship with health behaviour in patients with ischemic heart disease. The present cross-sectional study involved 116 patients who took part in residential cardiac rehabilitation (56.9% men, mean age: 57.65±8.22 years). 30.9% of the patients reported elevated anxiety and 21.9% increased depressive symptomatology. Social-external control belief was the strongest among respondents. Further, anxiety and depression were negatively associated with healthy diet and the frequency of exercise. Patients with stronger social-external control beliefs were more likely to seek medical attention if they suspected a disease. It is important to assess psychological risk factors linked to cardiovascular diseases in cardiac rehabilitation departments and to initiate psychological interventions if indicated.

  7. Differential resting-state EEG patterns associated with comorbid depression in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2014-04-03

    Many researchers have reported a relationship between Internet addiction and depression. In the present study, we compared the resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) activity of treatment-seeking patients with comorbid Internet addiction and depression with those of treatment-seeking patients with Internet addiction without depression, and healthy controls to investigate the neurobiological markers that differentiate pure Internet addiction from Internet addiction with comorbid depression. Thirty-five patients diagnosed with Internet addiction and 34 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with Internet addiction were divided into two groups according to the presence (N=18) or absence (N=17) of depression. Resting-state, eye-closed QEEG was recorded, and the absolute and relative power of the brain were analyzed. The Internet addiction group without depression had decreased absolute delta and beta powers in all brain regions, whereas the Internet addiction group with depression had increased relative theta and decreased relative alpha power in all regions. These neurophysiological changes were not related to clinical variables. The current findings reflect differential resting-state QEEG patterns between both groups of participants with Internet addiction and healthy controls and also suggest that decreased absolute delta and beta powers are neurobiological markers of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Depressive symptoms impact health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and quality of life in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Suzanne M; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 15% of persons with CVD have depressive symptoms, which are twice as likely to occur in women. Depressive symptoms in women being screened for CVD have not been well studied. The relationships between depressive symptoms, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors, heart disease risk awareness, cardiac risk, and quality of life (QOL) in women were investigated. Whether the effect of depressive symptoms on QOL was mediated by cardiac risk and/or health-promoting lifestyle behaviors was also examined. The Wilson-Cleary Health-Related Quality of Life Model guided this descriptive study. A convenience sample of 125 women was recruited from cardiac health screening events. The study measurements were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Framingham risk score; the Ferrans-Powers Quality of Life Index Generic Version-III; the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II; and questions related to heart disease risk, awareness of heart disease risk, health history, and demographics. Body mass index, percentage of body fat, and lipid profile were also measured. More than one-third (34%) of the women reported significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not associated with cardiac risk or risk awareness but were inversely associated with health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (r = -0.37, P lifestyle behaviors (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.97; P lifestyle behaviors mediated the association between depressive symptoms and QOL. Depressive symptoms contribute significantly to health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and QOL for women. Early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms are important for participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which could result in improved QOL.

  9. Perception of quality of life and social adjustment of patients with recurrent depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Žana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most commonly present psychiatric entity in clinical practice, accompanied by significant impairment of both social and professional functioning. In addition, depression frequently develops as complication of other psychiatric disorders and various somatic diseases. Objective: To investigate subjective perception of quality of life and social adjustment, severity of depressive symptoms as well as level of correlation of severity of depressive symptoms and quality of life and social adjustment of patients with recurrent depression in comparison to the group of patients with diabetes and healthy subjects. Method: The study included 45 subjects of both sexes, ranging from 18 to 60 years of age, divided in three groups of 15 subjects each. The experimental group comprised the patients diagnosed with recurrent depression in remission (DSM-IV, one control group was consisted of patients diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and another one comprised healthy subjects. The instruments of assessment were: The Beck Depression Inventory- BDI, The Social Adaptation Self -evaluation scale - SASS, The Psychological General Well-Being Scale - WBQ. Results: Significant difference of both BDI and WBQ scales was found between the experimental and the control group of healthy subjects (ANOVA, Mann Whitney; p≤0.01, as well as between two control groups (p≤0.02. The level of inverse correlation of mean score values of BDI and SASS scales was significant in the control group of patients with diabetes while such levels of BDI and WBQ scales (Spearman correlation coefficient, p<0.01 were found in all groups of our study. Conclusion: In the group of patients with recurrent depression, significant decline of quality of life and significantly higher severity of depressive symptoms were present in comparison to the group of healthy subjects as well as significant level of inverse correlation of severity of depressive symptoms and

  10. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of depression has been associated to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the use of salivary cortisol measures is increasingly being incorporated into research. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether salivary cortisol differs...... for patients with depression and control persons. We did a systematic review with sequential meta-analysis and meta-regression according to the PRISMA Statement based on comprehensive database searches for studies of depressed patients compared to control persons in whom salivary cortisol was measured. Twenty...... case-control studies, including 1354 patients with depression and 1052 control persons were identified. In a random-effects meta-analysis salivary cortisol was increased for depressed patients as compared to control persons on average 2.58 nmol/l (95% C.I.: 0.95-4.21) p=0.002 in the morning...

  11. Relationship between depression and apolipoproteins A and B: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease. INTRODUCTION: Little evidence is available indicating a relationship between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease such as lipoprotein and apolipoprotein. METHODS: This case-control study included 153 patients with major depressive disorder who fulfilled the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 147 healthy individuals. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were taken and total cholesterol, high-and low-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B were measured. To analyze the data, t-test, χ2 test, Pearson correlation test and linear regression were applied. RESULTS: Depression was a negative predictor of apolipoprotein A (β = -0.328, p<0.01 and positive predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.290, p<0.05. Apolipoprotein A was inversely predicted by total cholesterol (β = -0.269, p<0.05 and positively predicted by high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.401, p<0.01. Also, low-density lipoprotein was a predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.340, p<0.01. The severity of depression was correlated with the increment in serum apolipoprotein B levels and the decrement in serum apolipoprotein A level. CONCLUSION: In view of the relationship between apolipoproteins A and B and depression, it would seem that screening of these metabolic risk factors besides psychological interventions is necessary in depressed patients

  12. Differential gene expression in patients with subsyndromal symptomatic depression and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengqing; Hu, Guoqin; Li, Zezhi; Wang, Qingzhong; Wang, Xuemei; Yuan, Chengmei; Wang, Zuowei; Hong, Wu; Lu, Weihong; Cao, Lan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yong; Yu, Shunying; Zhou, Yimin; Yi, Zhenghui; Fang, Yiru

    2017-01-01

    Subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) is a subtype of subthreshold depressive and can lead to significant psychosocial functional impairment. Although the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and SSD still remains poorly understood, a set of studies have found that many same genetic factors play important roles in the etiology of these two disorders. Nowadays, the differential gene expression between MDD and SSD is still unknown. In our previous study, we compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD and matched healthy controls (8 subjects in each group), and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures. Based on these findings, we further clarify whether these genes mRNA was different expressed in peripheral blood in patients with SSD, MDD and healthy controls (60 subjects respectively). With the help of the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we gained gene relative expression levels among the three groups. We found that there are three of the forty eight co-regulated genes had differential expression in peripheral blood among the three groups, which are CD84, STRN, CTNS gene (F = 3.528, p = 0.034; F = 3.382, p = 0.039; F = 3.801, p = 0.026, respectively) while there were no significant differences for other genes. CD84, STRN, CTNS gene may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and classifying SSD, MDD and healthy controls.

  13. Paternal overprotection in obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with obsessive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshitake; Fukui, Kenji

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a parental rearing style showing a low level of care on the parental bonding instrument (PBI) is a risk factor for depression, and that there is a relationship between the overprotective rearing style on the PBI and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there is no study on the parental rearing attitudes in depressive patients divided into two groups based on their obsessive traits. In this study, we evaluated the parental rearing attitudes and examined the differences among four groups: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. We divided the depressive patients into severe and mild groups based on their obsessive traits on the Mausdley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). We compared PBI scores among four groups of 50 subjects matched for age and sex: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. The paternal protection scores in the depressive patients with severely obsessive traits and the OCD patients were significantly higher than those in the depressive patients with mildly obsessive traits and healthy volunteers. This study indicated that the depressive patients with severe obsessive traits and the OCD patients have similar paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes. We conclude that the paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes are linked to the development of OCD and depression with obsessive traits, and are not linked to the development of depression itself.

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Is Associated With Enhanced Cognitive Control Network Activity in Major Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Oathes, Desmond J; Linn, Kristin A; Bruce, Steven E; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Cook, Philip A; Satchell, Emma K; Shou, Haochang; Sheline, Yvette I

    2018-04-01

    Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by depressive symptoms, abnormalities in brain regions important for cognitive control, and response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, whether a common neural mechanism underlies CBT response across diagnoses is unknown. Brain activity during a cognitive control task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 104 participants: 28 patients with MDD, 53 patients with PTSD, and 23 healthy control subjects; depression and anxiety symptoms were determined on the same day. A patient subset (n = 31) entered manualized CBT and, along with controls (n = 19), was rescanned at 12 weeks. Linear mixed effects models assessed the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms and brain activity before and after CBT. At baseline, activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores across all participants; this brain-symptom association did not differ between MDD and PTSD. Following CBT treatment of patients, regions within the cognitive control network, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed a significant increase in activity. Our results suggest that dimensional abnormalities in the activation of cognitive control regions were associated primarily with symptoms of depression (with or without controlling for anxious arousal). Furthermore, following treatment with CBT, activation of cognitive control regions was similarly increased in both MDD and PTSD. These results accord with the Research Domain Criteria conceptualization of mental disorders and implicate improved cognitive control activation as a transdiagnostic mechanism for CBT treatment outcome. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural correlates of depressive realism – An fMRI study on causal attribution in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Eva-Maria; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Background Biased causal attribution is a critical factor in the cognitive model of depression. Whereas depressed patients interpret events negatively, healthy people show a self-serving bias (internal attribution of positive events and external attribution of negative events). Methods Using fMRI, depressed patients (n=15) and healthy controls (n=15) were confronted with positive and negative social events and made causal attributions (internal vs. external). Functional data were analyzed using a mixed effects model. Results Behaviourally, controls showed a self-serving bias, whereas patients demonstrated a balanced attributional pattern. Analysis of functional data revealed a significant group difference in a fronto-temporal network. Higher activation of this network was associated with non self-serving attributions in controls but self-serving attributions in patients. Applying a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we observed reduced coupling between a dorsomedial PFC seed region and limbic areas during self-serving attributions in patients compared to controls. Limitations Results of the PPI analysis are preliminary given the liberal statistical threshold. Conclusions The association of the behaviourally less frequent attributional pattern with activation in a fronto-temporal network suggests that non self-serving responses may produce a self-related response conflict in controls, while self-serving responses produce this conflict in patients. Moreover, attribution-modulated coupling between the dorsomedial PFC and limbic regions was weaker in patients than controls. This preliminary finding suggests that depression may be associated with disturbances in fronto-limbic coupling during attributional decisions. Our results implicate that treatment of major depression may benefit from approaches that facilitate reinterpretation of emotional events in a more positive, more self-serving way. PMID:22377511

  16. Altered Neurochemical Ingredient of Hippocampus in Patients with Bipolar Depression

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    Murad Atmaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In a number of investigations, hippocampal neurochemicals were evaluated in the patients with bipolar disorder who were on their first episode or euthymic periods. However, we did not meet any investigation in which only patients with bipolar depression were examined. As a consequence, the objective of the present study was to examine both sides of hippocampus of patients with bipolar disorder in depressive episode and healthy controls using 1H-MRS. Methods. Thirteen patients with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder, most recent episode depressed, were recruited from the Department of Psychiatry at Firat University School of Medicine. We also studied 13 healthy comparison subjects who were without any DSM-IV Axis I disorders recruited from the hospital staff. The patients and controls underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS of their hippocampus. NAA, CHO, and CRE values were measured. Results. No significant effect of diagnosis was observed for NAA/CRE ratio. For the NAA/CHO ratio, the ANCOVA with age, gender, and whole brain volume as covariates revealed that the patients with bipolar depression had significantly lower ratio compared to healthy control subjects for right and for left side. As for the CHO/CRE ratio, the difference was statistically significant for right side, with an effect diagnosis of F = 4.763, P = 0.038, and was very nearly significant for left side, with an effect diagnosis of F = 3.732, P = 0.064. Conclusions. We found that the patients with bipolar depression had lower NAA/CHO and higher CHO/CRE ratios compared to those of healthy control subjects. The findings of the present study also suggest that there may be a degenerative process concerning the hippocampus morphology in the patients with bipolar depression.

  17. Reduced activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during attention and cognitive control functions in medication-naïve adolescents with depression compared to controls.

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    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-03-01

    There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of cognitive control functions, however, exist in paediatric depression. This study investigated whether medication-naïve adolescents with MDD show abnormal brain activation of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate networks when performing tasks of attentional and cognitive control. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare brain activation between 21 medication-naïve adolescents with a first-episode of MDD aged 14-17 years and 21 healthy adolescents, matched for handedness, age, sex, demographics and IQ. Activation paradigms were tasks of selective attention (Simon task), attentional switching (Switch task), and motor response inhibition and error detection (Stop task). In all three tasks, adolescents with depression compared to healthy controls demonstrated reduced activation in task-relevant right dorsolateral (DLPFC), inferior prefrontal cortex (IFC) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Additional areas of relatively reduced activation were in the parietal lobes during the Stop and Switch tasks, putamen, insula and temporal lobes during the Switch task and precuneus during the Simon task. This study shows first evidence that medication-naïve adolescents with MDD are characterised by abnormal function in ACG and right lateral prefrontal cortex during tasks of attention and performance monitoring, suggesting an early pathogenesis of these functional abnormalities attributed to MDD.

  18. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: when does culture matter?

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    Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.

  19. Personality traits of Japanese patients in remission from an episode of primary unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zerssen, D; Asukai, N; Tsuda, H; Ono, Y; Kizaki, Y; Cho, Y

    1997-07-01

    Personality traits were assessed by means of the Munich Personality Test (MPT) in 75 Japanese subjects, 27 patients in remission from an episode of moderate to severe primary unipolar depression, with melancholic features during one episode or more of the disorder, in 24 patients in remission from other non-organic mental disorders and in 24 healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, unipolar depressives displayed decreased Frustration Tolerance and elevated Rigidity as well as a stronger Orientation towards Social Norms. No significant difference was found between patients in remission from either unipolar depression or other mental disorders. However, the increase in Rigidity in comparison with healthy subjects was significant in the depressives only whereas the other patients, in contrast to the depressives, had significantly lower scores in Extraversion than the healthy subjects. Our results in Japanese patients are similar to findings of previous German studies, including two high risk studies, in which the same assessment instrument was used. This suggests that, beyond cultural differences, Rigidity, possibly in combination with a strong Orientation towards Social Norms and a reduced Frustration Tolerance, is a stable vulnerability marker for at least the more severe forms of primary unipolar depression.

  20. Depression, burnout, and perceptions of control in hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D C; McKnight, J D; Valdimarsdottir, H

    1993-02-01

    Depression, burnout, and perceived job control (PJC) were assessed in 162 nurses. Depression accounted for over 19% of the variance associated with emotional exhaustion--an index of burnout--and PJC accounted for another 6%. Factor analysis of the scales used to measure depression and burnout documented their discriminant validity. Perceptions of uncontrollability were significantly related to higher levels of depression and burnout. Structural equations modeling suggested that perceived uncontrollability is associated with burnout, which, in turn, is related to depressive affect. Against a criterion of actual job control, non-burned-out subjects overestimated their control, whereas burned-out subjects approached complete agreement with criterion. Despite evidence for a "depressive realism effect," greater perceptual accuracy was not attributable to depression among the more burned-out nurses.

  1. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

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    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  2. Depression and quality of life in monogenic compared to idiopathic, early-onset Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Tadic, Vera

    2012-01-01

    , and 44% of manifesting carriers of mutations in PD genes, but was rare in the nonmanifesting carriers (7%) and healthy controls (5%). Subjects with Parkinson-associated depression reported fewer feelings of guilt or self-doubt than treated controls, but the occurrence of suicidal ideation was associated......Quality of life (QoL) is decreased in PD and is linked with depression and anxiety. However, little is known about QoL in monogenic PD. Subjects with mutations in PD genes were recruited from ongoing family and genetic studies (manifesting carriers, n = 23; nonmanifesting carriers, n = 19......). For comparison purposes, we included patients with idiopathic PD (IPD; n = 128; early onset, n = 38; late onset, n = 90), healthy controls (n = 127), and data on depressive symptoms of 144 patients with major depression (treated controls). Depression affected 31% of early-onset PD cases, 21% of late-onset cases...

  3. Depression's Influence on the Asthma Control Test, Japanese Version

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    Mio Toyama

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The efficacy of the ACT-J was confirmed in depressive patients with asthma. Because asthma control as evaluated with the ACT-J can be worse than actual control under depressive states, physicians should also pay attention to a patient's depressive state at evaluation. Further investigations focus on the association between the ACT-J and depression are required.

  4. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression or depressiveness in patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - pilot research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dêbska, Ewa; Janas, Adam; Bañczyk, Wojciech; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata

    2011-09-01

    The target of this work is to consider if depressive symptoms intercurrent with patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) form a depression complex or whether they are physiological depression accompanying adolescence. We wished to observe the perception of these patients,of their functioning, both social and within their families and also looking for common point in the issues mentioned above trying to locate them within the course of the basic illness. We studied 19 patients suffering from eating disorders, and aged between 12 and 24 years old. 15 of them suffered from the restrictive form of AN and 4 suffered from BN. The control group consisted of 30 healthy girls in the same age interval. In the study authors used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Quebec Quality of Life Questionnaire. Comparison of a number of points acquired in the survey using Beck Depression Scale revealed statistic significance at the level pdepression symptoms among persons with eating disorders comparing to control group. The survey using the Questionnaire for Social Quality showed no statistically significant differences between study and control groups (p>0.05). The authors observed a statistically significant increased frequency of suicidal thoughts in the study group compared to the controls. To diagnose depression, depressive symptoms presented by the patients must give the image of depression at the clinical level. The result of the Beck's scale needs to be confronted with the clinical picture. Depression in adolescence requires differentiation from depressiveness.

  6. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  7. Ratio of mBDNF to proBDNF for Differential Diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoqing; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Jun; Su, Yousong; Zhou, Rubai; Wang, Fan; Xia, Weiping; Huang, Jia; Wang, Zuowei; Hu, Yingyan; Cao, Lan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Chengmei; Wang, Yong; Yi, Zhenghui; Lu, Weihong; Wu, Yan; Wu, Zhiguo; Hong, Wu; Peng, Daihui; Fang, Yiru

    2017-09-01

    There is a high rate of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) in clinical practice. Our previous work provided suggestive evidence for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in differentiating BD from MDD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) in distinguishing bipolar depression (BP) from MDD during acute depressive episode. A total of 105 participants, including 44 healthy controls, 37 MDD patients and 24 BP patients, were recruited. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were applied to measure plasma mBDNF levels and proBDNF levels of all participants. Plasma mBDNF levels were significantly decreased in BP group than those in MDD group (P = 0.001) and healthy controls (P = 0.002). Significantly higher ratio of mBDNF to proBDNF (M/P) at baseline was showed in MDD group than those in BP group as well as in healthy controls (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). The optimal model for discriminating BP was the M/P ratio (area under the ROC curve = 0.858, 95 % CI 0.753-0.963). Furthermore, the M/P ratio was restored to normal levels after antidepressants treatment in MDD group. In summary, our data demonstrated that both plasma mBDNF levels and M/P ratio were lower in BP compared with MDD. These findings further support M/P ratio as a potential differential diagnostic biomarker for BP among patients in depressive episodes.

  8. Depression in university students: associations with impulse control disorders.

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    Leppink, Eric W; Lust, Katherine; Grant, Jon E

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the implications of depression in a sample of university students, particularly relating to impulse control disorders. While previous studies have shown high rates of depression among university students, no study to date has assessed whether levels of depression show associations with the incidence of impulse control disorders in this population. In all, 6000 students participated in the College Student Computer Use Survey. A total of 1717 students completed the scales of interest for this analysis. Participants were assigned to groups based on depression scores: severe (N = 75), mild/moderate (N = 647) and none (N = 995). The three groups were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate associations between depression and impulse control disorder diagnoses. Groups differed across demographic, health and academic variables. The severe depression group reported higher rates of skin-picking disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour and compulsive buying. Results suggest a significant association between depression and impulse control disorders. One possibility is that a facet of impulsivity contributes to both problems, which could be important information for clinicians. Future studies will need to clarify the exact nature of the relationship between depression and impulse control disorders.

  9. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. PMID

  10. Different neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in healthy monozygotic twins at risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C

    2015-01-01

    while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. RESULTS: High-risk twins showed increased neural response to happy and fearful faces...... processing. These task-related changes in neural responses in high-risk twins were accompanied by impaired gender discrimination performance during face processing. They also displayed increased attention vigilance for fearful faces and were slower at recognizing facial expressions relative to low......BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. METHOD: Thirty...

  11. Vitamin D status in psychotic disorder patients and healthy controls--The influence of ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerhus, Mari; Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Holvik, Kristin; Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Weibell, Melissa Authen; Bjella, Thomas Doug; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with psychotic disorders and could be due to unknown disease mechanisms or contingent factors. However most studies are performed in chronic patients and have often failed to address the influence of ethnicity on vitamin D levels in clinical samples. We investigated serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 OH D) in first episode patients compared to patients with multi episodes and healthy controls; with a specific focus on differences between visible ethnic minorities and participants from the majority population. A total of 284 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. First episode patients with a DSM-IV psychotic disorder were matched on age, gender and ethnicity to participants from a multi episode patient sample (1:1) and healthy controls (1:2). We did not find any differences between either patient groups or the healthy controls, but participants from visible ethnic minorities had significantly lower S-25 OH D than participants from the majority population. This implies that S-25 OH D should be routinely measured in persons from visible ethnic minorities since low levels are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between the severity of depression and cognitive coping strategies in patients with depressive episode

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    Chun-feng HU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between the depressive mood and cognitive emotion regulation strategies.  Methods: A total of 143 major depression patients were assessed with a self-designed questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Chinese version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-C and the twenty-item Toronto Scale (TAS-20, and 95 healthy people were involved as controls. Regression analysis was carried out for the influcing factors to depressive mood. Results: Compared with controls, Patients with Depressive Episode showed significantly higher total scores of inadaptability strategy,TAS and BDI(P<0.01. There were lots of factors, such as domestic stress and maladaptive strategy showed significant correlation with total score of BDI in major depression (P<0.05 or P<0.01. The factors of domestic stress and maladaptive strategy et al entered the regression equation for BDI by turns. Conclusions: Patients with depression suffered from maladaptive strategy. Cognitive coping strategies and stressl were the important influence factors of depression emotion in patients with depression.

  13. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals

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    Fábio Gazelato de Mello Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. Methods: From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+ and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-. All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001. After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04. Conclusions: Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.

  14. Depression, automatic thoughts, alexithymia, and assertiveness in patients with tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Basak; Kora, Kaan; Ozyalçín, Süleyman; Alçalar, Nilüfer; Ozdemir, Ozay; Yücel, Aysen

    2002-03-01

    The role of psychological factors related to headache has long been a focus of investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate depression, automatic thoughts, alexithymia, and assertiveness in persons with tension-type headache and to compare the results with those from healthy controls. One hundred five subjects with tension-type headache (according to the criteria of the International Headache Society classification) and 70 controls were studied. The Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Rathus Assertiveness Schedule were administered to both groups. Sociodemographic variables and headache features were evaluated via a semistructured scale. Compared with healthy controls, the subjects with headache had significantly higher scores on measures of depression, automatic thoughts, and alexithymia and lower scores on assertiveness. Subjects with chronic tension-type headache had higher depression and automatic thoughts scores than those with episodic tension-type headache. These findings suggested that persons with tension-type headache have high depression scores and also may have difficulty with expression of their emotions. Headache frequency appears to influence the likelihood of coexisting depression.

  15. Anticipation-related brain connectivity in bipolar and unipolar depression: a graph theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelis, Anna; Almeida, Jorge R C; Stiffler, Richelle; Lockovich, Jeanette C; Aslam, Haris A; Phillips, Mary L

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder, which leads to inadequate treatment. Depressed individuals versus healthy control subjects, show increased expectation of negative outcomes. Due to increased impulsivity and risk for mania, however, depressed individuals with bipolar disorder may differ from those with major depressive disorder in neural mechanisms underlying anticipation processes. Graph theory methods for neuroimaging data analysis allow the identification of connectivity between multiple brain regions without prior model specification, and may help to identify neurobiological markers differentiating these disorders, thereby facilitating development of better therapeutic interventions. This study aimed to compare brain connectivity among regions involved in win/loss anticipation in depressed individuals with bipolar disorder (BDD) versus depressed individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) versus healthy control subjects using graph theory methods. The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and included 31 BDD, 39 MDD, and 36 healthy control subjects. Participants were scanned while performing a number guessing reward task that included the periods of win and loss anticipation. We first identified the anticipatory network across all 106 participants by contrasting brain activation during all anticipation periods (win anticipation + loss anticipation) versus baseline, and win anticipation versus loss anticipation. Brain connectivity within the identified network was determined using the Independent Multiple sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) and Linear non-Gaussian Orientation, Fixed Structure (LOFS) algorithms. Density of connections (the number of connections in the network), path length, and the global connectivity direction ('top-down' versus 'bottom-up') were compared across groups (BDD/MDD/healthy control subjects) and conditions (win/loss anticipation). These analyses showed that

  16. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...

  17. Gut microbiome remodeling induces depressive-like behaviors through a pathway mediated by the host's metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P; Zeng, B; Zhou, C; Liu, M; Fang, Z; Xu, X; Zeng, L; Chen, J; Fan, S; Du, X; Zhang, X; Yang, D; Yang, Y; Meng, H; Li, W; Melgiri, N D; Licinio, J; Wei, H; Xie, P

    2016-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. According to the World Health Organization, MDD is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and it is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, the definitive environmental mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MDD remain elusive. The gut microbiome is an increasingly recognized environmental factor that can shape the brain through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. We show here that the absence of gut microbiota in germ-free (GF) mice resulted in decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test relative to conventionally raised healthy control mice. Moreover, from clinical sampling, the gut microbiotic compositions of MDD patients and healthy controls were significantly different with MDD patients characterized by significant changes in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Fecal microbiota transplantation of GF mice with 'depression microbiota' derived from MDD patients resulted in depression-like behaviors compared with colonization with 'healthy microbiota' derived from healthy control individuals. Mice harboring 'depression microbiota' primarily exhibited disturbances of microbial genes and host metabolites involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. This study demonstrates that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome may have a causal role in the development of depressive-like behaviors, in a pathway that is mediated through the host's metabolism.

  18. Effect of short-term food restriction on iron metabolism, relative well-being and depression symptoms in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciak, Rafal W

    2014-01-01

    The idea that iron deficiency anemia can be recognized in depressive patients has been around for a few years, as well as negative association between ferritin levels and depression. Iron deficiency anemia, associated with low iron intake, has been observed in women using restriction diets, for example in vegetarians or anorexics. There are no data on the influence of the short-term food restrictions, observed for example in slimming women, on iron management and its connection with behavior expressed via changes in the subject's emotional state. This study describes the effect of one- and two-day food restrictions (every 8 days for a period of 48 days) on selected iron management parameters in the serum and blood of 46 healthy volunteer women (23 in each group), aged 25.5 ± 3.0 years, in association with the subjects' self-described emotional status and depression symptoms. The association between iron parameters and depression was also analyzed. Results show that short-term (2 days) fasting significantly decreases iron concentrations in serum and hair, as well as levels of ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, and total iron binding capacity, but the short-term fasting did not influence the other iron management parameters. Each model of food restrictions also increased negative feelings towards depression. A significant negative correlation between serum ferritin levels and depression was found in women who starved for 2 days. The study shows that, through an impact on mineral levels, even short-term food restrictions, as observed in many slimming women and girls, can be a reason for iron deficiency and also can alter the emotional status of healthy women. Maybe depression symptoms in anorexia or other eating disorders patients can be associated with iron deficiencies.

  19. Visual perception during mirror-gazing at one's own face in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni B; Bortolomasi, Marco; Ferrucci, Roberta; Giacopuzzi, Mario; Priori, Alberto; Zago, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In normal observers, gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the apparition of strange faces. Observers see distortions of their own faces, but they often see hallucinations like monsters, archetypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In this research, patients with depression were compared to healthy controls with respect to strange-face apparitions. The experiment was a 7-minute mirror-gazing test (MGT) under low illumination. When the MGT ended, the experimenter assessed patients and controls with a specifically designed questionnaire and interviewed them, asking them to describe strange-face apparitions. Apparitions of strange faces in the mirror were very reduced in depression patients compared to healthy controls. Depression patients compared to healthy controls showed shorter duration of apparitions; minor number of strange faces; lower self-evaluation rating of apparition strength; lower self-evaluation rating of provoked emotion. These decreases in depression may be produced by deficits of facial expression and facial recognition of emotions, which are involved in the relationship between the patient (or the patient's ego) and his face image (or the patient's bodily self) that is reflected in the mirror.

  20. Cross-Cultural Detection of Depression from Nonverbal Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Alghowinem, Sharifa; Goecke, Roland; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Wagner, Michael; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. Do commonalities exist in their nonverbal behavior that would enable cross-culturally viable screening and assessment of severity? We investigated the generalisability of an approach to detect depression severity cross-culturally using video-recorded clinical interviews from Australia, the USA and Germany. The material varied in type of interview, subtypes of depression and inclusion healthy control subjects, cultural background, and record...

  1. Responses to stress in patients with psychotic disorders compared to persons with varying levels of vulnerability to psychosis, persons with depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Köther, Ulf; Hartmann, Maike; Kempkensteffen, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    An experimental design was used to test whether self-reported, psychophysiological and symptomatic stress-responses increase as a function of the underlying vulnerability to psychosis as proposed by vulnerability-stress-models. Stress-responses of participants with psychotic disorders (PSY, n = 35) were compared to those of participants with attenuated positive symptoms (AS, n = 29), first-degree relatives of persons with psychotic disorders (REL, n = 26), healthy controls (HC, n = 28) and controls with depression (DEP, n = 30). Using a repeated measures design, participants were assigned to a noise stressor, a social stressor and a no stress condition in random order. Stress-responses were assessed via self-report, salivary cortisol levels, heart rate and skin conductance levels. State-paranoia and depression were assessed with clinical scales. PSY reported to be significantly more stressed than HC, AS and REL across all conditions which went along with increased heart rate and decreased overall cortisol release. In contrast, AS showed elevated levels of cortisol. PSY showed a stronger response of self-reported stress to the noise condition compared to the no stress condition than HC, but no stronger response than the other samples. Furthermore, the stressors did not trigger stronger psychophysiological responses or symptom-increases in PSY. The social stressor was brief and not individualized and did not have an effect on cortisol. The findings support the notion that subjective stress-responsiveness increases with vulnerability, but not the assumption that symptoms arise directly as a function of stress and vulnerability. Also, the generally high levels of arousal seem to be more relevant to psychosis than the responsiveness to specific stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincses, Péter; Karádi, Kázmér; Feldmann, Ádám; Dorn, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Csathó, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC). Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics. PMID:28293444

  3. Association between toll-like receptors expression and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yi-Yung; Kang, Hong-Yo; Huang, Kai-Wei; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2014-12-15

    Accumulating evidences suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. TLR4 was thought to be associated with major depressive disorder in animal model, but the others were still unknown. In order to examine TLR1-9 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood and their relationships with the psychopathology of major depressive disorder, 30 patients with major depressive disorder were compared with 29 healthy controls. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) was used to assess the severity of major depression. The mRNA expression levels of TLRs were examined in parallel with a housekeeping gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of covariance with age and body mass index adjustment revealed a significantly higher expression of TLR3, 4, 5 and 7 mRNA but lower expression of TLR1 and 6 in patients with major depressive disorder as compared with healthy controls. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TLR4 was an independent risk factor relating to severity of major depression. These findings suggest that TLRs, especially TLR4, may be involved in the psychopathology of major depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Positron emission tomography quantification of serotonin transporter in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey M; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Sullivan, Gregory M; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2013-08-15

    Several lines of evidence implicate abnormal serotonergic function in suicidal behavior and completed suicide, including low serotonin transporter binding in postmortem studies of completed suicide. We have also reported low in vivo serotonin transporter binding in major depressive disorder (MDD) during a major depressive episode using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C]McN5652. We quantified regional brain serotonin transporter binding in vivo in depressed suicide attempters, depressed nonattempters, and healthy controls using PET and a superior radiotracer, [(11)C]DASB. Fifty-one subjects with DSM-IV current MDD, 15 of whom were past suicide attempters, and 32 healthy control subjects underwent PET scanning with [(11)C]DASB to quantify in vivo regional brain serotonin transporter binding. Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions and plasma free-fraction were acquired to improve quantification. Depressed suicide attempters had lower serotonin transporter binding in midbrain compared with depressed nonattempters (p = .031) and control subjects (p = .0093). There was no difference in serotonin transporter binding comparing all depressed subjects with healthy control subjects considering six a priori regions of interest simultaneously (p = .41). Low midbrain serotonin transporter binding appears to be related to the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior rather than of major depressive disorder. This is consistent with postmortem work showing low midbrain serotonin transporter binding capacity in depressed suicides and may partially explain discrepant in vivo findings quantifying serotonin transporter in depression. Future studies should investigate midbrain serotonin transporter binding as a predictor of suicidal behavior in MDD and determine the cause of low binding. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients' lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL). This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder - dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder) and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of self-stigma level on QoL in patients suffering from depressive disorders.

  6. Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixue; Wang, Ke; Hu, Jianan

    2016-08-06

    It has been reported that gut probiotics play a major role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Probiotics may be essential to people with depression, which remains a global health challenge, as depression is a metabolic brain disorder. However, the efficacy of probiotics for depression is controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the existing evidence on the effect of probiotics-based interventions on depression. Randomized, controlled trials, identified through screening multiple databases and grey literature, were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software using a fixed-effects model. The meta-analysis showed that probiotics significantly decreased the depression scale score (MD (depressive disorder) = -0.30, 95% CI (-0.51--0.09), p = 0.005) in the subjects. Probiotics had an effect on both the healthy population (MD = -0.25, 95% CI (-0.47--0.03), p = 0.03) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (MD = -0.73, 95% CI (-1.37--0.09), p = 0.03). Probiotics had an effect on the population aged under 60 (MD = -0.43, 95% CI (-0.72--0.13), p = 0.005), while it had no effect on people aged over 65 (MD = -0.18, 95% CI (-0.47-0.11), p = 0.22). This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis with the goal of determining the effect of probiotics on depression. We found that probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in depression, underscoring the need for additional research on this potential preventive strategy for depression.

  7. Exercise Promotes Neuroplasticity in Both Healthy and Depressed Brains: An fMRI Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gourgouvelis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairments are a frequently reported cognitive symptom in people suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD and often persist despite antidepressant therapy. Neuroimaging studies have identified abnormal hippocampal activity during memory processes in MDD. Exercise as an ad-on treatment for MDD is a promising therapeutic strategy shown to improve mood, cognitive function, and neural structure and function. To advance our understanding of how exercise impacts neural function in MDD, we must also understand how exercise impacts healthy individuals without MDD. This pilot study used a subsequent memory paradigm to investigate the effects of an eight-week exercise intervention on hippocampal function in low-active healthy (n=8 and low-active MDD (n=8 individuals. Results showed a marked improvement in depression scores for the MDD group (p0.05. Functional imaging results showed a marginally significant decrease in hippocampal activity in both groups following the exercise intervention. Our whole brain analysis collapsed across groups revealed a similar deactivation pattern across several memory-associated regions. These results suggest that exercise may enhance neural efficiency in low-fit individuals while still resulting in a substantially greater mood effect for those suffering from MDD. This trial is registered with clinical trials.gov NCT03191994.

  8. Biased emotional recognition in depression: perception of emotions in music by depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkanen, Marko; Eerola, Tuomas; Erkkilä, Jaakko

    2011-04-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder, that impairs a person's social skills and also their quality of life. Populations affected with depression also suffer from a higher mortality rate. Depression affects person's ability to recognize emotions. We designed a novel experiment to test the hypothesis that depressed patients show a judgment bias towards negative emotions. To investigate how depressed patients differ in their perception of emotions conveyed by musical examples, both healthy (n=30) and depressed (n=79) participants were presented with a set of 30 musical excerpts, representing one of five basic target emotions, and asked to rate each excerpt using five Likert scales that represented the amount of each one of those same emotions perceived in the example. Depressed patients showed moderate but consistent negative self-report biases both in the overall use of the scales and their particular application to certain target emotions, when compared to healthy controls. Also, the severity of the clinical state (depression, anxiety and alexithymia) had an effect on the self-report biases for both positive and negative emotion ratings, particularly depression and alexithymia. Only musical stimuli were used, and they were all clear examples of one of the basic emotions of happiness, sadness, fear, anger and tenderness. No neutral or ambiguous excerpts were included. Depressed patients' negative emotional bias was demonstrated using musical stimuli. This suggests that the evaluation of emotional qualities in music could become a means to discriminate between depressed and non-depressed subjects. The practical implications of the present study relate both to diagnostic uses of such perceptual evaluations, as well as a better understanding of the emotional regulation strategies of the patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered reward processing in the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two...... intervention compared to placebo. Conversely, for positive outcomes, the left hippocampus showed attenuated response to high wins in the rMD+ compared to the rMD- group. The SSRI intervention reinforced the hippocampal response to large wins. A subsequent structural analysis revealed that the abnormal neural...... responses were not accounted for by changes in gray matter density in rMD+ individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study in first-degree relatives of depressive patients showed abnormal brain responses to aversive and rewarding outcomes in regions known to be dysfunctional in depression. We further confirmed...

  10. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kincses

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n=48 and healthy controls (n=52 were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC. Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics.

  11. Shared versus distinct genetic contributions of mental wellbeing with depression and anxiety symptoms in healthy twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M

    2016-10-30

    Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RSA Reactivity in Current and Remitted Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylsma, Lauren M.; Salomon, Kristen; Taylor-Clift, April; Morris, Bethany H.; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) levels and blunted RSA reactivity are thought to index impaired emotion regulation capacity. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with abberant RSA reactivity and recovery to a speech stressor task relative to healthy controls. Whether impaired RSA functioning reflects aspects of the depressed mood state or a stable vulnerability marker for depression is unknown. Methods We compared resting RSA and RSA reactivity between individuals with MDD (n=49), remitted depression (RMD, n=24), and healthy controls (n=45). ECG data were collected during a resting baseline, a paced-breathing baseline, and two reactivity tasks (speech stressor, cold exposure). Results A group by time quadratic effect emerged (F=4.36(2,109), p=.015) for RSA across phases of the speech stressor (baseline, instruction, preparation, speech, recovery). Follow-up analyses revealed that those with MDD uniquely exhibited blunted RSA reactivity, whereas RMD and controls both exhibited normal task-related vagal withdrawal and post-task recovery. The group by time interaction remained after covariation for age, sex, waist circumference, physical activity, and respiration, but not sleep quality. Conclusions These results provide new evidence that abberant RSA reactivity marks features that track the depressed state, such as poor sleep, rather than a stable trait evident among asymtomatic persons. PMID:24367127

  13. [Internet dependency as a symptom of depressive mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wildt, Bert T; Putzig, Inken; Zedler, Markus; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2007-09-01

    In psychiatric contexts, the quick distribution of virtual techniques in private and professional everyday life gives rise to the question, if these can evoke a psychological addiction. Yet, the diagnostic assessment of internet or computer game dependency remains problematic. Within a study with 23 internet-dependent patients with significant psychological strain, 18 (77.8%) were diagnosed with a depressive mood disorder by thorough clinical examination and structured interviews. The presented work compares psychometric test results of the depressed subpopulation with healthy controls matched for age, sex and school education. In the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale patients with internet dependency scored significantly higher than the control group (p Internet Addiction Scale. Becks Depression Inventory and the Symptom-Checklist subscale for depression revealed significantly higher scores within the patient group as compared to controls (p internet dependent subjects showed significantly more pathological scores than the healthy subjects (p internet dependency can be understood as a novel psychopathology of well known psychiatric conditions, every psychiatrist should be able to detect and treat it adequately, as long as there is a willingness to deal with the contents and impacts of cyberspace. Especially with depressed patients, it seems to be crucial to include questions about media usage in psychiatric examination taking.

  14. Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mourady

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (QOL is reported to be reduced during pregnancy. Associations between QOL, physical activity (PA, insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression. This is an observational cross-sectional study, conducted among a convenient sample of 141 healthy pregnant women using five questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO quality of life questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index, PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ. Pre-gestational BMI was inversely correlated to overall health while education was positively correlated to psychological health, social relationships and environment domains. Smoking before and during pregnancy significantly impacted the general health and psychological health. Total and light PA were positively correlated to psychological health and social relationships. Sports/exercise showed positive correlations with several QOL domains. Insomnia and depression were significantly associated with a decrease in all domains of QOL, while worries were associated with a decrease in physical, psychological and environmental domains. There were significant negative correlations between ZSRDS scores and total activity. PA, worries, depression and insomnia affected QOL during pregnancy. Furthermore, pregnant women presenting depression had a reduced total PA. Sleep and mental health as well as encouraging PA during pregnancy are necessary to improve the quality of life of pregnant women.

  15. Association of depressive disorders, depression characteristics and antidepressant medication with inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, N; Duivis, H E; Beekman, A T F; Kluft, C; Neuteboom, J; Hoogendijk, W; Smit, J H; de Jonge, P; Penninx, B W J H

    2012-02-21

    Growing evidence suggests that immune dysregulation may be involved in depressive disorders, but the exact nature of this association is still unknown and may be restricted to specific subgroups. This study examines the association between depressive disorders, depression characteristics and antidepressant medication with inflammation in a large cohort of controls and depressed persons, taking possible sex differences and important confounding factors into account. Persons (18-65 years) with a current (N = 1132) or remitted (N = 789) depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria and healthy controls (N = 494) were selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Assessments included clinical characteristics (severity, duration and age of onset), use of antidepressant medication and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)). After adjustment for sociodemographics, currently depressed men, but not women, had higher levels of CRP (1.33 versus 0.92 mg l(-1), Pdepressed peers. Associations reduced after considering lifestyle and disease indicators--especially body mass index--but remained significant for CRP. After full adjustment, highest inflammation levels were found in depressed men with an older age of depression onset (CRP, TNF-α). Furthermore, inflammation was increased in men using serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (CRP, IL-6) and in men and women using tri- or tetracyclic antidepressants (CRP), but decreased among men using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (IL-6). In conclusion, elevated inflammation was confirmed in depressed men, especially those with a late-onset depression. Specific antidepressants may differ in their effects on inflammation.

  16. Plasma melatonin circadian rhythm disturbances during pregnancy and postpartum in depressed women and women with personal or family histories of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Barbara L; Meliska, Charles J; Sorenson, Diane L; Lopez, Ana M; Martinez, Luis F; Nowakowski, Sara; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Hauger, Richard L; Kripke, Daniel F

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that disturbances in levels of plasma melatonin differentiate pregnant and postpartum women with major depression from matched pregnant and postpartum healthy comparison women. Participants were 25 pregnant women (10 with major depression, 15 healthy) and 24 postpartum women (13 with major depression, 11 healthy). Healthy comparison women were matched on the number of weeks pregnant or postpartum. Plasma melatonin levels for each subject were measured every 30 minutes, in dim light (melatonin levels were log-transformed, and calculations were determined for the following measures: baseline and synthesis onset and offset times, duration, peak concentration, and area under the curve. Groups were compared by analyses of covariance, with age, number of weeks pregnant or postpartum, breast-feeding status, and body mass index as covariates. Morning melatonin levels from 2:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. were significantly lower in pregnant women with major depression relative to healthy pregnant women. However, these levels were significantly higher in postpartum women with major depression across time intervals relative to postpartum healthy women. Pregnant but not postpartum women with a personal or family history of depression, regardless of their current diagnosis, had significantly earlier melatonin synthesis and baseline offset times relative to women without a family history of depression. In pregnant healthy women but not pregnant women with major depression, melatonin levels increased during the course of pregnancy. This association was not found among postpartum women with major depression or postpartum healthy women. Plasma nocturnal melatonin concentrations, particularly during morning hours, were lower in depressed pregnant women but elevated in depressed postpartum women relative to matched healthy comparison women. In addition, melatonin timing measures were advanced in pregnant women with a personal or family

  17. Autonomous and controlled motivation and interpersonal therapy for depression: moderating role of recurrent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Zuroff, David C; Ravitz, Paula; Koestner, Richard; Moskowitz, Debbie S; Quilty, Lena; Bagby, R Michael

    2010-11-01

    We examined the moderating role of depression recurrence on the relation between autonomous and controlled motivation and interpersonal therapy (IPT) treatment outcome. The investigation was conducted in an out-patient mood disorders clinic of a large university-affiliated psychiatric hospital. The sample represents a subset of a larger naturalistic database of patients seen in the clinic. We examined 74 depressed out-patients who received 16 sessions of IPT. The Beck Depression Inventory-II, administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment, served as a measure of depressive severity. Measures of motivation and therapeutic alliance were collected at the third session. In the entire sample, both the therapeutic alliance and autonomous motivation predicted higher probability of achieving remission; however, the relation differed for those with highly recurrent depression compared to those with less recurrent depression. For those with highly recurrent depression, the therapeutic alliance predicted remission whereas autonomous motivation had no effect on remission. For those with less recurrent depression, both autonomous motivation and the therapeutic alliance predicted better achieving remission. Controlled motivation emerged as a significant negative predictor of remission across both groups. Taken together, these results highlight the possible use of motivation theory to inform and enrich therapeutic conceptualizations and interventions in clinical practice, but also point to the importance of modifying interventions based on the chronicity of a client's depression.

  18. Low regional cerebral blood flow in burning mouth syndrome patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B-L; Yao, H; Zheng, X-J; Du, G-H; Shen, X-M; Zhou, Y-M; Tang, G-Y

    2015-07-01

    The main aims of this study were to (i) investigate the emotional disorder status of patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and (ii) detect regional cerebral blood flow in BMS patients with the application of combined single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The degree of pain was measured using the visual analysis scale, and emotional disorder with the self-rating anxiety scale, self-rating depression scale, and Hamilton depression rating scale in 29 patients with BMS and 10 healthy controls. SPECT/CT was performed in 29 patients with BMS and 10 healthy controls, and statistical parametric mapping method was used for between-group analyses. The incidence rate of depression in patients with BMS was 31.0%. Compared to the control group, patients with BMS displayed significantly different depression and anxiety scales (P < 0.05). Significantly lower regional cerebral blood flow in the left parietal and left temporal lobes was recorded for BMS patients with depression (P < 0.05). Patients with BMS experience more depression and anxious emotion. Moreover, depression in patients with BMS may be associated with lower regional cerebral blood flow in the left temporal and left parietal lobes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Health anxiety and depression in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Mehmet; Sarp, Ümit; Karaaslan, Özgül; Gül, Ali Irfan; Tanik, Nermin; Arik, Hasan Onur

    2015-10-01

    To investigate health anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Patients with FMS and healthy control subjects were recruited. All participants completed the Health Anxiety Inventory Short Form (HAI-SF) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Pain was assessed in patients with FMS using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). This study involved 95 patients with FMS (15 male) and 95 healthy controls (17 male). Mean ± SD HAI-SF and BDI scores were significantly higher in patients with FMS = than in controls=. HAI-SF scores were 23.50 ± 10.78 and 9.38 ± 4.24 respectively; BDI scores were 18.64 ± 10.11 and 6.21 ± 4.05 respectively. There were highly significant correlations between FIQ and HAI-SF, FIQ and BDI, and HAI-SF and BDI. Patients with FMS had significantly higher HAI-SF and BDI scores than healthy controls. Psychiatric support is essential for patients with FMS. Treatment should include biological, psychological and social approaches. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Risk of neurological, eye and ear disease in offspring to parents with schizophrenia or depression compared with offspring to healthy parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, Elin Dianna; Hällgren, Jonas; Hultman, Christina M; McNeil, Thomas F; Crisby, Milita; Sandin, Sven

    2018-04-19

    Neurological, visual and hearing deviations have been observed in the offspring of parents with schizophrenia. This study test whether children to parents hospitalized with schizophrenia have increased the likelihood of childhood neurological disorder. Among all parents in Sweden born 1950-1985 and with offspring born 1968-2002: 7107 children with a parent hospitalized for schizophrenia were compared to 172 982 children with no parents hospitalized for schizophrenia or major depression, as well as to 32 494 children with a parent hospitalized for major depression as a control population with another severe psychiatric outcome. We estimated relative risks (RR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals calculated from Poisson regression. Children to parents with schizophrenia were more likely than controls to have been hospitalized before the age of 10 with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.15-2.69); epilepsy, RR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.33-2.40), combined neurological disease, RR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) and certain diseases of the eye, RR = 1.92 (95% CI: 1.17-3.15) and ear, RR = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05-1.32). Similar disease-risk-pattern was found for children to parents hospitalized with a diagnosis of major depression. A specific risk increase for strabismus RR = 1.21 (95%CI: 1.05-1.40) was found for off-spring with parental depression. Compared with children to healthy parents, children to parents with schizophrenia have increased risk of a variety of neurological disorders as well as visual and hearing disorders at an early age. The risk increase was not specific to schizophrenia but was also seen in children to parents with a diagnosis of major depression.

  1. Research progress of control of condensate depression for condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liang, Run; Li, Fengyu

    2017-08-01

    It is introduced that significance and structure of the condensate depression control system. In accordance with controller devised procedure, we analyze and elaborate how to construct the lumped parameter and dynamic mathematical model which possesses distinct physics significance. Neural network model being called black-box model is also introduced. We analyze and contrast the control technique of condensate depression as conventional PI control, fuzzy PI control and fuzzy control. It is indicated that if the controller of condensate depression were devised inappropriate, while the steam discharged of turbine varying by a large margin, would result in the rotation rate of cooling water circulating pump accelerating at a great lick even to trigger the galloping danger which is less impressive for the units operating safely.

  2. The Influence of Planning and Response Inhibition on Cognitive Functioning of Non-Psychotic Unipolar Depressed Suicide Attempters

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    Marco Moniz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the main risk factors for suicide. However, little is known about the intricate relationships among depressive symptomatology in unipolar depression, suicide risk, and the characteristics of executive dysfunction in depressed patients. We compared 20 non-psychotic unipolar depressed suicide attempters to 20 matching depressed non-attempters and to 20 healthy controls to further investigate the possible differences in neuropsychological performance. Depressed subjects were controlled for current suicidal ideation, and their neuropsychological profile was assessed using a range of measures of executive functioning, attention, verbal memory, processing speed, and psychomotor speed. Depressed groups were outperformed by healthy controls. Depressed attempters presented more cognitive impairment than depressed non-attempters on a simple Go/No-go response inhibition task and performed better than non-attempters on the Tower of London planning task. Depressed attempters were clearly distinguished by a deficit in response inhibition (Go/No-go commission errors. The normative planning performance (Tower of London extra moves of the suicide attempters was unexpected, and this unanticipated finding calls for further research. Normative planning may indicate an increased risk of suicidal behavior.

  3. Enhanced attention to context: An intervention that increases perceived control in mild depression.

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    Msetfi, R M; Brosnan, L; Cavus, H A

    2016-01-01

    People perceive that they have control over events to the extent that the same events do not occur outside of their control, randomly, in the environment or context. Therefore, perceived control should be enhanced if there is a large contrast between one's own control and the control that the context itself seems to exert over events. Given that depression is associated with low perceived control, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced attentional focus to context will increase perceived control in people with and without depression. A total of 106 non-depressed and mildly depressed participants completed a no control zero-contingency task with low and high outcome probability conditions. In the experimental context-focus group, participants were instructed to attend to the context, whereas in the control group, participants were instructed to attend to their thoughts. Irrespective of attentional focus, non-depressed participants displayed illusory control. However, people with mild depression responded strongly to the attention focus manipulation. In the control group, they evidenced low perceived control with classic depressive realism effects. In the experimental group, when asked to focus on the context in which events took place, participants with mild depression displayed enhanced perceived control or illusory control, similar to non-depressed participants. Findings are discussed in relation to whether depression effects on perceived control represent tendencies towards realism or attentional aspects of depressive thoughts.

  4. Gender-specific effects of depression and suicidal ideation in prosocial behaviors.

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    Ricardo Cáceda

    Full Text Available Prosocial behaviors are essential to the ability to relate to others. Women typically display greater prosocial behavior than men. The impact of depression on prosocial behaviors and how gender interacts with those effects are not fully understood. We explored the role of gender in the potential effects of depression on prosocial behavior.We examined prosocial behaviors using a modified version of the Trust Game in a clinical population and community controls. Study participants were characterized on the severity of depression and anxiety, presence of suicidal ideation, history of childhood trauma, recent stressful life events, and impulsivity. We correlated behavioral outcomes with gender and clinical variables using analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis.The 89 participants comprised four study groups: depressed women, depressed men, healthy women and healthy men (n = 16-36. Depressed men exhibited reciprocity more frequently than healthy men. Depression induced an inversion of the gender-specific pattern of self-centered behavior. Suicidal ideation was associated with increased reciprocity behavior in both genders, and enhancement of the effect of depression on gender-specific self-centered behavior.Depression, particularly suicidal ideation, is associated with reversal of gender-specific patterns of prosocial behavior, suggesting abnormalities in sexual hormones regulation. This explanation is supported by known abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes found in depression.

  5. Comprehensive self-control training benefits depressed college students: A six-month randomized controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueling; Zhao, Jiubo; Chen, Yu; Zu, Simeng; Zhao, Jingbo

    2018-01-15

    Depressive disorder was associated with dysfunctional self-regulation. The current study attempted to design and test a comprehensive self-control training (CSCT) program with an overall emphasis on behaviral activation in depressed Chinese college students. Participants included 74 students who had diagnosed with major depression, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: intervention group (n=37), and control group (n=37). The intervention participants received an eight-week CSCT and four-month follow-up consolidation program, as compared to the control group who received only pre-post-and-follow-up measurements. All participants measured Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ⅱ) and Self-control Scale (SCS) at three time points: baseline, post-training, and four-month follow-up. The dropout rates were 6 (8.1%) in the intervention group and 3 (4.1%) in the control group at the end of six-month intervention. The general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that comparing with the control group, the intervention group participants had more increase in their trait self-control score, at the meantime, their depressive symptoms had significantly improved. Univariate and logistic regression analyses revealed that participants with milder baseline depressive symptoms were more likely to benefit from CSCT interventions; depression improvement was also associated with the number of sessions attended. The main limitation was related to the small sample size which consisted of college students who were relatively young and well educated. The current study demonstrates that CSCT program could temporarily enhance self-control capacity as well as improve depressive symptoms; participants who are mildly to moderately depressed, and who could adhere to the training protocol are more likely to benefit from the intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, H; Erkin, G; Nalbant, L

    2013-12-01

    Studies investigating depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with CP and related factors are limited, and controversial findings are reported in these studies. The study was aimed to determine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to define factors related to depression and anxiety levels. A descriptive study. Outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of an education and research hospital. The study was composed of two groups: group 1, 116 mothers of children with CP and group 2, 114 mothers of healthy children. Mothers of children with spastic-type CP were included into group 1. Functional levels in children with CP were investigated with The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Depression levels of mothers in both groups were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety levels with Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). BDI and BAI scores were statistically and significantly higher in group 1, compared to group 2. Among mothers in group 1, a positive correlation was determined between GMFCS score, and depression and anxiety levels. However, no correlation was detected between depression and anxiety levels, and body involvement of CP, education status, age and economic level among patients. In logistic regression analysis, the most significant risk factors of depressive symptoms were detected to be GMFCS score and speech defects. Our findings indicate that depression and anxiety levels of mothers with CP children are higher than those with healthy children and associated with speech defects and functional disability levels in children with CP. Healthcare professionals should take into account that depression and anxiety levels may be higher in mothers of children with CP. For an effective rehabilitation program related to children with CP, depression and anxiety levels in mothers of such children should be taken into account, and mothers should closely be followed and if

  7. Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (Melcalin hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values depression, anxietyand stress symptoms, daily supplementation with a hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.

  8. Validation of laughter for diagnosis and evaluation of depression.

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    Navarro, J; del Moral, R; Alonso, M F; Loste, P; Garcia-Campayo, J; Lahoz-Beltra, R; Marijuán, P C

    2014-05-01

    In the medical field, laughter has been studied for its beneficial effects on health and as a therapeutic method to prevent and treat major medical diseases. However, very few works, if any, have explored the predictive potential of laughter and its potential use as a diagnostic tool. We registered laughs of depressed patients (n=30) and healthy controls (n=20), in total 934 laughs (517 from patients and 417 from controls). All patients were tested by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The processing was made in Matlab, with calculation of 8 variables per laugh plosive. General and discriminant analysis distinguished patients, controls, gender, and the association between laughter and HDRS test. Depressed patients and healthy controls differed significantly on the type of laughter, with 88% efficacy. According to the Hamilton scale, 85.47% of the samples were correctly classified in males, and 66.17% in women, suggesting a tight relationship between laughter and the depressed condition. (i) The compilation of humorous videos created to evoke laughter implied quite variable chances of laughter production. (ii) Some laughing subjects might not feel comfortable when recording. (iii) Evaluation of laughter episodes depended on personal inspection of the records. (iv) Sample size was relatively small and may not be representative of the general population afflicted by depression. Laughter may be applied as a diagnostic tool in the onset and evolution of depression and, potentially, of neuropsychiatric pathologies. The sound structures of laughter reveal the underlying emotional and mood states in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metacognitions and emotional schemas: a new cognitive perspective for the distinction between unipolar and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Sedat; Ulusoy Kaymak, Semra; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Clinicians need to make the differential diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar depression to guide their treatment choices. Looking at the differences observed in the metacognitions, and the emotional schemas, might help with this differentiation, and might provide information about the distinct psychotherapeutical targets. Three groups of subjects (166 unipolar depressed, 140 bipolar depressed, and 151 healthy controls) were asked to fill out the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS). The clinicians diagnosed the volunteers according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR with a structured clinical interview (MINI), and rated the moods of the subjects with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Statistical analyses were undertaken to identify the group differences on the MCQ-30, and the LESS. The bipolar and unipolar depressed patients' scores on the MCQ-30 were significantly different from the healthy controls, but not from each other. On the LESS dimensions of guilt, duration, blame, validation, and acceptance of feelings, all three groups significantly differed from each other. There were no statistically different results on the LESS dimensions of comprehensibility, consensus, and expression. The mood disordered groups scored significantly different than the healthy controls on the LESS dimensions of simplistic view of emotions, numbness, rationality, rumination, higher values, and control. These results suggest that the metacognitive model of unipolar depression might be extrapolated for patients with bipolar depression. These results are also compatible to a great extent with the emotional schema theory of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (S) levels in medicated patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-04-05

    There is accumulating evidence regarding gender differences in clinical symptoms or response to antidepressants in patients with depression. However, less attention has been given to sex differences in the underlying biological mechanisms of depression. The adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S), play a critical role in controlling affect, mood, and anxiety. Changes in serum adrenal androgen levels have been reported in conditions pertaining to stress as well as in psychiatric disorders. The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in serum levels of adrenal androgens in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 90 inpatients with MDD at the psychiatric ward of Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital who were receiving antidepressants. Serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were assessed at the time of admission. Matched controls (based on sex and age) included 128 healthy individuals. First, data from male and female MDD patients and controls were compared. Second, correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients with MDD were assessed by gender. In addition, effects of various factors on adrenal androgens were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Serum DHEA levels were significantly increased in both male and female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum levels of DHEA-S in male patients were significantly decreased compared with male controls, whereas no significant differences were seen in female patients and controls. No significant correlations among adrenal androgens were observed in male patients with MDD, whereas significant positive correlations were found in both male and female controls. No significant correlations were seen between adrenal androgens and HAM-D scores in male or female patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that both hormones were affected by the age

  11. Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed.

  12. Autobiographical memory specificity in response to verbal and pictorial cues in clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Nathan; Dritschel, Barbara; Matthews, Keith; O'Carroll, Ronan

    2016-06-01

    Depressed individuals have been consistently shown to exhibit problems in accessing specific memories of events from their past and instead tend to retrieve categorical summaries of events. The majority of studies examining autobiographical memory changes associated with psychopathology have tended to use word cues, but only one study to date has used images (with PTSD patients). to determine if using images to cue autobiographical memories would reduce the memory specificity deficit exhibited by patients with depression in comparison to healthy controls. Twenty-five clinically depressed patients and twenty-five healthy controls were assessed on two versions of the autobiographical memory test; cued with emotional words and images. Depressed patients retrieved significantly fewer specific memories, and a greater number of categorical, than did the controls. Controls retrieved a greater proportion of specific memories to images compared to words, whereas depressed patients retrieved a similar proportion of specific memories to both images and words. no information about the presence and severity of past trauma was collected. results suggest that the overgeneral memory style in depression generalises from verbal to pictorial cues. This is important because retrieval to images may provide a more ecologically valid test of everyday memory experiences than word-cued retrieval.. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivational and Emotional Influences on Cognitive Control in Depression: A Pupillometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Neil P.; Siegle, Greg J.; Mandell, Darcy

    2014-01-01

    Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks, however under certain conditions they show intact cognitive performance with physiological reactivity consistent with needing to recruit additional cognitive control. We hypothesize that this apparent compensation is driven by the presence of affective processes (e.g., state anxiety) which in turn are moderated by the depressed individual’s motivational state. Clarifying these processes may help researchers identify targets for treatment that if addressed may improve depressed patients’ cognitive functioning. To test this hypothesis, 36 participants with unipolar depression and 36 never-depressed controls completed a problem-solving task modified to elicit anxiety. Participants completed measures of motivation, anxiety, sadness, and rumination, while pupillary responses were continuously measured during problem-solving as an index of cognitive control. Anxiety increased throughout the task for all participants, while both sadness and rumination were decreased during the task. In addition, anxiety more strongly affected planning accuracy in depressed participants relative to controls, regardless of participants’ levels of motivation. In contrast, differential effects of anxiety on pupillary responses were observed as a function of depressed participants’ levels of motivation. Consistent with behavioral results, less-motivated and anxious depressed participants demonstrated smaller pupillary responses, whereas more highly-motivated and anxious depressed participants demonstrated larger pupillary responses than controls. Strong effects of sadness and rumination on cognitive control in depression were not observed. Thus, we conclude that anxiety inhibits the recruitment of cognitive control in depression and that a depressed individual’s motivational state determines, in part, whether they are able to compensate by recruiting additional cognitive control. PMID:25280561

  14. Visual Perception during Mirror-Gazing at One’s Own Face in Patients with Depression

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    Giovanni B. Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal observers, gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the apparition of strange faces. Observers see distortions of their own faces, but they often see hallucinations like monsters, archetypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In this research, patients with depression were compared to healthy controls with respect to strange-face apparitions. The experiment was a 7-minute mirror-gazing test (MGT under low illumination. When the MGT ended, the experimenter assessed patients and controls with a specifically designed questionnaire and interviewed them, asking them to describe strange-face apparitions. Apparitions of strange faces in the mirror were very reduced in depression patients compared to healthy controls. Depression patients compared to healthy controls showed shorter duration of apparitions; minor number of strange faces; lower self-evaluation rating of apparition strength; lower self-evaluation rating of provoked emotion. These decreases in depression may be produced by deficits of facial expression and facial recognition of emotions, which are involved in the relationship between the patient (or the patient’s ego and his face image (or the patient’s bodily self that is reflected in the mirror.

  15. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  16. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  17. The structure and dimensionality of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR) in patients with depressive disorders and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Klaas J.; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J.; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    Background: The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR) is a widely used but heterogeneous measure of depression severity. Insight in its factor structure and dimensionality could help to develop more homogeneous IDS-SR subscales. However previous factoranalytical studies have

  18. A survey study comparing young adults with MS and healthy controls on self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer Uccelli, Michele; Traversa, Silvia; Ponzio, Michela

    2016-09-15

    Studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) report low levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem, high levels of anxiety and depression and reduced quality of life. The study aims to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life in young adults with MS and to compare them to a healthy control group. The age range for inclusion in the study was between 18 and 35years of age for both groups. Subjects with MS were recruited through the Italian MS Society. Healthy controls were recruited through social media and from a university undergraduate program. Subjects completed an anonymous online questionnaire combining various scales. Group differences on demographic data were assessed using parametric and non-parametric tests. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to evaluate differences between the two groups on scales of self-perception, mood and quality of life, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Eighty-nine subjects with MS and 109 HC were included in the analysis. ANCOVA failed to demonstrate statistically significant differences between groups on self-esteem (F=0.11, p=0.743), self-efficacy (F=2.22, p=0.138), mood (anxiety F=0.03, p=0.855; depression F=0.06, p=0.812) and quality of life (F=0.08, p=0.772). This study demonstrated that young adults with MS and healthy controls have similar levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy and that they do not differ significantly on measures of mood and quality of life, as previously reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Accuracy of automated classification of major depressive disorder as a function of symptom severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamannar Ramasubbu, MD, FRCPC, MSc

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Binary linear SVM classifiers achieved significant classification of very severe depression with resting-state fMRI, but the contribution of brain measurements may have limited potential in differentiating patients with less severe depression from healthy controls.

  20. Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Ruixue Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that gut probiotics play a major role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Probiotics may be essential to people with depression, which remains a global health challenge, as depression is a metabolic brain disorder. However, the efficacy of probiotics for depression is controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the existing evidence on the effect of probiotics-based interventions on depression. Randomized, controlled trials, identified through screening multiple databases and grey literature, were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software using a fixed-effects model. The meta-analysis showed that probiotics significantly decreased the depression scale score (MD (depressive disorder = −0.30, 95% CI (−0.51–−0.09, p = 0.005 in the subjects. Probiotics had an effect on both the healthy population (MD = −0.25, 95% CI (−0.47–−0.03, p = 0.03 and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD (MD = −0.73, 95% CI (−1.37–−0.09, p = 0.03. Probiotics had an effect on the population aged under 60 (MD = −0.43, 95% CI (−0.72–−0.13, p = 0.005, while it had no effect on people aged over 65 (MD = −0.18, 95% CI (−0.47–0.11, p = 0.22. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis with the goal of determining the effect of probiotics on depression. We found that probiotics were associated with a significant reduction in depression, underscoring the need for additional research on this potential preventive strategy for depression.

  1. Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exebio Joel C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low diet quality and depression symptoms are independently associated with poor glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, the relationship between them is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between diet quality and symptoms of depression among Cuban-Americans with and without T2D living in South Florida. Methods Subjects (n = 356 were recruited from randomly selected mailing list. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05 score. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Both linear and logistic regression analyses were run to determine whether or not these two variables were related. Symptoms of depression was the dependent variable and independent variables included HEI-05, gender, age, marital status, BMI, education level, A1C, employment status, depression medication, duration of diabetes, and diabetes status. Analysis of covariance was used to test for interactions among variables. Results An interaction between diabetes status, gender and HEI-05 was found (P = 0.011. Among males with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, those with T2D had a higher mean BDI score than those without T2D (11.6 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.028. Among males and females with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, females without T2D had a higher mean BDI score compared to males without T2D (11.0 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.012 Conclusions Differences in symptoms of depression according to diabetes status and gender are found in Cuban-Americans with low diet quality.

  2. Peripheral blood microRNA and VEGFA mRNA changes following electroconvulsive therapy: implications for psychotic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolshus, E; Ryan, K M; Blackshields, G; Smyth, P; Sheils, O; McLoughlin, D M

    2017-12-01

    MicroRNAs are short, non-coding molecules that regulate gene expression. Here, we investigate the role of microRNAs in depression and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We performed three studies: a deep sequencing discovery-phase study of miRNA changes in whole blood following ECT (n = 16), followed by a validation study in a separate cohort of patients pre-/post-ECT (n = 37) and matched healthy controls (n = 34). Changes in an experimentally validated gene target (VEGFA) were then analysed in patients pre-/post-ECT (n = 97) and in matched healthy controls (n = 53). In the discovery-phase study, we found no statistically significant differences in miRNA expression from baseline to end of treatment in the group as a whole, but post hoc analysis indicated a difference in patients with psychotic depression (n = 3). In a follow-up validation study, patients with psychotic depression (n = 7) had elevated baseline levels of miR-126-3p (t = 3.015, P = 0.006) and miR-106a-5p (t = 2.598, P = 0.025) compared to healthy controls. Following ECT, these differences disappeared. Baseline VEGFA levels were significantly higher in depressed patients compared to healthy controls (F(1,144) = 27.688, P = <0.001). Following ECT, there was a significant change in VEGFA levels in the psychotic group only (t = 2.915, P = 0.010). Molecular differences (miRNA and VEGFA) may exist between psychotic and non-psychotic depression treated with ECT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Attachment style moderates theory of mind abilities in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Liedtke, Carla; Kohl, Waldemar; Alferink, Judith; Kret, Mariska Esther

    2017-04-15

    Being able to understand other people's emotions and intentions is crucial for social interactions and well-being. Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) functioning hamper this ability and have been observed in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results of previous research in depression have been inconclusive, possibly due to the presence of comorbid disorders and the disregarding of other modulating factors. Thirty-eight patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) and forty healthy matched controls were assessed with a ToM task using animated triangles. Results were correlated with attachment styles, empathy abilities and neurocognitive performance. Our findings show that 1) healthy female controls performed significantly stronger on the ToM task than female MDD patients, 2) these performance differences were driven by attachment styles and 3) depression severity did not impact task performance. The pharmacological treatment of the majority of patients might limit the generalizability of this study. Results indicate a gender-specific impact of attachment styles on ToM performance. Future studies should investigate whether impairments in social cognitive tasks pose a risk factor for depression and/or interactional styles or vice versa. Moreover, with regard to remediation programs gender-specific needs should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Revisiting the tryptophan-serotonin deficiency and the inflammatory hypotheses of major depression in a biopsychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Baranyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify important biopsychosocial correlates of major depression. Biological mechanisms, including the inflammatory and the tryptophan-serotonin deficiency hypotheses of major depression, were investigated alongside health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, and social support. Methods The concentrations of plasma tryptophan, plasma kynurenine, plasma kynurenic acid, serum quinolinic acid, and the tryptophan breakdown to kynurenine were determined alongside health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Form, SF-36, life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, FLZ, and social support (Social Support Survey, SSS in 71 depressive patients at the time of their in-patient admittance and 48 healthy controls. Results Corresponding with the inflammatory hypothesis of major depression, our study results suggest a tryptophan breakdown to kynurenine in patients with major depression, and depressive patients had a lower concentration of neuroprotective kynurenic acid in comparison to the healthy controls (Mann–Whitney-U: 1315.0; p = 0.046. Contradicting the inflammatory theory, the concentrations of kynurenine (t: −0.945; df = 116; p = 0.347 and quinolinic acid (Mann-Whitney-U: 1376.5; p = 0.076 in depressive patients were not significantly different between depressed and healthy controls. Our findings tend to support the tryptophan-serotonin deficiency hypothesis of major depression, as the deficiency of the serotonin precursor tryptophan in depressive patients (t: −3.931; df = 116; p < 0.001 suggests dysfunction of serotonin neurotransmission. A two-step hierarchical linear regression model showed that low tryptophan concentrations, low social support (SSS, occupational requirements (FLZ, personality traits (FLZ, impaired physical role (SF-36, and impaired vitality (SF-36 predict higher Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II scores. Discussion Our study results

  5. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so.

  6. [Evaluation of mimetic expression of schizophrenic and depressed patients by the psychiatrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Mattes, R; Adam, B; Heimann, H

    1992-01-01

    Facial videos of schizophrenic and depressive patients and of healthy controls when watching both funny and horror films and during emotionally positive or negative interviews were rated by psychiatrists (experts) and students (novices). The observers' task was to rate joy, fear, sadness, and expressivity on a 7-point unipolar intensity scale. The soundless facial videos were presented to each observer for exactly 2.5 min. The observer groups did not differ significantly in their ratings except for sadness. Psychiatrists consistently rated expressed sadness as less intense than students. Facial expressivity and joy were rated as less intense in both patient groups in comparison with healthy controls. Depressives expressed significantly more sadness.

  7. The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we

  8. The value of an implicit self-associative measure specific to core beliefs of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Roefs, A.; Arntz, A.; van Teeseling, H.C.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: The present study examined differences in explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem between depressed patients and healthy controls using an indirect measurement procedure especially adapted to measure self-esteem aspects of core beliefs of depression. Furthermore, we

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) levels in post-mortem brain tissue from patients with depression compared to healthy individuals 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M

    2017-01-01

    The neurotrophic factors (NTF) hypothesis of depression was postulated nearly a decade ago and is nowadays widely acknowledged. Previous reports suggest that cerebral concentrations of NTF may be reduced in suicide victims who received minimal or no antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Recent evidence...... and nucleus caudatus) of 21 individuals - 7 patients of which 4 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and overall age 86.8±5 years who received antidepressant pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRI]; tricyclic antidepressants [TCA]), 3 patients with MDD without antidepressant...... medication compared to MDD untreated patients and controls. Moreover, we detected a significant decrease of NT3 levels in the parietal cortex of patients suffering from MDD non-treated patients without treatment compared to healthy individuals. Although the limited statistical power due to the small sample...

  10. Depression is not associated with diabetes control in minority elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Golden, Sherita Hill; Teresi, Jeanne A; Palmas, Walter; Trief, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven; Manly, Jennifer J; Luchsinger, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal association of depression, with and without cognitive dysfunction, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in a predominantly minority cohort. There were 613 participants. Presence of depression was defined by a score ≥7 on the Short-CARE depression scale. We tested participants for executive dysfunction using the Color Trails Test (CTT), part 2, and for memory dysfunction using the total recall task of the Selective Reminding Test (TR-SRT). We classified performance in these tests as abnormal based on standardized score cutoffs (<16th percentile and one standard deviation below the sample mean). Random effects models were used to compare repeated measures of the diabetes control measures between those with depression versus those without depression and ever versus never cognitively impaired. Baseline depression was present in 36% of participants. Over a median follow-up of 2 years, depression was not related to worse HbA1c, SBP, or LDL. The presence of (1) abnormal performance on a test of executive function and depression (n=57) or (2) abnormal performance on a test of verbal recall and depression (n=43) was also not associated with clinically significant worse change in diabetes control. Depression, with or without low performance in tests of executive function and memory, may not affect clinically significant measures of diabetes control in the elderly. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Mental state decoding impairment in major depression and borderline personality disorder: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Mara J; Unoka, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    Patients with major depression and borderline personality disorder are characterised by a distorted perception of other people's intentions. Deficits in mental state decoding are thought to be the underlying cause of this clinical feature. To examine, using meta-analysis, whether mental state decoding abilities in patients with major depression and borderline personality disorder differ from those of healthy controls. A systematic review of 13 cross-sectional studies comparing Reading in the Mind of the Eyes Test (RMET) accuracy performance of patients with major depression or borderline personality disorder and healthy age-matched controls (n = 976). Valence scores, where reported, were also assessed. Large significant deficits were seen for global RMET performance in patients with major depression (d = -0.751). The positive RMET valence scores of patients with depression were significantly worse; patients with borderline personality disorder had worse neutral scores. Both groups were worse than controls. Moderator analysis revealed that individuals with comorbid borderline personality disorder and major depression did better than those with borderline personality disorder alone on accuracy. Those with comorbid borderline personality disorder and any cluster B or C personality disorder did worse than borderline personality disorder alone. Individuals with both borderline personality disorder and major depression performed better then those with borderline personality disorder without major depression for positive valence. These findings highlight the relevance of RMET performance in patients with borderline personality disorder and major depression, and the importance of considering comorbidity in future analysis. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Anhedonia in depressed patients on treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant--A two-centered study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Anne; Chin, Soo Cheng; Hashim, Aili Hanim bt; Harbajan Singh, Manveen Kaur A P; Loh, Huai Seng; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Ng, Chong Guan

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia is the reduced ability to experience pleasure. It is a core symptom of depression and is particularly difficult to treat. This study aims to compare the level of anhedonia between depressed patients on anti-depressants and healthy subjects. A total of 111 depressed patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and 82 healthy subjects were recruited from the outpatient psychiatric services at two major general hospitals in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0.0 or MINI, Beck's Depression Index (BDI), and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS). Relevant personal and sociodemographic information were also collected. There was a significant association between educational level and SHAPS-M scores (P depressed subjects treated with anti-depressant compared with the healthy subjects, after adjusting the confounding factors, BDI score, and educational level. Anhedonia often persists in depressed patients despite on SSRI anti-depressant treatment.

  13. Accuracy of automated classification of major depressive disorder as a function of symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubbu, Rajamannar; Brown, Matthew R G; Cortese, Filmeno; Gaxiola, Ismael; Goodyear, Bradley; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M; Greiner, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence documents the potential of machine learning for developing brain based diagnostic methods for major depressive disorder (MDD). As symptom severity may influence brain activity, we investigated whether the severity of MDD affected the accuracies of machine learned MDD-vs-Control diagnostic classifiers. Forty-five medication-free patients with DSM-IV defined MDD and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. Based on depression severity as determined by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), MDD patients were sorted into three groups: mild to moderate depression (HRSD 14-19), severe depression (HRSD 20-23), and very severe depression (HRSD ≥ 24). We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during both resting-state and an emotional-face matching task. Patients in each of the three severity groups were compared against controls in separate analyses, using either the resting-state or task-based fMRI data. We use each of these six datasets with linear support vector machine (SVM) binary classifiers for identifying individuals as patients or controls. The resting-state fMRI data showed statistically significant classification accuracy only for the very severe depression group (accuracy 66%, p = 0.012 corrected), while mild to moderate (accuracy 58%, p = 1.0 corrected) and severe depression (accuracy 52%, p = 1.0 corrected) were only at chance. With task-based fMRI data, the automated classifier performed at chance in all three severity groups. Binary linear SVM classifiers achieved significant classification of very severe depression with resting-state fMRI, but the contribution of brain measurements may have limited potential in differentiating patients with less severe depression from healthy controls.

  14. The Comparison of Ankle Muscles Isometric Strength and Foot Eversion in Male Individuals with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome and Healthy Peers: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mazloum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proximal and distal factors to the knee joint can be assumed as etiology of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Some distal factors include excessive foot pronation and medial tibia torsion. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle musculature strength and rearfoot eversion in individuals with and without PFPS. Methods: Forty males (20 healthy and 20 patients voluntarily participated in this case-control study. Isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion range of motion (ROM, and Navicular depression were respectively evaluated by handheld dynamometer, goniometry, and Navicular Drop Test by a single examiner for both groups. To analyze the measurements, Independent Samples t test for parametric data and Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data at P0.05. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between patients with PFPS and healthy counterparts regarding rearfoot eversion and Navicular depression (P>0.05. Conclusion: It can be deduced that isometric ankle dorsiflexor and invertor muscles strength, rearfoot eversion ROM, and foot pronation are not difference in patients with PFPS and healthy persons. 

  15. Weak reward source memory in depression reflects blunted activation of VTA/SN and parahippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Daniel G.; Dobbins, Ian G.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2013-01-01

    Reward responses in the medial temporal lobes and dopaminergic midbrain boost episodic memory formation in healthy adults, and weak memory for emotionally positive material in depression suggests this mechanism may be dysfunctional in major depressive disorder (MDD). To test this hypothesis, we performed a study in which unmedicated adults with MDD and healthy controls encoded drawings paired with reward or zero tokens during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a recognition test, parti...

  16. Computerized tomography of the brain in senile depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Yoshitaka

    1995-01-01

    Brain CT was performed on 33 senile depression patients. Sixteen healthy volunteers served as controls. The correlation between changes of brain CT findings and mental symtoms was also studied. The CT findings were assessed by visual, linear, and two-dimensional methods, and mental symptoms were assessed according to Hamilton's Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression. Arophic changes were observed in the bilateral frontal lobe and left basal ganglia areas. The correlation between severity of atrophy and mental symptom profile of depression was suggested. Depression patients, especially with marked atrophy in the frontal lobe, were prone to be indifferent to their job and hobby, to depress psychomotor, and to show marked physical symptoms. The atrophic sites observed in depression patients were also common in dementia, suggesting the correlation between senile depression and dementia. (S.Y.)

  17. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Alterations of serum macro-minerals and trace elements are associated with major depressive disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Islam, Md Reazul; Shalahuddin Qusar, M M A; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Kabir, Md Humayun; Mustafizur Rahman, G K M; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasnat, Abul

    2018-04-10

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mixed disorder with the highly irregular course, inconsistent response to treatment and has no well-known mechanism for the pathophysiology. Major causes of depression are genetic, neurobiological, and environmental. However, over the past few years, altered serum levels of macro-minerals (MM) and trace elements (TE) have been recognized as major causative factors to the pathogenesis of many mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum levels of MM (calcium and magnesium) and TE (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc) in MDD patients and find out their associations with depression risk. This prospective case-control study recruited 247 patients and 248 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex. The serum levels of MM and TE were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t-tests and Pearson's correlation test. We found significantly decreased concentrations of calcium and magnesium, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in MDD patients compared with control subjects (p < 0.05). But the concentration of copper was significantly increased in the patients than control subjects (p < 0.05). Data obtained from different inter-element relations in MDD patients and control subjects strongly suggest that there is a disturbance in the element homeostasis. Our study suggests that altered serum concentrations of MM and TE are major contributing factors for the pathogenesis of MDD. Alterations of these elements in serum levels of MDD patients arise independently and they may provide a prognostic tool for the assessment of depression risk.

  19. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  20. Dysfunctional attitudes and 5-HT2 receptors during depression and self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jeffrey H; McMain, Shelley; Kennedy, Sidney H; Korman, Lorne; Brown, Gregory M; DaSilva, Jean N; Wilson, Alan A; Blak, Thomas; Eynan-Harvey, Rahel; Goulding, Verdell S; Houle, Sylvain; Links, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Dysfunctional attitudes are negatively biased assumptions and beliefs regarding oneself, the world, and the future. In healthy subjects, increasing serotonin (5-HT) agonism with a single dose of d-fenfluramine lowered dysfunctional attitudes. To investigate whether the converse, a low level of 5-HT agonism, could account for the higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes observed in patients with major depression or with self-injurious behavior, cortex 5-HT(2) receptor binding potential and dysfunctional attitudes were measured in patients with major depressive disorder, patients with a history of self-injurious behavior, and healthy comparison subjects (5-HT(2) receptor density increases during 5-HT depletion). Twenty-nine healthy subjects were recruited to evaluate the effect of d-fenfluramine or of clonidine (control condition) on dysfunctional attitudes. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed with the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale 1 hour before and 1 hour after drug administration. In a second experiment, dysfunctional attitudes and 5-HT(2) binding potential were measured in 22 patients with a major depressive episode secondary to major depressive disorder, 18 patients with a history of self-injurious behavior occurring outside of a depressive episode, and another 29 age-matched healthy subjects. Cortex 5-HT(2) binding potential was measured with [(18)F]setoperone positron emission tomography. In the first experiment, dysfunctional attitudes decreased after administration of d-fenfluramine. In the second experiment, in the depressed group, dysfunctional attitudes were positively associated with cortex 5-HT(2) binding potential, especially in Brodmann's area 9 (after adjustment for age). Depressed subjects with extremely dysfunctional attitudes had higher 5-HT(2) binding potential, compared to healthy subjects, particularly in Brodmann's area 9. Low levels of 5-HT agonism in the brain cortex may explain the severely pessimistic, dysfunctional attitudes associated

  1. Cognition and HPA axis reactivity in mildly to moderately depressed outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Videbech, Poul; Renvillard, Signe Groth

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with depression display neurobiological changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis as well as cognitive disturbances. Aims: To assess any association between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and memory-related cognitive functions. Methods: Depressed...... the following day at the same times. Results: Patients and controls did not differ on any memory-related cognitive skills. After dexamethasone the cortisol level was 1.7 nmol/l higher (95% CI 0.0-2.8, P =¿0.05) in depressed patients compared with controls. In the control group, but not in the patients...... after dexamethasone and visuo-spatial memory primarily driven by the healthy controls. Otherwise, no association were found between HPA axis reactivity and memory-related cognitive function....

  2. Differentiation between mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and depression by means of cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, E; Engelborghs, S; De Raedt, R; De Deyn, P P; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I

    2007-05-01

    Discriminating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from depression is a challenge in psychogeriatric medicine. A study was set up to ascertain whether cued recall could be useful in differentiating early AD and MCI from depression among elderly individuals. The Visual Association Test (VAT) and the Memory Impairment Screen-plus (MIS-plus) were administered together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to 40 MCI patients, 35 mild AD patients, 46 depressed patients and 52 healthy control subjects. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Scheffé tests showed that AD patients had significantly lower cued recall scores (i.e. combined VAT and MIS-plus scores) than MCI patients, who in turn had lower scores than depressed patients. The scores of depressed patients and controls were not significantly different. Discriminant analysis revealed that 94% of the AD patients and 96% of the depressed patients could be classified correctly by means of the GDS and the cued recall sores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified an optimal cut-off score of 8 (maximum score 12) for differentiating AD and MCI patients from depressed elderly patients and controls. Applying this cut-off, a sensitivity of 83% (58%) and a specificity of 85% (85%) was obtained when differentiating AD (MCI) from depression. Cued recall, operationalized by the combined scores of VAT and MIS-plus, is a useful method for differentiating AD patients from depressed individuals and healthy controls. Probably because of the great heterogeneity among MCI patients, the diagnostic power of cued recall decreases when applied to differentiate MCI from depression.

  3. Nitric Oxide-Related Biological Pathways in Patients with Major Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Baranyi

    Full Text Available Major depression is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality following myocardial infarction. However, biomarkers of depression and increased cardiovascular risk are still missing. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate, whether nitric-oxide (NO related factors for endothelial dysfunction, such as global arginine bioavailability, arginase activity, L-arginine/ADMA ratio and the arginine metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA might be biomarkers for depression-induced cardiovascular risk.In 71 in-patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls the Global Arginine Bioavailability Ratio (GABR, arginase activity (arginine/ornithine ratio, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio, ADMA, and SDMA were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Psychiatric and laboratory assessments were obtained at baseline at the time of in-patient admittance and at the time of hospital discharge.The ADMA concentrations in patients with major depression were significantly elevated and the SDMA concentrations were significantly decreased in comparison with the healthy controls. Even after a first improvement of depression, ADMA and SDMA levels remained nearly unchanged. In addition, after a first improvement of depression at the time of hospital discharge, a significant decrease in arginase activity, an increased L-arginine/ADMA ratio and a trend for increased global arginine bioavailability were observed.Our study results are evidence that in patients with major depression ADMA and SDMA might be biomarkers to indicate an increased cardiovascular threat due to depression-triggered NO reduction. GABR, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio and arginase activity might be indicators of therapy success and increased NO production after remission.

  4. [Time perception in depressed and manic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi-yuan; Ji, Yi-fu; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ping; Jiang, Yu-bao

    2010-02-02

    To investigate the time perception in affective disorders by using neuropsychological tests and to try to elucidate its neurobiochemical mechanism. Using a time reproduction task, a comparative study was conducted for 28 depressive patients, 22 manic patients, and 26 age and education level matched healthy persons as healthy controls. Both depressive patients and manic patients are abnormal (P reproduction task in patients were not related to age, education, duration of illness, number of admission (P > 0.05), but had some relation to severity of illness.And the results were positively correlated with the score of HAMD in depressive patients (six times: r = 0.44, 0.46, 0.73, 0.61, 0.55, 0.50, P < 0.05), but negatively with the score of BRMS in manic patients (six times: r = -0.57, -0.54, -0.71, -0.69, -0.80, -0.71, P < 0.05). Emotion will affect one's time perception. And the neurotransmitter in brain may participate in the processes of time perception.

  5. First evidence for glial pathology in late life minor depression:S100B is increased in males with minor depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna ePolyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Minor depression is diagnosed when a patient suffers from two to four depressive symptoms for at least two weeks. Though minor depression is a widespread phenomenon, its pathophysiology has hardly been studied. To get a first insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder we assessed serum levels of biomarkers for plasticity, glial and neuronal function: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, S100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE. 27 subjects with minor depressive episode and 82 healthy subjects over 60 years of age were selected from the database of the Leipzig population-based study of civilization diseases (LIFE. Serum levels of BDNF, S100B and NSE were compared between groups, and correlated with age, body-mass index, and degree of white matter hyperintensities (score on Fazekas scale. S100B was significantly increased in males with minor depression in comparison to healthy males, whereas other biomarkers did not differ between groups (p=0.10-0.66. NSE correlated with Fazekas score in patients with minor depression (r=0.436, p=0.048 and in the whole sample (r=0.252, p=0.019. S100B correlated with body mass index (r=0.246, p=0.031 and with age in healthy subjects (r=0.345, p=0.002. Increased S100B in males with minor depression, without alterations in BDNF and NSE, supports the glial hypothesis of depression. Correlation between white matter hyperintensities and NSE underscores the vascular hypothesis of late life depression.

  6. Analysis of 18F-FDG PET mapping in malignant tumor patients with depression by SPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Liang; Zuo Chuantao; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Shi Shenxun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate brain 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET mapping in malignant tumor patients with depressive emotion. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET imaging was performed in 21 malignant tumor patients (tumor group) and 21 healthy controls (control group). All were evaluated by self-rating depression scale (SDS)and 24 questions Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD). Results: (1) The standard total score of SDS and HAMD of the tumor group were higher than those of the control group (P 18 F-FDG PET imagings. The abnormalities of glucose metabolism might be related to their depressive emotion. (authors)

  7. Altered neural reward and loss processing and prediction error signalling in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Bettina; Kuehner, Christine; Kirsch, Peter; Ruttorf, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional processing of reward and punishment may play an important role in depression. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown heterogeneous results for reward processing in fronto-striatal regions. We examined neural responsivity associated with the processing of reward and loss during anticipation and receipt of incentives and related prediction error (PE) signalling in depressed individuals. Thirty medication-free depressed persons and 28 healthy controls performed an fMRI reward paradigm. Regions of interest analyses focused on neural responses during anticipation and receipt of gains and losses and related PE-signals. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between neural responsivity during gain/loss processing and hedonic capacity. When compared with healthy controls, depressed individuals showed reduced fronto-striatal activity during anticipation of gains and losses. The groups did not significantly differ in response to reward and loss outcomes. In depressed individuals, activity increases in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens during reward anticipation were associated with hedonic capacity. Depressed individuals showed an absence of reward-related PEs but encoded loss-related PEs in the ventral striatum. Depression seems to be linked to blunted responsivity in fronto-striatal regions associated with limited motivational responses for rewards and losses. Alterations in PE encoding might mirror blunted reward- and enhanced loss-related associative learning in depression. PMID:25567763

  8. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holubova M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients’ lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL. This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients and methods: Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder – dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Results: Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. Conclusion: This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of

  9. Prolidase activity and oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokacya, Mehmet Hanifi; Bahceci, Bulent; Bahceci, Ilkay; Dilek, Aziz Ramazan; Dokuyucu, Recep

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether the serum prolidase levels are associated with the etiopathogenesis of depression. This study included 29 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), who were consecutively recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic, and 30 healthy individuals recruited from the general community. Each patient underwent a detailed diagnostic evaluation by two psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I). Serum prolidase activity and oxidative parameters were measured in the patient and control groups. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Serum prolidase level was significantly higher in patients with MDD compared to healthy subjects (pStress Index (OSI) were also significantly higher in patients with MDD (pstress in patients with MDD. Increased serum prolidase levels in patients with MDD may be interpreted as the interaction of prolidase activity, glutamate transmission and oxidative stress. It is suggested that prolidase activity is involved in the etiopathogenesis of depressive disorder.

  10. Effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood, sleep, and depression in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Rentero-Blanco, Manuel; Laredo-Aguilera, Jose Alberto; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood state, sleep, and depression in older adults. In this study, 52 elderly adults from different areas of Spain participated in a social hydrotherapy programme created by the government's Institute for Elderly and Social Services, known as IMSERSO; participants included 23 men (age, 69.74 ± 5.19 years) and 29 women (age, 70.31 ± 6.76 years). Pain was analyzed using the visual analogue scale. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood Status. Sleep was assessed using the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The balneotherapy programme was undertaken at Balneario San Andrés (Jaén, Spain). The water at Balneario San Andrés, according to the Handbook of Spanish Mineral Water, is a hypothermic (≥20°C) hard water of medium mineralization, with bicarbonate, sulfate, sodium, and magnesium as the dominant ions. Balneotherapy produced significant improvements (P balneotherapy programme has a positive effect on pain, mood, sleep quality, and depression in healthy older people. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  12. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2015-06-01

    This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood). We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism. Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used. Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective Methods for Reliable Detection of Concealed Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia eSolomon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that it is possible to automatically detect clinical depression from audio-visual recordings. Before considering integration in a clinical pathway, a key question that must be asked is whether such systems can be easily fooled. This work explores the potential of acoustic features to detect clinical depression in adults both when acting normally and when asked to conceal their depression. Nine adults diagnosed with mild to moderate depression as per the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were asked a series of questions and to read a excerpt from a novel aloud under two different experimental conditions. In one, participants were asked to act naturally and in the other, to suppress anything that they felt would be indicative of their depression. Acoustic features were then extracted from this data and analysed using paired t-tests to determine any statistically significant differences between healthy and depressed participants. Most features that were found to be significantly different during normal behaviour remained so during concealed behaviour. In leave-one-subject-out automatic classification studies of the 9 depressed subjects and 8 matched healthy controls, an 88% classification accuracy and 89% sensitivity was achieved. Results remained relatively robust during concealed behaviour, with classifiers trained on only non-concealed data achieving 81% detection accuracy and 75% sensitivity when tested on concealed data. These results indicate there is good potential to build deception-proof automatic depression monitoring systems.

  14. Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Related Factors in Turkey: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal-Delialioglu, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Ozel, Sumru; Gorgulu, Gulderen

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to determine whether there was any difference, with respect to depression, between mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and mothers of healthy children. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether some additional factors had an impact on the depression of the mothers. The study included 49…

  15. Sex Differences in Locus of Control, Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkin, Richard A.; And Others

    This experiment investigated: (1) relationships among locus of control, attributional style, and depression; (2) if a depressogenic attributional style could be empirically isolated; and (3) if reliable relationships existed between attribution and depression when depression was operationalized using different instruments. Subjects completed the…

  16. Amygdala Activity During Autobiographical Memory Recall in Depressed and Vulnerable Individuals: Association With Symptom Severity and Autobiographical Overgenerality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, autobiographical memory recall is biased toward positive and away from negative events, while the opposite is found in depressed individuals. This study examined amygdala activity during autobiographical memory recall as a putative mechanism underlying biased memory recall and depressive symptoms in currently depressed adults and two vulnerable populations: individuals remitted from depression and otherwise healthy individuals at high familial risk of developing depression. Identification of such vulnerability factors could enable interception strategies that prevent depression onset. Sixty healthy control subjects, 45 unmedicated currently depressed individuals, 25 unmedicated remitted depressed individuals, and 30 individuals at high familial risk of developing depression underwent functional MRI while recalling autobiographical memories in response to emotionally valenced cue words. Amygdala reactivity and connectivity with anatomically defined amygdala regions were examined. During positive recall, depressed participants exhibited significantly decreased left amygdala activity and decreased connectivity with regions of the salience network compared with the other groups. During negative recall, control subjects had significantly decreased left amygdala activity compared with the other groups, while depressed participants exhibited increased amygdala connectivity with the salience network. In depressed participants, left amygdala activity during positive recall correlated significantly with depression severity (r values >-0.38) and percent of positive specific memories recalled (r values >0.59). The results suggest that left amygdala hyperactivity during negative autobiographical recall is a trait-like marker of depression, as both vulnerable groups showed activity similar to the depressed group, while amygdala hypoactivity during positive autobiographical recall is a state marker of depression manifesting in active disease. Treatments

  17. Comparison of anxiety and depression in patients with acne vulgaris and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchai Javad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units, which chiefly involves face and upper part of the trunk. Its prevalence is highest in adolescence, where the individual counters several psychosocial changes. Depression, suicidal thoughts, and low self esteem are reported in the patients with this disease. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare prevalence of anxiety and depression in the patients with acne vulgaris and normal population. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 82 patients with acne vulgaris and 82 persons without acne who referred to a dermatology clinic and a specialized office for skin diseases in Rasht were studied. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire and severity of acne was evaluated by Global Acne Grading System (GAGS. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 14.0 software, independent T-test, multi variate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and chi-square test for comparison the quantitative and ordinal data, respectively; with α=0.05. Results: Prevalence of anxiety and mean of anxiety scores were 68.3% and 9.17 ± 3.52, respectively, in patients group and 39.1% and 7.10 ± 3.07, respectively, in control group in which there was a significant difference (P = 0.001. Prevalence of depression and mean of depression scores were 25.6% and 5.34 ± 3.29, respectively, in patients group and 28.1% and 5.01 ± 3.32, respectively, in control group in which there was no significant difference. Conclusion: According to high prevalence of anxiety in patients with acne vulgaris, assessment of the screening mental status of the patients by simple questionnaire such as HADS is suggested.

  18. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  19. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario; Nardo, Davide; Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A.; Jacobsson, Hans; Gardner, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  20. Fulfillment of the premenstrual dysphoric disorder criteria confirmed using a self-rating questionnaire among Japanese women with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yoshiko; Akimoto, Yoshie; Ueda, Kayoko; Ujiie, Yuri; Kametani, Machiko; Uchiide, Yoko; Kamo, Toshiko

    2011-05-02

    Some women with depressive disorders experience severe premenstrual symptoms. However, there have been few studies in which premenstrual symptoms in women suffering from depressive disorders were assessed. In this study, we aimed to investigate premenstrual symptoms in women with depressive disorders using the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) scale. We administered questionnaires to 65 Japanese female outpatients who had been diagnosed with a major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder and to 303 healthy women as control subjects. The questionnaire consisted of items on demographics and the PMDD scale, which was modified from the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) developed by Steiner et al. (Arch Womens Ment Health 2003, 6:203-209). Twenty-eight women (43.1%) with depressive disorder fulfilled certain items of the PMDD scale. These women are considered to have coexisting PMDD and a depressive disorder, or to have premenstrual exacerbation (PME) of a depressive disorder. On the other hand, 18 women (5.9%) in the control group were diagnosed as having PMDD. The depressive disorder group who fulfilled the PMDD criteria had more knowledge of the term premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and took more actions to attenuate premenstrual symptoms than the control group with PMDD. Our findings demonstrated that the occurrence of severe premenstrual symptoms is much higher in women with depressive disorders than in healthy subjects. This is partially due to this group containing women with PME, but mainly due to it containing women with PMDD. The higher percentage of PMDD suggests similarity between PMDD and other depressive disorders. Furthermore, educating healthy Japanese women and women with depressive disorders about premenstrual symptoms and evidence-based treatment for them is necessary.

  1. BDNF in late-life depression : Effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Annemarie; Comijs, Hannie C.; Dols, Annemieke; Janzing, Joost G. E.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation

  2. BDNF in late-life depression: effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, A. van der; Comijs, H.C.; Dols, A.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation

  3. BDNF in late-life depression: Effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, A.; Comijs, H.C.; Dols, A.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Voshaar, R.C.O.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation

  4. Weak 24-h periodicity of body temperature and increased plasma vasopressin in melancholic depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Londen, L.; Goekoop, J.G.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Zwindeman, K.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; de Wied, D.

    2001-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that plasma vasopressin levels of depressed patients were higher than those of healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to determine whether plasma vasopressin levels were correlated to parameters of the circadian rhythm. 41 patients with major depression (aged 22-77

  5. GABA+ levels in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensong; Zhang, Aiying; Zhao, Bin; Gan, Jie; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Gong, Tao; Liu, Wen; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of the ACC/mPFC and PCC using the “MEGA Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence” (MEGA-PRESS) technique. The severity of depression was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Quantification of MRS data was performed using Gannet program. Differences of GABA+ levels from patients and controls were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the linear associations between GABA+ levels and HAMD scores, as well as estrogen levels. Results: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were detected in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression compared to healthy controls (P = 0.002). No significant correlations were found between 17-HAMD/14-HAMA and GABA+ levels, either in ACC/mPFC (P = 0.486; r = 0.170/P = 0.814; r = −0.058) or PCC (P = 0.887; r = 0.035/ P = 0.987; r = −0.004) in the patients; there is also no significant correlation between GABA+ levels and estrogen levels in patients group (ACC/mPFC: P = 0.629, r = −0.018; PCC: P = 0.861, r = 0.043). Conclusion: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were found in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression, suggesting that the dysfunction of the GABAergic system may also be involved in the pathogenesis of depression in postmenopausal women. PMID:27684829

  6. Depression-related increases and decreases in appetite reveal dissociable patterns of aberrant activity in reward and interoceptive neurocircuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, W. Kyle; Burrows, Kaiping; Avery, Jason A.; Kerr, Kara L.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savage, Cary R.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Appetite and weight changes are common but variable diagnostic markers in major depressive disorder: some depressed individuals manifest increased appetite, while others lose their appetite. Many of the brain regions implicated in appetitive responses to food have also been implicated in depression. It is thus remarkable that there exists no published research comparing the neural responses to food stimuli of depressed patients with increased versus decreased appetites. Method Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared brain activity in unmedicated depressed patients with increased or decreased appetite, and healthy control subjects, while viewing photographs of food and non-food objects. We also measured how resting-state functional connectivity related to subjects’ food pleasantness ratings. Results Within putative reward regions, depressed participants with increased appetites exhibited greater hemodynamic activity to food stimuli than both those reporting appetite decreases and healthy control subjects. In contrast, depressed subjects experiencing appetite loss exhibited hypoactivation within a region of the mid-insula implicated in interoception, with no difference observed in this region between healthy subjects and those with depression-related appetite increases. Mid-insula activity was negatively correlated with food pleasantness ratings of depressed participants with increased appetites, and its functional connectivity to reward circuitry was positively correlated with food pleasantness ratings. Conclusions Depression-related increases in appetite are associated with hyperactivation of putative mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry, while depression-related appetite loss is associated with hypoactivation of insular regions that support monitoring the body’s physiological state. Importantly, the interactions among these regions also contribute to individual differences in the depression-related appetite changes. PMID:26806872

  7. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does resting-state connectivity reflect depressive rumination? A tale of two analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G; Misic, Bratislav; Buschkuehl, Martin; Kross, Ethan; Deldin, Patricia J; Peltier, Scott; Churchill, Nathan W; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Vakorin, Vasily; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jonides, John

    2014-12-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by rumination. Prior research suggests that resting-state brain activation reflects rumination when depressed individuals are not task engaged. However, no study has directly tested this. Here we investigated whether resting-state epochs differ from induced ruminative states for healthy and depressed individuals. Most previous research on resting-state networks comes from seed-based analyses with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). By contrast, we examined resting state connectivity by using the complete multivariate connectivity profile (i.e., connections across all brain nodes) and by comparing these results to seeded analyses. We find that unconstrained resting-state intervals differ from active rumination states in strength of connectivity and that overall connectivity was higher for healthy vs. depressed individuals. Relationships between connectivity and subjective mood (i.e., behavior) were strongly observed during induced rumination epochs. Furthermore, connectivity patterns that related to subjective mood were strikingly different for MDD and healthy control (HC) groups suggesting different mood regulation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Major depressive disorder alters perception of emotional body movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKaletsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research has shown an association between mood disorders and an altered emotion perception. However, these studies were conducted mainly with stimuli such as faces. This is the first study to examine possible differences in how people with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls perceive emotions expressed via body movements. 30 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls observed video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point–light displays (PLDs. They rated the depicted emotions and judged their confidence in their rating. Results showed that patients with MDD rated the depicted interactions more negatively than healthy controls. They also rated interactions with negative emotionality as being more intense and were more confident in their ratings. It is concluded that patients with MDD exhibit an altered emotion perception compared to healthy controls when rating emotions expressed via body movements depicted in PLDs.

  10. Locus of control and coping strategies in older persons with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkløf, Guro Hanevold; Engedal, Knut; Selbæk, Geir; Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Coutinho, Evandro Silvia Freire; Helvik, Anne-Sofie

    2016-08-01

    To compare locus of control and coping strategies in older persons with and without depression. This cross-sectional study included 144 depressed in-patients from seven psychogeriatric hospital units, and 106 community-dwelling older persons without depression. All participants were 60 years and older. Locus of control was assessed by a 17-items self-report questionnaire with six response categories. Coping strategies were assessed by a 26-items self-report questionnaire with five response categories. For analytical purposes, age (controlling for demographics, health, and social variables, the depressed in-patients showed a higher external locus of control orientation and a less frequent use of problem-focused coping strategies compared with the non-depressed group. No differences in use of emotion-focused strategies were found between the two groups. Compared with the non-depressed old persons, the depressed hospitalized older persons were characterized by perceptions of less personal control, and less use of problem-focused strategies, what also might have brought positive alterations into their situation.

  11. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  12. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals for help. With support and treatment, new mothers with depression can go on to be healthy, happy parents. ... or two, talk to your doctor. A new mother who feels like giving up, who feels that life is not ... depression can last for several months or even longer ...

  13. Efficacy of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy in suicidal patients with major depressive disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingmin; Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Chuan; Lin, Yixuan; Zhou, Hanyu; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effects of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy (PPTBCT) on suicide among depressed patients, compared with a control group who received usual psychological care (UPC). The sample consisted of 32 depressed patients and 32 healthy control subjects. All participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), Beck Depression Inventory, Three-Dimensional Psychological Pain Scale (TDPPS), and Problem Solving Inventory(PSI), and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ). All measures differed significantly between depressed patients and healthy controls. Then clinical participants were assigned randomly to the PPTBCT (n=19) and control (n=13) groups. During the 8-week intervention, scores related to depression, suicidal ideation, psychological pain, and automatic thoughts were decreased in both groups at the post-intervention and 4-week follow-up time points, compared with pre-intervention scores. BSI scores remained low at follow up and did not differ significantly from post-intervention scores in the PPTBCT group, but were significantly higher at follow up than at post-intervention in the control group. PPTBCT may effectively reduce suicide risk in patients with major depressive disorder, although the effects of its application need to be confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... controls. The effect of acute exercise stress on PRL (p=.56) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects. Apart from a decrease in GH response in the strength-training group (p=.03) the pragmatic exercise intervention did not affect resting hormonal levels, or the response to acute exercise...

  15. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations between depressive symptoms and memory deficits vary as a function of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Suhr, Julie; Diebold, Stephanie; Heffner, Kathi L

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an adverse association between depressive symptoms and cognition, but a positive association between insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and cognition. The present study examined the influence of IGF-1 in the relationship between depressive symptoms and learning and memory. A cross-sectional study of 94 healthy fit older adults. Blood was collected and plasma IGF-1 was measured. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and learning and memory were assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Among older adults with lower IGF-1 levels, higher depressive symptoms scores were associated with lower AVLT delayed recall and recognition. Older adults with higher IF-1 levels showed no associations between depressive symptoms and memory. The association between depressive symptoms and cognition is stronger among older adults with lower levels of circulating IGF-1. Further validation studies on groups with depression or different stages of cognitive impairment are needed. IGF-1 may be a novel intervention target for slowing cognitive decline in older adults with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor control assessment of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Eduardo Antunes Bicalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMSThe purpose of this study was to investigate how depressive symptoms mediate different motor control requirements in elderlies and to assess the concurring effects fomented by the interaction between aging and depressive symptoms, providing indirect measures of brain functionality. METHODS Sixty-eight elderlies were paired in terms of age and gender and were equally distributed into depressed and nondepressed groups, according to their score on the Beck Depression Questionnaire. The participants performed the Grooved Pegboard Test placing and withdrawing pegs while execution time and error rate were measured. RESULTS This investigation revealed that depressive symptoms exert a broad effect upon motor control, although that the symptom intensity, as well as the interaction between aging and depression intensity, were exclusively correlated with withdrawal task, suggesting that there is a greater effect upon motor acts with higher frontal lobe requirements. CONCLUSION The discrimination of motor control aspects provides a valuable contribution for the understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of the interaction between aging and depression as it represents an indirect measure of cerebral dysfunction. Further, these findings may still have clinical implications, as they can promote more rational approaches to the elaboration of preventive measures that help maintain the functional capability of depressed elderlies.

  18. Effort-Based Reinforcement Processing and Functional Connectivity Underlying Amotivation in Medicated Patients with Depression and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Ho; Lee, Boung Chul; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Joong Il; Koo, Min-Seung

    2017-04-19

    Amotivation is a common phenotype of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, which are clinically distinct disorders. Effective treatment targets and strategies can be discovered by examining the dopaminergic reward network function underlying amotivation between these disorders. We conducted an fMRI study in healthy human participants and medicated patients with depression and schizophrenia using an effort-based reinforcement task. We examined regional activations related to reward type (positive and negative reinforcement), effort level, and their composite value, as well as resting-state functional connectivities within the meso-striatal-prefrontal pathway. We found that integrated reward and effort values of low effort-positive reinforcement and high effort-negative reinforcement were behaviorally anticipated and represented in the putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex activities. Patients with schizophrenia and depression did not show anticipation-related and work-related reaction time reductions, respectively. Greater amotivation severity correlated with smaller work-related putamen activity changes according to reward type in schizophrenia and effort level in depression. Patients with schizophrenia showed feedback-related putamen hyperactivity of low effort compared with healthy controls and depressed patients. The strength of medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity predicted work-related reaction time reduction of high effort negative reinforcement in healthy controls and amotivation severity in both patients with schizophrenia and those with depression. Patients with depression showed deficient medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity compared with healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. These results indicate that amotivation in depression and schizophrenia involves different pathophysiology in the prefrontal-striatal circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amotivation is present in both depression and schizophrenia

  19. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are more common in individuals with late-onset or late-life depression. It has been proposed that carotid atherosclerosis may predispose to WMLs by inducing cerebral hypoperfusion. This hemodynamic effect of carotid atherosclerosis could be importa...

  20. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in treatment resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart P de Kwaasteniet

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D(2/3 receptor (D2/3R binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [(123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75 in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs.

  1. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely

    2014-02-01

    Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Implicit negative affect predicts attention to sad faces beyond self-reported depressive symptoms in healthy individuals: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Charlott Maria; Skopinceva, Marija; Kersting, Anette; Quirin, Markus; Suslow, Thomas

    2018-04-04

    Cognitive theories of depression assume biased attention towards mood-congruent information as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. Among other symptoms, depression is characterized by excessive negative affect (NA). Yet, little is known about the impact of naturally occurring NA on the allocation of attention to emotional information. The study investigates how implicit and explicit NA as well as self-reported depressive symptoms predict attentional biases in a sample of healthy individuals (N = 104). Attentional biases were assessed using eye-tracking during a free viewing task in which images of sad, angry, happy and neutral faces were shown simultaneously. Participants' implicit affectivity was measured indirectly using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Questionnaires were administered to assess actual and habitual explicit NA and presence of depressive symptoms. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with sustained attention to sad faces and reduced attention to happy faces. Implicit but not explicit NA significantly predicted gaze behavior towards sad faces independently from depressive symptoms. The present study supports the idea that naturally occurring implicit NA is associated with attention allocation to dysphoric facial expression. The findings demonstrate the utility of implicit affectivity measures in studying individual differences in depression-relevant attentional biases and cognitive vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Memory assessment and depression: testing for factor structure and measurement invariance of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition across a clinical and matched control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Between-group comparisons are permissible and meaningfully interpretable only if diagnostic instruments are proved to measure the same latent dimensions across different groups. Addressing this issue, the present study was carried out to provide a rigorous test of measurement invariance. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine which model solution could best explain memory performance as measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) in a clinical depression sample and in healthy controls. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the evidence for measurement invariance. A three-factor model solution including the dimensions of auditory memory, visual memory, and visual working memory was identified to best fit the data in both samples, and measurement invariance was partially satisfied. The results supported clinical utility of the WMS-IV--that is, auditory and visual memory performances of patients with depressive disorders are interpretable on the basis of the WMS-IV standardization data. However, possible differences in visual working memory functions between healthy and depressed individuals could restrict comparisons of the WMS-IV working memory index.

  4. Don’t be too strict with yourself! Rigid negative self-representation in healthy subjects mimics the neurocognitive profile of depression for autobiographical memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSperduti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM comprises representation of specific (episodic and generic personal information (semantic. Depression is characterized by a shift from episodic to semantic AM retrieval (overgeneralization. Theoretical models have proposed that this effect could be linked to reduced executive resources. Moreover, overgeneral memories, accompanied by a negativity bias in depression, lead to a pervasive negative self-representation. Even in non clinical populations executive functions and AM specificity are closely linked, and overgeneral memories could result in depressive emotional responses. We made the hypothesis that healthy subjects showing a rigid negative self-image would mimic the neurocognitive profile of patients. We measured executive functions and the self-image in young healthy subjects, and recorded their brain activity, by means of fMRI, while they retrieved episodic AMs. We report that a more rigid negative self-image corresponds to lower executive functions and less vivid specific memories. Moreover, higher negative self-image is accompanied by attenuated activity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal and in the anterior cingulate cortex, that have been repeatedly shown to exhibit altered functionality in depression. Activity in these regions, on the contrary, positively correlates with executive and memories performances, in agreement with their role in executive functions and AM retrieval. We claim that rigid negative self-image could represent a marker or a vulnerability trait of depression that is linked to reduced executive functions efficiency and to episodic AM decline. Our results are encouraging for psychotherapeutic approaches promoting cognitive flexibility in depression and other psychiatric disorders.

  5. Slow sleep spindle and procedural memory consolidation in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Masaki Nishida,1 Yusaku Nakashima,2 Toru Nishikawa11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Bunkyo, 2Medical Technology Research Laboratory, Research and Development Division, Medical Business Unit, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, JapanIntroduction: Evidence has accumulated, which indicates that, in healthy individuals, sleep enhances procedural memory consolidation, and that sleep spindle activity modulates this process. However, whether sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation occurs in patients medicated for major depressive disorder remains unclear, as are the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms that underlie this process.Methods: Healthy control participants (n=17 and patients medicated for major depressive disorder (n=11 were recruited and subjected to a finger-tapping motor sequence test (MST; nondominant hand paradigm to compare the averaged scores of different learning phases (presleep, postsleep, and overnight improvement. Participants' brain activity was recorded during sleep with 16 electroencephalography channels (between MSTs. Sleep scoring and frequency analyses were performed on the electroencephalography data. Additionally, we evaluated sleep spindle activity, which divided the spindles into fast-frequency spindle activity (12.5–16 Hz and slow-frequency spindle activity (10.5–12.5 Hz.Result: Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with depression was impaired in comparison with that in control participants. In patients with depression, age correlated negatively with overnight improvement. The duration of slow-wave sleep correlated with the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Slow-frequency spindle activity was associated with reduction in the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in both groups.Conclusion: Because the changes in slow

  6. Impact of family history and depression on amygdala volume.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleh, Karim

    2012-07-30

    Family history of depression significantly impacts life-long depression risk. Family history could impact the stress and emotion regulation system that involves the amygdala. This study\\'s purpose was to investigate family history\\'s effect on amygdala volumes, and differences in first degree relatives with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants, aged 18-65, were healthy volunteers (N=52) with (n=26) and without (n=26) first degree family history, and patients with MDD (N=48) with (n=27) and without (n=21)first-degree family history recruited for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants underwent clinical assessment followed by manual amygdala tracing. Patients with MDD without family history showed significantly larger right amygdala without a family history of MDD. These effects had larger right amygdala than healthy controls without MDD family history. These effects were pronounced in females. Family history and gender impacted amygdala volumes in all participants, providing a rationale for the inconsistent results in MDD amygdala studies. Higher familial risk in depression seems to be associated with smaller amygdala volumes, whereas depression alone is associated with larger amygdala volumes. Ultimately, these findings highlight consideration of family history and gender in research and treatment strategies.

  7. The predictive value of somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms for cytokine changes in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannehl K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Dannehl,1 Winfried Rief,1 Markus J Schwarz,2 Annika Hennings,1 Sabine Riemer,1 Verena Selberdinger,3 Theresa Stapf,3 Frank Euteneuer11Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, GermanyContext: Elevated concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines have been hypothesized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of depression. Depression itself is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder. Current findings suggest that “cognitive” and “somatic” symptom dimensions are related to immune function in different ways. So far, little research has been done on the longitudinal aspects of inflammation in patients with major depression, especially with respect to different symptom dimensions of depression. Therefore, we investigated which aspects of depression may predict changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL-6 over 4 weeks. Methods: Forty-one patients with major depression diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum measurements of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were conducted at baseline and 4 weeks later. Psychometric measures included the assessment of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms during the last 7 days as well as somatic symptoms during the last 2 years. Results: Patients with depression showed increased levels of TNF-alpha (P<0.05 compared to healthy controls. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that neither depressive nor somatic symptoms predict changes in proinflammatory cytokines in the whole sample of depressed patients. Moderation analyses and subsequent sex-stratified regression analyses indicated that higher somatoform symptoms during the last 2 years

  8. P2-23: Deficits on Preference but Not Attention in Patients with Depression: Evidence from Gaze Cue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaze is an important social cue and can easily capture attention. Our preference judgment is biased by others' gaze; that is, we prefer objects gazed by happy or neutral faces and dislike objects gazed by disgust faces. Since patients with depression have a negative bias in emotional perception, we hypothesized that they may have different preference judgment on the gazed objects than healthy controls. Twenty-one patients with major depressive disorder and 21 healthy age-matched controls completed an object categorization task and then rated their preference on those objects. In the categorization task, a schematic face either gazed toward or away from the to-be-categorized object. The results showed that both groups categorized faster for gazed objects than non-gazed objects, suggesting that patients did not have deficits on their attention to gaze cues. Nevertheless, healthy controls preferred gazed objects more than non-gazed objects, while patients did not have significant preference. Our result indicated that patients with depression have deficits on their social cognition rather than basic attentional mechanism.

  9. Impulsive choice and psychological pain in acutely suicidal depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; Durand, Dante; Cortes, Edmi; Prendes-Alvarez, Stefania; Moskovciak, Tori; Harvey, Philip D; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Despite identification of several risk factors, suicide prediction and prevention is still a clinical challenge. Suicide can be seen as a consequence of poor decision making triggered by overwhelming psychological pain. We examined the relationship of choice impulsivity and psychological pain in depressed patients with acute suicidality. Impulsive choice (delay discounting), psychological pain, and clinical characteristics were assessed in four groups of adults (N = 20-22): a) depressed patients within 72 hours after a suicide attempt, b) depressed patients with active suicidal ideation, c) nonsuicidal depressed patients, and d) healthy controls. Impulsive choice was higher in the suicide attempt (0.114 [0.027]) and ideation (0.099 [0.020]) groups compared with nonsuicidal depressed (0.079 [0.020]) and healthy (0.066 [0.019]) individuals (F(3,79) = 3.06, p = .042). Psychological pain data showed a similar profile (F(3,78) = 43.48, p suicide attempt, 54.3 (2.2) for suicide ideation, 37.0 (3.2) for nonsuicidal depressed, and 13.7 (0.5) for healthy groups. Within the suicide attempt group, persisting suicidal ideation was associated with more severe depression (36.6 [2.9] versus 21.5 [3.1], p = .007) and choice impulsivity (0.134 [0.03] versus 0.078 [0.04], p = .015). Both measures normalized within a week: depression (29.9 [2.6] versus 14.4 [3.0], p = .006) and choice impulsivity (0.114 [0.026] versus 0.066 [0.032], p = .019). Transient impulsive choice abnormalities are found in a subset of those who attempt suicide. Both, suicidal ideation and behavior were associated with choice impulsivity and intense psychological pain.

  10. Cognition, depression, fatigue, and quality of life in primary Sjögren's syndrome: correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Belgin; Tezcan, Mehmet Engin; Batur, Hale Zeynep; Haznedaroğlu, Şeminur; Göker, Berna; İrkeç, Ceyla; Çetinkaya, Rümeysa

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction observed in primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) and to examine the relationships between cognitive abilities, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. Thirty-two subjects with PSS were compared with 19 healthy controls on comprehensive neuropsychological, depression, fatigue, health state, and daily-life activities tests. There was low performance in Clock Drawing, COWAT, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Colorless Word Reading (Stroop1) and Recognizing Colors (Stroop2) Patterns of STROOP test, SDLT, Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), immediate and long-term verbal memory, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and in all the patterns of RCFT in PSS patients compared to the healthy control group ( p  < .05). It was observed an increased depression frequency and fatigue severity, impairment in health condition, and a decreased quality of life in PSS cases compared to the healthy controls ( p  < .05). All the depression, fatigue severity, and quality of life tests showed a significant positive correlation with each other ( p  < .05). A significant negative correlation between Clock Drawing and SF-36-BP ( p  = .031, r  = -.382) and SF-36-GH ( p  = .027, r  = -.392) was observed. Clock Drawing, PASAT, and AVLT are very useful tests to determine the subclinical and clinical cognitive dysfunction to evaluate attention, information processing speed, executive functions, and short-term and long-term verbal memory in PSS patients. Depression and fatigue may not affect the neuropsychological tests performance.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in first-time hospitalized patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, L; Vestergaard, C H; Lund, H

    2016-01-01

    evaluated MetS and its components in first-time hospitalized patients with depression (N = 52) and healthy controls (N = 50) (18-45 years). Physical activity, aerobic fitness, sleeping disturbances, smoking and dietary habits, and psychopharmacological treatment were recorded at baseline for all...

  12. The role of controlled attention on recall in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alissa J; Wells, Tony T; Vanderlind, W Michael; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-04-01

    Information processing biases are hallmark features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Depressed individuals display biased memory and attention for negative material. Given that memory is highly dependent on attention for initial encoding, understanding the interplay of these processes may provide important insight into mechanisms that produce memory biases in depression. In particular, attentional control-the ability to selectively attend to task-relevant information by both inhibiting the processing of irrelevant information and disengaging attention from irrelevant material-may be one area of impairment in MDD. In the current study, clinically depressed (MDD: n = 15) and never depressed (non-MDD: n = 22) participants' line of visual gaze was assessed while participants viewed positive and negative word pairs. For each word pair, participants were instructed to attend to one word (target) and ignore one word (distracter). Free recall of study stimuli was then assessed. Depressed individuals displayed greater recall of negatively valenced target words following the task. Although there were no group differences in attentional control in the context of negative words, attention to negative targets mediated the relationship between depression status and recall of negative words. Results suggest a stronger link between attention and memory for negative material in MDD.

  13. Self-Help for Depression via E-mail: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Effects on Depression and Self-Help Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Morgan

    Full Text Available Self-help or self-management strategies are commonly used to deal with depression, but not all are thought to be helpful. A previous study found that sub-threshold depression symptoms were improved by an e-mail intervention that encouraged the use of evidence-based self-help strategies.To investigate whether these e-mails were effective for adults with a range of depression symptomatology including major depression.The study was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Adult participants with any level of depressive symptoms were recruited over the internet from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the United States. Participants were randomised to receive a series of e-mails either promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies or containing depression information as a control. E-mails were sent automatically twice a week for six weeks. Depression symptoms were assessed with the self-rated Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9.1736 participants with a wide range of symptom severity were recruited and assigned to active (n = 862 and control (n = 874 groups. However, there was a significant attrition rate, with 66.9% lost to follow-up at post-intervention. Both groups showed large improvements in depression symptoms overall, with no significant difference in improvement at the end of the study (mean difference in improvement 0.35 points, 95% CI: -0.57 to 1.28, d = 0.11, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.27, although there was a small effect at the study mid-point. Results were similar for the sub-group of participants with major depression. The active group showed small to moderate improvements in self-help behaviour (d = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.56.These results suggest that the e-mails were able to increase participants' use of evidence-based self-help, but that this did not improve depression more than an attention control.NCT01399502.

  14. Body Image, Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptomatology in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Tazegül, Aybike; Akbaba, Nursel

    2014-06-01

    In the current study we aimed to determine body image, self-esteem and depressive symptomatology in women with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compare with healthy controls. This study was conducted among the patients with untreated PCOS who admitted to the Outpatient Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Faculty of Medicine of Selçuk University. A total 83 consecutive women with PCOS met the criteria of present study were included in the study. Age matched healthy controls (n=64) were recruited from employees at Selçuk University Hospital. PCOS was defined according to Rotterdam criteria. After socio-demographic characteristics of the participants were recorded, Body Image Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were completed by the participants. Patients with PCOS and healthy controls did not differ in some sociodemographic variables, including age, education and economic status (p>.05). Previous psychiatric history was more prevalent among the PCOS group (pBody mass index (BMI) was ≤25 kg/m 2 in both groups. BMI values in the PCOS group were significantly higher than in the controls (p.05). The present study suggests that PCOS seems to be associated with depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, rising BMI values of these women may be an indicator for the onset of PCOS. However, these results should be confirmed by prospective studies.

  15. Early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, shame and abandonment are related to a history of suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Astinsadaf, Sommayyeh; Akhondi, Amineh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. Ninety participants took part in the study. Of these, 30 were patients with MDD who had made a recent suicide attempt; 30 were patients with MDD but no suicide attempts, and 30 were gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ- RE2R) to assess early maladaptive schemas. Experts rated patients' MDD with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients did not differ in experts' ratings of symptoms of depression. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD recorded higher scores on maladaptive schemas such as recognition seeking, negativity/pessimism, and insufficient self-control. Compared to patients without suicide attempts and healthy controls, those who had made a suicide attempt had higher scores on dimensions such as failure, mistrust, emotional inhibition, social isolation, and abandonment/instability. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD had more pronounced maladaptive schemas, but this was more marked in patients with a history of suicide attempts. The results suggest that suicide attempts and poorer psychological functioning are related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fulfillment of the premenstrual dysphoric disorder criteria confirmed using a self-rating questionnaire among Japanese women with depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kametani Machiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some women with depressive disorders experience severe premenstrual symptoms. However, there have been few studies in which premenstrual symptoms in women suffering from depressive disorders were assessed. In this study, we aimed to investigate premenstrual symptoms in women with depressive disorders using the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD scale. Methods We administered questionnaires to 65 Japanese female outpatients who had been diagnosed with a major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder and to 303 healthy women as control subjects. The questionnaire consisted of items on demographics and the PMDD scale, which was modified from the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST developed by Steiner et al. (Arch Womens Ment Health 2003, 6:203-209. Results Twenty-eight women (43.1% with depressive disorder fulfilled certain items of the PMDD scale. These women are considered to have coexisting PMDD and a depressive disorder, or to have premenstrual exacerbation (PME of a depressive disorder. On the other hand, 18 women (5.9% in the control group were diagnosed as having PMDD. The depressive disorder group who fulfilled the PMDD criteria had more knowledge of the term premenstrual syndrome (PMS and took more actions to attenuate premenstrual symptoms than the control group with PMDD. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that the occurrence of severe premenstrual symptoms is much higher in women with depressive disorders than in healthy subjects. This is partially due to this group containing women with PME, but mainly due to it containing women with PMDD. The higher percentage of PMDD suggests similarity between PMDD and other depressive disorders. Furthermore, educating healthy Japanese women and women with depressive disorders about premenstrual symptoms and evidence-based treatment for them is necessary.

  17. A randomized trial of the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gade, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The effect of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) on healthy individuals remains unclear. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (FDRs). A total of 80...... was the standardized mean of 13 test measures. Mean change in the general cognition score was not significantly increased with escitalopram compared with placebo (p = 0.37) or for any of the specific tests. In univariate analyses no statistically significant correlations were found between change in the general...... cognitive score and the variables age, sex, Hamilton depression score 17 items, Danish Adult Reading Test-45, and plasma escitalopram levels, respectively. These results suggest that treatment with escitalopram does not improve or impair cognitive function in FDRs. Improvement in cognitive function...

  18. The Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test, and the Mini-Mental State Examination in a German memory clinic: specificity of separation dementia from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milian, Monika; Leiherr, Anna-Maria; Straten, Guido; Müller, Stephan; Leyhe, Thomas; Eschweiler, Gerhard W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the specificities of the Mini-Cog, the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) against depression and healthy controls in a German Memory Clinic. Furthermore, we analyzed the specificities of all three screening instruments in dependence of actual depression severity. Data from 142 depressed elderly, 438 dementia patients, and 64 healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed. The CDT and an extraction of the three-item recall of the MMSE were used to constitute the Mini-Cog algorithm. Depression severity was rated by either the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) or the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) depending on the age of the patients. The Mini-Cog achieved a specificity of 79.6% against depressed elderly and 100.0% against healthy subjects (p Mini-Cog and the CDT, but also showed the lowest sensitivity for the detection of dementia. Surprisingly, the depression severity had no effect on the specificity of the Mini-Cog and the CDT, only the MMSE was susceptible for the depression severity. Although the MMSE showed higher specificities, the weighting between the sensitivities and specificities in all tests prove again the Mini-Cog as a short, valid, and sensitive screening tool.

  19. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.

  20. Weak reward source memory in depression reflects blunted activation of VTA/SN and parahippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel G; Dobbins, Ian G; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2014-10-01

    Reward responses in the medial temporal lobes and dopaminergic midbrain boost episodic memory formation in healthy adults, and weak memory for emotionally positive material in depression suggests this mechanism may be dysfunctional in major depressive disorder (MDD). To test this hypothesis, we performed a study in which unmedicated adults with MDD and healthy controls encoded drawings paired with reward or zero tokens during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a recognition test, participants judged whether drawings were previously associated with the reward token ('reward source') or the zero token ('zero source'). Unlike controls, depressed participants failed to show better memory for drawings from the reward source vs the zero source. Consistent with predictions, controls also showed a stronger encoding response to reward tokens vs zero tokens in the right parahippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain, whereas the MDD group showed the opposite pattern-stronger responses to zero vs reward tokens-in these regions. Differential activation of the dopaminergic midbrain by reward vs zero tokens was positively correlated with the reward source memory advantage in controls, but not depressed participants. These data suggest that weaker memory for positive material in depression reflects blunted encoding responses in the dopaminergic midbrain and medial temporal lobes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Decreased hippocampal volume, indirectly measured, is associated with depressive symptoms and consolidation deficits in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiy, G.; Lehmann, P.; Hahn, H.K.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Kastrup, A.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The human hippocampus plays a role in episodic memory and depression. Recently, it has been shown, using manual tracings, that the hippocampus is smaller in volume in MS patients compared with healthy controls, and that, at least for depression, hippocampal atrophy correlates with

  2. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  3. Depressive realism and clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Richard C; Hollon, Steven D; Shelton, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Depressive realism suggests that depressed individuals make more accurate judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts. However, most studies demonstrating this phenomenon were conducted in nonclinical samples. In this study, psychiatric patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder underestimated control in a contingent situation and were consistently more negative in their judgments than were nondepressed controls. Depressed patients were less likely than their nondepressed counterparts to overestimate control in a noncontingent situation, but largely because they perceived receiving less reinforcement. Depressed patients were no more likely to use the appropriate logical heuristic to generate their judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts and each appeared to rely on different primitive heuristics. Depressed patients were consistently more negative than their nondepressed counterparts and when they did appear to be more "accurate" in their judgments of control (as in the noncontingent situation) it was largely because they applied the wrong heuristic to less accurate information. These findings do not support the notion of depressive realism and suggest that depressed patients distort their judgments in a characteristically negative fashion. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  5. Multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, R H; Baikie, K A; Smithers, H; Cohen, J; Snowdon, J; Tennant, C C

    1999-09-11

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a population based, multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care. Randomised controlled trial, with control and intervention groups studied one after the other and blind follow up after 9.5 months. Population of residential facility in Sydney living in self care units and hostels. 220 depressed residents aged >/=65 without severe cognitive impairment. The shared care intervention included: (a) multidisciplinary consultation and collaboration, (b) training of general practitioners and carers in detection and management of depression, and (c) depression related health education and activity programmes for residents. The control group received routine care. Geriatric depression scale. Intention to treat analysis was used. There was significantly more movement to "less depressed" levels of depression at follow up in the intervention than control group (Mantel-Haenszel stratification test, P=0.0125). Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant intervention effect after controlling for possible confounders, with the intervention group showing an average improvement of 1.87 points on the geriatric depression scale compared with the control group (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 2.97, P=0.0011). The outcome of depression among elderly people in residential care can be improved by multidisciplinary collaboration, by enhancing the clinical skills of general practitioners and care staff, and by providing depression related health education and activity programmes for residents.

  6. Harnessing happiness? Uncontrollable positive emotion in bipolar disorder, major depression, and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoona; Gruber, June

    2013-04-01

    The ability to adaptively exert control over negative emotions is associated with beneficial mental health outcomes. Less is known about the associated emotional sequelae surrounding controllable versus uncontrollable positive emotional experiences. The ability to harness positive emotions is of particular importance in populations involving disrupted positive emotion functioning. In the present study, participants engaged in a relived memory task in which they recalled either a controllable or uncontrollable past positive emotional experience in counterbalanced order, while concurrent experiential and autonomic responses were measured. Participants included adults with bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 32), major depression (MDD; n = 32), and or nonpsychiatric controls (CTLs; n = 31). Across all participants, reliving a controllable positive emotion experience was associated with exhibited increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an autonomic marker of regulatory control. Interestingly, only the MDD group reported increased positive emotion and decreased cardiovascular arousal when reliving an event involving uncontrollable positive emotion, compared to the BD and CTL groups. No other group differences emerged. These findings suggest that although controllable positive emotion experiences may be adaptive for most, individuals with a history of restricted affect and depressed mood may actually derive more pleasure from times of unharnessed happiness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Impaired intuition in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Carina; Topolinski, Sascha; Dietrich, Detlef E; Michalak, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    In daily life, many decisions of minor and major importance have to be made. Thereby, intuitive judgments serve as useful guides and help us to adapt to our environment. People with major depressive disorder (MDD) often have difficulties to come to decisions. Is their intuition impaired? Since this question has not been addressed until now, the present study explored intuition in MDD. Depressed patients (n = 29) and healthy control participants (n = 27) completed the Judgment of Semantic Coherence Task, a well-established paradigm used in basic cognitive research to measure intuition. Furthermore, participants' severity of depressive symptoms (BDI-II), negative affect (PANAS), and rumination (RSQ) were assessed. All participants were interviewed with the SCID. Depressed patients showed impaired intuition compared to healthy control participants. In the depressed sample, negative affect accounts for the association between rumination and impaired intuition. Results further reveal that negative affect overall mediates the depression-intuition relationship. Patients with diminished ability to concentrate or indecisiveness had lower intuition indices compared to patients who did not fulfil this diagnostic criterion of MDD. The study introduces the phenomenon of intuition into depression research. Additionally, these results extent findings from basic research showing that induced negative mood as well difficulties to down-regulate negative affect impair intuitive coherence judgments. Current results indicate that the negative affectivity of patients is the crucial mediator in the association between depression and impaired intuition. Limitations of the study as well as the potential etiological role of intuition in MDD are discussed. The finding that intuition is impaired in depressed patients extends our knowledge as to the cognitive profile of patients with MDD. Patients who suffer from indecisiveness have lower intuition indices compared to patients who do not

  8. Predictability of depression severity based on posterior alpha oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, H.; Popov, T.; Jylänki, P.P.; Bi, K.; Yao, Z.; Lu, Q.; Jensen, O.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to integrate neural data and an advanced machine learning technique to predict individual major depressive disorder (MDD) patient severity. Methods: MEG data was acquired from 22 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) resting awake with eyes closed. Individual power spectra

  9. Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammatory mediators in major depressive disorder with or without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinac, Marko; Babić, Dragan; Bevanda, Milenko; Vasilj, Ivan; Glibo, Danijela Bevanda; Karlović, Dalibor; Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the differences in serum CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, ACTH and cortisol among patients with major depressive disorder with or without metabolic syndrome (MS) compared to a healthy control group. The MDD study group consisted of 80 patients (mean age of 50.03±9.55 years). The control group was recruited from the hospital personnel and it consisted of 40 examinees (mean age of 47.20±7.99 years). All patients who participated in the study were diagnosed with depressive disorder using MINI questionnaire, and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was set by NCEP ATP III criteria. Examinees with depression but without MS had significantly more cortisol concentration when compared to the control group. CRP was significantly higher in the MDD group when compared to the control group and in MDD+MS group when compared to the control group. IL6 serum levels were significantly higher in the MDD group when compared to the healthy control group, and in MDD+MS group when compared to the healthy control group. ACTH had significant independent predictive values for abdominal obesity. Levels of TNF-α were statistically significant independent predictors for hyperglycaemia. Statistically significant predictive values for MDD were found for cortisol, and IL-6. Results shown here emphasise the importance of neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors in pathogenesis of depressive disorder and MS. Further prospective research is necessary to clarify possible causal relationship between depression and MS. It is necessary to investigate the possibility of a joint biological mechanism in pathogenesis of these two disorders with the special attention given to the disturbances in the immune system.

  10. Disconnectivity between Dorsal Raphe Nucleus and Posterior Cingulate Cortex in Later Life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Ikuta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN has been repeatedly implicated as having a significant relationship with depression, along with its serotoninergic innervation. However, functional connectivity of the DRN in depression is not well understood. The current study aimed to isolate functional connectivity of the DRN distinct in later life depression (LLD compared to a healthy age-matched population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data from 95 participants (33 LLD and 62 healthy were collected to examine functional connectivity from the DRN to the whole brain in voxel-wise fashion. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC bilaterally showed significantly smaller connectivity in the LLD group than the control group. The DRN to PCC connectivity did not show any association with the depressive status. The findings implicate that the LLD involves disruption of serotoninergic input to the PCC, which has been suggested to be a part of the reduced default mode network in depression.

  11. Hypothyroidism and depression: Are cytokines the link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimal S Tayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Primary hypothyroidism has been thought of as an inflammatory condition characterized by raised levels of cytokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Depression is also well known to occur in hypothyroidism. Depression is also characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines. We planned to study whether cytokines play an important part in linking these two conditions. Objectives: (1 To know the prevalence of depression in overt hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroid disease. (2 To correlate the levels of inflammatory markers with the occurrence of depression. (3 To study the effect of levothyroxine on inflammatory markers and depression. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal, case–controlled study, 33 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone >10 uIU/ml were included with 33 age-, sex-, and body max index-matched healthy controls. Individuals were tested for Serum TNF-α, IL-6, high-sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP. They were assessed for depression using Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and World Health Organization Quality of Life (QOL Scale. Patients received L Thyroxine titrated to achieve euthyroidism and were reassessed for inflammatory markers and cognitive dysfunction. Results: Nineteen patients (57% had mild to moderate depression (MADRS >11. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients (42% had remission of depression with significant improvement in QOL scores (P < 0.05. TNF-α, IL-6, and hs-CRP were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls and reduced with therapy but did not reach baseline as controls. The change in inflammatory markers correlated with improvement in QOL scores in social and environmental domains (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Primary autoimmune hypothyroidism is an inflammatory state characterized by elevated cytokines which decline with LT4 therapy. It is associated with depression and poor

  12. The associations between personality characteristics and absenteeism: a cross-sectional study in workers with and without depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasveld, Moniek C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Anema, Johannes R; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-09-01

    Although numerous studies have identified risk factors for sickness absence, few studies have addressed the role of personality characteristics in absenteeism. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of the Big 5 personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and locus of control with absenteeism, taking the presence of depressive and anxiety disorders into account. Cross-sectional data from the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were examined. NESDA includes persons with current or remitted depressive and anxiety disorders and healthy controls, of which 1883 working participants were selected. Personality characteristics were included as predictor variables, short-term (0-2 weeks) and long-term (>2 weeks) absenteeism as outcome measure. The presence of depressive and anxiety disorders was considered as modifying covariate. In healthy workers, high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness were associated with short-term absenteeism. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low openness were related to long-term absenteeism in healthy workers. In workers with psychopathology, similar associations were found for persons with this profile (high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion and low conscientiousness) with long-term absenteeism, but no associations of these characteristics were found with short-term absenteeism. Personality characteristics were significantly associated with work absenteeism in both workers with and without anxiety or depression. Interventions aimed at preventing sickness absence may focus on reducing neuroticism and strengthening extraversion, conscientiousness and locus of control.

  13. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  14. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Victor

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however.To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants.Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups.The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex.Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  15. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Teresa A; Furey, Maura L; Fromm, Stephen J; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Öhman, Arne; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22) and healthy controls (HC; n=25) underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  16. Childhood adversity and adult depressive disorder: a case-controlled study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, S F; Maniam, T; Tan, S M K; Badi'ah, Y

    2010-06-01

    To describe the association between childhood adversity and depression in adult depressed patients in a Malaysian population. Fifty-two patients, who met the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia according to the Structured Clinical Interview based on the revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were used as cases and compared with 52 controls matched for age and sex. Cases and controls were assessed using a sexual and physical abuse questionnaire and a Parental Bonding Instrument. There was a positive relationship between childhood abuse in general and childhood physical abuse with adult depressive disorder in particular. Nearly a quarter (23%) of depressed patients reported being abused in childhood compared with none in the control group. There was no significant association between childhood loss and depression in adulthood. Low level of parental care during childhood was significantly correlated with adult depressive disorder. Clinicians should assiduously seek a history of childhood adversities in adult patients with depression. This information can influence clinical management by way of implementing secondary preventive measures. In all depressed patients, mental health professionals also need to look out for their poor attachment with parents during childhood. This may enable interventions directed at parenting skills and improved attachment relationships with their own children. These types of interventions together with pharmacotherapy may provide the optimal approach to the management of depression in adults and help prevent the cycle of depression perpetuating itself in the next generation.

  17. Emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2015-10-24

    Patients with breast cancer usually present varying levels of depressive symptoms. Emotional suppression, as a coping style, refers to an individual's ability to consciously control expression of negative emotions. Thus, emotional suppression is an important psychological factor related to depressive symptoms in patients with breast cancer. It has long been considered that compared to European and American women, Chinese women are more likely to ascribe to norms of negative emotion control for smooth social interaction. However, there is paucity of research focusing on emotional suppression among Chinese women with breast cancer. Thus the aims of the current study were (1) to investigate the incidence of depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer in Mainland China, and (2) to examine the relationships between emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in these patients. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) were used to assess the level of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and emotional suppression respectively in 247 women with early breast cancer and 362 healthy women. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate group differences on depressive symptoms and emotional suppression. Bivariate correlations and Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of emotional suppression on depressive symptoms in participants after controlling the impact of group membership and anxiety level. (1) The incidence rates of clinical and severe depressive symptoms in patients were 36.4 and 36.0 % respectively. (2) Patients scored significantly higher than healthy women on CECS. (3) The scores on CECS were significantly associated with the total CES-D scores in all participants; Anger suppression significantly predicted the total CES-D scores. The majority of women newly diagnosed with

  18. Pituitary volume and the effects of phototherapy in patients with seasonal winter depression: a controlled study Volume da pituitária e os efeitos da fototerapia em pacientes com depressão sazonal de inverno: um estudo controlado

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    Ângela Marisa de Aquino Miranda-Scippa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to investigate the pituitary volume in patients with seasonal winter depression and healthy volunteers in winter and summer, and to assess the effects of phototherapy in these patients. METHOD: The pituitary volume of 12 patients with winter depression and 12 healthy controls, paired according gender, age and menstrual cycle, were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging in winter and summer. Eight patients were submitted to phototherapy (10000 vs. 2500 lux in a double-blind crossover fashion during the winter, and reassessed (symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging after treatment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in pituitary volume between controls and patients in winter or summer. Exposure to phototherapy (10000 lux decreased the depressive symptoms (p = 0.004, but the glandular volume did not change (p = 0.5. However, the pituitary volume in winter showed a positive correlation with the severity of depression in these patients (r = 0.69, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that neither winter depression nor the change of seasons is associated with significant change in the pituitary volume. Despite the fact that this study was performed in a tropical area, phototherapy with 10000 lux showed to be an efficient treatment in this SAD patients sample.OBJETIVOS: Nossos objetivos foram investigar o volume da pituitária em pacientes com depressão sazonal de inverno e controles sadios, no inverno e verão, e avaliar os efeitos da fototerapia nesses pacientes. MÉTODO: O volume da pituitária de 12 pacientes com depressão de inverno e 12 controles sadios, pareados quanto ao gênero, idade e fase do ciclo menstrual, foi examinado por meio de imagem por ressonância magnética no inverno e verão. Oito pacientes foram submetidos à fototerapia (10.000 vs 2.500 lux de forma duplo-cega e cruzada durante o inverno e reavaliados (sintomas e imagem por ressonância magnética após o tratamento. RESULTADOS

  19. Evaluation of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Parents with a Child Newly Diagnosed with Diabetes Type I

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    Maryam Nakhaey Moghaddam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetes type I (DTI is one of the most common endocrine disorders during childhood and adolescents in which has strong impact on physical and emotional development of individuals with family members. We aimed to evaluate of stress, anxiety and depression in parents with DTI child compared with parents with healthy child.Materials and MethodsIn this case – control study, 60 parents of patients with type 1 diabetes, who had referred to the endocrine clinic of Ali Asghar hospital in Zahedan city and the same number of parents with healthy children, who had referred to the hospital for their children's routine checkup, as control group (n=60, were studied. Depression, anxiety and stress was measurement by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16.ResultsMean age of children was 6.3 ± 3.6 years. In this study, the score and rate of depression in parents of children with diabetes type I was 21.4 ± 13.8 and 75.4%, respectively. The scores of depression, anxiety and stress in parents of children with DTI were 21.4 + 13.8, 18.8 + 11.3 and 27.1 + 11.5 respectively. Also, the scores of depression, anxiety and stress in parents with healthy children were 14.8 ± 11.3, 8.7 ± 6.9 and 15.8 ± 9.3, respectively; and these scores was significantly lower in control group (P0.05.ConclusionDiabetes in children is a stressful event that can affect the public health of parents. Parents of children who diagnosed with DTI, are at risk for experiencing anxiety, depression and stress.

  20. Evaluation of depression and self-esteem in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A controlled trial

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    Orhan Koca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nocturnal enuresis (NE is very common and is one of the most common causes for patients to be admitted to urology, pediatrics, child psychiatry and child surgery departments. We aimed to investigate the effect on depression and self-esteem of this disorder that can cause problems on person's social development and human relations. Material and methods: 90 patients who were admitted to our clinic with complaints of nocturnal enuresis were enrolled. Investigations to rule out organic causes were performed in this group of patients. Out of them 38 children and adolescents (age range 8-18 years with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE agreed to participate in the study In the same period 46 healthy children and adolescents with a similar age range without bed wetting complaint were included in the study as a control group. The age of the family, educational and socioeconomic level were questioned and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI forms were filled out. Results: Mean age of the cases (18 females or 47.4% and 20 males or 52.6% was 10.76 ± 3.82 years whereas mean age of controls (26 females or 56.5% and 20 males or 43.5% was 10.89 ± 3.11 years. Depression scale was significantly higher (p = 0.001 in the case group than in the control group (10.42 ± 4.31 vs 7.09 ± 4.35. In both groups there was no statistically significant difference by age and sex in terms of depression scale (p > 0.05. Conclusion: NE is widely seen as in the community and is a source of stresses either for children and for their families. When patients were admitted to physicians for treatment, a multidisciplinary approach should be offered and the necessary psychological support should be provided jointly by child psychiatrists and psychologists.

  1. Randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: effects on memory, mood, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Keri; Mowszowski, Loren; Cockayne, Nicole; Norrie, Louisa; Paradise, Matthew; Hermens, Daniel F; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in the ageing population and absence of a cure for dementia, cost-effective prevention strategies for those 'at risk' of dementia including those with depression and/or mild cognitive impairment are urgently required. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multifaceted Healthy Brain Ageing Cognitive Training (HBA-CT) program for older adults 'at risk' of dementia. Using a single-blinded design, 64 participants (mean age = 66.5 years, SD = 8.6) were randomized to an immediate treatment (HBA-CT) or treatment-as-usual control arm. The HBA-CT intervention was conducted twice-weekly for seven weeks and comprised group-based psychoeducation about cognitive strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors pertaining to healthy brain ageing, and computerized cognitive training. In comparison to the treatment-as-usual control arm, the HBA-CT program was associated with improvements in verbal memory (p = 0.03), self-reported memory (p = 0.03), mood (p = 0.01), and sleep (p = 0.01). While the improvements in memory (p = 0.03) and sleep (p = 0.02) remained after controlling for improvements in mood, only a trend in verbal memory improvement was apparent after controlling for sleep. The HBA-CT program improves cognitive, mood, and sleep functions in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, and therefore offers promise as a secondary prevention strategy.

  2. Anxiety and depression among Nigerian patients with asthma; Association with sociodemographic, clinical, and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O; Adeyeye, Olufunke O

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the rate of anxiety and depression in adult asthma patients and examine the possible association with sociodemographic, clinical and other significant variables. Adult asthmatics (n = 203) were recruited from the asthma outpatient clinic and assessed for sociodemographic and clinical profiles, their levels of disability, social support, asthma treatment stigma and personality traits. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) was used to assess for the diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in comparison with matched healthy controls (n = 205). Seventy (34.5%) of the patients with asthma have a diagnosis of Anxiety or Depression compared with 15 (7.3%) of matched healthy controls and the difference was significant (OR 6.67, 95% CI 3.58-13.04). Although older age, lower income, use of oral corticosteroid, patients perceived severity of asthma, disability, social support and personality traits were initially significant in univariate analysis, a subsequent logistic regression analysis revealed that only disability scores above the group mean (OR 4.50, 95% CI 2.28-8.87) and not having a strong social support (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.443-5.78) were the only variables independently associated with diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in the group of patients with asthma. Anxiety and depression are significantly more common in adult outpatients with asthma when compared with healthy control in Nigeria and was significantly associated with levels of disability and social support. These factors should be considered while formulating predictive models for management of psychosocial problems in asthma in this environment.

  3. Plasma cortisol and oxytocin levels predict help-seeking intentions for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Larkin, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Depressed individuals often refuse or withdraw from help, a phenomenon termed help-negation, which is a risk factor for poor outcomes. Most previous research has investigated psychosocial factors including stigma as causes of low help-seeking intentions for depression, however these do not adequately explain the problem. We hypothesised that because help-negation worsens with symptom severity, it might be linked to important biological changes associated with depression itself. We investigated the relative contributions of cortisol, a stress hormone linked to depression, and oxytocin, a hormone which mediates social behaviours, alongside psychosocial factors, to help-seeking intentions among depressed and non-depressed individuals. Morning plasma cortisol and oxytocin levels, psychopathology, suicidal ideation, help-seeking intentions from informal sources including family and friends, and formal sources including health professionals, and perceived social support were quantified in 63 adults meeting DSM-5 criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) who were not receiving any treatment, and 60 healthy controls. Between-group analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed. Help-seeking intentions were lower in depressed than healthy participants, negatively correlated to cortisol and positively correlated to oxytocin. Cortisol negatively, and oxytocin positively, predicted help-seeking intentions from informal but not formal sources, after controlling for psychopathology and psychosocial factors. Neuroendocrine changes associated with depression may contribute to low help-seeking from friends and family, which may have implications for interpersonal support and outcomes. Research and clinical approaches which incorporate biological as well as psychosocial factors may allow for more targeted and effective early interventions to address lack of help-seeking and depression progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

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    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  5. A longitudinal analysis of maternal depressive symptoms and children's food consumption and weight outcomes.

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    Morrissey, Taryn W; Dagher, Rada K

    2014-12-01

    Maternal depressive symptoms negatively impact mothers' parenting practices and children's development, but the evidence linking these symptoms to children's obesity is mixed. We use a large sample to examine contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's BMI, obesity and food consumption, controlling for background characteristics. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a longitudinal study of children from infancy through kindergarten in the USA, were collected at four waves from 2001 to 2007, when children were 9 months, 2 years, 4 years and 5½years of age, through surveys, child assessments and observations. A sub-sample of children from the ECLS-B is used (n 6500). Between 17 % and 19 % of mothers reported experiencing depressive symptoms; 17 % to 20 % of children were obese. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with a small decrease in the likelihood her child was obese (0·8 percentage points) and with lower consumption of healthy foods. The duration of maternal depressive symptoms was associated with higher BMI (0·02 sd) among children whose parents lacked college degrees. Results indicate that mothers' depressive symptoms have small associations with children's food consumption and obesity. Among children whose parents lack college degrees, persistent maternal depressive symptoms are associated with slightly higher child BMI. Findings highlight the need to control for depression in analyses of children's weight. Interventions that consider maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy weight outcomes and eating habits among children.

  6. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Colcombe, Stan; Henderson, Sarah E; Alonso, Carmen M; Milham, Michael P; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them ('self' condition) or was a good trait to have ('general' condition). Self-perception scores were based on participants' endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder

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    Kailyn A.L. Bradley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them (‘self’ condition or was a good trait to have (‘general’ condition. Self-perception scores were based on participants’ endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder.

  8. Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

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    Jouko Miettunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.

  9. Depressive symptomatology in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a controlled comparison.

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    Lee, Morgan; Jim, Heather S; Fishman, Mayer; Zachariah, Babu; Heysek, Randy; Biagioli, Matthew; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer patients who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience many physical and psychological side effects. ADT may be associated with increased risk for depression, but the relationship between ADT and depression is not fully understood. This study used a longitudinal design to assess depressive symptomatology in patients receiving ADT compared with two groups of matched controls. Participants were men initiating ADT treatment (ADT+ group; n = 61) and their matched controls: prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy (ADT- group; n = 61), and no-cancer controls (CA- group; n = 61). Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale at ADT initiation and again 6 months later. Differences in depressive symptomatology and rates of clinically significant depressive symptomatology were analyzed between groups at each time point and within groups over time. Between baseline and follow-up, ADT+ participants demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology and increased rates of clinically significant depressive symptomatology (ps depressive symptomatology than both control groups at follow-up (ps depressive symptomatology were higher in the ADT+ group than the ADT- and CA- groups at both time points (baseline: 28%, 5%, 12%; follow-up: 39%, 9%, 11%). Findings support the hypothesis that ADT administration yields increases in depression and suggest that the mechanism behind ADT's association with depression should be explored and that prostate cancer patients treated with ADT should receive particular focus in depression screening and intervention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. For early detection of ''potential patients with depression''. Correlation of sleep disorder with frontal lobe dysfunction and depression symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Fumihiko; Kubuki, Yukiko; Uragami, Ikuko

    2011-01-01

    In Phase I of the research field of ''mental health of workers'' among the 13 research fields for work-related injuries/illness etc. promoted by the Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, a statistical image analysis of cerebral blood flow single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ( 99 mTc-ECD) was performed for 45 workers (a group of 25 patients with depression and a control group of 20 healthy workers) to perform objective assessment of the features of depression. In the depression and remission periods, we obtained findings regarding characteristic changes in cerebral blood flow, and local decreases in cerebral blood flow that correlated with the level of cumulative fatigue and subjective feelings of fatigue. Based on these image analysis results, it was suggested that for the prevention and early detection of depression, we should focus on the fact that patients with more severe sleep disorder(s) might show a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal frontal lobe, and that a close relationship between sleep disorder and depression was suggested in the images of cerebral function. Among 17 items of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (SIGH-D) for the general evaluation of depression state, the patients with higher scores of sleep disorder, Insomnia Score (IS), showed a significant decrease in blood flow in the dorsal frontal lobe, suggesting a decrease in attentiveness/concentration. Focusing on the biological finding that showed a correlation between sleep disorder (IS) and frontal lobe dysfunction, we further examined the correlation between the level of sleep disorder, shown in IS, and the data related to depression (total SIGH-D score and the points of individual items; total score of the self-rating depressive scale [SDS] and points of individual items) in 108 workers (57 in the depression undergoing follow-up observation group and 51 in the healthy control group). As a result, IS in 57 subjects in the

  11. Impact of early and recent stress on white matter microstructure in major depressive disorder.

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    Poletti, Sara; Aggio, Veronica; Brioschi, Silvia; Bollettini, Irene; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a worldwide-spread pathology, characterized by lifetime-recurrent episodes. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the lifetime risk of developing depression and affect the structure of the brain. Recent stressful events (RSE) can trigger the onset of depressive episodes, and affect grey matter volume. The aim of our study is to analyse the effect of both early and recent stress events on white matter microstructure in MDD patients and healthy volunteers. Sixty-five MDD inpatients and fifty-nine healthy controls underwent MRI acquisition of diffusion tensor images with a 3.0T scanner. Severity of ACE and RSE was rated, respectively, on the Risky Families Questionnaire and on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. A significant effect of diagnosis was observed, with MDD subjects showing reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) compared to healthy controls in all the major association, projection and commissural tracts. In patients with MDD, but not in healthy controls, both ACE and RSE correlated with measures of WM microstructure: ACE correlated negatively with AD and MD, whereas RSE correlated negatively with FA. The two diagnostic groups differed for age and education, previous and current medications, and treatment periods. Exposure to both early and recent stress exerts a widespread effect on WM microstructure of MDD patients, with a different impact possibly depending from the developmental period in which the stress has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Berna, Fabrice; Lüdtke, Thies; Gallinat, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females) that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction). On a subsample with cognitive performance data ( n = 19) we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B) in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.

  13. Transdiagnostic differences in the resting-state functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in depression and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Chang; He, Hui; Chang, Xin; Jiang, Yuchao; Li, Yingjia; Duan, Mingjun; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-08-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are two of the most serious psychiatric disorders. They share similar symptoms but the pathology-specific commonalities and differences remain unknown. This study was conducted to acquire a full picture of the functional alterations in schizophrenia and depression patients. The resting-state fMRI data from 20 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with depression and 20 healthy control subjects were collected. A data-driven approach that included local functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis combined with multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to compare the three groups. Based on the results of the MVPA, the local FCD value in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can differentiate depression patients from schizophrenia patients. The patients with depression had a higher local FCD value in the medial and anterior parts of the OFC than the subjects in the other two groups, which suggested altered abstract and reward reinforces processing in depression patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analysis indicated that the connection in the prefrontal cortex was significantly lower in people with schizophrenia compared to people with depression and healthy controls. The systematically different medications for schizophrenia and depression may have different effects on functional connectivity. These results suggested that the resting-state functional connectivity pattern in the prefrontal cortex may be a transdiagnostic difference between depression and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Amygdala functional disconnection with the prefrontal-cingulate-temporal circuit in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Bo, Fan; Xia, Wenqing; Liu, Shenghua; Wang, Peng; Su, Wen; Xu, Jin-Jing; Xiong, Zhenyu; Yin, Xindao

    2017-10-03

    Chronic tinnitus is often accompanied with depressive symptom, which may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the amygdala and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the disrupted amygdala-cortical functional connectivity (FC) in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood. Chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood (n=20), without depressive mood (n=20), and well-matched healthy controls (n=23) underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. Amygdala-cortical FC was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The bilateral amygdala FC was compared among the three groups. Compared to non-depressed patients, depressive tinnitus patients showed decreased amygdala FC with the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex as well as increased amygdala FC with the postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. Relative to healthy controls, depressive tinnitus patients revealed decreased amygdala FC with the superior and middle temporal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and prefrontal cortex, as well as increased amygdala FC with the postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. The current study identified for the first time abnormal resting-state amygdala-cortical FC with the prefrontal-cingulate-temporal circuit in chronic tinnitus patients with depressive mood, which will provide novel insight into the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of tinnitus-induced depressive disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  16. Electrophysiological Evidence for Elimination of the Positive Bias in Elderly Adults with Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs.MethodsParticipants were 14 community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. We collected event-related potentials of their brain compared to that of 14 healthy aged-matched adults. The late positive potential (LPP was used to examine cognitive-affective processes associated with judgment of emotional facial expressions between the two groups.ResultsOld adults with depressive symptoms have much smaller amplitude than healthy older adults irrespective of the prime types. When processing the targets, the two groups showed different patterns regarding the LPP. The healthy control group revealed no differences between ambiguous and happy primes, irrespective of whether the targets were sad or happy facial expressions. However, significant differences were found between happy and sad and between ambiguous and sad primes. Such a pattern indicates a positive bias in healthy elderly adults. Regarding the elderly with depressive symptoms, there were no significant differences between ambiguous versus happy, ambiguous versus sad primes, and happy versus sad primes. Concerning reaction times, there was no group difference. Thus, the findings provide some support for cognitive theories of depression.ConclusionThe current study shows that there is an association

  17. Perceptions of control, burnout, and depressive symptomatology: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, J D; Glass, D C

    1995-06-01

    In this 2-year follow-up of 100 nurses, significant increases were observed for burnout and depressive symptomatology. Analysis of change scores and structural equations suggested that the variance shared by burnout and depression (20%) may be attributable to their co-development. A definitive temporal sequence among measures of burnout and depressive affect was not obtained. At initial assessment and follow-up, burned-out nurses displayed accurate perceptions of job uncontrollability, whereas non-burned-out nurses overestimated job control. Perceptual accuracy increased in linear fashion with degree of burnout, irrespective of depressive symptomatology. Frequency of threats to job control predicted a significant amount of the variance in perceptual accuracy, supporting the view that "burnout realism" is reality driven.

  18. Long-term odor recognition memory in unipolar major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; Mondon, Karl; El-Hage, Wissam; Desmidt, Thomas; Jaafari, Nematollah; Belzung, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Hommet, Caroline; Atanasova, Boriana

    2014-12-30

    Major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) are often observed in the elderly. The identification of specific markers for these diseases could improve their screening. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term odor recognition memory in depressed and AD patients, with a view to identifying olfactory markers of these diseases. We included 20 patients with unipolar major depressive episodes (MDE), 20 patients with mild to moderate AD and 24 healthy subjects. We investigated the cognitive profile and olfactory memory capacities (ability to recognize familiar and unfamiliar odors) of these subjects. Olfactory memory test results showed that AD and depressed patients were characterized by significantly less correct responses and more wrong responses than healthy controls. Detection index did not differ significantly between patients with major depression and those with AD when the results were analyzed for all odors. However, MDE patients displayed an impairment of olfactory memory for both familiar and unfamiliar odors, whereas AD subjects were impaired only in the recognition of unfamiliar odors, with respect to healthy subjects. If preservation of olfactory memory for familiar stimuli in patients with mild to moderate AD is confirmed, this test could be used in clinical practice as a complementary tool for diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Major Depressive Disorder and Personality Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bensaeed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the clinical temperaments and characters of Iranian patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD with healthy controls.The study participants included 47 outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and 120 normal controls with no psychiatric disorders. Sampling method was convenience. The MDD patients were diagnosed as MDD by a psychiatrist using the Persian structured clinical interview for axis I disorders (SCID-I, and they completed at least 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. All the patients filled out the Persian version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17, Chi square, T test and Multiple Regression. The level of significance was set at 5%.The present study demonstrates a link between depression and lower persistence (p≤0.001, self-directedness (p≤0.001 and cooperativeness (p≤0.001 scores. A negative correlation between age and Harm Avoidance (p≤0.001 was observed in both groups.Lower scores of persistence (P, self-directedness (SD and cooperativeness (CO were observed in patients with depression more than controls even in the remission phase which could indicate a relationship between these traits and depression.

  20. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  1. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

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    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  2. A Study of Remitted and Treatment-Resistant Depression Using MMPI and Including Pessimism and Optimism Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. Methods We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. Results ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. Conclusions The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts. PMID:25279466

  3. No evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect of escitalopram intervention in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Eva; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Erikstrup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to patients with depression randomised to a single daily dose of either 10mg escitalopram or placebo for four weeks. No significant differences were found in any of the cytokine levels between the participants treated with escitalopram (n=21) or placebo (n=23). Our data does thus not support the hypothesis...... of a global anti-inflammatory effect of escitalopram on cytokines in healthy subjects....

  4. Anxiety in major depression and cerebrospinal fluid free gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M; Ellis, Steven P; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2014-10-01

    Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...... to screen for cognitive dysfunction in UD, and their associations with socio-occupational capacity. METHOD: Participants (n=53) with UD in partial or full remission and healthy control persons (n=103) were assessed with two new screening instruments, the Danish translations of the Screen for Cognitive...... Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-D) and Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and with established neuropsychological and self-assessment measures. Depression symptoms and socio-occupational function were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Functional Assessment...

  6. 'Mom-I don't want to hear it': Brain response to maternal praise and criticism in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Elliott, Rosalind D; Hooley, Jill M; Dahl, Ronald E; Barber, Anita; Siegle, Greg J

    2017-05-01

    Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers' praise, criticism and neutral comments. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses revealed that MDD youth, unlike controls, exhibited increased neural response to critical relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, an area involved in episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Depressed adolescents also showed a blunted response to maternal praise clips relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as areas involved in reward and self-referential processing (i.e. ventromedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and thalamus/caudate). Findings suggest that maternal criticism may be more strongly encoded or more strongly activated during memory retrieval related to previous autobiographical instances of negative feedback from mothers in depressed youth compared to healthy youth. Furthermore, depressed adolescents may fail to process the reward value and self-relevance of maternal praise. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Caregiver's depressive symptoms and asthma control in children from an underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioseco, Andrea; Serrano, Carolina; Celedón, Juan C; Padilla, Oslando; Puschel, Klaus; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-12-01

    Caregiver's or maternal depression has been associated with increased asthma morbidity in children from prosperous nations, but little is known about this link in low and middle-income countries. To examine if caregiver's depressive symptoms are associated with poor asthma control and abnormal immune responses in school-aged children. Case-control study of 87 asthmatic children (aged 4-11 years) attending a primary care clinic in an underserved area of Santiago (Chile). Cases were children with poor asthma control (Child Asthma Control Test [cACT] asthma control (cACT ≥20 points). The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) and a locally validated family health vulnerability test (SALUFAM) were used to assess caregivers' depression and family health vulnerability. Serum from participating children was assayed for IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, TGF-β, cortisol, and total IgE. The mean (SD) age of study participants was 8.23 (2.15 years), and 55.2% were females. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), family health vulnerability, and caregiver's depressive symptoms were significantly more common in cases than in controls (65.4% vs. 34.6%, p = 0.003; 41.3% vs. 24.8%, p = 0.07; and 39.1% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.04, respectively). There was no significant difference in the level of any serum biomarkers between groups. In a multivariate analysis, only ICS use was significantly associated with better asthma control (OR = 3.56 [1.34-9.48], p = 0.01). Presence of caregiver's depressive symptoms is associated with poor asthma control among children from an underserved community, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for ICS use.

  8. Appetitive Motivation and Negative Emotion Reactivity among Remitted Depressed Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9–15; remitted depressed, n = 34; externalizing disordered without depression, n = 30, and healthy controls, n = 34) participated in a novel reward striving task designed to activate the appetitive/approach motivation system. Objective facial expressions of emotion were videotaped and coded throughout both failure (i.e., nonreward) and control (success and reward) conditions. Observational coding of facial expressions as well as youths’ subjective emotion reports showed that the remitted depressed youth specifically exhibited more negative emotional reactivity to failure in the reward striving task, but not the control condition. Neither externalizing disordered (i.e., ADHD, CD, and/ or ODD) nor control youth displayed greater negative emotional reactivity in either the failure or control condition. Findings suggest that depression among youth is related to dysregulated appetitive motivation and associated negative emotional reactivity after failing to achieve an important, self-relevant goal and not attaining reward. These deficits in reward processing appear to be specific to depression as externalizing disordered youth did not display negative emotional reactivity to failure after their appetitive motivation system was activated. PMID:22901275

  9. Predictive Roles of Three-Dimensional Psychological Pain, Psychache, and Depression in Suicidal Ideation among Chinese College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How to develop an effective screening instrument for predicting suicide risk is an important issue in suicidal research. The aim of the present research was to explore the predictive roles of three screening measures in the evaluation of preexisting suicide risk factors in a sample of undergraduate students. We assessed 1,061 students using the Beck depression and suicidal ideation scales (BDI-I (BSI, the Psychache Scale (PAS, and the three-dimensional Psychological Pain Scale (TDPPS. Simultaneous multivariate regression analysis showed that the predictive values of pain avoidance scores and BDI scores for suicidal ideation were more significant than that of the PAS scores. Subsequently, 42 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 39 students with subthreshold depression (SD, and 18 healthy controls were voluntarily recruited. Students with SD were divided into high suicidal ideation (HSI-SD and low suicidal ideation (LSI-SD groups. Pain avoidance scores and BDI scores differed significantly among the MDD, HSI-SD, LSI-SD, and healthy control groups. Pain avoidance and BSI scores were significantly higher in the MDD and HSI-SD groups than those in the LSI-SD and healthy control groups. However, no significant difference was observed in BDI scores between the HSI-SD and LSI-SD groups. Pain avoidance and depression, rather than psychache, may be promising predictors of suicidal ideation in a Chinese young adult population.

  10. Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal interoceptive activity and functional connectivity in the insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Jason A; Drevets, Wayne C; Moseman, Scott E; Bodurka, Jerzy; Barcalow, Joel C; Simmons, W Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Somatic complaints and altered interoceptive awareness are common features in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, neurobiological evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the insula is one of the primary cortical structures underlying interoceptive awareness. Abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula may thus contribute to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of MDD. We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level-dependent responses between 20 unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy control participants during a task requiring attention to visceral interoceptive sensations and also assessed the relationship of this blood oxygenation level-dependent response to depression severity, as rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Additionally, we examined between-group differences in insula resting-state functional connectivity and its relationship to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ratings of depression severity. Relative to the healthy control subjects, unmedicated MDD subjects exhibited decreased activity bilaterally in the dorsal mid-insula cortex (dmIC) during interoception. Activity within the insula during the interoceptive attention task was negatively correlated with both depression severity and somatic symptom severity in depressed subjects. Major depressive disorder also was associated with greater resting-state functional connectivity between the dmIC and limbic brain regions implicated previously in MDD, including the amygdala, subgenual prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, functional connectivity between these regions and the dmIC was positively correlated with depression severity. Major depressive disorder and the somatic symptoms of depression are associated with abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  11. Episodic memory and organizational strategy in free recall in unipolar depression: the role of cognitive support and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Baudouin, Alexia; Fay, Severine; Raz, Naftali; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; El-Hage, Wissam; Isingrini, Michel; Ergis, Anne-Marie

    2010-08-01

    Executive functioning and memory impairment have been demonstrated in adults with depression. Executive functions and memory are related, mainly when the memory tasks require controlled processes (attentional resource demanding processes)--that is, when a low cognitive support (external aid) is provided. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 45 participants: 21 with depression, and 24 healthy controls matched for age, verbal ability, education level, and anxiety score. Cognitive support was manipulated by providing a categorized word list at encoding, presented either clustered (high cognitive support) or randomized (low cognitive support) to both depressed and healthy adults. The number of words recalled was calculated, and an index of clustering was computed to assess organizational strategies. Participants were also administered cognitive tests (executive functions, cognitive speed, and categorical fluency) to explore the mediators of organizational strategies. Depressed participants had greater difficulty recalling and organizing the words, but the differences between the two groups were reduced for both measures when high cognitive support was provided at encoding. Healthy adults performed better on all cognitive tests. Statistical analyses revealed that in the depressed group, executive functions were the only variable associated with clustering and only when low cognitive support was provided. These findings support the view that the decrement in executive function due to depression may lead to impairment in organization when this mnemonic strategy has to be self-initiated.

  12. Plasma glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressive disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bun-Hee; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Kim, Won-Joong; Trigo, Jose; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-02-01

    Some clinical studies have reported reduced peripheral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) level in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We verified whether a reduction in plasma GDNF level was associated with MDD. Plasma GDNF level was measured in 23 healthy control subjects and 23 MDD patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma GDNF level in MDD patients at baseline did not differ from that in healthy controls. Plasma GDNF in MDD patients did not differ significantly from baseline to the end of treatment. GDNF level was significantly lower in recurrent-episode MDD patients than in first-episode patients before and after treatment. Our findings revealed significantly lower plasma GDNF level in recurrent-episode MDD patients, although plasma GDNF levels in MDD patients and healthy controls did not differ significantly. The discrepancy between our study and previous studies might arise from differences in the recurrence of depression or the ages of the MDD patients.

  13. Association between depression and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    There is limited and controversial information regarding the potential impact of depression on glycemic control. This study aims to evaluate the association between depression and poor glycemic control. In addition, the prevalence of depression and rates of poor glycemic control were determined. Cross-sectional study performed in the endocrinology unit of two hospitals of ESSALUD in Peru. The outcome of interest was poor glycemic control, evaluated by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c: diabetes patients. Our results suggest that early detection of depression might be important to facilitate appropriate glycemic control and avoid further metabolic complications. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Do different fairness contexts and facial emotions motivate 'irrational' social decision-making in major depression? An exploratory patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sina; Schäfer, Ina C; Müller, Bernhard W; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2013-12-15

    Although 'irrational' decision-making has been linked to depression, the contribution of biases in information processing to these findings remains unknown. To investigate the impact of cognitive biases and aberrant processing of facial emotions on social decision-making, we manipulated both context-related and emotion-related information in a modified Ultimatum Game. Unfair offers were (1) paired with different unselected alternatives, establishing the context in which an offer was made, and (2) accompanied by emotional facial expressions of proposers. Responder behavior was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. In both groups alike, rejection rates were highest following unambiguous signals of unfairness, i.e. an angry proposer face or when an unfair distribution had deliberately been chosen over an equal split. However, depressed patients showed overall higher rejection rates than healthy volunteers, without exhibiting differential processing biases. This suggests that depressed patients were, as healthy individuals, basing their decisions on informative, salient features and differentiating between (i) fair and unfair offers, (ii) alternatives to unfair offers and (iii) proposers' facial emotions. Although more fundamental processes, e.g. reduced reward sensitivity, might underlie increased rejection in depression, the current study provides insight into mechanisms that shape fairness considerations in both depressed and healthy individuals. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE ROLE OF METACOGNITION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: A CLINICAL STUDY AND ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE CORRELATION WITH ANXIETY, DEPRESSION AND COPING STRATEGIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Quattropani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to explore the relationships between metacognition and anxiety, depression, and coping strategies in MS patients, compared to healthy subjects. The study was conducted on a group of 50 MS patients and a control group of 50 healthy volunteers matched for gender, age, level of education and social status. Metacognitions were assessed with the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30, while anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and coping strategies were assessed with the Brief COPE. Results did not show significant differences between metacognitive factors for MS patients and healthy subjects. However, we found specific, contrasting correlations between the MS group and the control group. The results of this study could have some implications for clinical practice. Given the relationship between metacognitions and negative emotions, “psychological intervention”, based on the metacognitive approach, could have positive effects on MS patients.

  16. Depression, Impulse Control Disorder, and Life Style According to Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E Y; Joo, S W; Han, S J; Kim, M J; Choi, S Y

    2017-01-01

    We examined depression, impulse control disorder, and life style by degree of smartphone addiction. Chi-square tests and ANOVA were used to identify significant variables. CART was used to generate a decision making diagram of variables affecting smartphone addiction. The severe smartphone addiction group had rates of depression and impulse control disorder than the initial smartphone group.

  17. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  18. [Differentiating early dementia from major depression with the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M; Torralva, T; López, P; Marengo, J; Cetkovich, M; Manes, F

    In clinical practice it is often difficult to establish whether cognitive impairment is secondary to an affective disorder or a dementing process. To describe the cognitive performance on the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) of patients with early dementia and depression. 77 patients with early dementia (53 Alzheimer disease; 24 frontotemporal dementia), 17 patients with major depression and 54 healthy volunteers were tested with the Spanish version of the ACE. Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia groups were significantly lower than the control group and the major depression group. When the major depression group was compared with the control group no significant differences were found. The cognitive performance in the ACE is different in patients with early dementia and patient with depression.

  19. Why might poor sleep quality lead to depression? A role for emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kimberly; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Disordered sleep is strongly linked to future depression, but the reasons for this link are not well understood. This study tested one possibility - that poorer sleep impairs emotion regulation (ER), which over time leads to increased depressive symptoms. Our sample contained individuals with a wide range of depression symptoms (current depression, N = 54, remitted depression, N = 36, and healthy control, N = 53), who were followed clinically over six months and reassessed for changes in depressive symptom levels. As predicted, maladaptive ER mediated both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between poor sleep quality and depression symptoms. In contrast, an alternative mediator, physical activity levels, did not mediate the link between sleep quality and depression symptoms. Maladaptive ER may help explain why sleep difficulties contribute to depression symptoms; implications for interventions are discussed.

  20. Individual differences in cognitive control over emotional material modulate cognitive biases linked to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Jonas; Grahek, Ivan; Koster, Ernst H W

    2017-06-01

    Deficient cognitive control over emotional material and cognitive biases are important mechanisms underlying depression, but the interplay between these emotionally distorted cognitive processes in relation to depressive symptoms is not well understood. This study investigated the relations among deficient cognitive control of emotional information (i.e. inhibition, shifting, and updating difficulties), cognitive biases (i.e. negative attention and interpretation biases), and depressive symptoms. Theory-driven indirect effect models were constructed, hypothesising that deficient cognitive control over emotional material predicts depressive symptoms through negative attention and interpretation biases. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that deficient inhibitory control over negative material was related to negative attention bias which in turn predicted a congruent bias in interpretation and subsequently depressive symptoms. Both shifting and updating impairments in response to negative material had an indirect effect on depression severity through negative interpretation bias. No evidence was found for direct effects of deficient cognitive control over emotional material on depressive symptoms. These findings may help to formulate an integrated understanding of the cognitive foundations of depressive symptoms.

  1. Depression and anxiety are not related to nummular headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; López-López, Almudena; Valle, Begoña; Cuadrado, María Luz; Barriga, Francisco J; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-12-01

    Nummular headache (NH) is a clinical picture characterized by head pain that is exclusively felt in a round, elliptical, or oval area of the head. Although there is evidence supporting an organic origin for NH, some authors question this origin, hypothesizing a potential role for psychological factors. Our aims were to investigate the differences in anxiety and depression between NH patients and healthy controls, and to analyse if these conditions were related to pain parameters in NH patients. The Beck depression inventory (BDI-II) and the trait anxiety scale from state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were administered to 26 patients with NH and 34 comparable matched controls. No significant interactions between group (NH patients, controls) in either depression (U = 391; p = 0.443) or anxiety levels (U = 336; p = 0.113) were found. Both groups showed similar scores in the BDI-II (patients: 3.9 +/- 2.9; controls: 3.46 +/- 3.15) and STAI (patients: 17.23 +/- 10.3; controls: 13.5 +/- 7.9). Moreover, neither depression nor anxiety showed association with mean pain intensity, pain intensity in exacerbations, size of pain area, or pain frequency. Our study demonstrated that self-reported depression and anxiety were not related to the presence of NH. Further, longitudinal studies are still needed to elucidate the role of mood state in the course of NH.

  2. The association between depressive disorder and cardiac autonomic control in adults 60 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Carmilla M M; Naarding, Paul; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van der Mast, Roos C; de Geus, Eco J C; Comijs, Hannie

    2015-04-01

    Altered cardiac autonomic control has often been reported in depressed persons and might play an important role in the increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A negative association between cardiac autonomic control and depression might become specifically clinically relevant in persons 60 years or older as CVD risk increases with age. This study included data of 321 persons with a depressive disorder and 115 controls participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (mean age = 70.3 years, 65.7% female). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), heart rate (HR), and preejection period (PEP) were measured and compared between depressed persons and controls. In addition, the role of antidepressants and clinical characteristics (e.g., age of depression onset and comorbid anxiety) was examined. Compared with controls, depressed persons had lower RSA (mean [standard error of the mean] = 23.5 [1.2] milliseconds versus 18.6 [0.7] milliseconds, p = .001, d = 0.373) and marginally higher HR (73.1 [1.1] beats/min versus 75.6 [0.6] beats/min, p = .065, d = 0.212), but comparable PEP (113.9 [2.1] milliseconds versus 112.0 [1.2] milliseconds, p = .45, d = 0.087), fully adjusted. Antidepressants strongly attenuated the associations between depression and HR and RSA. Antidepressant-naïve depressed persons had similar HR and RSA to controls, whereas users of antidepressants showed significantly lower RSA. In addition, tricyclic antidepressant users had higher HR (p 768) and shorter PEP (p = .014, d = 0.395) than did controls. Depression was not associated with cardiac autonomic control, but antidepressants were in this sample. All antidepressants were associated with low cardiac parasympathetic control and specifically tricyclic antidepressants with high cardiac sympathetic control.

  3. Cognitive and neural consequences of memory suppression in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Levy, Benjamin J; Hamilton, J Paul; Maksimovskiy, Arkadiy; Hertel, Paula T; Joormann, Jutta; Anderson, Michael C; Wagner, Anthony D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2017-02-01

    Negative biases in cognition have been documented consistently in major depressive disorder (MDD), including difficulties in the ability to control the processing of negative material. Although negative information-processing biases have been studied using both behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms, relatively little research has been conducted examining the difficulties of depressed persons with inhibiting the retrieval of negative information from long-term memory. In this study, we used the think/no-think paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the cognitive and neural consequences of memory suppression in individuals diagnosed with depression and in healthy controls. The participants showed typical behavioral forgetting effects, but contrary to our hypotheses, there were no differences between the depressed and nondepressed participants or between neutral and negative memories. Relative to controls, depressed individuals exhibited greater activity in right middle frontal gyrus during memory suppression, regardless of the valence of the suppressed stimuli, and differential activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during memory suppression involving negatively valenced stimuli. These findings indicate that depressed individuals are characterized by neural anomalies during the suppression of long-term memories, increasing our understanding of the brain bases of negative cognitive biases in MDD.

  4. Evaluating the efficacy of an integrated motivational interviewing and multi-modal exercise intervention for youth with major depression: Healthy Body, Healthy Mind randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Nasstasia

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: This trial will increase our understanding of the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions for depression and the specific effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. It also offers a novel contribution by addressing treatment engagement in exercise efficacy trials in youth with MDD.

  5. ‘Mom—I don’t want to hear it’: Brain response to maternal praise and criticism in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Elliott, Rosalind D.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Barber, Anita; Siegle, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers’ praise, criticism and neutral comments. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses revealed that MDD youth, unlike controls, exhibited increased neural response to critical relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, an area involved in episodic memory encoding and retrieval. Depressed adolescents also showed a blunted response to maternal praise clips relative to neutral clips in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as areas involved in reward and self-referential processing (i.e. ventromedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and thalamus/caudate). Findings suggest that maternal criticism may be more strongly encoded or more strongly activated during memory retrieval related to previous autobiographical instances of negative feedback from mothers in depressed youth compared to healthy youth. Furthermore, depressed adolescents may fail to process the reward value and self-relevance of maternal praise. PMID:28338795

  6. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating and regular physical activity, to help promote better mental health. Many effective treatments are available for depression. So don't try to tough out male ...

  7. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Camargo, Andrés; López-León, Sandra; Forero, Diego A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265), COMT-Val158Met (rs4680), SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541), MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170). Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05). In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world.

  8. Coprevalence of Anxiety and Depression With Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura J.; Hapner, Edie R.; Klein, Adam M.; Delgaudio, John M.; Hanfelt, John J.; Jinnah, H. A.; Johns, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction There is evidence supporting an association between depression and anxiety in patients with chronic disease. Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and disabling voice disorder. Reported rates of depression and anxiety in SD range from 7.1% to 72%, with a maximum number of 18 patients. The goal of this study was to define the coprevalence of depression and anxiety with SD. Materials and Methods A single-institution case-control study was performed from May to July 2010. Consecutive patients with SD and benign voice disorders were enrolled prospectively. On enrollment, patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire that reviewed the duration of the voice disorder and personal history of anxiety and depression, including current and lifetime diagnosis. Results One hundred forty-six controls with benign voice disorders and 128 patients with SD were enrolled. Patients with SD were no more likely to be diagnosed with depression or anxiety than those of the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 0.985, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59–1.63; and OR = 1.314; 95% CI 0.75–2.3, respectively). Additionally, duration of disease was a risk factor for depression in both the SD group and the control group, and the association was not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Patients with SD were no more likely to have depression or anxiety than those with other voice disorders. It is important for otolaryngologists to be aware of the increased rates of depression in patients diagnosed with chronic diseases, including voice disorders, and to refer to a psychiatrist when appropriate. PMID:22209056

  9. Coprevalence of anxiety and depression with spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura J; Hapner, Edie R; Klein, Adam M; Delgaudio, John M; Hanfelt, John J; Jinnah, H A; Johns, Michael M

    2012-09-01

    There is evidence supporting an association between depression and anxiety in patients with chronic disease. Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and disabling voice disorder. Reported rates of depression and anxiety in SD range from 7.1% to 72%, with a maximum number of 18 patients. The goal of this study was to define the coprevalence of depression and anxiety with SD. A single-institution case-control study was performed from May to July 2010. Consecutive patients with SD and benign voice disorders were enrolled prospectively. On enrollment, patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire that reviewed the duration of the voice disorder and personal history of anxiety and depression, including current and lifetime diagnosis. One hundred forty-six controls with benign voice disorders and 128 patients with SD were enrolled. Patients with SD were no more likely to be diagnosed with depression or anxiety than those of the control group (odds ratio [OR]=0.985, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.59-1.63; and OR=1.314; 95% CI=0.75-2.3, respectively). Additionally, duration of disease was a risk factor for depression in both the SD group and the control group, and the association was not significantly different between groups. Patients with SD were no more likely to have depression or anxiety than those with other voice disorders. It is important for otolaryngologists to be aware of the increased rates of depression in patients diagnosed with chronic diseases, including voice disorders, and to refer to a psychiatrist when appropriate. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with depression fail to respond to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Few studies have attempted to define these patients from a biological perspective. Studies suggest that overall patients with depression show increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in patients who were SSRI resistant. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha and sIL-6R were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in DSM-1V major depressives who were SSRI resistant, in formerly SSRI resistant patients currently euthymic and in healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with SSRI-resistant depression had significantly higher production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (p=0.01) and TNF-alpha (p=0.004) compared to normal controls. Euthymic patients who were formerly SSRI resistant had proinflammatory cytokine levels which were similar to the healthy subject group. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels did not differ across the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: Suppression of proinflammatory cytokines does not occur in depressed patients who fail to respond to SSRIs and is necessary for clinical recovery.

  11. Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in depression and may persist following the resolution of affective symptoms. However, therapeutic strategies that successfully target cognitive impairments are lacking. Recent work has demonstrated that playing action video games leads to improvements in cognition, in particular executive function, in healthy individuals. We therefore set out to test whether playing video games can reduce symptoms associated with depression. We focussed on depressive symptoms and on rumination, since rumination is a good predictor of depression and may contribute to triggering depression. We recruited 68 clinically depressed individuals (mean age: 46 years, 47 females that were randomized into the training group playing a fast paced action video game for 6 weeks or a waitlist control group. Before and after training participants completed online questionnaires and a neuropsychological test battery. Only participants who actually played the game were included in the analysis. The final sample consisted of n = 21 training group and n = 29 waitlist control group. The training group showed significantly higher subjective cognitive ability, as well as lower self-reported rumination at posttest in contrast to the control group (although these findings do not survive Bonferroni correction. On a subsample with cognitive performance data (n = 19 we detected an improvement in executive function (Trail Making Task A and B in the training compared with the control group. The results show that the fast paced action video game employed in the present study improved Trail Making performance and may reduce rumination and enhance subjective cognitive ability. Future research may focus on the investigation of the precise cognitive profile of effects.

  12. Polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) in major depressive disorder patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saini, Suriati; Muhamad Radzi, Azizah; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid

    2012-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) is a potential susceptibility locus in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. However, data from Malaysia is lacking. The present study aimed to determine the association between the homozygous short variant of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with major depressive disorder. This is a candidate gene case-control association study. The sample consists of 55 major depressive disorder probands and 66 controls. They were Malaysian descents and were unrelated. The Axis I diagnosis was determined using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). The control group comprised healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorders. Participants' blood was sent to the Institute Medical Research for genotyping. The present study failed to detect an association between 5-HTTLPR ss genotype with major depressive disorder (χ(2)  = 3.67, d.f. = 1, P = 0.055, odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-1.94). Sub-analysis revealed that the frequency of l allele in healthy controls was higher (78.0%) than that of Caucasian and East Asian population. However, in view of the small sample size this study may be prone to type II error (and type I error). This preliminary study suggests that the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR did not appear to be a risk factor for increasing susceptibility to major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The effectiveness of Technology-assisted Cascade Training and Supervision of community health workers in delivering the Thinking Healthy Program for perinatal depression in a post-conflict area of Pakistan - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Sikander, Siham; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Atif, Najia; Akhtar, Parveen; Nazir, Huma; Maselko, Joanna; Rahman, Atif

    2016-04-06

    Rates of perinatal depression in low and middle income countries are reported to be very high. Perinatal depression not only has profound impact on women's health, disability and functioning, it is associated with poor child health outcomes such as pre-term birth, under-nutrition and stunting, which ultimately have an adverse trans-generational impact. There is strong evidence in the medical literature that perinatal depression can be effectively managed with psychological treatments delivered by non-specialists. Our previous research in Pakistan led to the development of a successful perinatal depression intervention, the Thinking Healthy Program (THP). The THP is a psychological treatment delivered by community health workers. The burden of perinatal depression can be reduced through scale-up of this proven intervention; however, training of health workers at scale is a major barrier. To enhance access to such interventions there is a need to look at technological solutions to training and supervision. This is a non-inferiority, single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Eighty community health workers called Lady Health Workers (LHWs) working in a post-conflict rural area in Pakistan (Swat) will be recruited through the LHW program. LHWs will be randomly allocated to Technology-assisted Cascade Training and Supervision (TACTS) or to specialist-delivered training (40 in each group). The TACTS group will receive training in THP through LHW supervisors using a tablet-based training package, whereas the comparison group will receive training directly from mental health specialists. Our hypothesis is that both groups will achieve equal competence. Primary outcome measure will be competence of health workers at delivering THP using a modified ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) rating scale immediately post training and after 3 months of supervision. Independent assessors will be blinded to the LHW allocation status. Women living in post

  14. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed.

  15. Effects of an Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT program in Manga format on improving subthreshold depressive symptoms among healthy workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Imamura

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a new Internet-based computerized cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT program in Manga format, the Japanese cartoon, for workers and to examine the effects of the iCBT program on improving subthreshold depression using a randomized controlled trial (RCT design among workers employed in private companies in Japan.All workers in a company (n = 290 and all workers in three departments (n = 1,500 at the headquarters of another large company were recruited by an invitation e-mail. Participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (N = 381 for each group. A six-week, six-lesson iCBT program using Manga (Japanese comic story was developed. The program included several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem solving, and relaxation. The intervention group studied the iCBT program at a frequency of one lesson per week. Depression (Beck Depression Inventory II; BDI-II was assessed as a primary outcome at baseline, and three- and six-month follow-ups for both intervention and control groups were performed.The iCBT program showed a significant intervention effect on BDI-II (t = -1.99, p<0.05 with small effect sizes (Cohen's d: -0.16, 95% Confidence Interval: -0.32 to 0.00, at six-month follow-up.The present study first demonstrated that a computerized cognitive behavior therapy delivered via the Internet was effective in improving depression in the general working population. It seems critical to improve program involvement of participants in order to enhance the effect size of an iCBT program.UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000006210.

  16. Effects of an Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program in Manga format on improving subthreshold depressive symptoms among healthy workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shimazu, Akihito; Umanodan, Rino; Kawakami, Sonoko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Internet-based computerized cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) program in Manga format, the Japanese cartoon, for workers and to examine the effects of the iCBT program on improving subthreshold depression using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design among workers employed in private companies in Japan. All workers in a company (n = 290) and all workers in three departments (n = 1,500) at the headquarters of another large company were recruited by an invitation e-mail. Participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (N = 381 for each group). A six-week, six-lesson iCBT program using Manga (Japanese comic) story was developed. The program included several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem solving, and relaxation. The intervention group studied the iCBT program at a frequency of one lesson per week. Depression (Beck Depression Inventory II; BDI-II) was assessed as a primary outcome at baseline, and three- and six-month follow-ups for both intervention and control groups were performed. The iCBT program showed a significant intervention effect on BDI-II (t = -1.99, p<0.05) with small effect sizes (Cohen's d: -0.16, 95% Confidence Interval: -0.32 to 0.00, at six-month follow-up). The present study first demonstrated that a computerized cognitive behavior therapy delivered via the Internet was effective in improving depression in the general working population. It seems critical to improve program involvement of participants in order to enhance the effect size of an iCBT program. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000006210.

  17. Anxiety and depression in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and their effect on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Hong-Mei; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Song, Jun

    2015-04-14

    To explore the role of psychological factors in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and their effect on quality of life (QoL) of GERD patients. A total of 279 consecutive patients with typical symptoms and 100 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All of the participants were evaluated with the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) and the SF-36 questionnaire. The scores for anxiety, depression and QoL of the two groups were analyzed. The correlation between psychological factors and QoL was also analyzed. Compared with healthy controls (34.70 ± 8.00), the scores of ZSAS in the non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) group (48.27 ± 10.34) and the reflux esophagitis (RE) group (45.38 ± 10.27) were significantly higher (P < 0.001). The mean ZSAS score of the NERD group was significantly higher than that of the RE group (P = 0.01). Compared with healthy controls (37.61 ± 8.44), the mean ZSDS scores were significantly higher in the NERD group (49.65 ± 11.09, P < 0.001) and the RE group (46.76 ± 11.83, P < 0.001). All dimensions of the SF-36 form were negatively correlated with the SAS and SDS scores in patients with NERD and RE (P < 0.05). According to the SF-36 form, vitality, mental health and social functioning were significantly correlated with symptoms of depression in patients with NERD and RE. General health was obviously affected by symptoms of depression in patients with NERD (P < 0.05). Anxiety and depression may play an important role in the occurrence of GERD and especially that of NERD. The QoL of patients with GERD is reduced by anxiety and depression.

  18. The Everyday Emotional Experience of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: Examining Emotional Instability, Inertia, and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators have begun to examine the temporal dynamics of affect in individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), focusing on instability, inertia, and reactivity of emotion. How these dynamics differ between individuals with MDD and healthy controls have not before been examined in a single study. In the present study, 53 adults with MDD and 53 healthy adults carried hand-held electronic devices for approximately seven days and were prompted randomly eight times per day to report their levels of current negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and the occurrence of significant events. In terms of NA, compared with healthy controls, depressed participants reported greater instability and greater reactivity to positive events, but comparable levels of inertia and reactivity to negative events. Neither average levels of NA nor NA reactivity to, frequency or intensity of, events accounted for the group difference in instability of NA. In terms of PA, the MDD and control groups did not differ significantly in their instability, inertia, or reactivity to positive or negative events. These findings highlight the importance of emotional instability in MDD, particularly with respect to NA, and contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the everyday emotional experiences of depressed individuals. PMID:22708886

  19. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  20. Impaired social decision making in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M C

    2012-07-01

    Research on how depression influences social decision making has been scarce. This study investigated how people with depression make decisions in an interpersonal trust-reciprocity game. Fifty female patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDDs) and 49 healthy women participated in this study. The experiment was conducted on a one-to-one basis. Participants were asked to play the role of a trustee responsible for investing money given to them by an anonymous female investor playing on another computer station. In each trial, the investor would send to a participant (the trustee) a request for a certain percentage of the appreciated investment (repayment proportion). Since only the participant knew the exact amount of the appreciated investment, she could decide to pay more (altruistic act), the same, or less (deceptive act) than the requested amount. The participant's money acquired in the trial would be confiscated if her deceptive act was caught. The frequency of deceptive or altruistic decisions and relative monetary gain in each decision choice were examined. People with depression made fewer deceptive and fewer altruistic responses than healthy controls in all conditions. Moreover, the specific behavioral pattern presented by people with depression was modulated by the task factors, including the risk of deception detection and others' intentions (benevolence vs. malevolence). Findings of this study contribute to furthering our understanding of the specific pattern of social behavioral changes associated with depression.

  1. Depression Trajectories of Antenatally Depressed and Nondepressed Young Mothers: Implications for Child Socioemotional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Maryna; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Lamoreau, Renee S; Kotake, Chie; Goldberg, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms in young mothers and investigate the consequences of maternal depression for children's birth outcomes and behavioral adjustment. Antenatal depression puts children of young mothers at risk for adjustment difficulties by adversely impacting birth outcomes and maternal symptoms after birth. Data were drawn from a three-wave randomized, controlled trial of a statewide home visiting program for young primiparous women. A subsample of women (n = 400) who were prenatal at intake was used in the analysis. Mothers were divided into an antenatally depressed group (ADG; 40%) and a healthy group (HG) based on their symptoms at intake. Mothers reported depressive symptoms at intake and 12- and 24-month follow-up, and filled out a checklist of child behavior problems at 24 months follow-up. Perinatal and birth outcomes were derived from the Electronic Birth Certificate collected by the State Department of Public Health at discharge from the hospital. ADG and HG had similar pregnancy characteristics and birth outcomes, but ADG reported more child behavioral problems. Multigroup latent growth curve analysis provided evidence for distinct depression trajectories. A mediation hypothesis was not supported. In both groups, steeper increase in symptoms over time predicted more mother-reported child behavioral problems. Findings are consistent with studies linking antenatal depression with post-birth symptoms, underscoring the importance of prenatal screening for depression. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decision making, central coherence and set-shifting: a comparison between Binge Eating Disorder, Anorexia Nervosa and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloi, Matteo; Rania, Marianna; Caroleo, Mariarita; Bruni, Antonella; Palmieri, Antonella; Cauteruccio, Maria Antonella; De Fazio, Pasquale; Segura-García, Cristina

    2015-01-24

    Several studies have investigated the cognitive profile in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN); on the contrary few studies have evaluated it in patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The purpose of this study was to compare decision making, central coherence and set-shifting between BED and AN patients. A battery of neuropsychological tests including the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Trial Making Task (TMT) and the Hayling Sentence Completion Task (HSCT) were administered in a sample of 135 women (45 AN, 45 BED, 45 Healthy Controls [HC]). Furthermore, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to evaluate depressive symptoms. Years of education, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and depression severity were considered as covariates in statistical analyses. BED and AN patients showed high rates of cognitive impairment compared to HC on the domains investigated; furthermore, the cognitive profile of BED patients was characterised by poorer decision making and cognitive flexibility compared to patients with AN. Cognitive performance was strongly associated with depressive symptoms. In the present sample, two different neurocognitive profiles emerged: a strong cognitive rigidity and a central coherence based on the details was predominant in patients with AN, while a lack of attention and difficulty in adapting to changes in a new situation seemed to better describe patients with BED. The knowledge of the different cognitive profiles of EDs patients may be important for the planning their psychotherapeutic intervention.

  3. Time course for memory dysfunction in early-life and late-life major depression: a longitudinal study from the Juntendo University Mood Disorder Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Hitoshi; Baba, Hajime; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Namekawa, Yuki; Takebayashi, Naoko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihito; Mimura, Masaru; Arai, Heii

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with depression also have memory dysfunctions during depressive episodes. These dysfunctions partially remain immediately after remission from a depressive state; however, it is unclear whether these residual memory dysfunctions may disappear through long-term remission from depression. The present study compared patients during early-life (agelife (age ≥ 60) depression while in their remitted stage with healthy controls to elucidate the impact of a long-term course on memory. Logical memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was administered to 67 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (47 patients with early-life depression and residual 20 patients with late-life depression) and 50 healthy controls. MDD patients received memory assessments at the time of their initial remission and at a follow-up three years after remission. At the time of initial remission, scores for logical memory were significantly lower in both patient groups compared to matched controls. At follow-up, memory dysfunction for early-life MDD patients disappeared, whereas scores in the late-life MDD group remained significantly lower than those of matched controls. All patients in the present study were on antidepressant medications. Our findings suggested that the progress of memory performance in late-life MDD patients may be different from early-life MDD patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ANXIETY IN MAJOR DEPRESSION AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FREE GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Boldrini, Maura; Malone, Kevin M.; Ellis, Steven P.; Sullivan, Gregory; Cooper, Thomas B.; Xie, Shan; Currier, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Low gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in both anxiety and depression pathophysiology. They are often comorbid, but most clinical studies have not examined these relationships separately. We investigated the relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free GABA to the anxiety and depression components of a major depressive episode (MDE) and to monoamine systems. Methods and Materials Patients with a DSM-IV major depressive episode (N = 167: 130 major depressive disorder; 37 bipolar disorder) and healthy volunteers (N = 38) had CSF free GABA measured by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Monoamine metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Symptomatology was assessed by Hamilton depression rating scale. Results Psychic anxiety severity increased with age and correlated with lower CSF free GABA, controlling for age. CSF free GABA declined with age but was not related to depression severity. Other monoamine metabolites correlated positively with CSF GABA but not with psychic anxiety or depression severity. CSF free GABA was lower in MDD compared with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. GABA levels did not differ based on a suicide attempt history in mood disorders. Recent exposure to benzodiazepines, but not alcohol or past alcoholism, was associated with a statistical trend for more severe anxiety and lower CSF GABA. Conclusions Lower CSF GABA may explain increasing severity of psychic anxiety in major depression with increasing age. This relationship is not seen with monoamine metabolites, suggesting treatments targeting the GABAergic system should be evaluated in treatment-resistant anxious major depression and in older patients. PMID:24865448

  5. Differences in emotional stimuli processing in subjects with MTLE with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preglej, Lidija; Marinković, Ksenija; Hećimović, Hrvoje

    2017-09-01

    In healthy people, a preference in attention maintenance and memory for words with emotional valence comparing to neutral words has been shown. The pattern of emotional stimuli processing may be different in people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and it may be sensitive to the presence of depressive symptoms. In order to explore these possibilities, we applied the emotional spatial cueing attentional task and the free recall memory task to participants (N=39) with MTLE and compared them with healthy controls. We hypothesized that the pattern of maintaining attention and remembering emotional words is different in people with MTLE. Current literature indicates that this pattern will change from positive bias in the controls, though no emotional bias in the participants with MTLE without depression (MTLE-d), and in this work we examined this pattern in the participants with MTLE with depressive symptoms (MTLE+d). Our results show that in both attention and memory, control subjects exhibit positive emotional bias, the subjects with MTLE-d show nonemotional bias and the subjects with MTLE+d have bias away from positive words. Participants with MTLE+d maintained attention for positive words shorter than others. Participants with MTLE+d had worse recall for positive words than the participants with MTLE-d and for all words when compared to controls. We found that faster attention disengagement from positive words and worse memory for positive words is associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroticism, anxiety, and depression in Egyptian atopic bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Fathy; Taha t Abd Algawad; Eman O. Arram; Hala Elboraei; Manal S. Arafat; Sherin S. Elmetwaly

    2014-01-01

    The association between allergic and psychological disorders had been reported, but whether the key mediating ingredients are predominantly biological, psychological, or mere artifacts remains unknown. We aim to examine the relationship between objectively measured atopic status and anxiety, depression, and neuroticism. Methods: This randomized case controlled trial was conducted on 50 atopic patients and 50 healthy controls. Atopy was determined by skin prick test and allergy related symp...

  7. [Preclinical horizon of depression in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Márquez-González, Horacio; Monsreal-Góngora, Juan Leonardo; Góngora-González, Gonzalo; Sandoval-Jurado, Luis; Boquer-Hernández, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Identify factors related to preclinical depression in healthy adults, their risk factors and concordance with family doctor diagnostic. Case-control study in adult from family medicine consulting room. Beck inventory for depression was applied. The correlation between depression and the diagnosis by the family physician was evaluated. Odds ratio (OR) was determined. Involved 138 patients randomly from four family medicine units (FMU) in the Northern Region of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The mean age 34.9 ± 11.4 years, 55.8% women, prevalence for depression was 26.1%. Being male OR: 3.76; 95% CI: 1.69-8.36, under 30 years OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.27-5.99, low socioeconomic status (SES) OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.97-4.59 and be married OR: 3.22; 95% CI: 1.41.-7.36 had depression risk. Diagnosis by the family physician and inventory Beck. Kappa Index 0.2, 95% CI: -0057-0176; p = 0.05. Almost a third of young adults have some depression degree in family medicine consulting room, it is necessary a depression screening for male patients, low SES, married, and under 30 years old, attending medical consultation familiar, for a early diagnosis and improve prognosis.

  8. Dimensional psychiatry: reward dysfunction and depressive mood across psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Rapp, Michael; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Dolan, Raymond J; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A dimensional approach in psychiatry aims to identify core mechanisms of mental disorders across nosological boundaries. We compared anticipation of reward between major psychiatric disorders, and investigated whether reward anticipation is impaired in several mental disorders and whether there is a common psychopathological correlate (negative mood) of such an impairment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task to study the functional correlates of reward anticipation across major psychiatric disorders in 184 subjects, with the diagnoses of alcohol dependence (n = 26), schizophrenia (n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 24), bipolar disorder (acute manic episode, n = 13), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 54). Subjects' individual Beck Depression Inventory-and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-scores were correlated with clusters showing significant activation during reward anticipation. During reward anticipation, we observed significant group differences in ventral striatal (VS) activation: patients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and major depression showed significantly less ventral striatal activation compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms correlated with dysfunction in reward anticipation regardless of diagnostic entity. There was no significant correlation between anxiety symptoms and VS functional activation. Our findings demonstrate a neurobiological dysfunction related to reward prediction that transcended disorder categories and was related to measures of depressed mood. The findings underline the potential of a dimensional approach in psychiatry and strengthen the hypothesis that neurobiological research in psychiatric disorders can be targeted at core mechanisms that are likely to be implicated in a range of clinical entities.

  9. Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luomajoki, H; Moseley, G L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary lumbopelvic control is compromised in patients with back pain. Loss of proprioceptive acuity is one contributor to decreased control. Several reasons for decreased proprioceptive acuity have been proposed, but the integrity of cortical body maps has been overlooked. We investigated whether tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to lumbopelvic control in people with back pain. Forty-five patients with back pain and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Tactile acuity at the back was assessed using two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold in vertical and horizontal directions. Voluntary motor control was assessed using an established battery of clinical tests. Patients performed worse on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks than healthy controls did (p<0.001). TPD threshold was larger in patients (mean (SD)=61 (13) mm) than in healthy controls (44 (10) mm). Moreover, larger TPD threshold was positively related to worse performance on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks (Pearson's r=0.49; p<0.001). Tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to voluntary lumbopelvic control. This relationship raises the possibility that the former contributes to the latter, in which case training tactile acuity may aid recovery and assist in achieving normal motor performance after back injury.

  10. Motivational deficits in effort-based decision making in individuals with subsyndromal depression, first-episode and remitted depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Huang, Jia; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Ye-Fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K; Xie, Guang-Rong

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is a hallmark symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Preliminary findings suggest that anhedonia is characterized by reduced reward anticipation and motivation of obtaining reward. However, relatively little is known about reward-based decision-making in depression. We tested the hypothesis that anhedonia in MDD may reflect specific impairments in motivation on reward-based decision-making and the deficits might be associated with depressive symptoms severity. In study 1, individuals with and without depressive symptoms performed the modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making. In study 2, MDD patients, remitted MDD patients and healthy controls were recruited for the same procedures. We found evidence for decreased willingness to make effort for rewards among individuals with subsyndromal depression; the effect was amplified in MDD patients, but dissipated in patients with remitted depression. We also found that reduced anticipatory and consummatory pleasure predicted decreased willingness to expend efforts to obtain rewards in MDD patients. For individuals with subsyndromal depression, the impairments were correlated with anticipatory anhedonia but not consummatory anhedonia. These data offer novel evidence that motivational deficits in MDD are correlated with depression severity and predicted by self-reported anhedonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insular and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Harald; Krug, Axel; Schöning, Sonja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Uhlmann, Christina; Postert, Christian; Suslow, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric illness with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical course. Due to the lack of consistent data from previous studies, the study of morphometric changes in major depressive disorder is still a major point of research requiring additional studies. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize and quantify regional gray matter abnormalities in a large sample of clinically well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder. Methods For this study one-hundred thirty two patients with major depressive disorder and 132 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included, 35 with their first episode and 97 with recurrent depression. To analyse gray matter abnormalities, voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was employed on T1 weighted MRI data. We performed whole-brain analyses as well as a region-of-interest approach on the hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, correlating the number of depressive episodes. Results Compared to healthy control persons, patients showed a strong gray-matter reduction in the right anterior insula. In addition, region-of-interest analyses revealed significant gray-matter reductions in the hippocampal formation. The observed alterations were more severe in patients with recurrent depressive episodes than in patients with a first episode. The number of depressive episodes was negatively correlated with gray-matter volume in the right hippocampus and right amygdala. Conclusions The anterior insula gray matter structure appears to be strongly affected in major depressive disorder and might play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. The hippocampal and amygdala volume loss cumulating with the number of episodes might be explained either by repeated neurotoxic stress or alternatively by higher relapse rates in patients showing hippocampal atrophy. PMID:25051163

  12. Cognition, depression, fatigue, and quality of life in primary Sj?gren's syndrome: correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Ko?er, Belgin; Tezcan, Mehmet Engin; Batur, Hale Zeynep; Haznedaro?lu, ?eminur; G?ker, Berna; ?rke?, Ceyla; ?etinkaya, R?meysa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction observed in primary Sj?gren's syndrome (PSS) and to examine the relationships between cognitive abilities, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. Materials and Methods Thirty?two subjects with PSS were compared with 19 healthy controls on comprehensive neuropsychological, depression, fatigue, health state, and daily?life activities tests. Results There was low performance ...

  13. The Heart´s rhythm 'n' blues: Sex differences in circadian variation patterns of vagal activity vary by depressive symptoms in predominantly healthy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczok, Marc N; Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Koenig, Julian; Kaess, Michael; Borniger, Jeremy C; Nelson, Randy J; Hall, Martica; Ditzen, Beate; Thayer, Julian F; Fischer, Joachim E

    2018-03-15

    Successful regulation of emotional states is positively associated to mental health, while difficulties in regulating emotions are negatively associated to overall mental health and in particular associated with anxiety or depression symptoms. A key structure associated to socio-emotional regulatory processes is the central autonomic network. Activity in this structure is associated to vagal activity can be indexed noninvasively and simply by measures of peripheral cardiac autonomic modulations such as heart rate variability. Vagal activity exhibits a circadian variation pattern, with a maximum during nighttime. Depression is known to affect chronobiology. Also, depressive symptoms are known to be associated with decreased resting state vagal activity, but studies investigating the association between circadian variation pattern of vagal activity and depressive symptoms are scarce. We aim to examine these patterns in association to symptom severity of depression using chronobiologic methods. Data from the Manheim Industrial Cohort Studies (MICS) were used. A total of 3,030 predominantly healthy working adults underwent, among others, ambulatory 24-h hear rate-recordings, detailed health examination and online questionnaires and were available for this analysis. The root mean sum of successive differences (RMSSD) was used as an indicator of vagally mediated heart rate variability. Three individual-level cosine function parameters (MESOR, amplitude, acrophase) were estimated to quantify circadian variation pattern. Multivariate linear regression models including important covariates such as age, sex, and lifestyle factors as well as an interaction effect of sex with depressive symptoms were used to estimate the association of circadian variation pattern of vagal activity with depressive symptoms simultaneously. The analysis sample consisted of 20.2% females and an average age 41 with standard deviation of 11 years. Nonparametric bivariate analysis revealed

  14. Appetitive motivation and negative emotion reactivity among remitted depressed youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Wetter, Emily K; Flory, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted depressed, n = 34; externalizing disordered without depression, n = 30; and healthy controls, n = 34) participated in a novel reward striving task designed to activate the appetitive/approach motivation system. Objective facial expressions of emotion were videotaped and coded throughout both failure (i.e., nonreward) and control (success and reward) conditions. Observational coding of facial expressions as well as youths' subjective emotion reports showed that the remitted depressed youth specifically exhibited more negative emotional reactivity to failure in the reward striving task, but not the control condition. Neither externalizing disordered (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder) nor control youth displayed greater negative emotional reactivity in either the failure or control condition. Findings suggest that depression among youth is related to dysregulated appetitive motivation and associated negative emotional reactivity after failing to achieve an important, self-relevant goal and not attaining reward. These deficits in reward processing appear to be specific to depression as externalizing disordered youth did not display negative emotional reactivity to failure after their appetitive motivation system was activated.

  15. Residuals in post-chemotherapy, non-depressed patients with leukemia that is in remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Debate persists regarding the occurrence and etiology of neurocognitive deficits associated with the utilization of chemotherapeutic agents, commonly referred to as “chemobrain”. While some have previously attributed these features to other factors such as fatigue, emotional reactivity, etc., growing literature suggests that in fact chemotherapeutic agents may be the cause. Although research has investigated these deficits, greater investigation is warranted. The current study investigated the presence of residual neurocognitive deficits in non-depressed patients post-chemotherapy with a history of leukemia that was in remission in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: participants included 16 individuals with a history of leukemia post-chemotherapy, in remission and without depression and 48 healthy controls. Participants were assessed using the WJ-III with data from the first seven subtests entered for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences existed between groups. By way of a discriminant function analysis, subtest/domain specific discrepancies were noted. Specifically, participants with a history of leukemia who were post-chemotherapy and without depression were found to perform significantly worse on visual-auditory learning, concept formations, and sound blending than did healthy controls. Findings are seen as additional support of the idea that neurocognitive deficits do in fact occur following chemotherapy. However, they are particularly of interest as they are seen even in the absence of emotional distress and outside the active treatment phase. Additional findings of importance and clinical relevance will be discussed.

  16. Biological differences between melancholic and nonmelancholic depression subtyped by the CORE measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanemberg L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lucas Spanemberg,1,2 Marco Antonio Caldieraro,1 Edgar Arrua Vares,1 Bianca Wollenhaupt-Aguiar,3,4 Márcia Kauer-Sant’Anna,3,4 Sheila Yuri Kawamoto,1 Emily Galvão,3–5 Gordon Parker,6,7 Marcelo P Fleck1,8 1Mood Disorders Program, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital São Lucas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, 3INCT Translational Medicine, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, 4Bipolar Disorders Program and Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 5Centro Universitário Metodista, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 6School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, 7Black Dog Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 8Neuromodulation Research Clinic, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montréal, ON, Canada Background: The purpose of this study was to compare melancholic patients rated by the CORE measure of observable psychomotor disturbance with nonmelancholic and control subjects across a set of biomarkers.Methods: Depressed patients were classified as melancholic or nonmelancholic by using the CORE measure. Both groups of patients, as well as control subjects, were compared for a set of clinical and laboratory measures. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, of two markers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl content [PCC] and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], and of several immunity markers (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three depressed patients and 54 healthy controls were studied. Depressive patients showed higher IL-4, IL-6, and PCC values than healthy controls. Thirteen (39% of the depressed patients were assigned as melancholic by the CORE measure. They generated lower interferon-gamma (compared with nonmelancholic depressed patients and TBARS (compared with both the

  17. Disturbance of serotonin 5HT2 receptors in remitted patients suffering from hereditary depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisch, R; Klimke, A; Mayoral, F; Hamacher, K; Herzog, H R; Vosberg, H; Tosch, M; Gaebel, W; Rivas, F; Coenen, H H; Müller-Gärtner, H W

    2001-08-01

    The characteristics of 5HT2 receptor binding were investigated in major depression in vivo using positron emission tomography and the radioligand F-18-altanserin. Twelve patients from families with high loading of depression living in a geographically restricted region were examined and compared with normal control subjects. At the time of the PET measurement all patients were remitted; in some of them remission was sustained by antidepressive medication. Binding potential was assessed by Logan's graphical analysis method. The binding of F-18-altanserin was about 38% lower in patients than in healthy controls (p depression rather than by medication. The data suggest that 5HT2 receptors are altered in depression. We present evidence for a reduction of the receptor density, which might be usable as trait marker of subjects susceptible for depressive illness.

  18. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S

  19. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Ramanathan, Murali; Benedict, Ralph; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive reserve has been implicated as a possible protective factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but to date no study has compared reserve-building activities across disease course or to healthy controls. This study aims to describe differences in reserve-building activities across the MS disease course and healthy controls. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional cohort study that included 276 healthy controls, and subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS; n = 67), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 358) and secondary progressive MS (PMS; n = 109). Past reserve-building activities were operationalized as occupational attainment and education. Current activities comprised 6 strenuous and 6 non-strenuous activities, including 5 reserve-building activities and television-watching. Multivariate Analysis of Variance models examined group differences in past and current activities, after adjusting for covariates. There were group differences in past and current reserve-building activities. SPMS patients had lower past reserve-building activities than healthy controls. All forms of MS engaged in fewer strenuous current reserve-building pursuits than healthy controls. RRMS read less than healthy controls. SPMS engaged in fewer job-related non-strenuous activities. All MS groups watched more television than healthy controls. MS patients show significantly fewer past and present reserve-building activities. Although it is difficult to establish causality without future prospective studies, lifestyle-modifying interventions should prioritize expanding MS patients' repertoire of strenuous and non-strenuous activities.

  20. Altered cerebellar functional connectivity with intrinsic connectivity networks in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher-order functions of the cerebellum, including emotion regulation and cognitive processing, and have indicated that the cerebellum should therefore be included in the pathophysiological models of major depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the resting-state functional connectivity of the cerebellum in adults with major depression and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty adults with major depression and 20 gender-, age-, and education-matched controls were investigated using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, depressed patients showed significantly increased functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the temporal poles. However, significantly reduced cerebellar functional connectivity was observed in the patient group in relation to both the default-mode network, mainly including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and the executive control network, mainly including the superior frontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score was negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the bilateral Lobule VIIb and the right superior frontal gyrus in depressed patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated increased cerebellar coupling with the temporal poles and reduced coupling with the regions in the default-mode and executive control networks in adults with major depression. These differences between patients and controls could be associated with the emotional disturbances and cognitive control function deficits that accompany major depression. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity during major depression may also imply a substantial role for the cerebellum in the pathophysiological models of depression.

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy modulates plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor in depression: a proteomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K M; Glaviano, A; O'Donovan, S M; Kolshus, E; Dunne, R; Kavanagh, A; Jelovac, A; Noone, M; Tucker, G M; Dunn, M J; McLoughlin, D M

    2017-03-28

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for severe depression, yet its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Peripheral blood proteomic analyses may offer insights into the molecular mechanisms of ECT. Patients with a major depressive episode were recruited as part of the EFFECT-Dep trial (enhancing the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in severe depression; ISRCTN23577151) along with healthy controls. As a discovery-phase study, patient plasma pre-/post-ECT (n=30) was analyzed using 2-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Identified proteins were selected for confirmation studies using immunodetection methods. Samples from a separate group of patients (pre-/post-ECT; n=57) and matched healthy controls (n=43) were then used to validate confirmed changes. Target protein mRNA levels were also assessed in rat brain and blood following electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), the animal model of ECT. We found that ECT significantly altered 121 protein spots with 36 proteins identified by mass spectrometry. Confirmation studies identified a post-ECT increase (P<0.01) in the antiangiogenic and neuroprotective mediator pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Validation work showed an increase (P<0.001) in plasma PEDF in depressed patients compared with the controls that was further increased post-ECT (P=0.03). PEDF levels were not associated with mood scores. Chronic, but not acute, ECS increased PEDF mRNA in rat hippocampus (P=0.02) and dentate gyrus (P=0.03). This study identified alterations in blood levels of PEDF in depressed patients and further alterations following ECT, as well as in an animal model of ECT. These findings implicate PEDF in the biological response to ECT for depression.

  2. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex responses to repeated social evaluative feedback in young women with and without past history of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina eDedovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is recruited when a person is socially rejected or negatively evaluated. However, it remains to be fully understood how this region responds to repeated exposure to personally-relevant social evaluation, in both healthy populations and those vulnerable to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, as well as how responding in these regions is associated with subsequent clinical functioning. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 17 young women with past history of MDD (previously depressed and 31 healthy controls and exposed them to a social evaluative session in a neuroimaging environment. In two bouts, participants received an equal amount of positive, negative, and neutral feedback from a confederate. All participants reported increases in feelings of social evaluation in response to the evaluative task. However, compared to healthy controls, previously depressed participants tended to show greater increases in depressed mood following the task. At the neural level, in response to negative (vs. positive feedback, no main effect of group or evaluation periods was observed. However, a significant interaction between group and evaluation periods was found. Specifically, over the two bouts of evaluation, activity in the dACC decreased among healthy participants while it increased among previously depressed individuals. Interestingly and unexpectedly, in the previously depressed group specifically, this increased activity in dACC over time was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 6-months following the evaluation session (controlling for baseline levels. Thus, the subset of previously depressed participants who showed increases in the recruitment of the dACC over time in response to the negative evaluation seemed to fair better emotionally. These findings suggest that examining how the dACC responds to repeated bouts of negative evaluation reveals a new dimension to the

  3. Effect of depression on psychomotor skills, eye movements and recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Rijsdijk, F.V.

    1993-01-01

    In this study 12 depressed outpatients were compared to 12 healthy controls with respect to their performance on a number of cognitive tasks, including a recognition-memory task, and their eye movements and pupil size were recorded while watching a traffic film. The recognition-memory task consisted

  4. Assessment of linear and nonlinear/complex heartbeat dynamics in subclinical depression (dysphoria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Gentili, Claudio; Palomba, Daniela; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Valenza, Gaetano

    2018-03-29

    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Most previous studies have focused on major depression, and studies on subclinical depression, such as those on so-called dysphoria, have been overlooked. Indeed, dysphoria is associated with a high prevalence of somatic disorders, and a reduction of quality of life and life expectancy. In current clinical practice, dysphoria is assessed using psychometric questionnaires and structured interviews only, without taking into account objective pathophysiological indices. To address this problem, in this study we investigated heartbeat linear and nonlinear dynamics to derive objective autonomic nervous system biomarkers of dysphoria. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study: according to clinical evaluation, 24 of them were dysphoric. Extensive group-wise statistics was performed to characterize the pathological and control groups. Moreover, a recursive feature elimination algorithm based on a K-NN classifier was carried out for the automatic recognition of dysphoria at a single-subject level. The results showed that the most significant group-wise differences referred to increased heartbeat complexity (particularly for fractal dimension, sample entropy and recurrence plot analysis) with regards to the healthy controls, confirming dysfunctional nonlinear sympatho-vagal dynamics in mood disorders. Furthermore, a balanced accuracy of 79.17% was achieved in automatically distinguishing dysphoric patients from controls, with the most informative power attributed to nonlinear, spectral and polyspectral quantifiers of cardiovascular variability. This study experimentally supports the assessment of dysphoria as a defined clinical condition with specific characteristics which are different both from healthy, fully euthymic controls and from full-blown major depression.

  5. Clinical characteristics of inflammation-associated depression: Monocyte gene expression is age-related in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Laura; Carvalho, Livia A; Wijkhuijs, Annemarie J M; Bellingrath, Silja; Ruland, Tillmann; Ambrée, Oliver; Alferink, Judith; Ehring, Thomas; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Arolt, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Increased inflammatory activation might only be present in a subgroup of depressed individuals in which immune processes are especially relevant to disease development. We aimed to analyze demographic, depression, and trauma characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with regard to inflammatory monocyte gene expression. Fifty-six naturalistically treated MDD patients (32 ± 12 years) and 57 healthy controls (HC; 31 ± 11 years) were analyzed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We determined the expression of 38 inflammatory and immune activation genes including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α and GRβ genes in purified CD14(+) monocytes using quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Monocyte gene expression was age-dependent, particularly in MDD patients. Increased monocyte gene expression and decreased GRα/β ratio were only present in MDD patients aged ⩾ 28 years. Post hoc analyses of monocyte immune activation in patients depression (recurrent type, onset depression, onset ⩾15 years) - additionally characterized by the absence of panic symptoms - that exhibited a strongly reduced inflammatory monocyte activation compared to HC. In conclusion, monocyte immune activation was not uniformly raised in MDD patients but was increased only in patients of 28 years and older. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Executive functions in young patients with unipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological deficits associated with unipolar depression are seen in a broad range of cognitive domains. Executive deficits may be prominent in depression. Investigation of executive functions in younger adult patients with unipolar depression has been the focus of our study. Twenty-two consecutively depressive inpatients (24-36 years and 21 healthy control subjects, matched on age, gender, education and verbal IQ were included in the study. Neuropsychological tests for executive functions were applied to all subjects. Unipolar young depressives showed significantly reduced number of completed categories and more trials for completion of the first category on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. No difference of tasks assessing the short-term memory, total errors on WCST, perseverative and non-perseverative errors, and of both phonemic and semantic conditions of verbal fluency was found between groups. The results suggested that unipolar depressives had specific cognitive style characterized by "negative cognitive set" (stronger negative reaction to negative feedback and by failure to use negative feedback to improve their performance.

  7. Internet delivered cognitive behavior therapy for antenatal depression: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Erik; Bendix, Marie; Holländare, Fredrik; Szymanska von Schultz, Barbara; Nasiell, Josefine; Blomdahl-Wetterholm, Margareta; Eriksson, Caroline; Kvarned, Sara; Lindau van der Linden, Johanna; Söderberg, Elin; Jokinen, Jussi; Wide, Katarina; Kaldo, Viktor

    2017-10-15

    Major depression occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with many negative effects for mother and child, yet treatment options are scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first published randomised controlled trial on Internet delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) for this group. To test the efficacy of a pregnancy adapted version of an existing 10-week ICBT-program for depression as well as assessing acceptability and adherence DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. Online and telephone. Self-referred pregnant women (gestational week 10-28 at intake) currently suffering from major depressive disorder. 42 pregnant women (gestational week 12-28) with major depression were randomised to either treatment as usual (TAU) provided at their antenatal clinic or to ICBT as an add-on to usual care. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale-self report (MADRS-S). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and measures of anxiety and sleep were used. Credibility, satisfaction, adherence and utilization were also assessed. The ICBT group had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms post treatment (p treatment credibility, satisfaction, utilization, and adherence were comparable to implemented ICBT for depression. Small sample size and no long-term evaluation. Pregnancy adapted ICBT for antenatal depression is feasible, acceptable and efficacious. These results need to be replicated in larger trials to validate these promising findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of music on depression in older people: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Wong, Zi Yang; Onishi, Hideaki; Thayala, Naidu Vellasamy

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of music on depression levels in older adults. Background.  Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in older adults, and its impacts on this group of people, along with its conventional treatment, merit our attention. Conventional pharmacological methods might result in dependence and impairment in psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Listening to music, which is a non-pharmacological method, might reduce depression. A randomised controlled study. The study was conducted from July 2009-June 2010 at participants' home in Singapore. In total, 50 older adults (24 using music and 26 control) completed the study after being recruited. Participants listened to their choice of music for 30 minutes per week for eight weeks. Depression scores were collected once a week for eight weeks. Depression levels reduced weekly in the music group, indicating a cumulative dose effect, and a statistically significant reduction in depression levels was found over time in the music group compared with non-music group. Listening to music can help older people to reduce their depression level. Music is a non-invasive, simple and inexpensive therapeutic method of improving life quality in community-dwelling older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.R. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wu, B. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, H.Y. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X. [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xie, P. [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing (China); Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2015-09-08

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes.

  10. Specific alterations in plasma proteins during depressed, manic, and euthymic states of bipolar disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.R.; Wu, B.; Yang, Y.T.; Chen, J.; Zhang, L.J.; Zhang, Z.W.; Shi, H.Y.; Huang, C.L.; Pan, J.X.; Xie, P.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric mood disorder affecting more than 1-2% of the general population of different European countries. Unfortunately, there is no objective laboratory-based test to aid BD diagnosis or monitor its progression, and little is known about the molecular basis of BD. Here, we performed a comparative proteomic study to identify differentially expressed plasma proteins in various BD mood states (depressed BD, manic BD, and euthymic BD) relative to healthy controls. A total of 10 euthymic BD, 20 depressed BD, 15 manic BD, and 20 demographically matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Seven high-abundance proteins were immunodepleted in plasma samples from the 4 experimental groups, which were then subjected to proteome-wide expression profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomic results were validated by immunoblotting and bioinformatically analyzed using MetaCore. From a total of 32 proteins identified with 1.5-fold changes in expression compared with healthy controls, 16 proteins were perturbed in BD independent of mood state, while 16 proteins were specifically associated with particular BD mood states. Two mood-independent differential proteins, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and Apo L1, suggest that BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism. Moreover, down-regulation of one mood-dependent protein, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1), suggests it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes in BD. Thus, BD pathophysiology may be associated with early perturbations in lipid metabolism that are independent of mood state, while CA-1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive episodes

  11. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    depressive symptoms, the Children Depression Inventory (CDI and the Italian Self-Administered Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA were administered. The control group consisted of 273 healthy children (129 males and 144 females (mean age 9.1±1.8 years, enrolled in schools within the Campania region of Italy. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (8.9±1.23 years in the obese sample and 9.1±1.8 years in the control group (P=0.228 or sex (ratio male/female: 69/79 in the obese group versus 129/144 in the control group (P=0.983. Obviously, significant difference was found for the BMI z-score (2.46±0.31 in the obese group vs 0.73±0.51 in the control group (P<0.001. The obese subjects showed significant higher level of depressive symptoms (CDI total score (16.82±7.73 vs 8.2±2.9 (P<0.001 and anxiety (SAFA – Anxiety [SAFA-A] scale score (58.71±11.84 vs 27.75±11.5 (P<0.001 compared with the control group. Moreover, the Pearson’s correlation analysis showed a significantly positive relationship between the BMI z-score and both the CDI (r=0.677; P<0.001 and SAFA-A scores (r=0.591; P<0.001. Conclusion: Our findings highlighted the importance of assessing the presence of internalizing problems, such as anxiety and depression, in the common management of childhood obesity. Keywords: childhood obesity, internalizing problems, SAFA, CDI

  12. Cognitive effects of creatine monohydrate adjunctive therapy in patients with bipolar depression: Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fernandes, Francy de Brito Ferreira; Silva, Michelle; Dias, Rodrigo da Silva; Lafer, Beny

    2017-12-15

    Depressive episodes and cognitive impairment are major causes of morbidity and dysfunction in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder (BD). Novel treatment approaches that target clinical and cognitive aspects of bipolar depression are needed, and research on pathophysiology suggests that mitochondrial modulators such as the nutraceutical creatine monohydrate might have a therapeutic role for this condition. Eighteen (N=18) patients with bipolar depression according to DSM-IV criteria who were enrollled in a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of creatine monohydrate 6g daily as adjunctive therapy were submitted to neuropsychological assessments (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition, Stroop Color-Word Test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, FAS Verbal Fluency Test) at baseline and week 6. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment groups of the change on the total scores after 6 weeks in the verbal fluency test, with improvement in the group receiving adjunctive treatment with creatine. We did not find significant differences between the groups of the changes on other neuropsychological tests. Small sample and lack of a control group of healthy subjects. Our trial, which was the first to investigate the cognitive effects of creatine monohydrate on bipolar depression, indicates that supplementation with this nutraceutical for 6 weeks is associated with improvement in verbal fluency tests in patients with this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differentiation between dementia and depression among older persons: can the difference between actual and premorbid intelligence be useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, Eva; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Raedt, Rudi; Van Buggenhout, Michael; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2008-12-01

    We wanted to investigate whether the difference between actual and premorbid intelligence can be useful to make an early differentiation between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression among elderly. A Dutch version of the National Adult Reading Test (NLV), a measure of premorbid IQ and the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), a measure of actual intelligence were administered to patients with mild (34) and moderate (27) AD, depressed elderly (36) and healthy control subjects (51). Logistic regression analyses revealed that intellectual decline (i.e. subtracting NLV percentile score from RCPM percentile score) was only able to predict group membership when moderate AD patients were compared to depressed and healthy individuals. Our results indicate that intellectual decline may not be a concomitant of elderly depression. However, the differentiation between mild AD and elderly depression can not be made by means of the difference between premorbid (NLV) and actual (RCPM) intelligence scores.

  14. Differential Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity in Depression and Anxiety During Stress Depending on Type of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy X; Lamers, Femke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-06-01

    It remains unclear whether depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and whether deviant reactivity occurs in all types of stressors. This study compared ANS reactivity in people with current or remitted depression/anxiety with reactivity in healthy controls during two stress conditions. From the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, data of 804 individuals with current depression/anxiety, 913 individuals with remitted depression/anxiety, and 466 healthy controls (mean age = 44.1 years; 66.4% female) were available. Two conditions were used to evoke stress: a) an n-back task, a cognitively challenging stressor, and 2) a psychiatric interview, evoking personal-emotional stress related to the occurrence of symptoms of depression/anxiety. Indicators of ANS activity were heart rate (HR), root mean square of differences between successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period. As compared with controls, participants with psychopathology had significant hyporeactivity of HR (controls = 4.1 ± 4.2 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.5 beats/min; current psychopathology = 3.1 ± 3.4 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -6.2 ± 14.5 milliseconds; remitted = -5.4 ± 17.8 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -3.5 ± 15.4 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -9.3 ± 17.0 milliseconds; remitted = -7.4 ± 16.5 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -6.9 ± 15.0 milliseconds) during the n-back task. In contrast, during the psychiatric interview, they showed significant hyperreactivity of HR (controls = 2.7 ± 3.4 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.4 beats/min; current psychopathology = 4.0 ± 3.3 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -3.4 ± 12.2 milliseconds; remitted = -4.1 ± 12.1 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.6 ± 11.8 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -3.8 ± 8.1 milliseconds; remitted = -4.3 ± 7.9 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.0

  15. Predictors of Memory Deficits in Adolescents and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Compared to Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Pike

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease [CHD] show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. Method: 156 adolescents and young adults [80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years] were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition – general memory index (GMI score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to assess group differences, and logistic regression to identify predictors of memory deficits. Results: CHD subjects consisted of 58% males, median age 17 years, 41% Hispanic, and medians of 2 previous heart surgeries and 14 years since last surgery. Memory deficits [GMI < 85] were identified in 50% CHD compared to 4% healthy controls [median GMI 85 vs. 108, p <0.001]. Of GMI subscale medians, CHD subjects had significantly worse memory performance vs. healthy controls [verbal 88 vs. 105, p <0.001; attention 88 vs. 109, p<0.001; working memory 86 vs. 108, p <0.001]. No significant differences appeared between groups for visual memory. Multiple clinical and psychosocial factors were identified which were statistically different on bivariate analyses between the subjects with and without memory deficits. By multivariate analysis, male gender, number of surgeries, anxiety, and self-efficacy emerged as independent predictors of memory deficits. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with CHD, more than a decade since their last surgery, show significant verbal, attention and working memory deficits over controls. To enhance

  16. Modulatory effects of the piccolo genotype on emotional memory in health and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Woudstra

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has been associated with biased memory formation for mood-congruent information, which may be related to altered monoamine levels. The piccolo (PCLO gene, involved in monoaminergic neurotransmission, has previously been linked to depression in a genome-wide association study. Here, we investigated the role of the PCLO risk allele on functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI correlates of emotional memory in a sample of 89 MDD patients (64 PCLO risk allele carriers and 29 healthy controls (18 PCLO risk allele carriers. During negative word encoding, risk allele carriers showed significant lower activity relative to non-risk allele carriers in the insula, and trend-wise in the anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus. Moreover, depressed risk allele carriers showed significant lower activity relative to non-risk allele carriers in the striatum, an effect which was absent in healthy controls. Finally, amygdalar response during processing new positive words vs. known words was blunted in healthy PCLO+ carriers and in MDD patients irrespective of genotype, which may indicate that signalling of salient novel information does not occur to the same extent in PCLO+ carriers and MDD patients. The PCLO risk allele may increase vulnerability for MDD by modulating local brain function with regard to responsiveness to salient stimuli (i.e. insula and processing novel negative information. Also, depression-specific effects of PCLO on dorsal striatal activation during negative word encoding and the absence of amygdalar salience signalling for novel positive information further suggest a role of PCLO in symptom maintenance in MDD.

  17. Impulse control disorders and depression in Finnish patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Martikainen, Kirsti; Vahlberg, Tero; Voon, Valerie; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2012-02-01

    Impulse control disorders occur frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the frequencies have been investigated mainly in patients from secondary or tertiary care centers, and thus, the prevalence rates in general community are not known. Our objective was to study the prevalence rates of impulse control disorders and related factors in a large, non-selected sample of Parkinson's disease patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among Parkinson's disease patients from Finnish Parkinson Association [n = 575; 365 men, 240 women, median age 64 (range 43-90) years]. Problem and pathological gambling were estimated with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, risk for impulse control disorders with the validated Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease, and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of pathological gambling was 7.0%. The overall frequency of a positive screen for an impulse control disorder was 34.8%, and 12.5% of the patients screened positive for multiple disorders. Depressive symptoms were statistically the most important factor in explaining variance in impulse control disorder risk, even more than sex, age, age of disease onset, alcohol use, or medication. The high proportion of patients screened positive for impulse control disorders in a non-selected sample emphasize the importance of routine screening of these disorders in Parkinson's disease. Pathological gambling prevalence in Parkinson's disease is seven times higher than in the general population in Finland. The results underline the importance of depression in impulse control disorders associated with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotonin type-1A receptor imaging in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevets, Wayne C.; Frank, Ellen; Price, Julie C.; Kupfer, David J.; Greer, Phil J.; Mathis, Chester

    2000-01-01

    Regional 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor binding potential (BP) of depressed subjects with primary, recurrent, familial mood disorders was compared to that of healthy controls by using positron emission tomography and [carbonyl- 11 C]WAY-100635 {[ 11 C]N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide}. The mean 5-HT 1A receptor BP was reduced 42% in the midbrain raphe and 25-33% in limbic and neocortical areas in the mesiotemporal, occipital, and parietal cortex. The magnitude of these abnormalities was most prominent in bipolar depressives and unipolar depressives who had bipolar relatives. These abnormal reductions in 5-HT 1A receptor BP are consistent with in vivo evidence that 5-HT 1A receptor sensitivity is reduced in major depressive disorder and postmortem data showing a widespread deficit of 5-HT 1A receptor expression in primary mood disorders

  19. Dimensional depression severity in women with major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with fronto-amygdalar hypoconnectivty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, T D; Cook, P A; Bruce, S E; Conway, C; Mikkelsen, E; Satchell, E; Vandekar, S N; Durbin, T; Shinohara, R T; Sheline, Y I

    2016-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in multiple psychiatric disorders and are frequent sequelae of trauma. A dimensional conceptualization of depression suggests that symptoms should be associated with a continuum of deficits in specific neural circuits. However, most prior investigations of abnormalities in functional connectivity have typically focused on a single diagnostic category using hypothesis-driven seed-based analyses. Here, using a sample of 105 adult female participants from three diagnostic groups (healthy controls, n=17; major depression, n=38; and post-traumatic stress disorder, n=50), we examine the dimensional relationship between resting-state functional dysconnectivity and severity of depressive symptoms across diagnostic categories using a data-driven analysis (multivariate distance-based matrix regression). This connectome-wide analysis identified foci of dysconnectivity associated with depression severity in the bilateral amygdala. Follow-up seed analyses using subject-specific amygdala segmentations revealed that depression severity was associated with amygdalo-frontal hypo-connectivity in a network of regions including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and anterior insula. In contrast, anxiety was associated with elevated connectivity between the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these results emphasize the centrality of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms, and suggest that dissociable patterns of amygdalo-frontal dysconnectivity are a critical neurobiological feature across clinical diagnostic categories.

  20. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation. Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. RESULTS: The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%, 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%, 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%, 49.6% (38.6%-58.7% and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4% respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5, 0.11 (0.05-0.23 and 0.08 (0.02-0.33 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with

  1. Symptoms of anxiety and depression: A comparison among patients with different chronic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Noushin; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Salimzadeh, Ahmad; Izadi, Morteza; Saleh, Davoud Kazemi; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although patients with chronic diseases are at high-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression, few studies have compared patients with different chronic conditions in this regard. This study aimed to compare patients with different chronic medical conditions in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and clinical data. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 2234 adults, either healthy (n = 362) or patients with ch...

  2. Mental rotation evoked potentials P500 in patients with major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the difference on mental rotation ability between major depressive disorders and healthy subjects.Methods Twenty-three patients with major depressive disorders and 24 healthy subjects

  3. Depressão e qualidade de vida em pacientes com fibromialgia Depression and quality of life among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMB Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Fibromialgia é uma síndrome reumática caracterizada por dor musculoesquelética difusa e crônica, e sítios dolorosos específicos à palpação (tender points. Freqüentemente é associada à fadiga generalizada, distúrbios do sono, rigidez matinal, dispnéia, ansiedade, alterações no humor que podem evoluir para um quadro de depressão. Sendo assim, afeta negativamente a qualidade de vida das pessoas. No entanto, ainda não se sabe o poder de discriminação dos instrumentos de avaliação da depressão e qualidade de vida. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a depressão e a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia e avaliar o poder de discriminação de instrumentos relacionados a esses aspectos. MÉTODO: Para avaliar a qualidade de vida foram utilizados dois instrumentos: um específico, o Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ e outro genérico, o Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Healthy Survey (SF-36; para avaliar a depressão, a Escala de Depressão de Beck (BDS. Participaram do estudo 40 mulheres sendo 20 com fibromialgia - Grupo teste e 20 saudáveis - Grupo controle. Os três protocolos foram aplicados aos indivíduos dos dois grupos em uma única sessão de avaliação. Toda a análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste "t" Student, com significância alfa = 0,05. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos controle e teste em todos os questionários (pBACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a rheumatic syndrome characterized by widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain and specific palpable tender points. It is often associated with generalized fatigue, sleep disturbances, morning stiffness, dyspnea, anxiety and mood disturbances that may evolve into depression. Thus, such individuals' quality of life is negatively affected. However, the discriminating power of quality-of-life and depression assessment instruments is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess depression and

  4. Modulation of intrinsic brain activity by electroconvulsive therapy in major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Amber M.; Espinoza, Randall; Pirnia, Tara; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Narr, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One of the most effective interventions for intractable major depressive episodes is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Because ECT is also relatively fast-acting, longitudinal study of its neurobiological effects offers critical insight into the mechanisms underlying depression and antidepressant response. Here we assessed modulation of intrinsic brain activity in corticolimbic networks associated with ECT and clinical response. Methods We measured resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (n=30), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired before and after completing a treatment series with right-unilateral ECT. Using independent component analysis, we assessed changes in RSFC with 1) symptom improvement and 2) ECT regardless of treatment outcome in patients, with reference to healthy controls (n=33, also scanned twice). Results After ECT, consistent changes in RSFC within targeted depression-relevant functional networks were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate (ACC), mediodorsal thalamus (mdTh), hippocampus, and right anterior temporal, medial parietal, and posterior cingulate cortex in all patients. In a separate analysis, changes in depressive symptoms were associated with RSFC changes in the dorsal ACC, mdTh, putamen, medial prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. RSFC of these regions did not change in healthy controls. Conclusions Neuroplasticity underlying clinical change was in part separable from changes associated with the effects of ECT observed in all patients. However, both ECT and clinical change were associated with RSFC modulation in dorsal ACC, mdTh and hippocampus, which may indicate that these regions underlie the mechanisms of clinical outcome in ECT and may be effective targets for future neurostimulation therapies. PMID:26878070

  5. Inhibitory deficits for negative information in persons with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mark A; Christensen, Bruce K; Hawley, Lance L; Gemar, Michael S; Segal, Zindel V

    2007-09-01

    Within Beck's cognitive model of depression, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which activated self-schemas result in the production of negative thoughts. Recent research has demonstrated that inhibitory dysfunction is present in depression, and this deficit is likely valence-specific. However, whether valence-specific inhibitory deficits are associated with increased negative cognition and whether such deficits are specific to depression per se remains unexamined. The authors posit the theory that inhibitory dysfunction may influence the degree to which activated self-schemas result in the production of depressive cognition. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD, n=43) versus healthy (n=36) and non-depressed anxious (n=32) controls were assessed on the Prose Distraction Task (PDT), a measure of cognitive inhibition, and the Stop-Signal Task (SST), a measure of motor response inhibition. These two tasks were modified in order to present emotionally valenced semantic stimuli (i.e. negative, neutral, positive). Participants with MDD demonstrated performance impairments on the PDT, which were most pronounced for negatively valenced adjectives, relative to both control groups. Moreover, these impairments correlated with self-report measures of negative thinking and rumination. Conversely, the performance of the MDD participants did not differ from either control group on the SST. Implications of these findings for understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of depressive cognition are discussed.

  6. Does Kindness Matter? Diabetes, Depression, and Self-Compassion: A Selective Review and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Anna M; Consedine, Nathan S; Johnson, Malcolm H

    2015-11-01

    Depression and severe psychological distress are frequently comorbid with diabetes and are associated with reduced adherence to medication and healthy lifestyle regimens, poorer glycemic control, and increased complications. The mixed success of existing treatments for depression in diabetes patients suggests a need for supplementary approaches to this common problem. This article reviews recent evidence for the benefits of self-compassion in chronically ill patients, suggesting its utility as a clinical tool for improving self-care, depression, and glycemic control in diabetes. Possible physical and psychological pathways by which self-compassion may promote better outcomes in diabetes patients are considered, with particular attention given to reductions in negative self-judgment and improved motivation to undertake self-care.

  7. Association of Beck Depression Inventory score and Temperament and Character Inventory-125 in patients with eating disorders and severe malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshida, Keizo; Katayama, Hiroto; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Kawano, Naoko; Imaeda, Miho; Kato, Saki; Ando, Masahiko; Aleksic, Branko; Nishioka, Kazuo; Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between personality and physical/mental status in malnourished patients with eating disorders. A total of 45 patients with anorexia nervosa, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders were included and compared with 39 healthy controls. Personality characteristics and severity of depression were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 and Beck?s Depression Inventory. Depression correlat...

  8. Parental style and vulnerability to depression: the role of core beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R; Waller, G

    2000-01-01

    This study considers the potential role of core beliefs (unconditional schema-level representations) in the relationship between recalled parenting in childhood and major depression in adulthood, comparing a group of depressed outpatients (N = 60) with a healthy community sample (N = 67). The depressed group were differentiated by poorer perceived parenting (low care and high overprotection) and by three unhealthy core beliefs (defectiveness/shame, self-sacrifice, and insufficient self-control). Among nonclinical participants, it appears that vulnerability to harm beliefs act as a partial mediator of the relationship between poor paternal care and the development of depressive features. In contrast, a broader set of core beliefs appears to mediate the relationship of maternal bonding and paternal overprotection with depressive symptoms among the depressed group. The findings suggest that clinical work with adults with major depression might need to take account of parental style. Where parents are reported to be uncaring or overprotective, cognitive-behavioral therapy might need to include a schema-focused component.

  9. Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ramezani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has previ